BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.

CRC Press Boca Raton New York

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:

Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper

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DEDICATION
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.

Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

PREFACE
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Over time. men like Shen Nong. Let it reflect brightly upon us. Chinese. Theophratus.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. Originally. Dioscorides. Mithridates. Initially. As formulators and purveyors. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. And then the Babylonian. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. always wanting to find a more active plant. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. to use plants wisely. observing. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. and Avicenna. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. Galen. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. experimenting. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sorting. Always wanting to know more. But more than anything. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering.

vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . He founded BioBotanica. Frank D’Amelio. Sr. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists. Inc..AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry.

to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. and assistance in editing the manuscript. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. Special thanks to Professor Dr. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. patience.

............................................................23 3.........................................................................................................................5 1.........................5 Yield to Solvents ........................................2 Macromorphology ..................................................................................................................................................1....10 2.................25 3..................26 3......11 2........................................1................................................................1........9 2..1 1...........................................................................9 Resins and Resin Combinations .........................................................3...............................................1.....24 3...............................................................................8 Gas Chromatography.............................................6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems...............................3....................................8 Volatile Oils.......................41 Infusions ...................................1 Liquids ...2 Solubilities .............35 Chapter 4 4....1 Botanical Terminology ............40 Decoctions ..........................1...3 Tannins............1 1..............................................1..................7 Methods of Identification.............................................................1..........................6 Carbohydrates..................................................11 References ...............................................4 Ultraviolet Light ...........11 2.................3 4............................................................................................................................CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1.............................1........11 2.............................6 Ash Determination .....................3...........26 3.................................................3..........................3.................................................................................................1.................................42 Fluid Extracts ...............1............................................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3........................................................................................1 Forms 4...............................................................1......1 1..............................................................................................................................4 Proteins .................5 1........43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..1.....................39 Extraction Terminology.............................................................1 4..............................................13 3.5 Alkaloids.............................................................1 Constituents of Drugs................1 Plant Identification ..................................................................................39 Percolation ...................................3 Physical Constants.........2 1......................................................2 Some Common Terminology .....................28 3......3..................................................................................................................................................................................................2 4....4 4...........................................................................................................................................3..............7 Assay Procedures .................................................................................................30 3...............5 Infrared Spectroscopy..............................11 2.....1 Microscopical Techniques....................................1 1.............6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2.........9 Adulteration of Drugs .....2 Phenols .................9 2................1.........................1 1............3 Micromorphology.....................................................2 1........................................................................3 Procedures .............................7 Glycosides .............................................................................5 Preparations of Extracts .......1...........................................14 3.10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ...........10 2.......4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents........................................................................................................................................11 2.....

...............................................................................................303 8............49 5........247 6..................................4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics .....1 Habitat.....................................1 History ...............................................................................................6 Spray Moisturizer ..............................................1....................................8 4..8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC..........295 References ...........................................45 Extracts Strengths.................................4.......................................1................................................................................................................305 Chapter 9 Glossary................................................10 4...............................11 Tinctures .......51 6..................................................................2 Hair Care Botanicals ................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ....302 8............6 4...................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table.................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6.....................................233 6.6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table....46 Oleoresins .................................. Description...1 Marine Algae.......................................................................................................................................................................................253 6.............................................1.............307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ............299 8......................................3 Cellulite Gel Base ................269 6................ Range..........................9 4...............2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products.......................7 4........................ and Constituents ............2 Natural Shampoo.........225 6................................................................................4..................5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+..................301 8..7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe ................304 8......................................298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8.........................................46 Product Strength.........................................................................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5..............229 6......5 Indian Botanicals..................................................................................................................45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ......................................................2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy............................... and Standardization............1...................................................................................1............4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil ...............................................................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table .............................................283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7........300 8...................289 7..................................................................................................................1........ Concentration............. Properties....1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo...........304 8................7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ...............................................

and waxes (lipids). have astringent action. In plants. palmitic. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins.1. (7) glycosides. roots. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. TS). glycerol. fats. myristyl. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins. (2) phenols. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride.1.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. (4) proteins. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. They are generally soluble in water. They are widely distributed in plants. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. spores. they are also called triglycerides. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. When applied to living tissues. (8) volatile oils. (6) carbohydrates. In the treatment of burns. hence. In most cases. (3) tannins. (5) alkaloids. 1. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. 1. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. and coumaric acids. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated.1.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. Recently. they are stored in seeds. and usually bitter taste. and waxes. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them.1. ferulic. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. stems. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. barks. fats. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. leaves.1 Phytochemistry 1. etc. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates.

gymnosperms. and oxygen. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. (2) polysaccharides. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. for example: colchicine. brucine. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. stems.1. leaves. (b) obligosaccharides. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. isoquinoline. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. phenanthrene.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. In fact. serums. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. 1. Proteins are derived from amino acids. and steroidal. piperidine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antitoxins.1. hydrogen. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. which are the building units. they form water-soluble salts with acids. (a) monosaccharides. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. which end in -in. and cryptogams. but mostly in fruits. carboline. possessing some marked physiological action. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. and seeds. and (3) derived carbohydrates. indole. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. imidazole. pyridine.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. Being basic in chemical character. quinoline. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. tropane. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. purine. bark. oil-bearing plant seeds. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. roots. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. Whole glandular products.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

or amino sugars. g. Pentoses: L-arabinose. i. and thickeners.4.and B-1. melibiose ii. gentiobiose. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). D-fructose (levulose). 3. It contains both B-1. suspending agents. diginose.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). gums. which is a straight chain of alpha1. and some microbial polysaccharides. mucilages. d. cymarose. It is an alpha-1. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. epimarose. and apiose. transluscent. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. their sulfate esters.6-linkages. Therapeutically. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. lactose. Glycogen. Monosaccharides.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. oleandrose. Those occurring naturally are usually di-.2)-fructofuranose units. D-xylose. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. uronic acids.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. pectins. and tetrasaccharides i. 2.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. gelling agents. Inulin. f. galactosamine b. amorphous substances. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. consisting simply of 1. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). it is formed of amylose. It is a linear polysaccharide. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). fucose Digitoxose. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). Gums are soluble in water.6-linked polyglucan. They include hemicellulose. turanose. stabilizers. D-ribose. Unlike cellulose. and Example Rhamnose. e. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. emulsifiers. iii. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. a. Cellulose.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. galacturonic Glucosamine. c. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. tri-. digitalose (these are 2. cellobiose. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. b. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alginates. ii. L-galactose. trihalose Reducing: maltose. True sugars a. sarmentose. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch.

salicin is an analgesic. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. 7. Such glycosides. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae). Apiaceae. for example. In the conifers.. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. digitoxin. The chief families are Pinaceae. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e. are the most common ones found in nature. sinigrin). the sugar component is called the glycone. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. 5. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone.g. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin. for example.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. 12. for example. however.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e. 8.. 1. In S-glycosides (e. Phenol (e. and Asteraceae. Other glycosides do. 4. Lamiaceae. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. Myrtaceae.. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. occur.1. digitoxin) Saponin (e.. 6. 9. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone. as sugar reserves.. in the liver of fish. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e.. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. 11. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant.. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures. cascarosides. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. 1.. 3. and defensive roles.g. There are also C-glycosides (e. They are products of plant metabolism. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. Lauraceae. S-glycosides and N-glycosides.g. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. strophanthin. detoxifying. for example.. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone..g.g.. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). crocin and picrocrocin.g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . daphnin) Flavone (e. regulating. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues. 10.. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides.1.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that.g. sennosides. Depending on the plant family. or adenosine). sinigrin) Steroid (e. representing about 87 families). gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). arbutin) Alcohol (e.g. 2. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). sometimes called O-glycosides. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources.g.. Rutaceae..g.g.g. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants..g. In N-glycosides (e. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond. rutin) Anthraquinone (e. glucosamine. Occasionally.g. and barbaloin are laxatives. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin.g.

Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. However. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. fennel. however. themselves. thyme. etc. For example. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. and tobacco. Ester volatile oils: lavender. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. These substances. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. ajowan. In general. parsley. pharmaceuticals. 5. wintergreen. for example. are hard. etc. geranium. in umbelliferous fruits. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. and in orange. 7. sandalwood. Undoubtedly. In most cases. etc. etc.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. 4. Ethers: anise. etc. star anise. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. anthelmentics. only in the pericarp. Classification 1. etc. rosemary. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. chenopodium. but in few instances. as a class. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. confections. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. in cinnamon. tend to resinify on exposure to air. etc. 3. cosmetics. dill.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. horsemint. 2. mild antiseptics. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. juniper. beverages. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. chemical. is rich in camphor. only in the bark and leaves. sweet orange. They can be used for their therapeutic action. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. 1. transparent or translucent brittle substances. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. turpentine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. cade. they are widely used in perfumery. local irritants. rose. lemon. 9. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). spearmint. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. neroli. etc. In addition. etc. 6. lemongrass. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. local stimulants. and odor characteristics. coriander. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. nutmeg.1. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. diuretics. cajuput. clove. bitter almond. cassia bark. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. in the mints. resulting in less food spoilage. Resins. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. or parasiticides. 8. carminatives. however.

Many products (e.g. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. colophony. with few exceptions (e.g. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . chloroform. acetone. 0. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. but do not contain any nitrogen. viz. in rare cases (e. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. gr. On heating at comparatively low temperatures. It is noteworthy to mention here that. in Guaiacum wood. as in case of Pinus. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. as well as in fixed and volatile oils. Hemiptera. but when heated in the air... Chemically. that is.. in the vessels..PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. order. and glandular hairs (cannabis). resin alcohols.25). When heated in a closed vessel. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film.g. resin cells (ginger). They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. fibers. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). In plants. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules.g.e. On this basis. on evaporation. resinotannols. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. resin acids. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. wood parenchyma.9–1. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. forming solutions which. In this case. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. and glycosidal resins. which is called secondary flow. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. carbon bilsulfide). the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. and resenes. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. resins occur in different secretory structures. mastic). but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue.. Laccifer lacca. and ether. resins soften and finally melt. and medullary rays cells). esters. They are not pure chemical substances. resenes (neutral inert compounds). they are divided into resin alcohols. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). without volatilization or decomposition. they are of pathological origin. when freshly powdered. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. Family Coccidae. For example. they occur as tyloses. shellac). resins are complex mixtures of resin acids.

They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. ointments. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. (e. shave creams. xylose. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. respectively — both contain volatile oil. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. parasiticides. cathartics. Balsams. On hydrolysis. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. like most seeds. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. Another is flax seed. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). and uronic acids. Probably. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. barks. or esters of these acids. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. hexoses. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. Mucilages are viscous. and seeds. nonadhesive solutions with water. arabinose. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. and malva (Malva sylvestris). the mixtures being known as oleoresins. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea.e. carminatives. they can be separated from resins rather easily. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. etc. copaiba. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. roots. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. In some cases. fruits. creams.) In general.g. which contains no volatile oil. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. for example. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. (anywhere soothing is required). purgatives. being called glycoresins. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. viz. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). they form a mixture of pentoses.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. and anthelmintics. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine.. etc. liquid or semi-liquid substances. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. leaves. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. glucose. flowers. counter irritants. the mixtures being called gum-resins.. expectorants. in seaweeds. and Canada balsam. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. Guttiferae). slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. Jalap. balsam of Copaiba. therefore. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. mouthwashes. on the other hand. cough syrups. antispasmodic. they can be incorporated into lotions. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. and Podophyllum. that form colloidial. These are. asafoetida).

2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted.). Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass.. ether. by which it is exhausted of potash. the solution commonly known as lye. etc. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. or by chemical or physical means. expression. having a bottom outlet.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. In pharmacy. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. also referred to as the spent herb. gauze. cotton) below. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. As with the raw materials. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation).g. by traction. water. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. 2. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. or alcohol and water. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing.. distillation. etc. treatment with a solvent. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. acetone. suction. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes.

both of which are carefully counted. the width of vessels.3 PROCEDURES 2. The diameter of fibers. always using a definite tube length. its true size is 50 0. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. In the same manner.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. if an object. the height of sclerenchymatous cells. also known as micrometers. Therefore.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. Q. as well as identification of commercial starches. the scale of 1 mm.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale.125 mm = 125 µ. 2. the factors for the other objectives can be determined.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer.0025 mm. By its use. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .0025 mm = 0. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. botanical laboratory.125 mm. because it is the magnified object. 0.3. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. That is. for example. that is compared with the scale. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. Most of the time.C. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. and not the object itself. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions.001 mm). However.

Bailliere Tindall. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. such as hydrastis.3.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. for example.. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. balsams. volatile oil. For certain drugs. London.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity. and Evans. 2. digitalis and henbane leaves). Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. optical rotation.g. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence.3. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . REFERENCES Wallis.. D. UV light provides very useful information. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash. oleo-resins. especially if they are present in the powdered form. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. vitamins. G.3. calumba. 1978. Other drugs. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. W. glycosides. J.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. Churchill Ltd. 2. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. E.. they will give a high total ash value. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.3. 2. Some pieces of rhapontic. In this way. C.3. 90%. 11th ed.. resins. 2. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. viburnum. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e. Similarly. and similar substances. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. T. Derris elliptica. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. malaccensis. Trease. London. However. viscosity.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. E.. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical.3. Pharmacognosy.. the yield to water of liquorice root. A.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. 1960. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome. 4th ed. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. 2. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report.

.

1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. i. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. etc. color. Fortunately. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. distillation. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. and microscopy. flower. or the entire plant. etc. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. odor. For example. hexane). If this is not specified. This starts with the proper solvent system. One should start with botanical terminology. leaf. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. and other tests like loss on drying. fruit. seed. lipidic extraction. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. organic solvents (ethanol. ash content. etc. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. and berberine. therefore.3 Quality Control 3. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. ask for it by its common name first. stem. counter current extraction. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. identification can be confusing. canadine. then maceration. As seen in the example. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. Many plants have common names and. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. percolation. When ordering a botanical. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. There are many forms of extracts available. providing that they were dried properly. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . super critical fluid extraction. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents... Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. root.e. methanol.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. primary phloem.. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. For systematic study. Dusting powders: One should be able. 3. 2. Fig. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). Cowhage). Lupulin. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. 1. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. pollen grains. starches. however. glands. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. while Fig.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. 3) is a representative example. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. secondary phloem. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. 2 is that of an angiosperm. viz. Quassia Wood. to differentiate between mineral powders. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. and hairs (Kamala.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration.

1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig.

16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. 2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig.

and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule.. 7. 6). All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. papillosed epidermis of petals. red rose and marigold of petals only. however. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. 5) is an example of the flower. red poppy. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. (3) the presence of chlorophyll. stigmas). and often a raphe. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils..18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. which are a useful identification tool. in addition. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. fibrous layer of anthers.e. argel leaf. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. 6. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. 5. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. S /(E + S). There are. elder flowers of petals and stamens. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. styles. Flowers: In a commercial sense. mm. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. i. and endocarp. frequently. 4. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. (Fig. mesocarp. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. if there is no stalk. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. the leaf is termed sessile. for the seeds. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. two features that are constant. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. the ovary wall develops to form a case. epicarp. the corolla made of petals. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. viz.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. the calyx made of sepals. called the pericarp. micropyle. thus forming a fruit. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. In the great majority of plants. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. Leaves: Example. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. leaves may be recognized. Achillea millefolium L. (2) their thinness. Among common drugs.

QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig. 4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. leaves. Caraway (see Fig. 5 Achillea millefolium L. Cardamon ii. 8. flowers and fruits. Compound Fruits Hops In general. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. Orange.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. a. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. Colocynth b. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. Bael. However. Tamarind. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. Poppy. Simple Fruits i. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

6 Grains of paradise seed. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Family: Zingiberacaea Fig.QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. Aframomum melegueta Rosc.

Chiretta herb.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. namely. opium). and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. by the stomatal index. 3...g. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios.g. similarly.. For example. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. however. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. beeswax and myrrh). or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded.. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. mountants. 9). Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. vertically. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks.g. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . decoction (e. Fig. Therefore. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. olive oil). stage and eyepiece micrometers.g. such as incision (e. which are usually slender and adventitious. fibers. 8). Clearing agents. Microscopical techniques. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. agar). branches. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. expression (e. starch. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. 9.. 10.g. or are natural secretions (e. or by the trichomes. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. and sclerenchyma.

9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8 Fig.QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig.

Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. and resins.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. starch. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. etc. lactophenol.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. absorbance values should be used. water. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. hexane. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. chlorophyll. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. tannins. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. resins. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. ether. and petroleum ether (pet ether). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alcohol. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. clove oil. or chlorophyll. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. carbolic acid. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. it rapidly dissolves starch. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. chromic/nitric is mandatory. Sometimes. volatile oils. fats. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. the presence of coloring matters. 3. protein. and expands shrunken cells. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. Other solvents include methanol. and causes swelling of cell walls. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. for bleaching. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown.

UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. This will give you a transparent disk. It can also be used to quantitate. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . If the substance is in a solid state. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. In addition. depending on solvent and pH. unless one has an FTIR. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. Then press under anhydrous conditions.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer.

and (4) it is inexpensive. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities.g. S = strong.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. then the filter paper can be eliminated.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. Lavender. 1455 (S). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W).. 1600. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. sulfuric acid). and powder microscopy are also performed. Valerian. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. as one gains experience. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. 3400-3100 (variable). The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. 2100–1700 (W). In addition. odor. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. 2860 (M). 3400 (M). Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts..) When development is complete. TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. etc. VS = very strong. 3600–2400 (broad).7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. Other tests like loss on drying. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. organic solvents (usually methanol). Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. ash content histology. Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used.. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. 3. Chamomile. it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. aluminum. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. M = medium. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. or plastic sheets are also commercially available. 1760 (S). 3400–2500 (broad M). 1500.g. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). Precoated absorbents on glass plates.

hence. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration.5: 8.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes. natural product. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antimony chloride UV.

Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. However. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the use of the GC will continue to grow. with expected growth well into the next generation. etc. After extraction of the plant material. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. For plant volatiles and essential oils. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. it will show up by having less soluble solids. rice hulls. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. pharmaceutical. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. spectrometric. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. If there is a diluent added. together with UV and IR spectra. In phytochemistry. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist.” However. HPCL. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. such as rice hulls or spent herb. photodiode array detector. or chromatographic (GLC.) procedures in order to establish its strength. 3. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. spent herb). System control. As with the raw materials. From these spectra. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. a separation technique. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard.g. With library search software. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years.. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. information-rich electron ionization spectra. data acquisition. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). and cosmetic industries. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. This system. TLC. give excellent fingerprints for identification.

photodiode array detector. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass.QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. Ltd.

Obovate. the color and general texture are more important. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. 3. data acquisition. such as ergot. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. the adulterant can be any kind of material. African. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. etc. for example. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. coffee. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . beeswax. in the case of powdered drugs. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. Instrument control. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. or Provence senna. nutmeg. Hence. 2. honey. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). or Cochin. for example. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. Methods used for adulteration include: 1.

panaxadiol. detection. thermopsine.8 ml/min for 7 min. 15 cm).5 ml/min. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. flow rate. distilled water. 0. 2. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol.0 ml/min. mobile phase. 25 mm). genistein Calenduladiol.9 mm 30 cm). HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.6 50 cm): mobile phase. flow rate. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i. UV 202 nm. 0. UV 320 nm detection. mobile phase. then 1. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm..5.d.9 mm x 30 cm). flow rate. sparteine. 2. panaxatriol. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin. 3.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10).46. acetonitrile-water (84:16).5 ml/min. detection.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. 15 psi argon. detection. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. 1 ml/min. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2. 1.5 ml/min. mobile phase. acetonitrile-water (83:17)./65 cm).5:0. acetonitrile-water (83:17). 13-OH sparteine.1) flow rate. rhamnos Ginsenosides. mobile phase. CH3CN-H2O (73:27). R1. mobile phase. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. HPLC: Zorbax CN. lupanine. mobile phase. 1. flow rate. detection. Rf 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.0 ml/min. 0.4x. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray.5 mm i. xylose. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7.0–1. 5% DC560. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). flow rate. followed by 0. galactose. 1. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. mobile phase. 190 nm flow rate. flow rate. 0. mobile phase.0 M NaC1 gradient. UV 202 nm.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6).9 mm 30 cm)..d. 50°C.2. UV detection (homogencity test).2 M Pi buffer pH 7. baptifoline. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. 220–223°C. 2 ml/min. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. luteolin.6 mm i.d. or 3% SE-30. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250.1 ml/min. cytisine Anagyrine. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4.

