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BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.
CRC Press Boca Raton New York
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:
Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.
Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. And then the Babylonian. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. As formulators and purveyors. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. Theophratus. Initially. But more than anything. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. Over time. Let it reflect brightly upon us. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. Always wanting to know more. sorting. Originally. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. always wanting to find a more active plant. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. Chinese. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. observing. experimenting.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. and Avicenna. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. to use plants wisely. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. Galen. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. Dioscorides. Mithridates. men like Shen Nong.
in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. Frank D’Amelio. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry.AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. Sr. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists. vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Inc. He founded BioBotanica..
to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. patience. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. Special thanks to Professor Dr. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. and assistance in editing the manuscript.
....11 2................3.............................................................................................1.................................................8 Volatile Oils.1.......CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1...............................................................................13 3................................................................39 Extraction Terminology......1 1.......................................................................3...................1 Botanical Terminology ..........11 References ...................................3 Micromorphology.............................40 Decoctions ....35 Chapter 4 4.....................1 Microscopical Techniques................................................................2 Macromorphology .........................11 2..................................1 1........................................28 3.................................................1 Constituents of Drugs.......................................................................................6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems...............................................................................4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents...................................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2......................................................................................................1.........39 Percolation ................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3...............................................................................................1 Liquids ......................1................................................7 Assay Procedures ..4 Ultraviolet Light .........................................................3 Procedures ............................2 Phenols ......4 Proteins ................9 2.......................................................................1.......3..............................................................1.......................1.............................................................................................30 3................................................................................................................1...................3 Tannins........................................................................14 3........................................5 Infrared Spectroscopy.............................11 2.................................................................11 2....................................10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups .............1 1.......................................................................................................25 3.......................................................................2 Solubilities ...............................................................................................................................................................6 Carbohydrates.....................2 1...........2 4....1...........1 4................4 4..................3................................................5 Yield to Solvents ..7 Glycosides .............................................................................5 1........8 Gas Chromatography......9 2.....................................41 Infusions ............................5 1...........................6 Ash Determination .....................11 2......24 3.......................7 Methods of Identification............................................................................26 3.........................................9 Adulteration of Drugs ..................9 Resins and Resin Combinations ...........................23 3..........10 2..............................1............................................................................................................................................................................1 Forms 4.........................3......1...................2 Some Common Terminology ....................................................................1.....................................26 3...................................1.......3.....................................................................................................1 1....................1 1.......................................................42 Fluid Extracts ...................10 2..43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ......3 4......5 Preparations of Extracts ...3 Physical Constants..........................................................................................1.............1 Plant Identification .................5 Alkaloids..2 1.....3...........................
..................................45 Extracts Strengths.6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table......................1.4...........2 Hair Care Botanicals .....................1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo......................299 8.269 6............................305 Chapter 9 Glossary........................1..........................................8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC................................................................................................301 8..........................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table...........................................253 6...1..........49 5.................11 Tinctures ....................................................................7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ..............................................................................................................................9 4.289 7...............6 Spray Moisturizer ................295 References ...........247 6.............................................................4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil ........................45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ....283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7.....................................................................................300 8......1 History ...............4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics ..............................3 Cellulite Gel Base .................7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe ... Range.....................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table .......304 8..........1....................................................................................2 Natural Shampoo.........304 8...................................................................................303 8........................7 4................................302 8.............................................................229 6.......................... and Constituents .........................10 4.................8 4................................................................................................................................................................................46 Product Strength......................................46 Oleoresins ...........5 Indian Botanicals.....1....................................................................................................................1..............1 Habitat.............5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+.......6 4....1 Marine Algae............................................................................................................................................298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8......2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products.......225 6...................................307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .....2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy.......................4......................................................................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters .........49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6......................................... Properties....51 6...................................................................... Concentration.................................... Description.........48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5................................................................... and Standardization..............................................233 6...............................................