1 M phorphoric acid. detection. 0. flow rate.d. 2 liters phase B and C. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. apigenin. UV 330 nm. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. flow rate. 6 ml/min. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2.4 cm i.0mm i.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5.05.. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). detection. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). Rf 0. luteoline. 3. LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5).1 ml/min. detection UV 278 nm. detection UV 365 nm. vanillin in H2SO4. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). 75°C. Merck(. introduce sample. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . vanillin in H2SO4. 25 cm).d.0 ml/min. 4.5 ml/min. methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. mobile phase. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). flow rate. canadaline. begin rotation. hydrastine Rf 0.6 mm. mobile phase. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i.d. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. phase B: ethyl acetate.9 i. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9). detection.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. canadine. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. hydrastine Rf 0. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). UV 365 nm. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. detection.5. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate. detection.5 ml/min. mobile phase.. phase A: water. methanol-water (15% to 95%. flow rate.7 & 5. 66 m capacity 350 ml). HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. 1 ml/min. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. mobile phase. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). i. flow rate. mobile phase. 2. 2 ml/min. methanol-water (50:50). HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. flow rate.. UV 270 nm. 0.5-methanol (67:33).9. increasing 3%/min).5 ml/min. 2 ml/min.d. Start w/ 350 ml phase A.5cm). mobile phase. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. detection. 30 cm). detection. w/guard. UV 340 nm.d. UV 340 nm. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4). flow rate. 1. 25 cm at 75°C). mobile phase. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. berberine.

water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10).QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2.0 ml/min. HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. mobile phase.9 mm i. helium flow. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. flow rate. photodiode array. mobile phase. caproic acid. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. 0. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min).1. daidzein. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. mobile phase. detection. flow rate. 25 cm). capric acid Isoflavones.d. genistein.. detection. acetonitrile-water (gradient).d. 300 mm). HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. 25 mm).25m 3 mm). mobile phase. R1. detection. flow rate. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5.5 10 cm). Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2.d.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8).6 mm i. temp. water.d. UV 230 nm. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. mobile phase. mobile phase. UV 280 nm. detection. detection. biochanin-A. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. 2. flow rate. 1. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid. 25 cm) 2 in series.5 ml/min. flow rate 0. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. detection.0) mm i. methanol-water (2. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7.5. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol. 30 ml/min.5 ml/min. flow rate. 30 cm). 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min. 2..0 ml/min.6 mm i. 150 mm). 1. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. 4 ml/ min. mobile phase. detection. mobile phase.0 ml/min. UV 280 nm. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. methanol-water (27:73). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. caprylic acid. flow rate. 1.8 ml/min. analysis Column (3. detection. mobile phase. flow rate. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid. mobile phase. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .3 ml/min. detection. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). prunitrin Calycosin. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658). formononetin. detection. UV 270 nm.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35).d. mobile phase.5 ml/min.1:1). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient).. UV 313 nm. mobile phase. flow rate..9 mm 30cm). 50% H2SO4.. UV 280 & 546 nm.d.

01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. mentha. GLC: 1. UV 298 nm. UV 254 nm. such as lobelia. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. UV 256 & 206 nm. powdered olive stones. mobile phase. 8. 7. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. detection. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples.6mm i. conc. 2. guaiacum wood.1 M phorphoric acid. detection. for example. etc. valerosidatum. acetonitrile-0. coconut shells. for example. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. or lead shot.0 ml/min. mobile phase. detection. acevaltrate. dextrin.8% methanol in hexane.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2.9 mm 30 cm). HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. 2 connected in series. walnut shells. flow rate 10 ml/min. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). 6. 30 cm). mobile phase. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. scented bdillium for myrrh. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. 0. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances. 5u Chrompack). acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8). such as adding citral to oil of lemon. usually having no relation to the genuine drug. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. For example. senna.d. 5. flow rate. valeranone Vincristine. etc. 2. Sometimes. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. 1. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). stramonium. methanol-water (60:40). or hamamelis leaves.5 ml/min. hydrogen flame ionization. hazelnut shells. stone. acetonitrile-0. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products.d. almond shells. Substitution of exhausted drugs. mobile phase. UV 254 nm. detection. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. 250 mm. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru.7 ml/min. vitexin. detection. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. detection. flow rate.4 (1:1).25 m 4 mm). vitexinine 3. boiler scale. detection. mobile phase. 4.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

consisting of small-sized elements only. and crystals of calcium oxalate.. A little vascular tissue. and aleurone grains. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. tracheids. and aleurone grains. in powder. fibers. 7. 3. Dilution better done on the slide. pericyclic and phloem fibers. palisade cells. papillose surface of the stigma. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood.. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. palisade tissue. which often cross the fibers and vessels. however. red. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. palisade cells. especially the diagnostic epidermis. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. Frequently also trichomes. starch grains. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). pine and juniper). Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. starch. Structures absent: Cork. resins. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. The powder is usually entirely lignified. stone cells. Mucilage of: Alkanna. 6. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. Frequently also cork. fibers.g. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. Frequently also delicate yellow. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. vessels. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. 9. 2. frequently particles of small seeds. 10. protective glasses.) Acacia. gloves. masks. Tincture of: Red with oils. or oil). xylem vessels. 4. fibrous layer of the anther wall. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant.. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. Keep for 6 months. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. 5. which often contains starch in large amounts. hemicellulose. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. 8. usually abundant parenchyma. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. sieve tubes. Microscopical examination.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. cellulose parenchyma. wood parenchyma. Also epidermis. cutinized and suberized walls. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. etc. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. calcium oxalate crystals. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp.g.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. Nut shells and fruit stones.g. glands. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and medullary rays.

To be freshly prepared. Chlorophyll. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. cellulose. etc. ligno. gloves. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. To be freshly prepared.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. Benzidine.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. through glass wool. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. starch. suberin. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. 0. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .I.I. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. etc. with continued stirring. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. etc. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. H2O with the aid of heat. H2O.0 g sodium iodide and 2. left for some time. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. gr. killed by steam.5 ml D.880). 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. protective glasses. Add 7. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. and some mucilages. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). To be freshly prepared. Deteriorates on keeping.I. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water. masks. Store in amber bottle. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. The reaction is better carried out in the dark. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. filtered. if necessary.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . protective glasses. on the label.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml. etc. and then diluted to 100 ml with water. gives yellow with colchicine.75 g lead monoxide. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water.g.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals.I. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. dextrose). 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. 1. Indicator. 1. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water. H2O prior to use. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. filtered. gloves.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water. 40 g glycerin.. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids.64 g copper sulfate and 0.. in powder. Solution A: 34. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. 1. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. Dilute: Used for mounting. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. added to a solution of 2. 1. e. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages.g. 20 g lactic acid. the strong solution will dissolve silk. and 20 ml water. Set aside until clear. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. note the coloration and read off from the table.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids.27 g iodine and 0.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. masks. the corresponding approximate pH.I.

Potash. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and.4% alcoholic solution. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. and then diluted with equal volume of water. 0. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. with a dropper or a glass rod. and 80% by volume. suberin. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. masks. Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. dissolving certain cell contents. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. in small pieces. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). Store away from light. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. It must be recently prepared. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. and cutin blue. 10. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. gloves. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). 10% alcoholic solution.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). etc. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. 1% solution in water. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. protective glasses. Caustic: Used for clearing. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. 5 ml of glycerin added. stains lignified walls red. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. 66.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. lignin.

1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. of various dilutions: 1:1. E. Full strength 1:1.3BG GLY 4.G. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. 60–90%.E. An extract in P. etc. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting. 3x. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract.F.G.G. Same as P. Serial type dilution and succussion.01 = 2x 0.M. A molasses consistency.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today. H. 1. but the solvent is glycerin.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0. Properties Usually high in alcohol. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). P. etc.E.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. Contains no alcohol. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract.E.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. but the solvent is 1. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices.G. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. F. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .3BG.E. 5x. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. 5:1. 4x.4 Preparations 4. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing.P. 0. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. Same as a solid extract (S. AQU P. Same as P.1. OLEUM N. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1.

gauze. the solution commonly known as lye. etc. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. If packed too tightly. etc. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator.. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted.. cover the percolator. usually 48 hours. treatment with a solvent. When no more actives remain. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. the botanical is considered exhausted. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. the product will not percolate. acetone. The packing of the percolator is very important. or alcohol and water. by traction. close the lower orifice. or. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. ether. suction. or by chemical or physical means. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. 4. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. if packed too loosely. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. the menstruum will channel. by which it is exhausted of potash. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. contained in a suitable vessel.1. water. distillation. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation).g. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . having a bottom outlet. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. expression. cotton) below. and macerate for the prescribed time.). also referred to as the spent herb. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. giving a weak extract (see diagram). In pharmacy.

3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. mix thoroughly. 4. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). Allow it to cool. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These are usually the hard substances. etc. such as twigs. barks.1.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. placed over it. preferably distilled. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. and filter. roots.

it should be placed in a refrigerator. Therefore. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. 4. Moisten the herb in water.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter.1. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. In order to prepare an infusion. preferably distilled. cold water should be used. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. Under refrigeration. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. Refrigerate or preserve. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. after preparation of an infusion. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Refrigerate or preserve.

However. which is very effective. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. there is also CO2 sterilization. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. bacteria. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. especially in inactivating larvae.1.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. which seems to work well. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. However. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. 4. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant.

and evaporation. and the solids are calculated. No vacuum concentration is used. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day. Filter. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. i. and usually precipitate on standing. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. berberine.00 per pound).e. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. Additionally. Therefore. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. Therefore. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. are weaker. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. However. or a combination thereof. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine. Maceration is another procedure. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture. and canadine. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected.1. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration.1. Usual laboratory method. At present. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths.* 4. A typical example: 5:1 P. as strengths vary widely.. as they contain alcohol. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. check with the manufacturers. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. Therefore. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. percolation. However.2). The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water.G. from either fresh or dry botanicals. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. need preservatives.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However.S. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical.

I. while hydrastine is colorless. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders. returning the first portions.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. 4. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .I. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. Then filter the mixture. The native extract is usually vacuum dried.1. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. Separate the excess oil. Their odors and tastes are similar.I. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. and time of year collected.1.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. or distilled water. dry solid. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. Solution: The volatile oil. need no preservation.I.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. Avoid excessive heat. or distilled water. 4. spray dried. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers.I. a sufficient quantity. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. and contain very little water. 2. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. which lowers shipping costs.I. or oven dried. 2a. if necessary. or distilled water. and preserve or use the clear water portion. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes. and add enough D. age. and pass enough D. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. to obtain a clear filtrate. Add 1000 ml D. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. respectively. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. filter through wetted filter paper.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. filtering if necessary. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. or other specified volatile substance D. easily dispensed. preferably kept in a cool area. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts.

etc. tinctures. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract.3-butylene glycol. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. 10:1. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. 1997. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. etc. glycerin. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. 4. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). This is very controversial. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. in a true strength extract. glycerin. etc. bark. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. Concentration. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. 1. in the United States. is always measured on the dry basis.1. However.G.).** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. To avoid confusion. depending on the manufacturer. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. In Europe. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. The starting botanical.10 Product Strength. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. would be too concentrated in many instances. etc.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts.* 4. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. or roots of plants (see above). If it was calculated from fresh weight.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. However. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color. butylene glycol. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. Recently. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. The true strength will vary. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. a 1:1 extract. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. are often found in the cosmetic literature. Obviously. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. therefore. fresh or dried.1. in a cosmetic formulation. 10:1.

A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0.S. fixed and volatile oils. the former designation is becoming the standard. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. However. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous.. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. berberine. and not soluble in most cosmetic products. that is. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. standardization can be carried to the extreme. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. If the dried plants contain 0. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. and then on valeric acid. resins. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. and canadine. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. GLC.04%). Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .0% hydrastine. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. which has been standardized on valepotriates.15 to 0. dark in color. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. This would cause the berberine. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. and starches to be significantly reduced. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. However. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. which is approximately 20 times less costly).5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. canadine. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active.5 to 4. Thus. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical.5% of essential oil. Analytical procedures (TLC. However.

* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. However. Therefore. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. 1997. 4.8% essential oil.5% oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. ether. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil.g. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations. alcohol. either fixed or volatile..1. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. or 1. followed by evaporation of the solvent. there are usually losses during extraction. oily resinous mass remains. A thick. consisting of an oil. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0.

affects the adrenals. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. This is the essence of aromatherapy. For example. Skin elasticity. Poor memory. aphrodisiac. antidepressant. loneliness. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. Stimulant. poor memory. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. antispasmodic. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. exhaustion. euphoric. and perfumes. 5. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. anxiety. hair growth. antispasmodic.5 Aromatherapy 5. Stimulates scalp. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. Carminative. Stimulant. nervous fatigue. aromatic waters. Revitalizing. Cell regeneration. digestive problems. cleanser. wrinkles. antidepressant. tonic.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. sadness. Moisturizing. mental strain. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. calming anger. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. soothing. thereby reducing stress. in turn. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . digestive problems. scalp stimulant. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. Anti-inflammatory. mild stimulant. aphrodisiac. soothing. impotence. energy imbalance. hair growth. This. revitalizing. euphoric.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians.

grief. Saffron. Antidepressant. If the reader has further interest.W. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. Fabrice. 1984. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. mouth ulcers. Essential oils are very concentrated. Mood elevating. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ryman. vaporizers. Jean. anxiety. VT. house sprays. Essex. Walden. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. amara) Antidepressant. anti depressant. shock. England. cell proliferant. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. The Aromatherapy Handbook. Aging skin. inflammations. Therefore. euphoric. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. moisturizes. Aging skin. Example: to be effective. calming. C. Rochester. wrinkles. shampoos. antidepressant. Destiny Books.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. Danielle. 1976. Daniel Company. very little is needed. lotions. Nervous tension. Valnet. opens psychic centers. 1982. uplifting. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. The Practice of Aromatherapy. etc. stimulates metabolism. uplifting during depression. bath oils.

Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. pale-green. spotted near the base. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. about 5 in. long. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other.1 HABITAT. PROPERTIES. and fawn-colored externally. lanceolate. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. liliaceous. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. DESCRIPTION. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. and involute at the point. yellow. which is white internally. droping. obtuse. The flower is single. The leaves are two. RANGE. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. with purplish or brownish spots. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. high. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The scape is naked. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. flowers in April or May. slender. and 3 or 4 in. subradical. perennial herb.

and tapering. producing numerous heads. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The capsule is oblongobovate. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. diuretic. 1975. anthers oblong-linear. agrimonolide. Am. The whole herb and root contains. antiscrofulous. This taste is strongest in the root. long.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb.. Chem. style club-shaped. Agrimonia has a bitterish. silky pubescence. Soc. Cavalitto. It is much branched at the summit. Berlin. and hematuria.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. and covered with a soft. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. and of reddish-brown color. agrimonol (= agrimonine). The leaves are alternate. 8th ed. which is somewhat aromatic.1. coarsely serrated leaflets. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. 1. filaments flat. functional bleeding. pyrocatechol. 68. and phlobaphene. 1946. epistaxis. longer than the stamens. No further analytical data available. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. fibrous. 2332. The root is long. Its odor is aromatic... Properties Its action is a mild astringent. but unpleasant. W. yellow. three-lobed at top. mild tonic. and three-valved. Drogenkunde. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. conical. and anti-inflammatory. with a loose membranous tip. Ovary obovate. and borne in a dense. flowering in July and August.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2.. A. Properties Emollient. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. subastringent taste. hooked bristles. Heinz. harsh. from to 1 foot long. terminating in three undivided stigmas. nearly smooth beneath. interruptedly pinnate. et al. de Gruyter. J. racemose spike. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. Hoppe. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. in hedges and fields and by ditches. and surmounted with reddish. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. 2. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. pyrogallic acid. Pub. between which are interspersed several smaller ones.six.

and polysaccharides. citric acid and silicic acid. Dermato-Vernol. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. Ser. flavonoids. eupatorin.. 153-157. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. which are roundish. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. Peter-Horvath. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. Alder also helps to unclog pores.. Constituents Tannins. glycosides. 29(2). The bark is dark gray and ridged. triterpenes. fruiting tops. and minerals. Patrascu. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. and also to help relieve dandruff. southwest Asia. wavy-serrated.. luteolin. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn.. apigenin. et al. V. 1. phytosterin. nicotinic acid. organic acids.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. alterative. 10(2). tonic. gum. Rev. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. 2. United States. volatile oil. Europe. M. ursolic acid. 1964. after which a good face cream should be applied. usually abrupt at the tip. choline. Med. quercitrin.. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. 7-0-B-glucoside. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. this should only be done once a week. glutinous. wedge shaped. However. 1994. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. catechin. 190-193. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. et al. as do other types of face packs.

etc. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. cuts. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. a mild exfoliant in oils. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system.50% (5 grams. irritated skin. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. boron. and is employed in skin creams. sun poisoning. etc. hair treatments. which would suggest its use in baths. calcium and trace minerals. carotene. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Alfalfa is also high in minerals. ALOE Aloe vera L. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. etc. insect bites. West Indies. The size of the pieces is variable. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. this has not been verified. and burns. Aloe contains 99. Further reading is recommended. lotions. saponin. lotions. and tannin. chrysophanic acid. The texture is waxy. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. bath gels. hair rinses. Properties Used in facial steams. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). The fracture is conchoidal. To date. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. scratches. The surface is dull and smooth. The odor is strongly aromatic. creams. and Barbados Islands. oils. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe.

Constituents Malic acid. Macintosh. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. sugars. Granny. It contains malic acid. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. glucomanine. Rome. Delicious. and pectin. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium).ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides.

with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. having pale. and polyps. soft durable wood. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. moles. flavonoids. wax. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. ARNICA Arnica montana L. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. and mucilage.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. Cones oblong. in height. containing thujone. Wolf’s Bane. ⁿ in. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. both internally and externally. long. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. tannins. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . shoddy bark and light.

emarginate and pointed. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. sprains. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. dark brown. and essential oil. Note: There can be side effects. palmitic. stearic). In mouthwashes. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. ray flowers yellow. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. Has been used for hematomas. inflammation of the oral mucosa. lauric. the involucre dilated and imbricate. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. patuletin. and the cypsella not beaked. fatty acids (fumaric. tubular flowers perfect. northern Mediterranean. xanthophylls. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. 5 to 7 mm long. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. quercetin. the cypsella spindle-shaped. kaempferol. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks).ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. leaves. the pappus plumose and sessile. three-toothed. the scales ovate. polyacetylenes. pectolin arigenin). Odor characteristic and agreeable. inflamed insect bite. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. edema. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. pinnate. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. Topically. Description This plant is perennial. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. The heads are discoid and homogamous. isorhamnetin. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . finely striate. the receptacle setaceous. taste bitter and acrid. Arnica tincture DAB 10. and undivided leaves. about 1 cm long. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. malic). deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. with subspinose. Sesquiterpene lactones. reddish yellow. 7. pistillate. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. and surface phlebitis. receptacle slightly convex.to 12-veined. dark green and pubescent. with fleshy bases. stamens without a tail-like appendage.

and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. choleretic. peroxidase. trace minerals. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. Cosmetically. bread crumbs. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. diuretic.e. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. tannin.. oxydase. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. ascorbinase). flavonoids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and hypocholesterolytic. protein. garlic. ascorbic acid. cynarin. Around the holidays. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. cholagogue. vitamins. Also employed in jaundice. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. cynadase. beta-carotene. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. sterols.

The base is truncate or depressed. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. twigs. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. These buds are sessile. cuts. resinous substance. balm buds Part Used: Buds. Herbalists use it for treating colds. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. It is a stimulating expectorant. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. The taste is pungent and bitter. The color is reddish brown. The margin has projecting points of scales. sores. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. Properties Aromatic antiseptic.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. The odor is balsamic. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. or in threes occasionally. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. The apex is acute. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and various skin diseases. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. * Formerly CTFA. Has been used on blemishes.

volatile oil. rhamnetin. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. fracture hard and tough. bervulcine. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. pith of rhizome small. and the Middle East. gallstones. chrysin and apigenin. circulatory stimulant. 5-0-methylgalangin. usually splitting somewhat on drying. izalpinin. taste distinctive. populin. tinges saliva yellow. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. salicin. Europe. magnoflorine. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). color more pronounced upon wetting. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. strongly branched. easily separable into layers. Odor slight. Description Cylindrical. wood yellow. oxyacanthine. externally light yellowish brown. pinocembrin. Flavonoids. Grecian Laurel. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. sometimes excentric. tannic and gallic acids. jateorrhizine. on chewing. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. acetophenone.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. galangin. North America. berbamine. volatile oil. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. has been used for indolent ulcers. Bactericidal. and showing rings of growth. 3. bark 1 mm in thickness. very bitter. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. knotty. distinctly radiate. Properties Astringent. True Bay. Berberine. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. Internally used to treat liver disorders.

and volatile oil. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. and glossy aromatic foliage. along with methyl arbutin. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. Treating small areas works best. linalool. quercetin. petiole about 3 mm in length. odor slight. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. margin entire. texture coriaceous. Description Leaves obovate. Northern and Central Europe. hydroquinone derivatives.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. lotions. glabrous. Uvaursi is astringent. slightly pubescent. perfumes. -pinene. -terpineol. brittle. taste slightly bitter. hyperoside. and plant acids. The leaf also contains germacranolides. However. covered. shiny black berries. upper surface dark green. Asia. ursolic acid. alkaloids. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. phenolcarboxylic acids. soaps. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. and others. syringic and p-coumaric acids. base acute. astringent. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. finely reticulate. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. spatulate. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). gallic and ellagic acids.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). catechins. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin.3 to 3. summit obtuse. pale yellow flowers. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. tapering. Constituents 0. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. and detergents. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. -terpineol acetate. Spr. undersurface yellowish-green. 12 to 30 mm in length. slightly revolute. due to its high tannin content.

The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries.1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... scabs. 3 to 5 cm long.. ovate. California.. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein. and to replace retina purple... British Columbia. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen.. enzymes.. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus. 55% carbohydrate. 9. dissolving... 4 mm wide. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry. Europe. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive..... tonic.... promotes tissue repair.1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins. only slightly paler beneath... leaves Habitat and Range Woods.. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones.. 1854.0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels.. This is taken up in a collection vessel. and ulcers. Good for skin ulcers. wounds.. sores.. Whortleberry. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations.... reducing visual eye fatigue. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive.. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits. reduces inflammation. and other compounds identified in bee pollen. leaf-blades thin. minerals... Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva.. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L... 1 to 2% fat.... corolla ovoid-lanceolate.... softening.. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW. boils. amino acids. 1989. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit.. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees.. 20 to 50 cm high. Properties Astringent for eyecare products. and abscesses... 262.. anti-inflammatory. JAMA.. Description Dwarf shrub.. about 5 mm long. sores. Michigan. and Asia. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. G. restrains infection. Wyoming.62 BED STRAW... See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees. Properties Restoring... A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx. clears toxins. antiseptic. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins. 1... Mirkin... eruptions..

parts of Arctic Siberia. ascorbic acid. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. R. Macmillan. and eczema. betuloside. ursolic acid. Rattleroot. betuloresnic acid. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. methyl salicylate. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones.. essential oil. New Age Herbalist. 1. apigenin dimethyl ether. arbutin. 76. myrtillin. quinic acid.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. New York. betulol. White Birch. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. BANZ No. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. German Commission E Monograph. Squaw Root. BIRCH Betula alba L. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bugbane. peonidin glucosides. anthocyanosides. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. fatty acids.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. psoriasis. Europe. Properties The bark. 4-23-87. 1. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. leaves. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. 1988.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. saponins. Mabey. gaultherin. (trace amount) asperuloside. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. North Asia. Rattleweed. Bugwort. naturalized in northern North America.

externally dark brown. by deep cup-shaped scars. starch. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. fracture horny. and rheumatism. somewhat branched. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. mainly formononetin. bark thin. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. fracture short. dyspepsia. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. frequently. bark dark brown. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. each of which shows a radiate structure. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. It possesses estrogenic activity. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. and sugar. externally dark brown.5 cm in thickness. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. internally. Rhizome horizontal. resins. tannins. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. or less frequently by fibrous strands. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. longitudinally wrinkled. taste bitter and acrid. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. up to 3 mm thick.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. particularly depression and hot flushes. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. fatty acids.

Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). lanceolate. with thick ridges. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. 8 to 10 cm long. Constituents Juglone. fruit globose. fixed and volatile oils. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. Massachusetts. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. glabrous above.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. 5 to 8 cm long. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. rounded or subcordate at the base. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A tree up to 50 m high. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. bark. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. taper-pointed at the apex. serrate. It is an astringent. and detergent. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. tannins. Texas. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. and Minnesota. and trace minerals. leaflets 11 to 23. Florida. anthelmintic. juglandic acid. glabrous.

a prominent midrib. The thallus is dichotomously branched. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. fucans). the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. Frequently.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. It can be added to hair and skin care products. probably due to its iodine content. The texture is cartilaginous. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. slimming activity. reproductive tissues. The odor is slight. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. rheumatism. as a wash for psoriasis. myxoedema. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. trace minerals (mainly iodine). steryl glucosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. sprains. The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. massage for cellulite. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. and bruises. cellutitis. The color varies from brown to black.

. sessile. Gobo Part Used: Roots.. European Burdock. of variable length. frequently split or in broken pieces... the lower ones on short petioles.... Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage. saponins. simple or branched. Description An annual robust plant. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock.. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids. mainly cultivated for commercial use. rough.. longitudinally wrinkled. Borage has a cucumber-like odor. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. elliptical leaves wrinkled. skin cleansing and lightening. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. and minerals. tannins. usually blue.. rhizomes. Constituents Vitamin C.. Description The root is fusiform. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains.. flowers from June through September. the upper leaves.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. flowers. mostly in the Eastern States. It is easily grown from seed. leaf. sometimes white.. calyx of five sepals... a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin.. on long stalks. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. hollow stem.... Bugloss. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L. about 2 cm in diameter. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage. the crown somewhat annulate. five pointed corolla. covered with bristly hairs. externally grayish brown.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. fracture somewhat horny. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe. up to 60 cm high. sparingly naturalized in the United States.

Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. centrally hollow or containing a white. fat. berries with black seeds. cystitis. arctinol. sweetish. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. gout. and can be used in facial steams. fukinanolid. taste is mucilaginous. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. tannins. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. psoriasis. acid soils. Odor slight. and oil. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. and slightly bitter. licorice. abrasions. Arctinone. It is also used in hair conditioners. fatty acids. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. inulin. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. It has been combined with comfrey. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. gels. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. anorexia nervosa. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. arctinal etc.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. yellow-green flowers in spring. sterols. lignin. and baths. eczema. lotions. cutaneous eruption. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. polyalkenes. in cases of acne. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. volatile oils. becoming pyroligneous on milling. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. North America. creams. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pith-like tissue.. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. including buxine and buxozine C. scaly skin. shampoos.

bushy places.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. scale-like. sudorific. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. 2 cm long. a globular red berry ca. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. Europe. Description A dense. chrysophanic acid. ribbed. for the treatment of varicose veins. rutin. Fruit. 1 cm. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. 3 mm across. oval rigid. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. borne on green. dry hills. Flowers greenish. Emmenagogue. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5 mm. saponin. inhibits inflammation. dark green shrub with thick. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. Properties Increases circulation. papery ca. ca. The extract has been used with success. Leaves. ruscoside. diuretic. mucilage.

.

. quercitrin.. and from 5 to 9 angled.. together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length... Mombassa. taste acidulous and mucilaginous. Constituents Flavonoids. Mexican. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material.... healing for sensitive skin. Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America.. piscidic-acids... from 1. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments. penduletin....C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia.. rutin. isorhamnetin-glucoside. luteolin... or Sierra Leone Pepper... Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length. It has a strong. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L.. herby odor. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear... and beta-sitosterol. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present...... kaempferol..... CALENDULA......... dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper. Description In pieces of varying length.5 to 4 cm in diameter.

and greenish-red. red. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The seeds are compressed and pointed. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. the African variety is yellowish-brown. The Mexican variety is deep red. gray. yellow. The apex is acuminate or acute. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. Capsicum is a berry. The taste is pungent and warming. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the Nyassaland variety is red.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. The fruits vary greatly in size. The epicarp is thin and tough. yellow. and brown. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. or is free from these. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. The odor is aromatic.

leaves. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. geraniol. counter-irritant. is obtained by steam distillation. and perfumes up to 0. carotene capsanthin. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. Sacred Bark. Asia. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . detergents. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. lotions. etc. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. segmented. antiseptic. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. and vitamins A and C. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. -pinene. It has a long tap root. jaborandi. branched. colocynth. Buckthorn. keeping it smooth and soft. flavonoids. Bear Wood. geranyl acetate. and others. naturalized in North America. daucol. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. After.4%. Bitter Bark. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. Chittem Bark. and North America.29%). rubefacient used for neuralgia. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. rheumatic pains. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. hairy stem. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. creams. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. fatty acids. CARROT Daucus carota L.

2. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. and D. Wagner et al. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. 1974. It gives red color with ammonia TS.and C-glycosidic linkages. they contain both O. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. 1983. 267. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. Publ. In small doses. B. B = 10 R = OH. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. odor distinct. London. 1. C = 10B. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 4. Various diathrones. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels. C.. It is much used as a laxative. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. chrysophanol. 5. 3. W. emodin oxanthrone. Bailliere Tindall. D = 10 . barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone.. The bark occurs in flattened. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. R = H. See formula. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. 1974. R = OH. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). B and C (see “Rhubarb”). including those of emodin. aloe-emodin. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. R = H. 12th ed. Description The tree is 4.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. 1. curved pieces or quills of variable length. It is frequently covered with lichen. G. it acts as stomach ache treatment. Teil B. C. Two aloins. bryophytes. E.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. 2. and emodin in the free state. Trease. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. Teil C. Aloe-emodin. Naturforsch. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. Z. in Pharmacognosy. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. and Evans.5 to 5 mm thick. 444. and chrysophanol.

Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed. methyl-nepetalactone. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A... ovate or oblong.. camphor. CENTELLA.. naturalized in North America.. the larger. the lower spreading and three-cleft. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling. pungent. corolla whitish. Description Top... citronellal.. softhairy above.. downy.. pointed at the apex... from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. calyx hairy. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen.... Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. or crushed and broken. much branched. thymol). the middle lobe largest.. bract-like. and aromatic. floral leaves small. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect.. (geraniol. margin deeply crenate. flowers small. Br. rounded or ear-shaped at the base. nepetalactone... stems quadrangular. pale gray-green. up to 4 mm in diameter. limb bilabiate. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed. interrupted spikes. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. nepetol rosemarinic acid.. nepetariaside. downy beneath. from 2 to 7 cm long.. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip.....CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L.. leaves opposite. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties... It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache. carvacol. in dense.. Constituents Essential oil. the upper lip erect and two-cleft.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like.. lower pair shorter. from 10 to 20 cm long. petiolate.. tubular. nepetalic acid.. taste bitter. crenulate..... throat dilated. dotted with purple....

436. myrtenol (5. green. helenalin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Compositous glandular hairs are also present. Microbiol. Lin. beta-gurjunene. and D.50%). Wu. and C. the apical cell being elongated filamentous.206.. and U. florilenslin derivatives. 894. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells. 1998. D’Amelio. arnicolides. wounds.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant. Sankawa. Yang.5 cm in diameter. J. 3272. T.I. 40(5).85%). midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. Hu.C.C. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. 1196. Lee and J.W. and amoebiasis. F. venation pinate reticulate. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. 1992. and flavonoids. 22 g. Res. Y. diarrhea. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. Kriby. S. Chin J. oblong.L. isoamyl caproate (1. aromatic. Mutat. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. Y. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. margin dentate. 97.. 1997. Sept. 1973.23%). Yang. 7. C. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. Bull. Chun. J. 8(7). 1991.5%). Wright. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. A.97%). and sternutatory. triterpenes. green. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic.. Pharm.T.S. The plant also contains diterpenes. G. skin infections. 3.W. H. July 26–30. Bull. J. U. J. simple. the plant has been used to treat colds.. W. florilenalin-angelate.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. Ebizuka. cylindrical. Y. Phillipson. 39(12). S. Phytotherapy Res. and Mirhom.. brevilin A. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. 1973–1974. sessile.W. Aust. nasal allergies. 54. 2. Stem 0. Campbell. caryophyllane-2. Warhurst. and Mirhom. 1988.A. Odor characteristic. 204(2). UIO.. H. 8. and rheumatism.S.3 to 0.B. Sankawa. longitudinally striated. 5. Abstr. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. malaria..3 antiprotozoal.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. Wu. 1994.6 to 1 cm broad.B. thymol (1. 1. Yang.6-beta-oside. Pharm. apex acute.18%)..Y.804. Lin. D’Amelio. alternate. Y. Y. and U. Y.1 In Chinese traditional medicine. asthma.C. 6. internodes short. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. Iwakami. Cai. 6. Patent 5. F.D.7. Leaves. Chem. Ebizuka. 4. Chem.98%). Pharm. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1. Y. plenolin derivatives. and alpha-humulene.

Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. aromatic. anti-inflammatory. alpha-bisabolol. or only a slight membraneous crown. bisabolene. involucre hemispherical. see the bibliography at the end of the book. longitudinally furrowed. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. and without a pappus. farnesol. disk-florets tubular. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. etc. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. Chamomile contains azulene. calendula. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. creams. Constituents Essential oil. corolla white.5 cm. perfect. lotions. chlorogenic acid. peduncles light green to brownish-green. pistillate. furfural. chamazulene. naturalized in the United States. apigenins. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. It is a carminative. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. and mullein in shampoo rinses. three-toothed and four-veined. ray-florets from 10 to 20. taste aromatic and bitter.to 5-ribbed. matricarin. well over one hundred compounds. usually reflexed.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. pappus none. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. healing tonic. For further reading. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. and pubescent scales. borneol. oblanceolate. New York southward. hollow receptacles. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Odor pleasant. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3.

long. restoring. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. The leaves grow in opposite pairs. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall. The flowers normally occur in January through May. Also used on skin rashes and infections.G. It is native to the southwestern United States.. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. Yellow flowers have five petals. 3/8 in. Description A resinous. Properties Good for softening. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and stimulating the skin. Chaparral is a source of N. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. each consists of two olive-green leaflets.A. Gobonadorra Greasewood.D. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates.

will add body to hair. it is finely striated and fissured. 5 cm in width. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. partially peeled. phenolic acids. p. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. 8th ed.A. 747. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. sedating. bitteralmond-like when moistened. The taste is astringent and pungent. quercetin). granular and slightly fibrous. this has not been thoroughly investigated. and unpeeled. Merck Index. astringent. Constituents Aspartic acid. south to Florida and Texas. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark.. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. if unpeeled. CHERRY BARK. tannins. a powerful antioxidant. which can be peeled. gossypetin. brittle.).D. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. Properties Soothing. The outer surface. and uneven. is brownish-black. The odor is aromatic. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. The fracture is weak. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars.CHERRY BARK. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. and 4 mm in thickness. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. 1.G. camphor.

rooting at the nodes. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. leaves ovate. flowers white. triterpene gyycosides. creeping or ascending. the uppermost sessile. redness of face erysipelas. saponins. Description A weak. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . vulnerary. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. satin flower. stems slender. Properties Antipruritic. acute. opposite. axillary stalks and in terminal. Can be used in creams. 1⁄6 to 1 in. leafy cymes. small. lotions. white bird’s eye. long. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. tocopherols. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. fatty acids and minerals. emollient.1 mucilage. annual. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. For inflammed eyes. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. on slender. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. small capsule. fruit a many-seeded. psoriasis. coumarins. with a line of hairs along one side. All Europe. indolent ulcers. swelling. rutin. high. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. baths. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. entire. the lower petioled. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. gamma-linolenic acid. carboxylic acids. and facial steams.

Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters. most of Europe. Y.. protein. Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants... Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy)... Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods. each with long styles with dense.. antiscrofulous properties. 2nd ed. Caryophyllum..... June to August.. J. stalked leaflets.. inattentativeness. et Herr. chlorogenic acid. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands. clematine. white hairs. it is used for dementia.. A/B. and inflammation... vitalbiosides.. CRC Press. in lax terminal and axillary clusters.CLOVES 81 1. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. melissic acid. 2.. Steven Foster.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng. sores..) Bull. behenic acid. John Wiley & Sons..... mental escape from reality.See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L. sterols. Duke... Constituents Caffeic acid.. and conspicuous. Carophyllus aromaticus L.. FL. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L.. indifference. Fruit with numerous carpels.. Leung... each 3 to 10 cm. feather fruit clusters.... woody.. rubefacient... spreading. petals spreading. In 1770. grey.. thickets.. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval.. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard.. 1992. New York. CINCHONA. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. Description A robust. 1996. said to have antibiotic properties. densely hairy on both sides. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba.. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply.. hedges.. Boca Raton... fragrant. Flowers 2 cm.

Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. followed by a slight numbness. Robbers.K. Properties They are due to the volatile oil.. ovary twolocular. and Thailand. 1.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. and incurved.. afterwards very pungent. taste pungent and aromatic. E. Burma. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. protein. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length.E. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. flavonoids. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. J. vitamins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. Nepal. dark brown. Williams & Wilkins. Speedie. antispasmodic. and others. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root. J. with numerous ovules. The buds also contain sterols.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. carbohydrates. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. and somewhat four-angled. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. Sri Lanka. It is native to India. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. lipids.. It lowers blood pressure. and has carminative properties.5 mm in length. crowded. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. and Tyler. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. which alternate with the calyx teeth. glandular-punctate petals. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. odor strongly aromatic. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. stamens numerous. style 1. where it is widely cultivated.

taste mucilaginous. banks. tussilagone and essential oil. A. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. Constituents Tannins. ground. 3. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. mucilage.. blade very brittle. deeply cordate at the base. 1996. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. 1998. flavonoids. pubescent. palmately 5. glabrous above. London. landslides. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. Kronenthal. Chevallier. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. floccose beneath.. senkirkine. tussillagine. and smoked like tobacco. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .to 9-nerved. Description Petiole long. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants.L. When the leaves are dried. slightly wrinkled. terpene alcohols. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. R. The younger leaves densely white. 83. Odor indistinct. it is said to help relieve asthma. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. screens. river gravels. minerals. Personal communication. bitter. carotenoids. All Europe. faintly herbaceous.. Properties Emollient.

Comfrey can be used in creams.) Comfrey is also an astringent. watersides. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. feebly astringent taste. marshes. anti-inflammatory. Blackwort. asparagine (1–3%). and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. and lithospermic acids. B-sitosterol amino cids. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. It is almost inodorous. caffeic.. ointments. phenolics. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo.. The powder is green in color. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. 944. up to 10 in. douches.. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. Menghini A. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. alkaloids. Phytotherapy Res. long. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. I.2–4. shampoos. and has a mucilaginous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Knitbone Part Used: Root. antihemorrhagic. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. aloe.P. Most of Europe.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. and demulcent. Capassa F. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. Bruiswort. and Fasulo M. Healing Herb..7%). cone flower. hair rinses. fractures. 1987. salves. althea. Mascolo N. Description The lower. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. radical leaves are very large. 1. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. a very powerful cell proliferent. chlorogenic. lotions. very hairy.. Fillipendula. on wounds. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. Autoreg.

65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%. Dig.0 5.7 0. A equiv.19 0.0 0. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.79 275.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.456 0. energy therms cwt Prod.111 1.085 0.18 2.40 0.26 0.1 Dry matter 30.142 0.0 100 g 4.11 25.01 14.0 15.7 0.0 30.78 7.00 57 34 34 1.89 0. Nutrients Calc.10 0.58 5.14 49.07 100.285 0.61 0. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.86 49.73 28.30 1.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.50 1101100.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.05 0. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.176 0.037 17.74 0.84 4.72 1.19 5.0 3.29 44.99 1.59 2.59 0.8 44.47 1.7 7.20 0.92 0.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 19600 10 6 28 0.0 0.600 0.65 0.93 0. for cattle Maint.51 4.01 24.480 0.795 0.624 8.208 100.93 0.2 0. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.8 2.92 0.14 8.0 1200.8 213.0 7.41 0.

. creates astringency. occasionally dark brown in color.. Healing Comfrey Herb. Blackwort.. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey. mucilaginous. reduces inflammation and clotting.. promotes tissue repair... Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark.... Good when used in burn creams. internally creamy white. often more than 2... firm. riverbanks. branched.. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin..5 cm thick and 30 cm long. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L. North Africa.. horny texture. and dark color.. cultivated extensively... Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland.. CONE FLOWER. Europe.. It is almost inodorous... Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf.. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L. and has a sweetish. externally wrinkled. woodland.. feebly astringent taste.. Bruiswort. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable....See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L..... *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum.

coumaric. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. cremocarp nearly globular. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. deodorants. mericarps easily separated. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. phenolic acids (caffeic. eliptical oil ducts. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. toothpaste.). perfumes. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. fatty acids. p-cymene. tangentially elongated. etc. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. toilet waters and after shaves. camphor.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and flavors. -terpinene. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. undulate secondary ribs. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. The essential oil is used in massage oils. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. each mericarp with five prominent. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. two or three layers of large. tannin. chlorogenic. straight. rutin). geraniol and geranyl acetate. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. frequently with numerous large. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. ferulic). intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. endocarp of large tabular cells. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. flavonoids (quertcetin. Properties Has been used in body lotions. limonene. a layer of several rows of thin-walled.

Quebec. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. about 15 mm high. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. heads long-peduncled. floccose. more or less floccose. Description Annual. or as a compress for tired eyes. British Columbia. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. bracts greenish-yellow. stem 3 to 7 dm high. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. marginal corollas funnelform. scrapes. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . For aging skin. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. with slender. involucres round-ureolate. conjunctivitis. it is soothing and emollient.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. varying to rose or white. Virginia. ascending branches. California. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. native of Europe. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. and various skin complaints. blue.

frequently unequal. and temperate Asia.2 to 0.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. vitamin C. arginine. stigmas bifid. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. potassium. stigmasterol. and from 0. the upper portion being usually unicellular. spherical nucleus. yellow or light brown color. Constituents Acetanapthene. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. cnicin. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. Topically very soothing and softening. tannin. purplish-red. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. maizeric acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . corn silk. the epidermal cells rectangular. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. segments very slender.8 m in length. spiral or annular tracheae. protein. polygalacturonic acids. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. alanine. light green. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. the basal trichomes 50. cultivated extensively.4 to 3 mm in length. saponins. proline. Europe. flavonoids (Maysin). protocyanin. palmitic acid. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. cichorin. minerals. and 0. fixed oil. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. tocopherols.4 mm in diameter. CORN SILK Zea mays L. cyanidin glucoside. the Corn silk (zea mays) L.

. phenolic acids.. and E. minerals. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging). 1. apricot-like... colds.. Plant Drug Analysis... Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties.. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis. and refreshing. fatty acids.. Blatt.... 176.. *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India. phytosterol. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles. According to the German Commission Monograph E.. p. Springer-Verlag.. For blotchiness of skin. about 1 cm in diameter. and for chapped skin or sunburn. Constituents Vitamins. Wagner. enzyme (primeverase).M..... yellow..90 CRESS.SEE WATERCRESS Description A short.. astringent. 1984. odor.. cucurbitacins... Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. Hydrating.. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract.. and coughs. quercetin).. soothing eye compress... S.... hairy perennial.. Constituents Saponins. and cylindrical.. broad hairy leaves. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... volatile oils. sunburn... Zgalinski. wrinkled leaves. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America. Berlin..See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L... campferol dirhamnoside. and spotted with orange at the throat.. CRESS... and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. flavonoids (gossypetin. five-lobed.. sweetish.. dark green fruits.. Description This trailing annual has rough stems.. slightly curved. with oval. H. Both the fruit and seeds are employed. tubular yellow flowers. Properties Stimulate circulation.... Taste. amino acids. The flowers are tubular.. cooling... in face creams. and 3-gentiotrioside.

Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . approximating 90°. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. 0. yellow-brown and sometimes purple. Frequent pieces of cut.5 cm wide. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. Stomata are present in both epidermises.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum.5 cm wide. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes.S. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad.5 to 1. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). with a pronounced midrib. ending in a spherical secreting cell. Foreign Dandelion. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. and for various skin complaints and eczema. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. naturalized in the United States.0 cm long and 0. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. where it is a common weed. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. dark green or brown-green in color.