spores. TS). rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. leaves. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. etc. glycerol.1. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. ferulic. In plants. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. 1. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. (6) carbohydrates. barks. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fats. Recently. When applied to living tissues. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. (8) volatile oils. fats. hence. In the treatment of burns. (2) phenols. They are widely distributed in plants. 1. (3) tannins. (7) glycosides.1.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. they are stored in seeds.1.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. (4) proteins. They are generally soluble in water. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit.1. stems. have astringent action. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. palmitic. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated.1 Phytochemistry 1. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. roots. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. and usually bitter taste. they are also called triglycerides. and waxes. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. myristyl. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. 1. In most cases. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. (5) alkaloids. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. and coumaric acids. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. and waxes (lipids).
hydrogen. and (3) derived carbohydrates. (a) monosaccharides. isoquinoline. and oxygen. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. quinoline. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. piperidine. and steroidal. but mostly in fruits. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. and seeds. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. purine. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. carboline.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. oil-bearing plant seeds. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. pyridine. Being basic in chemical character.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. which are the building units. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. (2) polysaccharides. antitoxins. indole. 1. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. Proteins are derived from amino acids.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. Whole glandular products. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. and cryptogams.1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . roots. they form water-soluble salts with acids. leaves.1. for example: colchicine. phenanthrene. possessing some marked physiological action. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. serums. bark. (b) obligosaccharides. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. which end in -in. In fact. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. gymnosperms. stems. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. imidazole. brucine. tropane.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
gentiobiose. alginates. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . epimarose. their sulfate esters. ii. They include hemicellulose. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. c.2)-fructofuranose units. amorphous substances. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. lactose. emulsifiers.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. True sugars a. digitalose (these are 2. Gums are soluble in water. sarmentose. f. galactosamine b. Pentoses: L-arabinose. d. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. suspending agents. or amino sugars. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. Inulin. Glycogen. D-ribose. pectins. it is formed of amylose. Cellulose. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). galacturonic Glucosamine. gums. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing).6-linkages. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. fucose Digitoxose. and apiose. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. 3. uronic acids.and B-1. a. Monosaccharides. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). Those occurring naturally are usually di-. melibiose ii. cellobiose. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. stabilizers. Therapeutically. 2.4. diginose.6-linked polyglucan. D-xylose. and some microbial polysaccharides. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. It is an alpha-1. L-galactose.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. consisting simply of 1. and thickeners. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. gelling agents. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). oleandrose. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. i. b. mucilages. and Example Rhamnose. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. turanose. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. cymarose. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. It contains both B-1. which is a straight chain of alpha1. g. iii. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. e. Unlike cellulose. tri-.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. transluscent. It is a linear polysaccharide. D-fructose (levulose).6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. trihalose Reducing: maltose. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). and tetrasaccharides i.
7. There are also C-glycosides (e. 12. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e. for example. 9. Myrtaceae. 4. salicin is an analgesic. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources. as sugar reserves. cascarosides. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. sinigrin) Steroid (e. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant..1. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties.. 5. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1..g. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). strophanthin. 11.. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species.g. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae).7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that.g. 3. and Asteraceae. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). 8. sinigrin). 10. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. Such glycosides.. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e. however..g. 1. In S-glycosides (e.g. or adenosine). by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. Rutaceae. sennosides.g. Phenol (e. digitoxin. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae).. Occasionally.. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin. occur. and barbaloin are laxatives..g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .g. Depending on the plant family. rutin) Anthraquinone (e.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. daphnin) Flavone (e. are the most common ones found in nature.. Lauraceae.g. for example. 1. representing about 87 families).g.g. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. In the conifers.. In N-glycosides (e... and defensive roles. arbutin) Alcohol (e. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e..g. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e. crocin and picrocrocin. Other glycosides do. The chief families are Pinaceae. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). 2. the sugar component is called the glycone.g.. glucosamine. They are products of plant metabolism. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. for example. Apiaceae. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. detoxifying. sometimes called O-glycosides. for example.g. digitoxin) Saponin (e. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. regulating. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. in the liver of fish. Lamiaceae. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage.g. 6.1.