There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as a diuretic. and is especially high in potassium. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. It is also considered a blood purifier.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). the root has been used to treat inflammation. Vitamin B and C. probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. The white sap has been used to treat warts. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile.

It has no odor. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. brownish concentric rings of sieve. whitish bark in which numerous. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. whitish and fleshy within. but often divides into several erect branches. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. but a bitter taste. flavonoids. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. a narrow cortex. much shriveled. and the eudesmanolides. porous. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. vitamins and minerals. it tapers but little below. which is rather hygroscopic.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. It attains a length of about 30 cm. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. becomes tough when slightly moist. surrounded by a thick. straight root. and a layer of cork externally. also ca. The dried root is dark brown. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. and its derivative taraxacoside. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. 1. naturalized in the United States.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. Description The root consists of a simple. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. the latter sometimes remains simple. The drug. which have not been found anywhere else. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and sterols. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. and wrinkled longitudinally.1% mucilage. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. where it is a common weed. milky latex exudes. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. with concentric rings as in the root. the section exhibiting a yellow. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. carotenoids. which toward the upper part. glucoside.

with some fan-shaped pieces. M. polysaccharides. Xylem radiate.-C. claw-like fruit. taste astringent. ursolic acid) phytosterols. chlorogenic acid. quinones. 1. bitter. occasionally with cavities. polyphenols. 117.5 cm thick. hooked.. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. Description It has a characteristic large. Antiphlogistic. 58. et al. 1992. heavily concentric. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis.. Lanhers. The plant produces bright red flowers. Odor slight. flavonoids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Planta Med. (oleanolic acid.. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. light grey-brown. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. procumbide).1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. slightly analgesic. rheumatism). triterpenes. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. Fracture short.

. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. Black Susans.) Nutt. Part Used: Root. Indian head. Black Sampson. pallida. purpurea. E. E. (Nutt. Scurvy Root. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. Hedgehog Part Used: Root. L. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. Moench. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. burns. boils. externally grayish-brown. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. fibrous. or furrowed. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. or poisonous insects. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. taste sweetish. bed sores. For example. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. bark less than 1 mm thick. etc. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. ulcers. aromatic. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. light brown. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. cylindrical. wounds. or purplish-brown. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. slightly annulate in the upper portion. fracture short. When administered orally. sieve tissue in radial rows. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bites. Odor faint. use for snake bite. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. blood purification. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. wound healing. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. stings.

this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. interleukin-1 (IL-1). Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. and Interferon-B2. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . TNF-X.ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities.3 Furthermore. It also increases T-cell proliferation. A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii).

10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans.5 Furthermore. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. purpurea)]. arabinoga lactan). angustifolia. including an essential oil. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan.7% (except in E. • Polysaccharides. pyrrolizidine alkaloids.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro. angustifolia. pallida. which is useful for species identification.3–1. Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. These include aliphatic amides. angustifolia). • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E. albicans pathogens.6–2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . isobutylamide of undeca (2E. chlorogenic acid. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. – The mono.10E)-tetraenoic acid).4Z-diene8. Present in both E.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid.8Z. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0.. purpurea (0. purpurea and E.1%).g. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood. their respective structures and levels are slightly different.g.4E.. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea. ferulates of tartaric. but practically absent in E. in vivo. In E. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus.

J..Matthes. Jurcic. M. Zawatzky. Wagner.. and J. Becker. E. J. 1991. I.E. C. Wagner. S. K.-L. Ger Offen De 3. 669-675. 6. Gifford.. R. B. 27-38. Cheminat. 276-281.ECHINACEA 99 1. and M. Natl. 1988. Luettig. Ser. Schranner. Lohmann-Matthes. J. Wagner. N.H. 3. 27(9).744. 81(8). H. Med. 5. Albrecht. Roesler. G. Christiane.. 1989.345. Vet. Intn. Loesch. 4. Wagner. A. 38(2). Puhlmann. Phytochemistry. Holger. 13(1). Zenk. M.. 1988. 1989 2. Immuno Pharmacol. Cancer Inst.L. R. Lohmann. and H. H. Wuerdinger. Klumpp and U. H. Bauer. and R. (Bethesda). J. Brouillard. O. Steinmueller. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 36(5).. J. 353-364. K. Arzneim-Forsch. B. 2787-2794. 1989. Andreas.

soreness. slender anthers oblong. It is said to reduce swellings.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. sterols. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. flat or slightly campanulate. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree.023 mm in diameter. yellow. rutin. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. regularly five-lobed. filaments. taste slightly bitter. volatile oils. ursolic acid. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. calyx superior. five-lobed. from 2 to 3 mm in width. south to Florida and Texas. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. triterpenes (alpha. minerals. and tannins. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. shriveled. sambunigrin). astragalin. covered with finely punctate markings. stamens five.and beta-amyrin). inflammation. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. having three pores and up to 0. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). rotate. Description Small. joint stiffness etc. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tumors. mucilage.

Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. roots cylindrical and tapering. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Elecampane (Inula helenium L. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. and catarrh. taste acrid. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles.) strongly lignified wood fibers. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. Scabwort. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. central Europe. west to Missouri. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. Odor aromatic. and separated by large intercellular spaces. wounds.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. asthma. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. fracture short and horny. bitter. as a bactericide. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. itching skin. naturalized in northeastern North America. south to North Carolina. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals.5 cm in diameter. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. frequently curved or irregularly curled. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. and rashes. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. and pungent. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. up to 13 cm in length and 1.

isolantolactone. germacrene-D-lactose).102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. friedelin). inulin. Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. polyacetylene. sterols.

each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. heaths. taste bitter and aromatic. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. 1 ⁄6 to in. The stem is erect and wiry. high. however. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. resin. either unbranched in small specimens. essential oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or with many opposite branches. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. Astringent tonic. sessile. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. small. broad. The leaves are sometimes almost round. woolly beneath. Constituents Tannins. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. 2 to 8 in. their margins. Hemostatic. always deeply cut-in teeth. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. and at other times pointed and narrow. revolute or undulate. obtuse bracts which are white. heads numerous. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. but sometimes tinged with brown. green above. and phytosterin. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). Description It is an elegant little annual plant. Description Stems white-woolly. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. Also has slight Anodyne properties. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. odor characteristically aromatic. It is odorless. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. woodland. febrifuge. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. Europe. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. has a bitter and astringent taste. long and about in. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem.

The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. including aucubin. conjunctivitis. lotions or drops for eye complaints. inflamation of the blood vessels. luproside. Constituents Aucubin. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. and a volatile oil. inflammation of the eyelid.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. caffeic acid. and various skin conditions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . geniposide. gallotannins. catapol. poultices. Euphrasia contains glycosides. ferulic acid. minerals.

Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. making usually six oil ducts in all. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. more or less curved. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. conical stylopod.5 mm in breadth. Description Mericarps usually separate. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. south to Florida and Texas. It is * Formerly CTFA. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. dorsal surface convex. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. For use in eye washes. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. New Jersey. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. United States. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. strongly lignified fibers. brown walls. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. composed of polygonal cells.

in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. and flattened. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. anisaldehyde. is strong and spicy. In addition. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. horny. cultivated in India. the radicle being accumbent. Israel. the former appearing as a whitish point. yellowish-brown. Soaked in water. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. and 2 mm thick. there are methylchavicol. the taste is disagreeable and oily. especially if powdered. the fruits contain a fixed oil. protein. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. In addition. and Turkey. organic acids. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. they are hard. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. Pakistan. including -pinene. 2 to 3 mm wide. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dark. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. The odor of Fenugreek. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. -phellandrene. and limonene. Nearly in the center of one of the long. However. translucent endosperm. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. and flavonoids.

Fenugreek contains mucilage. trigofoenoside A-G. fenugreakin. hedges. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. trigonelline. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. mucilage. Constituents Dioscin. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. flowering from July to October. cystine. in woods. It is also used as a galactagogue. mucin. Square stalk. sores. glycine. diosgenin.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. glutamic acid. wounds. and various skin irritations. tumors. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . damp copses. histidine. Scrofula plant. neurosis. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. swollen glands. choline. aspartic acid. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. choline. yamogenin. and banks. A poultice has been employed for gout.

of a deep-green color. on axillary and terminal. with paniculate. Constituents Saponins. hesperetin. and 3 to 7 in. the limb contracted. opposite branches above. The flowers are small. tuberous. lecithin. whitish. 3 to 4 in. the corolla of a dull green color. obtuse. having a green scale or sterile filament. with a livid purple lip. with a leafy. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. 2 to 4 ft in height. and slightly margined. rounded. acute. erect. cleansing. sublabiate. thyrsoid panicles. and subglobose. ovoid. dark purple. alkaloids and flavonoids. ovate-oblong. long. anodyne. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. and circulatory stimulant. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ovate. or the upper lanceolate. cardio-active glycosides. acutish or broadly cordate at base. quadrangular. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. The leaves are opposite. The calyx is in five segments. slightly drooping. in length. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. which are broadly ovate. smooth stem. adnate to the upper side. petiolate. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. sharply and unequally serrated. and knotty root. forked. veined.

and midrib. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. and along banks of rivers. Description Galium aparine is an annual. fatty acids. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. with hooked prickles. mucronate. and Burdock. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sterols. with an acidulous. including psoriasis. styles 2. these plants have an unpleasant odor. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. Catch-weed. and n-alkanes. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. phenolic acids. GARLIC Allium sativum L. and rough on the margins. growing in cultivated grounds. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. quadrangular. retrorsely prickled stem.or 2-flowered. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). or eights. and astringent. succulent plant. the peduncles are axillary and 1.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. In a green state. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. and bitter taste. astringent. procumbent. in length. small. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. verticillate in sixes. and is hairy at the joints. coumarins. 2 or 3 lines in width. The fruit is large and bristly. flavonoids. stamens 4 and short. tapering to the base. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. and flowering from June to September. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. sevens. Stinging Nettle. tannins. Calyx 4-toothed. the flowers white. corolla rotate and 4-parted. numerous and scattered. cleansing. but are inodorous when dried. with a weak. moist thickets. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States.

the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. peptides. with 8 to 15 bulbils. and E. membranaceous. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. pimples. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. B. scordinins. sores. for obvious reasons. antiviral. and attached to a flattened circular base. compound.750 mm in diameter. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. and acne. membranaceous scales. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. spasmolytic. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. trace minerals. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. dry leaf. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. Garlic is diaphoretic. bacteriostatic. The membranaceous scales. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. taste intensely pungent and persistent. g-glutamyl). hypotensive and anthelmintic. Properties Cosmetically.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. antiseptic. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. about 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. apex acute. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. C. the outer surface convex. Internally. Italy is a large producer. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. promotes leucocytosis. Garlic does not lend itself. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. allicin — dialltrisulfide. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. each bulbil covered by whitish. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. It has been applied successfully to swellings. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. Vitamins A. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. Constituents Sulfur compounds. expectorant. (alliin. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. surrounded by whitish. Description Bulb subglobular. cultivated extensively. in place of butter. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. base truncate. scale-like leaves. and fructans. However.

The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. but are usually shorter. but pliable when it is moist.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. bitter. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. sialagogue. Properties Gentian is an astringent. then strongly bitter. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. Cranesbill. polysaccharide. The cambiam zone is dark brown. and cholagogue. swertiamarin). The taste is first sweet. and to 37 mm in diameter.5 dm in length. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. and middle western United States. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. It is recommended for loss of appetite. volatile oils. These roots measure up to 8. anti-inflammatory. phenolic acids. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. xanthones. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and alkaloids (gentiamine). The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. amarogentin. cleansing. sweroside. The odor is aromatic. that of the root. gastric stimulant.

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Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.

Wild alum

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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome

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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf

Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.

Ginkgo

Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.

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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root

Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.

Ginseng root (american) cultivated

Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its

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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.

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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.

GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves

Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.

Golden rod (Solidago)

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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome

Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.

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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.

GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part

Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near

Gotu kola

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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin

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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.

GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit

Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract

Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.

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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf

Green tea

Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.

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Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. tannins (catechins. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. creams. theobromine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hair rinses.. ferulic). etc.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. and phenolic acids (caffeic. lotions. gallo catechins). theophylline). which can be used in various sun-care products. shampoos. conditioning.

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berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. and dimeric procyanidin. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. Properties Flowers.C. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. fatty acids. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. Medically. catechin. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. Monogyna (jacq.) C. Cosmetically. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. and central and northern Asia. it has been used as a wash for itching. and frost bite. with five parts. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. leaves. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. and externally wrinkled. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. quercetin and glucosides). and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. Externally. phenolic acids. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. vitexin glucosides. sores. purple-brown to brown in color. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description The fruits are small berries.

Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. and decolorized by a special extraction process. R. However. hair rinses. astringent. 51. Calendula. mucronate. as henna. It can be used in shampoos. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. l. deepening with alkalies. Persia. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. etc. however. 4-napthoquinone). triangular pitted seeds. Arabia. It is also said to be cooling. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. oblong or broadly lanceolate. It will not impart any color to the hair. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. glabrous. 1983. tapering at the base. Chamomile. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. 1 to 2 cm wide. small. entire. shortly petiolate. fading on the addition of acid. 2 to 3 cm long. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. with occasional stems and brown. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. decoction orange-brown. It will add body and highlights to hair. acids destroy its properties. Description Leaves greenish-brown. Pharm. et al. 319. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. Sci. and conditioners. fruit. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. India. often imported in coarse powder. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. brown. Della Loggia. simple. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations.126 HENNA 1.. in an aqueous solution. opposite. (2-hydroxy. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous.

(glucosides of apigenin. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. California. translucent. phenolic acid. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. and tannins. It becomes partially crystalline. flavonoids. and New Zealand. and semi-solid on keeping. orange blossom. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. luteolin). the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. Honey obtained from heather. Australia. Description Honey is a viscid. fatty acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .4-napthoquinone). Chile. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. various parts of Africa.

will give body to the hair. the veins are elevated. volatile oil. Bark Bongay. bactericidal. and discoloration. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. The taste is pungent and bitter. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. consisting mainly of humulene. it will reduce swellings. lupulone. Useful in treatment of dandruff. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . formic acid. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. and tannins. and hair conditioning.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. It contains small quantities of sucrose. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin). In combination with Chamomile. Hops is a sedative. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). sores. Asia. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. It has been used on crural ulcers. and pollen grains. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. and alleviates pain and itching. one margin is flat. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. tetters. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical.brown. The individual bracts are thin and papery. humulene. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. dextrin. hypnotic. The strobiles measure 5.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. Hops is a strobulus. The odor is aromatic. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. xanthahumol). ringworm. bitter principles. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. wax. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. tannins. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. face creams. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate.

The aqueous infusion is bitter. Gaertn et Schert. and has an unpleasant. lotions. phenolic acids. and swellings. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. compressed. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. The bark is thin. large rough leaves. sprains and various sports injuries.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. The nut. fleshy roots. nearly an inch in diameter. stimulates digestion and circulation. phlebitis. yellowish-white in color. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. is subglobular. The inner bark has a rough. It has been used in cellulitis.25–0. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . is nearly odorless. Constituents Saponins (aescin. Anti-inflammatory. peculiar odor. and tannin. and non-astringent. bitter taste. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. The nut has a slight. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. quercetin). It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. increases circulation. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. Properties Astringent. in diameter. Description A perennial . aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. with a shining. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. hand creams. aesculin). The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. when dry. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. fawn-colored. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. and slimming products. and hemorrhoids. iron gives a green precipitate. varicose veins. The plant has long. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. The root has antimicrobial properties. Increases venous tone. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. Properties Cosmetically. from 1 to 1 in. vasoconstrictor. The internal portion is starchy. tendonitis. chestnut-brown testa. bitter taste.

5 to 10 mm.5 dm. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. causing the skin to blister. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. However. California. which would validate its use on blemished. after crushing and moistening. Alaska.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. and Eurasia. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. branched. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. acuminate. yields 0. sterile stems decumbent to erect. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. 2 to 4 cm long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3 to 5 mm in diameter. greasy skin. cones peduncled. 10 to 14 furrowed. solid. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. Greenland. However. mostly with sterile spores. high. as the fresh juice can be irritating. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. South Carolina. high. rarely with a few branches. branches 3 to 4 angled. thick.5 dm. 2 to 3 mm. thick. 1 to 3.

rather thick. gangrenous ulcers. emarginate. saponin (equisetonin). apigenin). kaempferol. and external bleeding. silicic acid. usually oblong-linear.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. sometimes elliptical. or lanceolate. scarcely shorter than the calyx. Upper lip of the corolla. palustrine alkaloid. and borne in racemose. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. spreading. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. and equistetolic acid. entire. sessile. It is diuretic. acute. phenolic acids. minerals. southern Europe. flat. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. seldom white. sometimes narrower. sunny sites. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. The leaves are opposite. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. spreading. emarginate. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. and diverging. woody at the base. Stamens 4. Its stems are quadrangular. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. The flowers are bluish-purple. punctate. with the middle obe larger. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. lower lip trifid. and 1 to 2 ft in height. very much branched. the branches are rod-like. but smaller. erect. astringent. with the middle of the corolla erect. flat. Will add strength and sheen to hair. second whorls. healing. anthers with linear divaricating cells. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. acute. and 1 ribbed underneath. Used for putrid wounds. protruding. green on each side.

and resin. Tannin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ursolic acid. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. gum. phenolic acids. Constituents Volatile oil.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. marrubin. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. flavonoid glycosides. oleanic acid.

133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with a varegated throat. Also useful in cough preparations. square. with a prostrate. opposite. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. radicating at base. the limb oblique. The flowers are bluish-purple. The calyx is long. decongesting tonic. North America. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. gray. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. luteolin [cynaroside]. forming the appearance of a cross. Europe to Caucasus. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. about three together in axillary whorls. roundish. hairy herb. volatile oil.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. The floral leaves are of the same form. though often purplish beneath. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). The leaves are petiolate. marubiin. phenolic acids. hairy. the upper being the largest. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. villous. and glaucous on both sides. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. amino acids. cordatereniform. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. creeping stem. * Formerly CTFA. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. curved. crenate.

The former possesses a peculiar. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. It is acrid. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. and when heated emits a pleasant. or Ivy gum). and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. aromatic odor. rather fragrant odor. The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. exudes from the incised bark. Description An evergreen climber. Ivy has been used in face packs. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. Properties Anti-fungal. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. Scandinavia. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. antimutagenic. This plant is common all over Europe. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. Europe. However. anthelmintic. molluscicidal. sun or shade. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . control of cellulite. faintly bitter. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. and introduced into North America. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae.

IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hederacoside C (5%). and fatty acids. phenolic acids. flavonoids. malic acid. hederacoside. .and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides.

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the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stalks. The under surface is yellowish-green. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. dull. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. The odor is slight. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. The taste is salty and bitter. The blades are asymmetric.5 cm. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. smooth. The upper surface is yellowish-green. and stems. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. and the veins are elevated. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. The leaves are compound.

tincture of Capsicum. colocynth. hair rinses. It increases intestinal motility. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. benzyl alcohol. very sweet-scented flowers. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. the terminal leaflet larger. It can be used in shampoos. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. and sweat hypersecretion. It induces salivary. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. isamone. and mullein as a hair tonic. It contains pilocarpine. skin creams. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. hair tonics. jaboric acid. eugenol. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. containing benzylacetate. antiglaucoma agent. gels. isopilocarpine). and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. volatile oil. gastric.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. and farnesol. pilocarpic acid. more than half as long as the corolla tube. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. Constituents Essential oil. Combines well with Nettles. jaborino. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. and soaps. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. conditioners. Leaves opposite. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. calyx linear.

and many trace minerals and micronutrients. potassium. Constituents Iodine. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. hair products. see Chapter 7.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. algin. (For additional information. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. Description Vesicles large. each bearing an expanded blade. Nourishing. restoring. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . benefits the skin. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. softening. skin care products. dissolving. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors.

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Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. tropical habitats in dry soil. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. and similar skin problems. southern India and Sri Lanka. triterpenoids. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. and lotions. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. wide. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. and antifungal.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. dandruff. analgesic. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. shampoos. Antimicrobial properties. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. antioxidant. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. antipyretic. The flowers are in branched panicles. and alkaloid. creams. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Approximately 30 species have been identified.

and close the pores. Constituents Essential oil. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. dilute it with water. When taken on an empty stomach. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. odor fragrant. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza.) Burman F. Properties Healing antiseptic. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. distinctive. Sweet Wood. southern Europe. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). It is aromatic and astringent.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. giving relief. and cleansers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . skin bleach. Russia. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. taste aromatic. bacteriastatic. flavonoids. and Hungary. phenolic acids. Liquorice Root. Glycyrrhizae Radix. skin creams. cleanse the skin.

pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. eczema. it is externally pale yellow. Properties Good for skin eruptions. including dermatitis. its taste is sweetish. somewhat tapering. Externally. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. sometimes split longitudinally. anti-infectant. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. antiseptic. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. antibacterial. longitudinally wrinkled. pruritus. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. and cysts. antiviral. Internally. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. Internally. antihepatotoxic. when deprived of the outer corky layer. Its odor is distinctive. Anti-inflammatory. The upper portion is more or less knotty.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. antiphlogistic. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. it is yellow and radiate. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers.

glycyrrhetol. On hydrolysis. kumatakenin.). glabrone. bracts N/S Flowers. licochalcones A and B. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. etc. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. Linn Tree. licoisoflavanone. neoisoliquiritin. neoliquiritin. formononetin. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. 4’. bracts N/S Flowers.7-dihydoxyflavone. glycyrol. sterols. 2 to 20% starch. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. licoisoflavones A and B. amines. lignin. amino acids. bracts Flowers. licoric acid. glyzarin. rhamnoisoliquiritin. gum wax. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. glabronin etc. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. licuraside. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. coumarins. Basswood. isoglabrolide. 4-hydroxychalcone. isoliquiritin. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill.). echinatin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . liquiritin.). Europe. glabrolide. licoricone. liquiritigenin. glabrol.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. White Wood. etc. B-amyrin. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. limestone.

which are axillary. when dry. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. The petals are five and whitish. linear. odor is agreeable. faint. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. For bruises and to reduce swelling. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating).LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. are oblong or lanceolate. Internally. Emollient. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . When fresh. or approach yellow. leaf-like bract.

dark green. Smallage. and resin are also present. J. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Coumarins. sterols. W. gum. naturalized in North America. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. volatile oil.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. Maggi Herb. kaempferol). Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. lotions. mucilage.5 to 1. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. The rhizome and root are aromatic. and perfumes. creams. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. Description Lovage has large. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. The fruit is a cremocarp. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. high amount of uronic acid. D. cultivated in central and southern Europe. caffeic).0% volatile oil. tannins. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds.

*INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. quinic acid. Constituents Adiantone. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. and then into several spreading pinnae.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. adiantoxide. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. and with blackish roots. astragalin. tannin. blackish. The odor is slight. The rhizomes are horizontal. phenolic acids and their sulfates. They consist of long. first into two recurving. and shining frond bases. mucilage. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. Properties In rinses. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pedately branching at the summit. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. slender. primary forks.

malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. Emollient for sensitive skin. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. Relieves itching. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. and phenolic acids. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. spasmodic colitis. Mary-bud. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. thick. the veins are elevated. distinct. The flower heads have a short. the veins are palmate. and fruits. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. Holligold. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. Medicinally used in cough preparations. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. Properties Soothing and softening. niacin. and insect bites. flowers. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hairy. British Columbia to Mexico. The odor is not distinct. greenish-gray bracts. Useful in eye preparations. The blade is cordate at the base. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. These flowers are oblanceolate. The texture is herbaceous. naturalized in North America. curved peduncle. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. The taste is mucilaginous. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. and slightly elevated. blotchiness. The individual flowers are yellow. mostly ligulate. protective. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT

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The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root

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MELISSA

yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops

Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.

Melissa

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MIMOSA

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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.

MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root

Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.

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MISTLETOE

Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb

Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)

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MULLEIN

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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers

Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied

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MYRRH

Mullein (plant)

to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin

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The fracture is conchoidal. carminative. and acrid. Myrrh is used in incense. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. The taste is pungent. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. for example. antifungal. bitter. mildly expectorant. powdery. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. It is said to bring forth the gods. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. It is said to promote granulation. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. and anti-inflammatory. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. engler) The surface is dull. Used for halitosis. sore throats. The odor is aromatic. diaphoretic. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. diuretic.

The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. and blue-black berries. and nerol).2 to 0. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. creamy white flowers. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. camphene. geraniol. on bruises and hemorrhoids. cineole. Constituents Yields 0.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Description This plant is a perennial... which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed.. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic.. by woodsides..... Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll. Nettles has been used as an astringent. serotonin). in hedges. acetyl choline.... Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant... See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L. Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant.. (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle. and epistaxis malaena. nervous eczema.. herbaceous... armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. beta-carotene... and for cutaneous eruptions.. dull-green plant.N NASTURTIUM ... formic and citric acids. choline... sterols. amines (histamine. common to Europe and the United States.. and in gardens. growing in waste places. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy. and isorhamnetin). kaempferol. flowering from June to September..... Stimulates hair growth. Urtica urens L. minerals (high amount).. Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..

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above the center. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. thinly membranous. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit.O OATS Avena sativa L. Odor slight. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. tapering toward each end. within the groove a narrow. up to 1. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. a scar or. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. taste starchy. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. rarely. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). and the Yukon.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. the base somewhat contracted. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. Florida. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. two-veined palet or scale. the apex pointed. Texas. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end.

It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. avenacin). lignified. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. rarely over 25 ft in height. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. bent here and there. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. and herpes. elliptical stomata up to about 0. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. shingles. less heavily developed tissue. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. Properties Benefits the skin. straight or slightly curved. highly refringent and truncate. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. partially beaded. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. The drug tastes bitter. some of which give rise to unicellular. sleeplessness. subsessile. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. Medically. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. pointed hairs. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. entire and coriaceous. Description The tree is small. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. lignified walls. the cells filled with protein. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). these are elongated thick-walled. polyphenols. eczema. The leaves are opposite.

Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). 1992. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. hypoglycemic. few of them have been studied experimentally. Planta Med. and red globe onions. A. ONION Allium cepa L. 417. diuretic. 513... oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. hypoglycemic. et al. 58. 1991. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth.. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. up to about 1. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. Planta Med. also hollow. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). antifungal. and antimicrobial. Gonzalez. 2. ligustroside.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. et al.. ll-demethyl oleuropein. 7. yellow globe. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. hypotensive. M. 57.2 m high. 1. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Zarzuelo.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic.

Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. white. 7 to 8 cm globular. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. 2 to 2 cm long. Flowers. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. Fruit. Description Leaves. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. very sweet-scented. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alkyl and alkenylcysteines. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. introduced to Europe. fructans. 1-propenesulfenic acid. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. oblong-oval. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. with bitter rind and sour flesh. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. reddish-orange.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. acute. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide.

minute pits. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. furanocoumarins. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. considerable amounts of pectin. more astringent than rose water. and bitter substances. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. It is also given internally. with limonene as main constituent. short. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. flavonoids. fracture hard. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. aromatic wash. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. taste aromatic and bitter. Constituents Essential oil (ca. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. 0. rutoside. such as hesperidin. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. with many slight. tangeretin. used for oily skin and acne. var. Cultivated widely in the subtropics.2 to 0. conical projections and linear.5%). odor fragrant and aromatic. the sugar component of which.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. somewhat curved. nobiletin. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. neohesperidose (2-0. inner surface whitish. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. non-bitter flavonoids. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L.

sinensis L. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. taste pungently aromatic. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. globules of volatile oil. and hesperidin. quercetin. sinensis Osbeck. citronellal. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. citral. naringin. skin creams for its flavonoids. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. bitter and carminative. It is also an aromatic. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. odor fragrant. Flavonoids. Cultivated in Florida and California. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. Sweet orange peel Description The outer.

rheumatism. Petals usually longer than the sepals. Properties Used as a healing tonic. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. and carotenoids. pruritus. Constituents Essential oil. gaultherin. violutoside. rutin. tannin. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. tocopherol. spur short.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. eczema. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. meadows. Description Flowers mostly tricolored.. anti-inflammatory.g. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. magnesium tartrate. p-coumaric acid. e. Exerpt from German Commission E. leafy. saponins. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. acne.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. galacturonic acid. but sometimes up to twice as long. flavonoids. antipyretic. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. Monograph 6. mucilage. scoparine. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. anthocyanidin glycosides. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. arabinose. Leaves variable. very variable in size. stipules variable. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. impetigo. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. but often palmately lobed with a larger.

The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. carpinine (an alkaloid). C14H2502N. with large.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. shampoos. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. and minerals. Carpaine. staminate and pistillate flowers. Naturalized in southern Florida. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which resembles sinigrin. edible berry up to about 15 lb. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. long petioled. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. etc. vitamins. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. The fruit is a large melon-like.

or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. p = parenchyma.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. Veget. and B. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. papyrifora. ms = latex tubes. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. kr = individual crystals. Regn. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate.F. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. taste woody and characteristic. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. (After T.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Kr´ = crystal rosettes. margin dentate to crenate. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels. Odor faint. q = group of large fibers. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2.2-benzenediol. Tabl. m = outer lamella. Vent. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid.

The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown. hortense. above-ground herb.3. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative.) Nym. W. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. fruit. p-mentha-1. Other parts of the plant contain 0. B-phellandrene (12%).8-triene (9%). leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. emmenagogue. green. ex A. 8-methoxypsoralen. and others.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. and starch. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. sativum. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. Apium petroselinum. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. apiin. diuretic. Furocoumarins including bergapten. Germany.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. psoralen. P. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. aromatic. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .05 to 0. The tap root is fusiform. and imperatorin. isopimpenillin. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. France. spasmolytic. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. Odor characteristic. (Mill. taste faintly sweet. Belgium. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. expectorant. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. fruit. and Hungary. stout. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. and antimicrobial. antirheumatic. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. above-ground herb. apiole (18%). extensively cultivated in California. compound umbels.

cultivated in Japan and the United States. rosemarinic). The calyx is campanulate. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. carminative.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. the internodes are of variable length. naturalized in North America.3 cm in width. menthofuran. broad. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. spasmolytic. rutin. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. large. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. tonic. The pith is white. They measure up to 9. The margin is sharply serrate. The fracture is tough and incomplete. its five teeth are subulate. and minerals. The corolla is united and tubular below. menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). cholagogue. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). its color varies from light to dark purple. sitosterols.5 cm in length and to 3. The stems are simple or branched. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. cineole.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. the leaves are opposite decussate. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. The cortex and wood are thin. The under surface is light green. hair tonics. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . interrupted spikes. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). and the veins are more prominent. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. the texture is fibrous. The nodes are enlarged. phenolic acids (caffeic. The outline is quadrangular. chlorogenic. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. triterpenes. menthone (10 to 40%). antiseptic. south to Florida and Alabama. The under surface is light green. Properties Stimulant. four-lobed above. and the veins are slightly depressed. as it contains flavonoids. The apex is acute. and solid or hollow. notably viridoflorol. The blade measures up to 7. ursolic acid. The bracts are lanceolate. mildly sedative. The flowers are arranged in dense. and the veins are slightly depressed. flavonoids (luteolin. The odor is aromatic. hesperidin). The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. and the color varies from green to purple.

however. they are different. astringent. Minnesota. and ursolic acid. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). Vinca contains vincamine. vulnerary sedative. 1 to 6 dm long. Has also been used to stop external bleeding. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as well as Europe. Description Stem spreading. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. native of Europe. Properties Used as a hemostatic. and Georgia. 1. vasodilator. flavonoids. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. entire. tannins. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. a standardized extract should be used. truncate. the lobes obovate. hypotensive.5 to 3 cm broad. hypoglycemic. shining. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. dark green. in Connecticut. leaves ovate to oblong. trailing.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. corolla blue. firm.

quinic acid. channeled petiole. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. and is common in Europe and America. and applied to sores. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. imbricated. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. balsamic. The medullary rays. shikimic acid. by the roadsides.35 to 0. n-nonacosane. pinitol. Ripple-grass. the seeds numerous. The leaves are ovate. Constituents Contains oils. and in grass plats. Plantago major L. dihydroquercetin. it has a density varying from about 0. long.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. aromatics. parahydroxybenzoic acid. arising from a fibrous root. smoothish. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. tannins. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. It flowers from May to October. campesterol. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. ferulic acid. quercetin. dark band of autumn wood. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . very small. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. The flowers are white. leaving smooth surfaces. five. raffinose sequoyitol.to seven-nerved. Properties Astringent. and insect bites. Vessels are absent. cuts.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). somewhat toothed. In a radial surface. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. growing in rich. moist places. malonic acid. which are the medullary rays. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. abietic acid. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. The stamens and styles are long. and abruptly narrowed into a long. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. swellings. pinnicorretin. in fields. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. numerous. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc.

tannins. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). essential oils. oleic. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. aucubin. polysaccharides. they both have the same virtues. Constituents Mucilage. and palmitic acids). apparently. catapol. asperuloside. fixed oil (linoleic. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. sterols. and for cell proliferation. allantoin. balcalin. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. apigenin. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. for healing.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. and phenolic acids.

. 4. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. 1. ArnzneimittleForschung. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. wax. balsam. pollen. galagin. et al. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester. pinocembrin.. 2.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. 1847. 1987. 32(1). In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. Stickley Co. Nihon Univ. V. 30(1). fungicidal. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. G.E. 1980. Hiadon B. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..F. and caffeic acid. Magro Filboo. Sch. Philadelphia. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system.. galangin. 1990. de Carvalho Ac. The New Honest Herbal. 3. J.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. Tyler. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. antiviral. Dent.. and pinobanksin. and pinobanksin).3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. and anti-inflammatory. essential oils.2 Constituents Resin.

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with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. taste very acrid and unpleasant. coarsely fibrous. these species appear to resemble that of Q. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. Description In flat pieces of variable size. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Peru. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. longitudinally striate. and occasional circular depressions. Historically. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. odor slight sternutatory. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. Smegmandermos deC. fracture uneven. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. Upon microscopic examination. channels. finely wrinkled. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. * Formerly CTFA. outer surface nearly white.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. conical projections or transverse. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. inner surface yellowish-brown. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . Bolivia. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat.

Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. Remineralizing protein. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . quinidine. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. gypsogenin. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. free acids (quinic acid). Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. and volatile oils. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. which is nearly always chip-like. are used. or compound quilled. calcium oxalate sugars. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. Ecuador. overlapping quilled. cinchonine. Internally. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). shallowly fissured transversely. quinamine). and to 6 mm in diameter. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America.8 dm in length. a neutral saponin. The fracture is tough and uneven. The root. The bark is flat or chip-like. partially quilled. uronic acids. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. its important alkaloids. quilled. quinine and quinidine. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. The odor is not distinct. cinchonidine. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. to 7 cm in width. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). tannins. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick.

It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. triangularly compressed. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. present in the epidermis of the testa.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. ovoid or oblong. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. It is also used as a suspending agent. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . being coated with mucilage. with water.

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Constituents Flavonoids. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. biochanin A. starch. sitosterol. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. and furfural. benzyl alcohol. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. style slender. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. and esters. fatty acids. including methyl salicylate. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. taste sweetish. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. * Formerly CTFA. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. phenolic acids. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. genistein. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. volatile oil. volatile oil. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. calyx teeth subulate. shriveled. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. eugenol. tapering. purplish and more or less brown from drying. daidzein. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). then slightly bitter. contains over 40 compounds. phenolic acids. Properties Historically. Medicinally. Mildly anti-spasmodic. petals united into a tube below.

an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. and are then employed in the fresh state. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . double-serrate. etc. they are smooth and shining above. with a short. and Minnesota. inflorescence short-racemose. leaving a space about 0. mainly rhoeadine. erect. Rhode Island. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. Quinoline alkaloids. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). armed with bristles or weak prickles. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. such as hand creams.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. emollient. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings.15 to 0. ovate. when fresh. rounded or cordate at the base. dark violet claw. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. Maine. light-colored. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. hair rinse. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. with an entire margin. doubtfully indigenous to England. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. fruit red. Properties Soothing. Description Stem biennial. By drying. thimble-shaped. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. lotions. shortacuminate. They have. The numerous veins run from the base toward. somewhat smaller. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. finely tomentose when young. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. terminal leaflet broadly ovate.

protein. China. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. gallic acid. Constituents Polysaccharides. succinic acid.). insomnia. lactic acid. Happy Herb. riboflavin. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. minerals. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. and inflammations. thiamine. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. and North American coastal rainforests. B. hepatitis. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. A series of tritepenoids. Dried and whole. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. ellagic acid. mouth ulcers. consult a qualified physician before using. it comes in various sizes and shapes. Miraculous chi. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . nervousness. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. and C. and antibacterial properties. Ling-Zhi (Chin. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. Ergosterol derivatives. malic acid. fragarine. Note: However. Constituents Ascorbic acid. have been isolated. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. Japan. and chest and heart diseases. Auspicious Herb. granoderan A. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. and beta-carotene. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. antioxidant. Internally.

of the wood. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. The color is dull reddish-brown. The odor is not characteristic.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. rough and scaly. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. and it tapers into the main root. fibrous. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. of the larger roots. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. The texture of the cortex is granular. very tough and hackly. and P. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. which has numerous branches. The taste is astringent.5 cm in diameter at the crown. of the larger roots. dark reddish-brown. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . that of the wood.

The smoothed. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. If the trimming has been very severe. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. officinale. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. barrel-shaped or conical. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. and N-methyltyrosine. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. showing that they are leaf traces. to give a good appearance.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. about 5 mm wide. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. in the form of a fine yellow powder. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate.5 mm long.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. In the periphery of the pith. Dark areas may still be found here and there. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. after-shave lotions. immediately within the secondary xylem. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. the cortex has been removed. etc. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. parenchymatous matrix. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. II. After removing the powder. tannins (proanthocyanidines). On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. Constituents Gum. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. Within the cambium is a ring. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. which when carefully shaved off. III. mouth wash. face creams. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. ratanine). The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb.

a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. aloeemodin. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. when chewed. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. and physcion. the fractured surface. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mainly of glycosides based on five 1. also (+)-catechin 5. and (+)-gallocatechin. A very complex mixture is present. rhein. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. In most cases. of which many aglycones have been identified. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. it is often rhein. due to the bitter taste. The predominant aglycone varies. (+)-afzelechin. Flavonoids. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). Barbados. astringent taste. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. and compact. In small amounts. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter.5% calculated as rhein). chrysophanol. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. It is then rinsed out. it is very gritty between the teeth. the mechanism is described under Aloes.and 7-0-glucosides. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. heavy. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. it is used as a stomachic. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. but in one investigation. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. With its high tannin content.Eur. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). 2. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). This is applied to the hair and left to dry. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. min. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant.

it can be prepared by using rose oil. approx. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. and traces of carvone. free and in combined forms with glucose. glycerol. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. pink. gallic acid. phenylethyl alcohol. taste sweetish. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. catechins. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. and procyanidins. L. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose.0. l-linalool. One example would be rose water. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. Minor constituents are citral. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. Tannins. odor fragrant and rose-like.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. however. slightly bitter. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. 5 to 10%. French Rose. filter. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. and astringent. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil.

rubidium. tannins.5 to 3. Wild Brier. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. epicatechin.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L.5 cm in length and up to 2. it will add highlights to light hair. sessile. Constituents Ascorbic acid. and slightly diuretic. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. they are refrigerant. evergreen. isoquercitrin. Description A bushy. The achenes themselves are hairy. sucrose. and zeaxanthin. protein. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. coriaceous. vanillin. Description The fruit of R. leucoanthocyanins. alpha-tocopherol. xanthophyll. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. When combined with various other hair preparations. magnesium. rubixanthin. opposite. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. malic acid. catechin-tannins. essential oil. succinic acid. citric acid. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. mildly astringent. pectin. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gallocatechin. lycopene. linoleic acid. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. invert sugars. capric acid. kaempferol-3-glucoside. boron. linolenic acid. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. low. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. much branched. flavonoids.2 cm wide.

and showing a prominent midrib. Topically. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. protein. creams. lotions. borneol. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. rosmarinic acid. The oil is used in fragrances. odor aromatic. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. Properties Tonic. diosmin. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. camphoraceous. characteristic. stimulant. tannin. camphor. it is used to increase circulation. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. lower surface wooly. margin revolute. phenolic acids. The extract can be used in shampoos. taste pungently aromatic.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. boron. etc. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. and bitter. glandular-punctate. Constituents Essential oil. and triterpenic acids. diaphoretic. astringent. hair conditioners.

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it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). pinene. Properties Cosmetically. densely pubescent. long petiolate. lamina elliptical. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. venation pinnate-reticulate. phenolic acids. protein.6 cm in breadth. and tannins. and disinfectant (against inflammations). can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. Leaves opposite. the reticulations being very small. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. pubescent stem with branches opposite. 2 to 10 cm in length. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. borneol. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. uneven or lobed. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. estrogenic compounds. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. fungistatic. carminative. thujone. flavonoids. salvin. margin crenulate. caryophyllene. Constituents Volatile oil. ursolic acid. texture velvet-like. apex acute or obtuse. cineole. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. to 1 ft high. petiole up to 4. antiseptic. taste aromatic and bitter. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. camphors. carnosolic acid. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. 1 to 2. astringent. saponins. there arises a grayish. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions.5 cm in length. It is said that if massaged into the scalp.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. midrib and veins prominent. beta-sitosterol. base rounded or subcordate. In early summer. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stimulating. From an underground fibrous root system. the upper branches bear blue. It is antibacterial. Sage Garden Sage. much branched. linalool. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green.

pectoral. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. the vessels are mostly solitary. Asia Minor. astringent. C15H24O (probably a mixture of .r. o. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. depurative. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. and similar articles. hard. and inflammed skin.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. heavy. Black Snakeroot. but easily split. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. 0. It is also used in perfumery. or as a perfume. and lotions. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. wounds. alterative. L. the odor strong and fragrant.and -santalols). hemostatic. In Yellow Sandal Wood.973 to 0. –13° to –21°). *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. hemorrhoids. and for the manufacture of boxes. The taste is slightly bitter. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. of which it contains over 90%. and a stomachic. White Sandal Wood. palmately lobed leaves. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. gr. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. vulnerary. North and South America. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. carvings. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. and dense. and erect. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. burns.985. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%.

saponin. and a bitter principle.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. resin. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mucilage. essential oil.

5 cm in diameter.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. Dark Palmetto. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto. occasionally compressed. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . smooth and somewhat oily. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. from 1.

and slightly acrid. such as anorexia nervosa. reddish-brown seed. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids. a native of the southern United States.... which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. Constituents Anthranilic acid. They are said to be very nutritious.. inner layer of endocarp smooth. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. 1983. SEAWEED. arabinose. aromatic. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity....P.. Ann.. lipase.. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh.. Ulmus rubra Muhl.7 dm in width.. it is coarsely striated longitudinally. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown.. aromatic. to 17 cm in width. Odor pronounced.. enclosing a hard. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity. taste sweetish... *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota. when cork patches are present. Franc. which measure up to 3 dm in length. J.. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... ferulic acid. apex marked by the scar of the style. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. myristic acid. The odor is distinct. mannitol.. palmitic acid. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. or as cut and sawed pieces.. and incomplete. and stearic acid.. and to 3 mm in thickness. lauric acid. Properties Sabal berries. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases.. Tarayre. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. 41. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled.. oleic acid.. capric acid.1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions. 559. sito sterols.. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich. caproic acid. beta-sitosterol. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside.6 dm in thickness. to 1.. and lotions... south to Florida and Texas. The fracture is very strong. tough. et al. were eaten by the Indians. skin creams.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar.. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. Pharm... somewhat flattened.. and to 1. ellipsoidal or ovoid. 1..

Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. boils. native from Europe. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. L-rhamnose. etc. and Saskatchewan. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). 5 to 8 cm long. North Carolina. tannin (minute). pentosans. 1 to 5. Massachusetts. calyx tubular. and tannins. and beta-carotene. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. and other beverages. starch. minerals. d-galacturonic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places.2 cm long. New Mexico. polysaccharides. blades obcordate. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. leaves oval or ovate. hexosan. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. Can be used in creams. Description Glabrous perennial. healing. Nova Scotia. New Brunswick. and wounds. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. starch. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. Florida.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. lotions. stem 3 to 6 dm high. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. capsule oblong. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. 3 to 5 ribbed. chemicals that foam when added to water. Colorado. soothing. protein. It can be used to emulsify oil. and tannin. Colorado. Soap Wort produces a gentle. hair conditioners. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. ulcers. petals pink or white.

about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. chlorogenic acid. 10 to 12 mm long. and anthelmintic. 1 to 3 cm long. native to Europe. etc. petals obovate. 4 to 6 cm long. emmenagogue. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. bracts canescent. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. glandular-punctate.5 cm broad. leaves linear to oblong. with revolute margins. bruises. frostbite. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. astringent. acute or acuminate. and scopolin. leaves. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. heads numerous. Used in aromatic baths. tonics. John’s Wort ing. having antibacterial properties. rutin. corolla 2 to 2. the outer linear-lanceolate. slightly tomentose beneath. quebrachitol. uric acid. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. Manitoba. disinfectant. disk-florets 15 to 20. Medically. caffeic acid. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. capsule ovoid. uterine tonic. Virginia. umbelliferone. obtuse. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. St. Constituents Essential oil. tannin. lower leaves petioled. and for skin conditions. British Columbia. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. California. and superficial burns. antiseptic. isofraxidin. 5 to 10 dm high. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. poultices. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. and anodyne. choline. conditioners. guanine. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. ST. Colorado. the rest broadly oval. flowers cymose. Nova Scotia. scarious.ST. 2 to 10 mm wide. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. ray florets about 10. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stimulant. toothed above the middle on one side. scopoletin. Properties Used as a nervine. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn.

protein. flavonoids. Manitoba. phenolic acids. New Mexico. hypericin-like substances. hyperoside. mannitol. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. John’s Wort St. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. hypericin. Newfoundland.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannins. and Virginia. saponin. resin sitosterol.

seldom over 1. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. very rarely leafy-bracteate.5 cm long.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. seldom much exceeding the leaves. ellagitannins. very soon glabrate on both sides. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. condensed tannins). fruit elongate-ovoid. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. mostly acute. very thin. fatty acids.5 dm high. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . quercetin). rhombic-obovate. and phenolic acids. 5 to 7. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. scape slender. sharply and deeply serrate.

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fern-like leaves and yellow. tannin. carminative. * Formerly CTFA. Ginger plant. phenolic acid. flat-topped. sesquiterpenes. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. tanacetin. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. button-like flowers. anthelminitic. resin. Scented Fern. and branching near the top. It has a stout. erect stem. are collected at the time of flowering. and spasmolytic. somewhat reddish. Also said to be an insect repellant. The roundish. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. Parsley Fern. The leaves and flowering tops. The entire leaf is about 6 in. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. 1 to 3 ft high. Bitter buttons. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. usually smooth. button-like. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. English Cost. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and quercetin.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. has been used as a wash to treat scabies.

Bark. terpinene. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. fruit. sore throat. constantly renewable tree. burns. conical. while cineole is low (about 2.0 ml high. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. stings. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. spongy. New South Wales. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. ringworm. erect.5 to 2. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. scabies. boils.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . athlete’s foot. cuts. and the like. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. either singly or with other ingredients. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. sparingly branched biennial. and vaginal infections. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. streamsides. including treatments for sunburn. abrasions. oral infections. capsule. insect bites. and dense. and Australia. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. pimples. Over-wintering leaves. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. with a broad range of health claims. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. Description A stiff. upcurved. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. It is found in numerous product forms. lice. thickets. lanceolate. cymene).5%). 0. abrasions. in a flattened rosette. bronchial congestion. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers.

flavonoids (keampferol. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. TX. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. S. Foster. yellow spines. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins.. 1. and magnesium. dark green. 1955. Taste and odor. Also used in homeopathy. quercetin. St. fatty acids. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. entire or toothed. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. rare in Britain. both orally and also by intravenous injection. The root and root stock are short and erect. Mary Thistle.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. It is said to contain saponins. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. Ed. The injection gives better results. Blessed Milk Thistle. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. glucosides. and tannins.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. Austin. taxifolin).1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. Flowerheads rayless. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. Description Leaves spiny. American Botanical Councin. purple. stems.

and sore throats. and reddish within. ascorbic acid. ellipsoid. Description Viscid-pubescent. and from 0.5 to 8 cm long. 10 to 15 mm broad. flavonoids. minerals. corolla yellow. It can be employed in creams. 0. etc. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. glutamic acid. sensitive skin. Texas. brown or blackish externally. It can be incorporated into shampoos. that can be used for hemorrhoids. or pear-shaped. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. -hydroxy acids. sore gums. to add sheen. facial muds. antihemorrhagic. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. Colorado. glycine. aspartic acid. fruit through cultivation very variable. acne. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions. menstrual disorder.5 to 10%. lobed. abscisic acid.5 cm thick. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. rinses. stem 3 to 10 dm high. lycopene. cyclohexanol. and phytosterols. and dentate.5 to 1. branching and more or less curved. much branched. red or yellow. styptic. and California. New York. subglobose. gargles. mouth rinse. glucose. leaves two-pinnatifid. vitamins. from 2. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. conditioners.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. cystine. somewhat fusiform. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. diarrhea. Properties Fruit: astringent. Florida. Constituents Proteins. hair tonics.

*INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. China. Java. they bear short knob-like branches. tormentillin. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. They are hard and heavy. Curcuma. Indian Saffron. internally. longitudinally wrinkled. quinovic. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. and break with a short fracture. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off.. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. bluntly tapering at each end. caffeic. Occasionally.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). and other tropical countries. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. a red pigment.

. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. monodesmethoxycurcumin. hypotensive. anti-arthritic. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). antibacterial. zingiberene.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. when chewed. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. guaiane. ukonan A. etc. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. It is also choleretic. comprising mainly bisabolane. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. is also present. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. and antimutagenic. it colors the saliva yellow. ar-turmerone. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. curlone. but the coloring matter. 2-7% essential oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and anti-edemic. antifungal.

Wood is small. and spasmolytic. and to 3 mm in diameter. fatty acids. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. Belgium and England. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. pungent. and valepotriates (valtrate. * Formerly CTFA. The rhizome is vertical. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. Cortex is thick. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. relaxant. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. Constituents Essential oil. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. and disagreeable.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. actinidine). and baldrinal. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. Pith is white or grayish-white. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. acevaltrate. and to 2 cm in diameter. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. The taste is sweet. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. alkaloids (valerianine. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. isovaltrate. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is sedative. However. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. phenolic acids. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. central and cylindrical. Roots are branched or simple. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. valerosidatum). Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. simple or branched. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. cultivated in Germany.

206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

verbenalin. contraceptive. long. Constituents Iridoids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ursolic acid. verbenelol. diuretic. and Arizona. aucubin. Nebraska. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). tannin. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. Simpler’s Joy. finely haired herb has an erect. in addition to verbenin. 4 to 7 feet high. anorexic (appetite suppressant). caffeic acid.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. four-sided stem. volatile oil. Description This rather rough. gout remedy. Verbena officinalis L. and superficial and limited burns. and against sunburns. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. meadows. straight. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. Wild Hyssop. artemitin. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. hastatoside. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. False Verbain.

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The wood is light brown.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. scrofula. Juglans nigra L. The bark varies from nearly smooth. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. scabbing pruritus. round-topped. west to Minnesota and Kansas. soft and coarse grained. imparipinnate. styes. Properties Tonic restorative. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. eczema. * Formerly CTFA. vermifuge. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. glandular disturbances. *INCI Name . The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. astringent. The kernel is sweet. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. open crown. depurative. oily. rheumatism. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. deep. and varicose ulcers. The leaves are alternate. disinfectant. blisters. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . irritation of the eyelid. Used for skin complaints. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. ophthalmia. and edible. gout.

hyperin. threonine. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. 3 mm thick. Virginia. histidine. British Columbia. destroying most of its active principles. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. about 4 mm long.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). caffeic acid. leaves pinnate. arginine. spatulate. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. leucine. about 2 mm long. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. Mexico. it looks rather yellowish. protein. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. lymphatic or edematous swellings.. tannin. biotin. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. beak about 1 mm long. many trace minerals. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. and kaempferol. 5. tryptophan. sepals oblong. and Europe. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. and diastase. thiamine. its action being both detergent and healing. phenylalanine. cystine. California. methionine. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. proline. glutamic acid. gluconasturtiin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Clark. it will strengthen and thicken hair. alanine. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). and its glycoside -hydrojuglone.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). Externally. amino acids. fruiting pedicels divaricate. A Cure For All Cancers. ellagic acid. aspartic acid. tyrosine. 1. 4. -carotene. ascorbic acid. folacin. Rheumatism and nervousness. lysine.g. Description Aquatic perennial. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. South America. petals white.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. West Indies. high in protein. valine. glycine. somewhat curved. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). tumors. Rubbing on scalp.

taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. Quitch Grass.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. Couch Grass. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. sprouts. Fin’s Grass. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. Creeping Wheatgrass. Dutch Grass. of young grass. Twitch Grass. Durfee Grass. Durfa Grass. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. Scutch Grass. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. Quake Grass. Devil’s Grass. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Its smooth hollow stems.. scattered. Odorless. externally pale brown... lotions.See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES. taste starchy. fatty acids. eczema.. often compressed.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cut into small pieces about in.. bearing scattered nodular projections. creeping root stock. Colic Root. and dermatitis.. 1 to 3 ft high... The root stocks. and stem scars on the upper surface. and phenolic acids. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States.. and hair conditioners. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root. fracture short but tough... and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. are carefully cleaned. thickets. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.. more or less detached. -carotene. and dried. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout. Constituents Vitamins. flavonoids. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos... Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer. with numerous small. insipid. yellowish wood bundles.212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. bent and branched... creams... elongated. collected in the spring. which are thickened at the joints.. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached.... amino acids. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes.... China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist. WHITE NETTLES. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous.... slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. thin outer layer.See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L. Over 240 compounds have been identified. are produced from a long. long.. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish.. The flowering heads are produced from July to September.. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled.. Description Knotted and woody. afterwards acrid. 6 to 20 mm thick.. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma.

European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. irregularly wrinkled. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. greenish-brown. cortex composed of thin-walled. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. antirheumatic. as it contains salicin. it should be standardized for its salicin content. outer surface in young bark smooth. as this could vary among different manufacturers. inner surface. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. dioscorin. However. diosgenin. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. yellowish-brown to dark brown. taste astringent and slightly bitter. in older bark dull. longitudinally striated. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. It can be used in hair conditioners. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. fracture short fibrous. fragilin. and trace minerals. triandrin.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. flavonoids. anti-inflammatory. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. minerals. dioscin. rinses. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. vimalin). antiseptic. salicortin. populin. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. etc. naturalized sparsely in North America. slightly lignified parenchyma. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. shampoos. Constituents Steroidal saponins. endodermis distinct. White Willow. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. odor slightly aromatic. analgesic. Contains steroid-like substances. and antipyretic. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. ascorbic acid.

Spotted Witch Alder. when it bursts open. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. tannin. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. It has a crooked stem and long. Striped Alder. long. and leaves Bark. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. saponins. Winterbloom. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. flavonoids. and alcohols. Wych-hazel. eastern Canada. scattering the shining black. bark. yellow flowers. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. esters. and borne on short stalks. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. leaves. forking branches with smooth. Constituents Essential oil. brown bark. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. eastern United States. thick.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. Description Witch Hazel. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. due to its high tannin content. and polyphenols.

gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. and bell-shaped. Wolf Foot. which appear from about July to September. slender. rather narrow. mint-like odor. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. Therefore. Water Bugle. The leaves are about 2 in. Description This herb has long. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. Green Archangel. Constituents Alkaloids. including betonicine. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Carpenter’s Herb. Purple Archangel. The plant has a rather pleasant. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. They are followed by four nutlets. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. bitter. erect stem from 6 in. American Water Hoarhound. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. in length. pointed. smooth. and Nebraska. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. Gypsy Herb. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. to 2 ft in height. shady places from Canada to Florida. Missouri. Sweet Bugleweed. Externally.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. and stachyerine. but a disagreeable bitter taste. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. Gypsywort. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. are small. tublar. Paul’s Betony. Gypsyweed. The whitish flowers.

It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. antiseptic. forwardpointing bristles. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. quadrangular. tannin. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. bitters. white. of new-mown hay. citric acid. Odor. coumarin. antineuralgic. when dry. monotropein.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. Description A short perennial. anti-inflammatory. astringent. calming. pointed leaves edged with tiny. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. anti-arthritic. unbranched. Flowers small. in loose clusters. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. soothing to the nerves. vermouths. etc. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . wines. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. with four petal lobes. with slender. Used in aromatherapy. and the iridoids asperuloside.

and antipyretic. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. p-coumaric acid. Flower heads greenish-yellow. and anthelmintic. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. 2 to 3 mm long. the lower lobe is petiolate. taste bitter. aromatic. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. Madderwort. yellow heads. chamazulene. thujone. -carotene. the florets tubular. used as an external antiseptic. anthelmintic. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. Odor aromatic. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. insignificant. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. thujyl alcohol.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. drooping. protein. the inner linear with membranous margins. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. isovaleric acid. Old Woman. camphene. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. Mingwort. rutin. consist of numerous small. Constituents Essential oil. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. absinthin. are divided into small leaflets. Description This shrubby. It is cultivated in some localities. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. Absinth. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Also used to clean atonic wounds. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. long. approximately 100 identified constituents. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. Bitter stomachic. choleretic. artabsin. tannins. and the grayish-green leaves. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . two to three pinnately divided. especially in Michigan and Indiana. which are from 2 to 5 in.

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.. Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L. white flower heads. hypotensive. It has a strong odor.... Carpenter Grass.... Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic... Yarrow Milfoil.. antipyretic.. Closely related forms occur in the western states... Gordoloba. high and has many finely divided..... feathery. Green Arrow.. Thousand-Leaf Clover. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small. dark green leaves.. Soldiers’ Woundwort.....Y YAM.. and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada. It * Formerly CTFA.... From June to September. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields.. and is urinary antiseptic.. Bloodwort. Nosebleed... Thousand-leaf..... diuretic.. Sanguinary. Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in.. Dog Daisy. *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium. Cammock... 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ...... Old-Man’sPepper. pastures. astringent.

it is also used in hair care preparations. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. and furrowed stem. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it is stomachic. flavonoids. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. camphor. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. long. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. spasmolytic. Curled Dock Root. alkaloids (achilleine). Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. among rubbish heaps. Internally. Broad-leaved Rumex. achillin). attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. blue colored chamazulene).220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. bearing numerous. and along roadsides. angular. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. and tannin. and varicose ulcers. and cholagogue. Broad-leaved Dock Root. carminative. phenolic acids. It has been used for cuts. injuries. in cultivated as well as in waste ground.

with long stalks. They are washed. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. chrysophanic acid. yellowish cortex. and pale radially split wood. Bear’s Weed. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. and tannin. and carefully dried. usually from 8 to 12 in. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. while the upper leaves are narrower. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. Consumptive’s Weed. in length. psoriasis. short stemmed or stemless.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. The root is large and fleshy. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. et Tor. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. lapathinic acid. nepodin. These are followed by the fruits. from 6 to 8 in. emodin. protein. sores. with few or no rootlets. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon.The root. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. they become rusty brown. As the clusters ripen. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. and eruptive diseases. in length. swellings. only 3 to 6 in. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. Gum Plant. tapering or spindle shaped. long. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters.

The rather showy. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. Schum. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. acetic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . eriodictyonic acid. Gabon. tannin. The narrow. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. Constituents Resin. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. and eriodyctyonine. butyric acid.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. eriodictyol. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. and the Congo. chrysoeriodictyl. dark green. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. cerotic acid.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. essential oil. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K.

and Nevada. coarsely filiferous. Texas. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. at low doses. allo-. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. and protein. Properties Yucca contains saponins. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. Soap Yucca Root. Colorado. Torr Yucca brevifolia. and epiallo-yohimbine. sepals and petals lanceolate.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. hence its aphrodisiac effect. R. elongate. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. It is also being used for arthritis internally. YUCCA Yucca baccata. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. Roezl. minerals. fruit large. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. concave. Constituents Sarsapogenin. pseudo-. pendent. samogenin.1 Yohimbine. fleshy. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. sometimes 2 dm long. the most important of which is yohimbine. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. Kansas. L. It also contains corynanthine. Description Low. 1998. Kronenthal. shagreen roughened. about 7. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. spreading. Soap Weed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Arizona. tannin. Personal communication. smilagenin. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex.5 cm long. style slender. oblong or conical-ovoid. leaves rigid. tigogenin. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. with narrow brown margins. saponin.. the major alkaloid. is sympatholytic. 1. however.

224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. Hops See “Folklore” section. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . See “Folklore” section. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. makes an excellent hair rinse. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. Hemp. Lavender See “Folklore” section. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. Dark brown contains juglone. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. Oak. The botanical extract. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. Henna Used to dye hair red. It also makes a valuable hair dressing.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. However. The leaves contain buxine. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. not essential oil. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. Galls Used to dye the hair black. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it.

See Lichwort. and some protein. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. it will darken the hair. Lemony fragrance. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. The essential oil is used to add sheen. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. It also helps to remineralize. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. Can be used in deodorants. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. A source of potassium and iodine. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. See Stinging Nettle. and help keep it free of dandruff. leaving it silky and glossy. Combined with rosemary. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. make it soft and shiny. and linalol. and mouthwashes. The extract contains thymol. borneol. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. The tincture is used as a hair restorer.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. It is antiseptic. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. Vitamins A and D. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Contains a yellow dye. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair.

Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is said that when blended with rosemary.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye.

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propylene glycol. Birch. Proanthocyanidins. Althea. 1. Garlic. Myrrh. Rosemary. Rosemary. Oak Bark. Tilia. Yarrow. Rosemary. White Willow. Southernwood. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Comfrey. Vinca Minor. Lemon. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Lady’s Mantle. Lemon Grass.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Witch Hazel. Bayberry. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. in various vehicles as water. Chamomile. powders or extracts. etc. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Fenugreek. Pansy. either when applied topically or taken internally. Papaya. Nasturtium. Rhatany. White Lily. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Orange Peel. Birch. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Tumeric. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Lavender. Oats. that is. Golden Seal. Parsley Broom Flowers. Inc. Cucumber. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Rosemary. Thyme. Tormentil. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. Calendula. Calendula. Peppermint. Echinacea. Thyme. Sage. Bay Laurel. Benzoin. Myrrh. Rosemary. Bistort. Orris. oil. Burdock. Sandal Wood. Uva Ursi Quassia. Horsechestnut. Hawthorn Angelica. Hops. Lemon. Bayberry. Sage. Calendula. Slippery Elm. Witch Hazel. Artichoke. Anise. Balsam Peru. Bilberry. Lavender. Lemon. Yarrow. Rose. glycerin. Juniper Berries. Comfrey. Nettles. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Myrtle. refer to the index). This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Cinnamon Agrimony. Wild Alum. Plantain. Ginkgo. Bladderwrack. Arnica. Sandalwood. Onion. Myrrh. Violet. Raspberry. Chamomile. Wild Indigo.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Lavender. Hops. Soap Root. Eucalyptus. Grapefruit. Chamomile. Chaparral. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Thyme. ethanol. Quassia.3-butylene glycol. Arnica Lemon. Black Walnut. Burdock. Lemon. Cardamom Seed. Pineapple. Asparagus. Horsechestnut Papaya. Corn Flower. Tomato. Artichoke. Soap Bark. Milk Thistle. Nettles. White Willow.