sandalwood. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. thyme. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. mild antiseptics. cassia bark.1. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. Resins. pharmaceuticals. etc. clove. 2. for example. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. dill. etc. parsley. Ester volatile oils: lavender. local irritants. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. and odor characteristics. 5.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. spearmint. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. nutmeg. 8. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. 7. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. juniper. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. 1. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. For example. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. and in orange. local stimulants. chenopodium. etc. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. chemical. 4. resulting in less food spoilage. horsemint. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. or parasiticides. in cinnamon. are hard. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. 9. wintergreen. However. Undoubtedly. however. tend to resinify on exposure to air. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. In most cases. anthelmentics. but in few instances. in umbelliferous fruits. cajuput. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. lemongrass. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). ajowan. cosmetics. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. etc. lemon. confections. turpentine. they are widely used in perfumery. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. cade. as a class. Classification 1. These substances. coriander. rosemary. 3. diuretics. beverages. only in the bark and leaves. In addition. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. etc. only in the pericarp. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. They can be used for their therapeutic action. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. In general. etc. transparent or translucent brittle substances. geranium. neroli. is rich in camphor. and tobacco. fennel. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. in the mints. Ethers: anise. etc. themselves. bitter almond. star anise. sweet orange. etc. carminatives. etc. however. 6. rose.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition.
and glycosidal resins. wood parenchyma. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. and resenes. that is. viz. shellac). resin alcohols. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. chloroform. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. in Guaiacum wood. On this basis. which is called secondary flow. mastic). but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue..g. resins soften and finally melt. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. Chemically. When heated in a closed vessel.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp.g. On heating at comparatively low temperatures. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt.9–1. and ether. Laccifer lacca. carbon bilsulfide). The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. esters. colophony. resenes (neutral inert compounds). forming solutions which. but when heated in the air. resins occur in different secretory structures. they are of pathological origin. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). in rare cases (e. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. resin acids. Family Coccidae. For example. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. Many products (e. as in case of Pinus.. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. resin cells (ginger). Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. In plants. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. order. It is noteworthy to mention here that. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. when freshly powdered. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. gr. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. on evaporation. and medullary rays cells). resinotannols.25)... They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. without volatilization or decomposition. they occur as tyloses. acetone. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism.e. they are divided into resin alcohols. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured.. 0. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities. as well as in fixed and volatile oils. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but do not contain any nitrogen. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. and glandular hairs (cannabis). They are not pure chemical substances. with few exceptions (e. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. fibers. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). resins are complex mixtures of resin acids.g. Hemiptera. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film.g. In this case. in the vessels. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure.
asafoetida). and Canada balsam. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa.. purgatives. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. On hydrolysis. copaiba. that form colloidial. viz.g. for example.e. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. carminatives. xylose. Jalap. glucose. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. like most seeds. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. the mixtures being called gum-resins. they can be incorporated into lotions. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin.) In general. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. etc. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. hexoses. on the other hand. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. therefore. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. respectively — both contain volatile oil. and seeds. balsam of Copaiba. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses.. parasiticides. arabinose. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. and uronic acids. expectorants. leaves. they can be separated from resins rather easily. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. antispasmodic. being called glycoresins. which contains no volatile oil. shave creams. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. ointments. (e. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. and Podophyllum. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. Mucilages are viscous. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). they form a mixture of pentoses. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. or esters of these acids. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). in seaweeds. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. nonadhesive solutions with water. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. liquid or semi-liquid substances. cough syrups. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. Probably. roots. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. counter irritants. cathartics. fruits. etc. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. Guttiferae). creams.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. (anywhere soothing is required). mouthwashes. In some cases. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. and anthelmintics. Another is flax seed. barks. Balsams. and malva (Malva sylvestris). flowers. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. These are.
. also referred to as the spent herb. suction. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. expression. having a bottom outlet. treatment with a solvent. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. by traction. ether. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. acetone.g. gauze. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. In pharmacy. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. etc. or alcohol and water. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation).1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. etc. distillation. water. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. by which it is exhausted of potash. cotton) below. 2. As with the raw materials. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it.. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum.). Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. the solution commonly known as lye. or by chemical or physical means.