Sarsaparilla. Rhatany. Thyme. Quince Seed. Thyme. White Willow Bark. Lavender. Golden Seal. Elder. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Oak Bark. Cleavers. Sage. Southernwood. Dandelion. Pansy. Nettles. Orange Peel. Rosemary. White Willow Balm of Gilead. White Willow Aloe Vera. Corn Flower Water. Horsetail Grass. Oats. Quinine. Chamomile. Eyebright. Pilewort. Cucumber. Orris Root. Yellow Dock. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Cowslip. Sage Jaborandi. Red Henna. Southernwood. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Southernwood. conditioners. Mullein Flowers. Witch Hazel. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Capsicum. to add highlights Hibiscus. Horsechesnut. Plantain. Coriander. Arnica. Chamomile. Fenugreek. Witch Hazel Bark. Sage. dark Hair. Lavender. to add highlights Marigold. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Echinacea. Chamomile. Chaparral. Comfrey. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Wormwood Chamomile. Cucumber Chamomile. Red Clover. Jaborandi. Feverfew. Parsley. Sage. etc. Nettles. Horsetail Grass. Pansy. Comfrey. Basil. Melilote. Broom. Lemon Peel. Myrrh. Calendula. Cantharides. Comfrey. Raspberry. Pine Tar. Flax Horsetail Grass. Cucumber. to add highlights Black Walnut. Burdock. Chamomile. Golden Seal. Citrus Bioflavonoid. Figwort. Chamomile. Comfrey. Cedar. Grapefruit.* Centella. Garlic. various seaweeds. Quince. Eucalyptus. Oregon Grape. Althea. Fennel. Rosemary. rinses. dry Hair. Cade. Lemon Peel. Basil. Cardamon. Peppermint Aloe. Orange Flowers. Bayberry Bark. Witch Hazel. Slippery Elm. Rosemary. Red Clover. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Malva Flowers. Orange Flowers. Nettles.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Hops Chamomile. Birch. Comfrey. Anise Rosemary. Yarrow. Raspberry. Alfalfa. Phytoplenolin®. Citronella. Sage. Wild Alum. Comfrey. Primula Flowers. Peach Leaf. to add sheen Hair. Patchouli. Neem. Golden Seal. Thyme. Horseradish. Red Poppy. Pansy. Rose. Chickweed. Purple Loosestrife. Flax. Catnip Bayberry. Fenugreek. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Seaweed. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Elder. Calendula Oil. Capsicum. Rosemary. Brown Henna Rosemary. Quince Seed. Yarrow. Echinacea various oils. Tea. Raspberry. Quassia. Camphor. Comfrey Root. Roseberries. Centella. Marigold Golden Seal. Black or Neutral Henna. split ends Scalp. Jaborandi. Onion. Elder Flowers. to relieve Nails. Fenugreek. Capsicum Bistort. Capsicum. Southernwood. Tilia. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Olive. Capsicum. Rosemary. Rosemary. Echinacea.

Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Lemon. Capsicum. Plantain. Althea Root. Violets. Echinacea. St. Hawthorn. Sept. Wild Alum Althea. Chamomile. Colts Foot. Arnica. Licorice. Bayberry. Wormwood. Quince. Poke Root. Echinacea. Red Poppy. however. Comfrey.206 for Centipeda. Cucumber. Aloe Vera. Primula Flowers. Yarrow. Slippery Elm. Chamomile. Comfrey. John’s Wort. John’s Wort. Lemon. Parsley. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. White Pond Lily. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Aloe Vera. Ginseng Caraway. Red Clover. Uva ursi Wild Alum. Slippery Elm bark. St. Comfrey. Lavender. Meillot. Citrus bioflavonoids. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Horsechestnut. Apples. dry Botanical Cantharides. Bayberry. Orange Flowers. Lavender. Grapefruit. Cucumber. Arnica. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Cleavers. Jaborandi. Birch. Elecampane Skin. Centella. Lemon Grass. Tilia. Capsicum. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Tilia. Fennel. Plantain. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds.804. Calendula. Dulse. Horsetail grass. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Blue Flag. Witch Hazel. Lemons. Althea Root. Orange Peel. St. Fennel. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Peach. Apple. John’s Wort. Garlic. Corn Flower. Hawthorn Berries. Comfrey. Seaweed. Witch Hazel. Calendula. Elder Flowers. Oats. Seaweeds. Capsicum. Mullein. Valerian. Passion Flowers. Sage. Golden Seal. Yarrow flowers. Bistort. Dandelion. Witch Hazel. Croton. Calendula. Comfrey. John’s Wort. Nettles.Vinegar. Pine. St. Chamomile. Evening Primrose. Pansy. Dandelion. Licorice Cleavers.Yarrow. Thuja. Rose.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. 1998. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Chickweed. Capsicum. Oils. Slippery Elm. Cinchona.

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The female flowers are white and ligulate. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. 6 to 20 cm long and 2.5 to 5 cm wide. The seeds are also spherical. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. rough. and tonifies the heart. 1. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. yellowish brown. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. wedeloclactone. The nuts are spherical. yellowish-white. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. 8 stamens. Ginger. sores. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . nourishes the blood. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. nicotine. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. and fleshy. tannin. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. Constituents Saponin. elliptical shaped. and eyebrows. aril white. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. short stiff hairs. Internally. etc. The powder is used on abscess. it strengthens the spleen. Common botanicals such as Lotus. Licorice root. Vitamin A. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. It grows in fields and ditches.) STEUD.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. wounds.5 to 2 cm in diameter. internally used to blacken hair. elongated. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. can be found in the main section. which are coriaceous. etc. beard. The flowers are polygamous.

protein. yeast infections. antiparasitic. adenine.70. Vitamins A and B. fats. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. pruritus. choline. sucrose. ringworm. etc. vaginal itches. tartaric acid.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412.

hypertension. isopimpinellin. deficiency of energy. used as an aphrodisiac. Astragalin. moisturize. isoborneol). possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. dyspepsia. weak pulse. improves circulation in the skin. and has red. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. ginsenosides. It is an astringent. lack of appetite. folic acid. a glucoside C20 H20 011. When using Ginseng internally.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. B-sitosterol. asthma. etc. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. cnidiadin. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. amino acids. Betaine. heart palpitations. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. any citrus and turnips. amino acids. edultin. cnidiankin.) Bge. Constituents Saponins. alloimperatorin. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. diabetes. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. berry-like fruits. avoid black tea. ostol (C15H16O3). choline. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. columbianetin (C14H14O4). Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. palmate leaves. imperatorin. astragalin-glucose. bornyl isovalerate. dihydrooroseiol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. and arabinose. columbianadin (C19H20O5). It is also said to promote blood production. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. dilates the blood vessels. L-camphene. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. sugars. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. insomnia. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. it could nourish. xanthotoxol.

antibacterial. resin. sugar fatty oil.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. (C18H30O2). trichosanic acid. essential oil. saponins (ginsenosides). Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . trichokaurin. and antifungal properties. tricosanthin. The root has antipyretic. To list all would take several pages. protein. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. These are a few of the constituents. Constituents Triterpenes. SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim.

it has been used in coughing of blood. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. dissolves clots. blood in the stool. ginsenosides. Internally.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. helps to promote circulation. Rb2-Rb. It is said to heal without leaving scars. and Re. etc. both internally and externally. this herb can be used safely in large doses. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . nosebleeds. and is analgesic. traumatic injuries. reduces swelling. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. According to Chinese tradition. Constituents Saponins. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic.

and a slightly bitter taste. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). xylose. Vitamin A. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anti-inflammatory. U. Cones oblong. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. essential oil. L-typhasterol. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. It has almost no odor. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. glucose. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. tannin. glucose.V. fructose. and arabinose. II. long. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. stearic acid. ziyuglycoside I. rhamnose. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. 1/3 in. palmitic acid. sitosterol. Constituents Flavonoids. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L.

and is said to have antibacterial. L. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. astringent. Vitamin C. resin. and antiviral properties. and pinnatipartite. and antipyretic. anthelmintic. flavonoids. and hermaphroditic.-fenchone. pinene. which has hairs on both surfaces. the base tapers into a winged petiole. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5 to 8 cm wide. caryophyllene. having pale. shoddy bark and light.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. in height. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. It is a hemostatic. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. obovate-lanceolate shaped. becoming smaller on top. The flowers are tubular. Constituents Thujone. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. reddish-purple.5 to 1 m high. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. fenchone. The basal leaves are clustered. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. tannin. soft durable wood. 15 to 30 cm long.

and 2 to 6 cm wide. starch. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. essential oil. hemostatic. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan).240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. antibacterial. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. -amyrin. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .F. B-amyrin. 2 to 3 cm long. reduces swelling. stigmasterol. skin infections. 15 to 30 cm long. It is used in traumatic injuries. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. antifungal. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. The tuber is thick and fleshy. and in abscesses. Their base runs into a long sheath. The perianth is in 6 segments. and promotes the healing of the flesh. anti-inflammatory. Constituents Glucose. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. and antibacterial. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B.

B-caryophyllene. dark brown. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. oleic acid. cold sores. wax. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. Antibacterial. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. asiatic acid. stearic acid. etc. caryophyllene. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. with numerous ovules. caffeic acid. tannin. followed by a slight numbness. The dark green. dryobalanone. See “Botanical” section for further description. analgesic. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. antiparasitic. chlorogenic acid. montanic acid. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. arachidic acid. which alternate with the calyx teeth. acetyl eugenol). and somewhat 4-angled. One tree can yield as much as pound. essential oil. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. having antipyretic properties. stamens numerous. linoleic acid. odor strongly aromatic. glandular-punctate petals. and antiviral. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. style 1. esculetin. ipterocopal.5 mm in length. oval. and incurved. capillarisin. Constituents D-borneol. hydroxydammarone II. antibacterial. ovary 2-locular. sores. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. humulene. erythrodiol. fat. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. crowded. palmitic acid. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. Constituents Scoparone. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . conjunctivitis.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. It has been used in ringworm. taste pungent and aromatic. boils. and nasal mucositis. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic.

3 to 4 cm long. The pods are cylindrical. and 1 to 2 cm wide. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. yellowish-white. Excellent remedy for sores. The corolla is papilionaceous. constricted between the seeds. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. itchy skin. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. flavonoids. 10 to 20 cm long. The leaves are alternate. sores. and other skin ailments. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. Constituents Alkaloids. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pruritus. The stamens are 10 and free. imparipinnately divided. It is used for vaginal infections. which are globose and black. The stem is erect with many branches. and allergic reactions. The raceme is terminal.

coptisine. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). Antiinflammatory. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. It is applied externally to swollen. palmatine. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. and red eyes.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. obakulactone. fraxin. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. ferulic acid. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. jatrorrhizine. Constituents Berberine. Constituents Aesculin. columbamine. aching. and swollen eyes. red. obakunone. magnoflorine. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . used as an eye wash for sore. tannin. aesculetin. fraxetin.

congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. 1 to 3 cm long. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. their margins sparsely serrate. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. Its stem is erect. ovate shaped.5 to 1.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. The calyx is bilabiate. and 0. The leaves are opposite.5 cm wide.

There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. French. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. fleshy. abscesses. stomach. Constituents GLA.3 cm long. 1 to 1. betanidini. The flower has 2 sepals. 5 yellow petals. and English consume this plant in salads. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. gamma-linolenic acid. betanin. It is used to reduce swelling. It is also a good source for GLA. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. and often purplish in color. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. 1 to 3 cm long and 0.5 cm wide. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . snake bites. antiphlogistic. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. decumbent or slanting upward. Constituents Portulal. boils.5 to 1. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. gamma-linolenic acid. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. Italians.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. The Chinese. Its stem is cylindrical. and intestines. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous.. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA. 8 to 12 stamens. beta-cyanin.

246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

4.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6.248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8.

84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84082-80-4 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2.250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7.

84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1.

252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1. 84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.

hairy tip acute. and gray with thick testa. simple. covered with numerous black dots. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). Kal-karanj Nuts. shiny. hairs few. Fruit small subglobular. pitted black. Essential. Leaves petiolate. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. circular. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. ovate or oblong and inflated. globular. Several species grow in the United States. ellipticoblong. and Sri Lanka. Flowers yellow.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. campesterol group. chalcones. starch. etc. Flowers are dense. Burma. Description Main leaf axis has stout. sporalidin. firm. sharp recurved spines. perianth covered withspines. Seeds are hard. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. Constituents Furanocoumarins. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. oil. Leaflets about 10 pairs. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. alkaloids. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. glabrous slightly compressed. tannin. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. roots. and saponin in the seed coat. corylifolean. Description It is an erect herb. and flavones. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . isopsoralidin. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci.BENDUC NUT 253 6. and protein in kernel. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally.

A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. Constituents Oil. However. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. Leaves membranaceous. phytosterol. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. basal are large. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. upper leaves smaller. arginine. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. and citrulline. and skin diseases. Flowers about 2 cm long. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. starch. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Few layers of cork cells are present. Seeds also contain protein. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. aspartic acid. sterols. and for infectious diseases. with winged petiole. margin toothed. and sulfurcontaining peptides. oblong. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. sessile. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). borne on convex flower heads. flower head white. Leaves opposite. lanceolate. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. The endodermis is indistinct. arresting hemorrhage. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. reducing sugar. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. bluish-purple.

In old samples. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. entire. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. stipulate. apex subacute. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. The fruit is subglobular. arranged densely on the branchlets. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A medium tree. Leaves simple. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow.but white internally. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. slightly recurved. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. phyllanthe emblic. terpene alcohols. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. Flowers are small. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. linear oblong or elliptic. Feathery. unisexual. mucronate. greenish-yellow. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. slightly broader than long. The oil and root contains camphene.

it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. flowers. camphor. decyladehyde. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. such as antistress. pod woody. antihepatotoxic. bitter. testa light-red. cotyledons very oily. insecticidal. subcoriaceous. pubescent calyx. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. sacred basil Leaves. Flowers small. antiviral. antifungal. point decurved. Leaves are simple. odorant. apex thick and blunt. CNS-depressant. corolla 2-lipped. exserted. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. krishna tulsi. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. and carvarol. hairy along the veins. very short. Leaves pinnate. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. smooth and shining. antiulcer. in terminal raceme-like panicle. Sri Lanka. seeds.& Bpinene. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. antihistaminic. taste bitter.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. antispermatogenic. ovate compressed. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. and luteolin. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. antipyretic. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. antidiabetic. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. filament slender. elliptic-oblong. opposite. antibacterial. A. Each flower consists of. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. The leaves yield ursolic acid. tulsi. margin serrate. antispasmodic. apigenin. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. 2 to 4 inches long. style 2-lobed.

the skin is shriveled. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. firm and fleshy. The seed is black. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. herpes. the size of large a pea. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. The bark contains alkaloids. each berry is the size of a cherry. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. pengaglabrone. smooth. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. tough. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. the berries are the color of a raisin. with a peculiar pungency. Emarginatus. (S. The root bark is rustybrown externally. thick. pointing to lower and inner angle. sitosterol. glucose. and butyric acid. except at the scar. pongamol. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. and other cutaneous diseases. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. leaves. pongamin. then bitter. yellow within. S. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the outer very thick and hard. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. and translucent. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. When dry. spirally incurvate. The oil is used to treat scabies. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. cotyledons unequal. the inner membranaceous. Constituents Saponins. singly. where it is woody. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. .INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. and as an anthelmintic. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. kaemferol. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. Properties The seeds. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. rheumatism. Radicle at the base of the seed. pectin. the testa is double. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. the pulp translucent. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic.

Constituents Roots contain resins. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. and xanthine. gum. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. coloring matter. and tonic. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . deobstruent. garancin. leucoderma. Root consists of short stock. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. then acrid and bitter. flowers small yellow in color. It also has anodyne properties. and sugar. fruit long. The taste is sweetish at first. Properties The roots are astringent. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. alizarin. freckles. alterative. skin diseases such as ulcers. Description A climbing plant. Leaves heart shaped. inflammations. and discoloration of skin. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. round violet colored and seeds light black. scaly.

5% essential oil. Senna is also a safe purgative. and contain obvate. and bitter extractive matter. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). Roots contain valeranone. seeds. starch.000 to 15. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. nervous headache. nardostechone. is used to dye the hair black. oblong or ovate. Corolla 5-lobed. Epidermal hairs are few. n-hexaconsanol. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. and combined with Henna. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. and flatulence. nardol. Rhizomes long. Bhutan. valeranal. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . valves papery smooth. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. and Nepal. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. Pods broadly oblong. dark brown. Himalaya (11. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. which also contains sesquiterpenes. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. resin. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. B-sitosterol. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. It is a good substitute for valerian. calarenol. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. Description An herbaceous plant. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. Leaves usually in pairs sessile. sugar. Tracheids and few fibers. Flowers in racemes. slightly curved. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. mainly in palpitation of heart. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery.

260

KAVACH

Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume

Synonyms: Parts Used:

Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.

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NEEM

261

NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.

Neem (leaves)

Neem (whole plant)

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262

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.

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RED SANDAL

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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Southern India.

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264

SIKEKAI

Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed

Synonyms: Parts Used:

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WHITE LEADWORT

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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.

WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

as in enlarged glands. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. withanine. and droserone. and spermatorrhoea. The root is seldom branched. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. brain lag. It is in flower all year long. Constituents It contains alkaloids. brittle. grayish or hoary. somniferinine. smooth. loss of muscular energy.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. Somnifera. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. petiolate and alternate. branching perennial. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. Licorice powder. elliptinone. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. Leaves simple. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. globose. Isolation of nicotine. somniferine. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. Iso-zeylinone. and appetite stimulant. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. fracture short. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. greenish or yellow flowers. gastric stimulant. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. zeylinone. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. and starchy. tapering. For improving sight. senile debility. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. withananine. ovate hair-like branches. It is also cultivated. rheumatism. It bears small. plump. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. erect. a mixture of W. white internally.3-biplumbagin. smooth. loss of memory. 3. The dried root is of uniform appearance. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts.

the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In addition to alkaloids.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. choline. Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. and cuscohygrine. Roots also contain tropine. pseudotropine.

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6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6. These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938.

Black Ash. White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. U. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bitter Orange Peel.S. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash.270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum.

U. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba.S.

272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. pale Cinchona. pale Cinchona. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. black Cohosh. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . calisaya Cinchona. yellow Cinchona. blue Cohosh.

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion.S. American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara. U. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

U. S. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum. U.S.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula.

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. S. S. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. U. Canadian Hemp. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. American Hellebore. White Indian Hemp. Black Hellebore. Black Indian Hemp. U.

276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

S. U. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Green Osier.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier.

278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S. U.280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica.

Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber. S. U.S. U. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum.

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See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Ruscus aculeatus L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Betula alba L. Aloe vera L. Alnus glutinosa L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Optuntia. Fucus vesiculosus L. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Capsicum annum/frutescens L. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L.) Juglans nigra L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. Cynara scolymus L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L.F. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L.

See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Sambucus nigra L. Allium sativum L. See Coleus Galium aparine L. Symphytum officinale L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. Symphytum officinale L. Sanguisorba officinalis L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. & Aschers. Geranium maculatum L. purpurea. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Centaurea cyanus L. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Cucumis sativus L. Br. Inula helenium L. Scrophularia nodosa L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. Gentiana lutea L. spp. Larrea divaricata Cav. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Zea mays L. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L.

Althaea officinalis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Burman F. Schert Equisetum arvense L. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Hydrastis canadensis L. Calendula officinalis L. Centella asiatica L. Camellia sinensis L. Gaertn. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Citrus paradis. Hedera helix L. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Justicia Adhatoda. Limm Malva sylvestris L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Mac Fad. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Melissa officinalis L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Ocimum sanctum linn. Amoracia rusticana. Pongamia glabra P. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Solidago Virgaurea L. et.

Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Commiphora molmol.L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and B. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Vent. ssp. Trifolium pratense L. Allium cepa L. papyrifora.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. & P. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Regn. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. Olea europoea L. Nasturtium officinale R. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Rheum rhabarbarum L. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Carica papaya L. Tabl. Veget. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Pinus silvestris L. Papaver rhoeas L. Rubus idaeus L. Engler Myrtus communis L. Vinca minor L. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Mentha piperita L. Lythrum salicaria L.

Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. Artemisia abrotanum L.) Tanacetum vulgare L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. Juglans nigra L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L.) Acacia Concinna. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. Salix alba L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Betonica officinalis L. Salvia officinalis L. Juglans regia L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl.

Artemisia absinthium L. Torr. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Gentiana lutea L.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Yucca brevifolia.) Perre Yucca baccata. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L. Schum. Rumex crispus L.

and sterols. mineral. and red pigments. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. It is said that life started in the seas. Seawater. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. including: 1. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. body rubs. etc. Xanthophylls. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. sea grasses. 4. 2. and have even been used to put a head on beer. 9. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. high in carotenoids. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. 3. ice cream. However. 10. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. bath.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. cosmetics. They are also used as thickeners in jams. weeds. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. etc). A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sauces. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. 5. and sometimes in seawater. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. e 8. 6.7 Marine Natural Products 7. The sea holds an endless source of life. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. Cryptophyta — Contain green. Xanthophyta. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. and vitamin content. mud baths. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. phytoplanktons. as well as vitamins. 7. blue. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals.

the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. and other fruits. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. marshmallows. anticoagulants. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. growth substances. B12. it is resistant to microorganisms and. polyphenols. and herbicides. sulfur compounds. Therefore. and C. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. diterpenes. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. glycine. For example. For plating microorganisms. proline. and polysaccharides. and imparts slip. for example. prostaglandins. emulsion stabilizer. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. and cosmetic fields. steroids). Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. such as ursolic acid derivates. and ice cream as a thickening agent. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. fucose polymers. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. anthelmintics. pears. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. cranberry. mainly from some gelidium species. furanoterpenes. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. B2. prunes. emulsions. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. acetylenes.g. and vitamins.. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. pharmaceutical. and lycine). They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. carotenoids. second. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. Kelp is also the main source for algin. cardiac substances. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. lipids. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. proteins. First. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate.

and lauric acids). phosphorus. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. C. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). and mannitol. There are traces of chloride. potassium. mannitol. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. B3. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. in combination with Vitamin E. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. Fe. K. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. and glutamic acid. L. B6. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. magnesium. B 2. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bromide. myristic. minerals (Zn. B6. oleic. and carbohydrates. B. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. fat. B12. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. Cr. and ointments. broadspectrum. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. lotions. protein. B12. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. I. Ca). plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. salads. iodine. creams. and zinc. it has a high content of potassium. Na. B3. F. a synergestic effect was exhibited. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. Mg. shampoos. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. sodium. However. phosphorus. including iodine. iron. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. antioxidant. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. palmitic. Mn. both in vivo and in vitro. which is a polysaccharide. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. etc. Co. P. Laminaria longicruris (L. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. particularly fluoride. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. potassium. and iodide ions. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). galactose. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. A). It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. calcium. B. Algin. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. antimicrobial agent. Sargassum contains fructose. In addition. and antiglaucomic. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. It also has shown anticoagulant properties.

sterols as free fucosterol. Halidrys siliquosa L. polar lipids. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols. alginic acid.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. Echinus esculentus L.500 IU/100 g 180.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. containing all the essential amino acids. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus. fucans. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L.3. polysaccharides. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids.8 mg/100 g 1. sulfonate. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. and as a massage for cellulite. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. phlorotannins. which means it is a self-sufficient. It is a single-cell protein. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic. the Pacific. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O. a well-known anti-inflammatory. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world.1%). The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products.000). Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. Eisenia contains a complex polymer. and the Baltic Sea.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain).02 to 0. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). Lyngb. rheumatism. single-cell. F.6 Fucus contains trace minerals. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. sulfated. mainly iodine (0.

MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.500 IU/100g 180. pp. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation. The Emerald Food.70 w/w/% 2.8 mg 1.6 mcg 0.1% 0.26 w/w% 2. 14-15.9 mcg 15.8% 18.6% 60.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.20 w/w% 2.9 mcg 191.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0..80 w/w% 0. Dr.78 w/w% 6.3 mg 26.08 w/w% 0. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.40 w/w% 4.A. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron. called the Chlorella Growth Factor. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.0% 20.S.63 w/w% 5. Moreover. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder. Tests performed by the U..09 w/w% 3. In a controlled study.64 w/w/% 5.64 w/w% 1.29 w/w% 3. Chlorella.45 w/w% 2.06 w/w% 0.2% 55. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81. et al. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll. B. It is found in both brackish and fresh water.8 mg 1. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).08 mg Potter.7 mg 125. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.5 mg 4.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0.5% 11.29 w/w% 2.38 w/w% 3.93 w/w% 3.469 mg 613 mg 1.8 mg 1.46 w/w% 1. Spirulina Spirulina.2% 4.59 w/w% 3. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.

Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. vitamins. B6. Fe. Mg. at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. B2. Zn.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). G.40) B1. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). K. etc. Cr. B3. Ge. B12 Folacin.A.L. Spirulina. Na. carotenoids. P.. lipids (4 to 7%). and minerals (5 to 10%). minerals. as it is high in plant protein. Biotin. Mn.L. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. Cu. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca.A.

as a soothing demulcent. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas.12 5. bactericidal. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial.9 2. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. anticancer. are major organisms in the world’s oceans.8 The results obtained are quite promising. and imidazole disulfides. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. bacteristatic. anti-inflammatory. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. sponges. barbamide.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. or temperature. the following being some examples: 1. Significant compounds. the Bacteria. kalkitoxin. such as those of elevated salinity. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. plant. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea.13 6. having distinct anti-cancer properties. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. and ascidians. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. Thus. including phaeophyta. are common in marine environments. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. and marine organisms. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). melemeleones. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan.10 3. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. Related unicellular microorganisms. which although poorly known. microcolin C. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. and chlorophyta. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi.11 4. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. but no chemical study has been reported.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cyanophyta. the search is only beginning. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. antillatoxin. soft corals. Oahu. penazetidines. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. Unfortunately. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . such as the curacins. were isolated from marine organisms. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. 7. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. pressure.

a unique anti-viral protein. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. and cytotoxic activities. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. and the theonellapeptolides. and gorgonians.17 10.15 8. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. which produce anti-tumor compounds.16 9. Cyanovirin-N. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum. the eudistomins. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. the swinholides.. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. including corals and sponges. actinomycetes. A series of B-carboline derivatives. including potent antiviral. and true symbionts from sponges. antimicrobial.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which display a variety of pharmacological activities. tunicates.18 11. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria. fungi.19 12. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum.

Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp. Phorbas sp. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges).33 26. including makaluvamines A. B. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus. makaluvone. phorboxazole A and B.34 27. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. E. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.32 25. New antimycotics. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle.35 28.30 23. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. and F. and anti-tumor promoting properties. Okoadene and Mailidene.31 24. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity.29 22. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii.23 16. discorhabdin A. latrunculin B and swinholide A. Many novel. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum.26 19. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula .27 20. were isolated from the marine sponge. C. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins.36 29. Several new classes of compounds. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa.28 21.25 18. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. Isolation of Microcolin C. a novel. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines. Diamirone B. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Isolation and characterization of adociavirin.37 30.24 17. cytotoxic natural products. Cyclomarin A. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina.22 15. Isolation of Dysidiolide. immunopotentiating. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity.21 14.38 31. D. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic.39 32. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents.

Ogren. ibid P 9. Cardellina. Mendola. Mendola.A.. Gustafson.. P. Franklin..E. P. 64. Chikarmane..J. Gulakowski.Y.. Rodriguez.. B... 12. D. McKee..C. Perry. ibid O 25. J.. and Bauer. J. de Silva. Carte’.J. and Afzelius..C.. Fernandes. Nakao. J. Coleman. Allen. D.. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. and Kelly. Heath. M. ibid P 28. Searle. Acta Pharm.. T. 30. Gerwick. 7. Janda. D. J..A.-R. J.R.A. ibid O 36. K.... J.... 11. Bringano. J. 24.. Ph.. Andersen... Can.. L. R. Hamel. Bohlin.. H. J. 33. Gunasekera. Pharmaceut. UCSC. Sci. J... S 8.. and Crews. S.. and Ireland.... G.. P. and Munro. L.. L.. Dumdei. J. pp.. Sci.. 2.. Maranda. J.. B. K.G.. G. 1975.S. 31. Major. McInnes.. J. Screening of biological activity. B. C.. Gerard. E.M. Dunbar. J. ibid P 25.J. Javor. ibid P 154. 18.. ibid P 145. Lidgren. G. 38.. ibid O 11.. Abstr. ibid P 19.. Yoshida... O’Sullivan. 22. and Rodriguez. Hemling. Venables.A.P.A. M. El-Sayed.. 23. H. J. Gulakowski. C. B. 20(6). P.J. Crews. and Bair. Haygood.W. I....K. Plubrukarn. Meeting.. ibid O 10. S. and Hamann.J. Brzezinski.. Ragan. Natural Prod.F.. K. and Cardellina. P.. R. ibid P 151.-D. W. Dhyana.M. M. Westley. L.A. 10. ibid P 150. L. Kerr. and Walter. M. Duh. N. 25. P... L. 1996. H.. 32. and Munro... 6. A.P. Lawry.J. Boyd.. G.A. D. S. Green. W. Goins. and Scheuer. M. ibid O 26. and Russel G. and Gerwick. M.. A. J. and Kelly-Borges. C. Janus.. D.. Lassota. Pomponi. Carney.. H. 27. Ferrante. 56(4). July 27-31. 2441-2446.. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. B. M. and Boyd. et al. S. and Thompson... Rea.. J. M.. Davidson... McMahon..E. K. S. and Baker. Wilkins. Haden. L. Clark. 180. J. ibid S 23. 1977. McMahon.J.K..K. K.A. Zheng. 29.D. 6. 13.. and Francis. Beverly A.. Blunt. S. O’Keefe. Solimabi.. 1983. Gerwick. ibid S 9. and Wang. Bewicke.. J. R... D. M.. Schmitz. 17. ibid S 22. Jayatilake. T. M. C.. G. Baker. and Hung. ibid P 141.F. ibid P 156. 39. O 50.. B. and Yavor. B.-Y. 478-488. Santa Cruz (UCSC). S. M......A. Harrison.E. 5. ibid P 149. J. W. and Hamann.. Al. Fulton. and Kerr.H. O’Keefe. 1993.S....R. Ind. 14.. Andrew.. W.A. Schumacher. Gush. J. L. 34. and Molinski. P... B... T. J. Harrigan. I. Chan. ibid P 27. 14-15.. J. Y. Smith.. Chlorella. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. Pettit. Zhang. ibid S 14.. D.. McCarthy. 26. S. and Leahy.T. 20. R. Beutler. P. Linton.R. 4. Kloareg. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . J. McCombs. 21. 36. 304-313.. Hong. Yoo. ibid O 7. L. ibid S 15. ibid P 155.. July 27-31. and Scheuer.T.. H. ibid P 26. M. D... 63..A. Potter.. R. R. Shangxiao. P.. P. Shoemaker. D.G. ibid P 36. L. A. Phytochemistry. J. K. 40. N.E. ibid O 38. 15. C... Andersson. Fucus Vesiculosus L.. El Sayed. 1996. B.. M. D. B.M. J. Copp. Lam. 8... T.A.S.G. M..J. Papers presented at the 37th Annu.. 28.-P.J. 1985.. M. ibid O 49.. R. B. 401-414. Brielmann. Magni. J.W. S. 35.. ibid P 31..F. and Gould... 1990.A. J. Suecica. 3. T. 9. R. Barrows. and Joseleau.H.. R. 37. Mokinski. and Crews. Xie. ibid P 30.A. D. Lloyd.J.. Varoglu. 16. Sheehan. T. Hargraves.. M.. Erim. G. L. R.J. S. 1258. T. G.. S. Haughey. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae. and Harrigan. The Emerald Food. K.. Lill. Castor. Mar.. Chem. S.... 29. B.P. Blunt... J. P. R. F.H. Wright.. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae. Mabeau. A. Slate.P. Hook.W... Freyer.R..T.B. W. 19. Forenza.

s. 8. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.2) with Sequence 5.10 0.60 21. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC. Adjust pH to 5.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47. Rohm & Haas. 207 19th Avenue. NJ 07504.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq.00 6. 2. Patterson. either alone or in combination with other products.5 (±0. Adjust pH to 9. 5. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. PROCEDURE: 1. In main kettle.10 0. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.00 0.10 0. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used./Lipo Chemicals.00 10. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products.00 q. 3. 4. Inc. Therefore.2 (±0. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature.. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc.00 10.s. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. 5. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes.10 q. Henkel.

Amerchol. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Henkel. 7.00 0. at room temperature.10 0. Lipo Chemicals.00 0. 10.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. Inc. Procedure: 1.s.10 0. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .00 1. high-foaming. Inc. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.2 (±0. 3.s.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient.00 6.00 10. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.10 q.10 0. 4. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq.10 q. 6.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.5 (±0.00 20. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. Rohm & Haas. Adjust pH to 5.50 15. Adjust pH to 9. 2. 5.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq. In main kettle. combine Sequence 1 ingredients. 6.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 4. 2. Inc. Procedure: 1. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch. Aqualon.50 3. Inc. B. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform.10 0. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine.45 0. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals. Goodrich Co. 3.10 0. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed.95 0. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.FORMULATIONS 301 8.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65.50 1.F.00 0. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.00 1. In main kettle at room temperature. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform. 5.(Induchem).00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq. 6.10 5.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22.

Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.96 63.00 10. At 30°C. Cool to 30°C.54 5. In main kettle. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Inc.00 0. At 25°C.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals.10 q. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 0. Procedure: 1.10 0. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15. 2.s. 3. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C. Inc.10 0. add Sequence 3 to correct shade.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0.10 0.00 5.

Begin cooling. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved.10 0. Inc. In main kettle. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86. Givaudan Corp.FORMULATIONS 303 8.10 0.10 0. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals. 2. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3. Cool to 25°C. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 0.00 4. BASF.02 0.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No. Inc.28 0. Fanning Corp.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C .00 2.10 0. Haarmann & Reimer Corp. Procedure: 1.05 6.50 0.50 0.10 0.

8. 10% sol’n Supplier B. Spl Phosphoric acid.s.80 0.00 0.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform.25 0. 4. Inc.05 20.30 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 g.00 0. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. F. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940.82 0.00 0. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.05 0.70 2.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31. Procedure: In main kettle. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Inc. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92. 3.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant.00 5. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext.75 0. Cool to 60°C.88 45. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.10 0.10 0.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. 2.

99% Hypan SA100H 25. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.00 5. Procedure: 1. 3. Lipo (Kingston).30 0. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin.20 0. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem). Inc. 2.00 0.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp.FORMULATIONS 305 8.05 1 2 Triethanolamine.00 2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Goodrich.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5. Lipo Chemicals. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25.F.00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine. Guardian Chemicals.10 0. B. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.70 1.

.

Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. one-celled. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. or flower-arrangement. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. with firm pericarp. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. or Akene: A dry. Achaenium. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. indehiscent.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the fecundating material from an antheridium. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. one-seeded fruit. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. like the leaves of pines. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. containing the pollen. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Acicular: Needle-shaped. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. as ferns.

Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. cinnamic).g. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. with two leaves. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Carina: The keel. Bristles: Sharp. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Castor seed). Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary. Axillary: Growing in an axil.. Blisters: See Vesicants. Cardamon). Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. the hilum and the chalaza being together. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases.g. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil.g. Bacca: A berry. Capitate: With globose head.. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. rare in present times). Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. Calcarate: Spurred. Bi-: Signifying double. Atropous: With erect ovule. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Appendages: Superadded parts. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Capsule: A dry. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. a pulpy.. Nutmeg). Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems.g. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Bulb: An underground discoid stem. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Apetalous: Without petals. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. as bi-foliate. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. stiff hairs. meristematic cells. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. carrying the ovary. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle.. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e.

Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. Cohesion: Attachment.. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. tuber-like. upright rhizome. Connate: where two parts. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Cilia: Marginal hairs. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. one-seeded. Cathartic: A purgative. from which they hang when ripe. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. Cortex: The bark. Clavate: Club-shaped. indehiscent fruit. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Corm: A solid. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Caudex: The axis. usually distinct. one-celled.g. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. become joined. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Umbelliferous fruits). Cespitose: Tufted. Coriaceous: Leathery. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Also a name given to a short. Convolute: Rolled up.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. Caulis: The stem. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Contorted: Twisted. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. thick. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. Costa: The midrib. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. outer layer. Caudale: Having a hairy style.

Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. etc. Crispate: Curled. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. dividing into irregular branches. Deliquescent: Dissolving. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Deltoid: Triangular. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Definite: Constant. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Didymous: In pairs. Deflexed: Bent. Dichotomous: Forked. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Discoid: With convex face. downward throughout the length. Didynamous: With four stamens. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Decompound: Many times compound. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Deciduous: Falling off. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. or tending to fall. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. lymphatic. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Determinate: Definite. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. two long and two short. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. producing intellectual confusion.

Etiolated: Blanched. Exserted: Projected from an orifice.. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. wood. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp.g. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. Episperm: The coat of seed. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. purgation). Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. nearly parallel. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Epispore: Outer integument of spore.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. and pith distinct. Exogenous: Having bark. the outermost layer. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. wood. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. or borne on. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Echinate: Prickly. without. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. and bark. Fibrils: Root-hairs. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. Extrorse: Turned outward. Epidermis: The true skin. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. Escharotics: See Caustics. E: Signifies deprived of. Epigynous: Adnate to. the ovary.

Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Flexuose: Wavy. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Fimbriated: Fringed. Glabrous: Smooth. as in the cypress and juniper. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. orange). Genus: A group of closely allied species. algae. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell.g. Filiform: Thread-like. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as petals and leaves. as bifid. having both stamens and pistil (flower). the point of attachment. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Furcate: Forked. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Globose: Roundish. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Flocculose: Woolly. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower.. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. etc. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. more swollen on one side than on the other. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. devoid of hairs. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Fid: Cleft.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis.

and irritation.. Innate: Adhering to apex. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Incanescent: Hoary. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). Jointed: Having. Causing watery evacuations. the lower petal of an orchid. Labellum: (Lip). Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. layer. as innate anther.e. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). joints or nodes. squirrels.. Lateral: Attached to the side. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Lamina: A leaf-blade. or appearing to have. etc. dogs. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. on the receptacle. Inflexed: Bent inward. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. i. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. Lacinate: Fringed. rabbits. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. Inferior: Growing below another. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. like shingles. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Involute: Rolled inward. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth.e. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Internode: Interval between nodes. cats. inflammation. Keel: See Carina. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. Inarticulate: Not jointed. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. i. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. either by mechanical or chemical action. Imbricated: Overlapped. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Laxative: A mild purgative. Lacuna: A space between cells. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. two or three times longer than broad.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum.

Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Monandrous: Having one stamen. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. but with lipclosed (flower). Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. Lobate: Divided into lobes. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Masked: Labiate.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. Locusta: The spike of grasses. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Monospermous: One-seeded. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. Linear: Narrow. Medulla: The pith of exogens. Monopetalous: Having petals united. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Ligulate: Strap-like. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. leaves. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. style. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. with upper lobes largest. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Monogynous: Having one carpel. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. often caused by fungus infection. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. with parallel sides. and roots. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. Multifid: Many-cleft. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. or stigma. found at the ends of young stems. with hard tubercles. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Muricate: Rough. Lomentum: The moniliform legume.

thick runner. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. the wings. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Obsolete: Suppressed. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). in large doses. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. as ergot. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Nut: A hard. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. indehiscent. another plant. one-celled fruit. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Parasitic: Growing upon. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. apex broad (leaf). Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. with lobes nearly free. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. Orbicular: Circular. as in the pea-flower. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. Pedatipartite: Pedate.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. Offset: A short. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. and the keel. having tufts of leaves at extremity. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. with lateral divisions again subdivided. Oblique: Unequal sided. rounded. Obtuse: Blunt. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. and nourished by. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Pedatifid: Pedate. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Pedate: Palmate. death. the veins proceeding from a common carrier.

Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Polygamous: With male. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Peltate: Shield-shaped. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Petals: The corolla leaves. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Pentandrous: Having five stamens. melon. and perfect flowers on the same plant. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. squash. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . two or more celled. resembling a mouth. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. usually of family Leguminosae. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. indehiscent. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. Pubsecent: Downy. Pendulous: Hanging down. Pod: A general name given to dry.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. fleshy fruit. dehiscent fruits. few-seeded. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. with petiole attached at or near the center. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. female. pointed cells. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). and the like. Personate: Masked. Pilose: Hairy. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. Pome: An inferior. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Petaloid: Resembling petals. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Periderm: The corky layer of bark.

and shriveled. one. with wide lips (corolla). Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes).. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). Saccate: Sac-like. Retuse: Obtuse. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. winged. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. Scarious: Thin. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. Sheath: See Ocrea. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Reclinate: Bent downward. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. creeping. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. Radical: Springing from roots. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Recurved: Bent backward. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. etc. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). rooting and budding at nodes. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). and producing pustules. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . such as glands. with reflexed margins (estivation). Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Setae: Stiff. Retrorse: Directed backward. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Reduplicate: Valvate. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. Runner: A slender. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. bearing leaves and rootlets. prostrate stem. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. indehiscent. with deep notch in middle (leaves). Runcinate: Jagged margin. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead.or two-celled fruit. Revolute: Rolled backward.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. dry. Ringent: Labiate. bristly hairs. its function being to support the flower organs.

Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. and one short pair. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. dehiscing from below upward. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. Tomentose: Pubescent. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Synandrous: See Syngenesious. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . in pairs. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Suture: A line of junction. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). Sporangium: A spore-case. may be modified leaf or stem. Tendril: A thread-like. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. falsely two-celled pod. Ternate: Arranged in threes. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. bearing the stigma. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Subulate: Awl-shaped. Spine: A pointed modified branch. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. spiral branch. Stipitate: Stalked. Squamose: Scaly. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. leafless. with short hairs. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner).

Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Tricostate: Three-ribbed..GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. one-celled. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Lucius E. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Uncinate: Hooked. Vexillum: The standard. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Utricle: A superior. Volute: Rolled up. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. 529-536. Sayre. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. Trichomes: Hairs. Versatile: Freely swinging. Verticel: A whorl. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. few-seeded fruit. 1895. Valvate: United only by the margins. Zones: Concentric bands. pp. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Toxic: Poisonous. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy.

Pharmacognosy. Blakiston’s Son & Co. I and II. M. Stuttgart. 12. Ltd. Tyler. 2. Biddles. 5. A. MIS Publication. Wallis. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. 13th ed.W. American Pharmaceutical Association. Rockville. 1997. British Herbal Compendum. 1902. Inc. U... Natural Products Chemistry. Nakanishi et al. Vol. Tease and Evans. New Jersey. V. U. J. 1992. New York. Merck & Co.C. D. Duke. Bladt..C. 12th ed. Duke. 22. London. 1989. Youngken. FL. Grieve. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. Foter. Y.. 1996. 1996.A. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Huntington. 1995. The Honest Herbal. The Essential Oils. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. Boca Raton. 1960. T. Tyler. Leung and S. MO. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. Ltd... Mack Publishing. 4. Philadelphia. O. J. A Modern Herbal. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. St. Boca Raton. N. 8. Vol. 1993. 1994. G. Paris. Chicago. The National Formulary XVIII. Vol. Ltd. Berlin. 7th ed... 24. 1936. Herbs of Choice. 1. 11. New York. Bournemouth. 19. 1975. FL 1992. MD. 14. 18.E. I and II. British Herbal Medicine Association. 2nd ed. 1932.. Wren. 9. NY. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 10.E. 1994. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. Potter & Clarke. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. 2nd ed. J. 1996. 1974. PA. 21. John Wiley & Sons. & A. Aug. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. 7.E. New York.. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook.. IL. Washington. Churchill Ltd. 1–7. Wagner and S. 1983. 1964. Lavoisier. 1992. 1995. Bisset. FL.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1. New York.. V. 20. A. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Biddles.K. Robert E. Krieger Publishing. CRC Press.K.. R. CRC Press. E. Notes on Parmacognosy. 13. Dover Publications. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. Boca Raton. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. 1990. Vol. Wall. J. Haworth Press. Merck Research Laboratories. Ehrhart & Karl. Academic Press. 4th ed. 1971. Louis. Haworth Press. CRC Press. Guenther. Bailliere Tindall. 17. U.. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.. 3. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. P.A. 23. Plant Drug Analysis. H.. H. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co.. 4th ed.. London. 16. Bruneton. The Merck Index. SpringerVerlag. 15.. 3rd ed.. 6. K..K. 1930.

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