Therefore. the width of vessels.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. In the same manner. that is compared with the scale. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. also known as micrometers.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. and not the object itself.125 mm. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. the height of sclerenchymatous cells.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification.3. That is.125 mm = 125 µ. both of which are carefully counted. botanical laboratory. the scale of 1 mm.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. 0. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. its true size is 50 0. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the direct reading are not the actual dimensions.C. Q.3 PROCEDURES 2. if an object. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. for example. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. because it is the magnified object.001 mm).) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer. By its use. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale. However. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. The diameter of fibers. Most of the time. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. always using a definite tube length. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. 2. the factors for the other objectives can be determined.0025 mm.0025 mm = 0. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. as well as identification of commercial starches.
while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. London. E.3.3. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol.3. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. glycosides. they will give a high total ash value. especially if they are present in the powdered form. Derris elliptica. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence. the yield to water of liquorice root. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article. 2. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. 4th ed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs.. Bailliere Tindall. W..3. viscosity. 11th ed. oleo-resins. However.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. digitalis and henbane leaves). 1960. 2. malaccensis. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky. A. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples.. and similar substances.g. optical rotation. 2. 1978. UV light provides very useful information. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. Other drugs.3.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. Similarly. D.. Pharmacognosy. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 90%. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. 2. calumba. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome. for example. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. For certain drugs. and Evans. London. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity. Trease. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. balsams. vitamins. In this way. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. T. J.. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation.. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. viburnum. E.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. resins. volatile oil. Churchill Ltd.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. G. such as hydrastis. REFERENCES Wallis. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent. C.3. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. Some pieces of rhapontic. 2.
plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. lipidic extraction. hexane). For example. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. etc. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. leaf. then maceration. super critical fluid extraction. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. ash content. One should start with botanical terminology. When ordering a botanical. There are many forms of extracts available. color. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . odor. distillation. etc.. providing that they were dried properly. and microscopy. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. stem. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. percolation. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. Many plants have common names and. and other tests like loss on drying. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. organic solvents (ethanol. ask for it by its common name first. flower. and berberine. This starts with the proper solvent system. identification can be confusing.. fruit. If this is not specified. root.e.3 Quality Control 3. counter current extraction. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. Fortunately. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. or the entire plant. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. etc. seed. canadine. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. therefore. As seen in the example. methanol. i.
2. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. to differentiate between mineral powders. glands. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. however. Lupulin. viz. primary phloem. while Fig. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. Fig. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. Quassia Wood. 2 is that of an angiosperm.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. pollen grains. secondary phloem. 3. 1.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. and hairs (Kamala. 3) is a representative example. Dusting powders: One should be able. starches. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). For systematic study. Cowhage). The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig.. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium.
QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig. 1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. 2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig. 3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
viz. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. mm. Flowers: In a commercial sense.e.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. which are a useful identification tool. 6. if there is no stalk. and often a raphe. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. two features that are constant. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. micropyle. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. in addition. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. 5. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. the ovary wall develops to form a case. In the great majority of plants. Among common drugs. red rose and marigold of petals only. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. the corolla made of petals. epicarp. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. called the pericarp. i. S /(E + S).. however. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. Achillea millefolium L. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. 7. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. 4. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes.. There are. frequently. (2) their thinness. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. leaves may be recognized. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. argel leaf. the leaf is termed sessile. stigmas). (Fig. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. and endocarp. styles. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. thus forming a fruit. the calyx made of sepals. elder flowers of petals and stamens. 6). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. Leaves: Example. red poppy. mesocarp. for the seeds. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. fibrous layer of anthers. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). 5) is an example of the flower. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. papillosed epidermis of petals. (3) the presence of chlorophyll. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4.
4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig.
as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. However. Orange. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. 5 Achillea millefolium L. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. Simple Fruits i. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. Caraway (see Fig. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. Cardamon ii. Poppy. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Colocynth b. flowers and fruits. 8. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. a. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. Tamarind. leaves. Bael.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. Compound Fruits Hops In general.
Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. 6 Grains of paradise seed.QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. Aframomum melegueta Rosc. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. 8). branches. For example. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. vertically. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. which are usually slender and adventitious. similarly.g.. stage and eyepiece micrometers.g. opium). Microscopical techniques. Fig. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. olive oil). 3. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. Therefore. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. mountants. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . starch. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e.. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. 9). Chiretta herb. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material.g. 9. however. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. and sclerenchyma. such as incision (e. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. Clearing agents. 10. by the stomatal index. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. fibers. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and..g.. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. agar). Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. or are natural secretions (e. expression (e.. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels.g. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. namely. or by the trichomes. beeswax and myrrh). decoction (e.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues.
QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and causes swelling of cell walls. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. volatile oils. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. ether. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. protein. Sometimes. starch. absorbance values should be used. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. lactophenol. chromic/nitric is mandatory.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. carbolic acid. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. Other solvents include methanol. and expands shrunken cells. chlorophyll. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. fats. the presence of coloring matters. and resins. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. water. etc. alcohol. for bleaching. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. clove oil. hexane. and petroleum ether (pet ether). Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. tannins. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. or chlorophyll. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. resins. it rapidly dissolves starch. 3. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents.
UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. It can also be used to quantitate. In addition.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. unless one has an FTIR. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. This will give you a transparent disk. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. Then press under anhydrous conditions. If the substance is in a solid state. depending on solvent and pH. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant.
Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. 1710 (S) 3500 (M).7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. etc. 3. aluminum. sulfuric acid). The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. and powder microscopy are also performed. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. 3400 (M).g. 2860 (M). or plastic sheets are also commercially available. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates..g. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. 3400-3100 (variable). 3. ash content histology. Other tests like loss on drying. Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. 1500. VS = very strong. and (4) it is inexpensive. S = strong. it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. as one gains experience. 1455 (S). 1600. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. In addition.) When development is complete.. odor. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. 2100–1700 (W).. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. 1760 (S). Chamomile. M = medium. 3400–2500 (broad M). a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). organic solvents (usually methanol). Precoated absorbents on glass plates. TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. 3600–2400 (broad). Lavender. then the filter paper can be eliminated.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). Valerian.
QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes.5: 8.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . natural product. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance. hence. antimony chloride UV.
it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric.g. As with the raw materials. a separation technique. give excellent fingerprints for identification. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. etc. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. If there is a diluent added. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. such as rice hulls or spent herb.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. photodiode array detector. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. This system. the use of the GC will continue to grow. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. data acquisition. spent herb). The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). together with UV and IR spectra. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. 3. information-rich electron ionization spectra. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. rice hulls. TLC. For plant volatiles and essential oils. With library search software. and cosmetic industries.. with expected growth well into the next generation. After extraction of the plant material. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market.” However. In phytochemistry. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. it will show up by having less soluble solids. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. spectrometric. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. System control. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. However. From these spectra. HPCL. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. pharmaceutical. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. or chromatographic (GLC. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines.) procedures in order to establish its strength. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography.
Ltd. and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . photodiode array detector.QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System.
not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. African. for example. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. coffee. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. or Provence senna. 2. 3. or Cochin. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. etc. honey. Obovate. data acquisition. nutmeg. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. the color and general texture are more important. Instrument control. in the case of powdered drugs. beeswax. such as ergot. the adulterant can be any kind of material. for example. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. Hence. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
thermopsine. distilled water. 15 psi argon. detection. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray. 2.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2.5 ml/min. 2. UV 320 nm detection.d. 3. HPLC: Zorbax CN.d.46.2. or 3% SE-30. UV 202 nm.6 50 cm): mobile phase. 0. baptifoline. 50°C. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm. detection. flow rate.9 mm 30 cm). acetonitrile-water (83:17). 220–223°C.1) flow rate.5 ml/min. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60. UV detection (homogencity test). UV 202 nm. flow rate. mobile phase. 1. Rf 0. R1.0 ml/min. flow rate. mobile phase. luteolin.6 mm i. galactose. mobile phase. acetonitrile-water (84:16)./65 cm).0 ml/min.0 M NaC1 gradient. mobile phase.0–1.5 ml/min. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . panaxadiol. followed by 0. xylose. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i. then 1. mobile phase.8 ml/min for 7 min. CH3CN-H2O (73:27). acetonitrile-water (83:17).1 ml/min.5. flow rate.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). lupanine. 25 mm). E-500 and E-100 (Waters). sparteine. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. 1. rhamnos Ginsenosides. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10). cytisine Anagyrine. 1. genistein Calenduladiol. detection. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection.. 13-OH sparteine. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. flow rate. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2. panaxatriol. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid.9 mm x 30 cm). 0.2 M Pi buffer pH 7. 1 ml/min.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. 5% DC560. 0. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. mobile phase. flow rate. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. mobile phase. 2 ml/min. detection. 0.4x.5 mm i. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27).9 mm 30 cm). 15 cm). spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol.5:0. 190 nm flow rate.d. mobile phase.
flow rate. UV 270 nm. mobile phase. 6 ml/min. 1 ml/min. UV 365 nm.5-methanol (67:33). detection. vanillin in H2SO4. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. detection.d. mobile phase. detection. detection. 66 m capacity 350 ml). apigenin. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9).d. phase B: ethyl acetate. canadaline. flow rate. 3. 2 liters phase B and C.4 cm i.d. detection.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5. phase A: water. detection UV 278 nm. increasing 3%/min). hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. canadine.5. methanol-water (50:50).. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). begin rotation. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. 4. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10).0 ml/min. berberine. methanol-water (15% to 95%. flow rate. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4). luteoline. flow rate.. flow rate.5 ml/min. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages). UV 340 nm. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. 0. w/guard. 0. 25 cm at 75°C).1 ml/min.d. 2. Start w/ 350 ml phase A. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. 75°C. 30 cm). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. 25 cm).9 i.9. mobile phase. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). detection UV 365 nm. Rf 0. flow rate. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. mobile phase.d. mobile phase. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. detection. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18.5 ml/min. flow rate. methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. 2 ml/min. 1.5 ml/min. Merck(.05. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. introduce sample. 2 ml/min. i. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). UV 340 nm. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . UV 330 nm. vanillin in H2SO4.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column.1 M phorphoric acid. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH.6 mm. detection. hydrastine Rf 0. LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5).7 & 5. mobile phase. mobile phase. hydrastine Rf 0..0mm i.5cm). acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate.
mobile phase.5 ml/min. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. mobile phase. helium flow. detection. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). mobile phase. 50% H2SO4. mobile phase.d. methanol-water (27:73). capric acid Isoflavones. 4 ml/ min. flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol.d. 150 mm). caproic acid. 1.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35).d.25m 3 mm). analysis Column (3.5 ml/min. UV 270 nm. R1.9 mm i. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. 30 cm). 1. methanol-water (2.5. detection.9 mm 30cm). HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). 1. formononetin. flow rate. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid. water. mobile phase.8 ml/min. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. biochanin-A. acetonitrile-water (gradient). flow rate.5 10 cm).0 ml/min.d.0 ml/min. mobile phase. UV 280 & 546 nm. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658). HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector.d. detection. photodiode array. detection. 30 ml/min.1. UV 280 nm. flow rate. mobile phase. daidzein. mobile phase. detection. caprylic acid. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). 25 cm) 2 in series. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. 2. flow rate.5 ml/min.0 ml/min. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. detection. genistein. flow rate. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2. detection. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. detection. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7.. detection. temp.. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5. mobile phase. mobile phase. UV 230 nm.d. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min).. 25 mm). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18.6 mm i. mobile phase. 300 mm). cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6 mm i. flow rate.0) mm i. 2. detection. UV 313 nm. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10).QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2.3 ml/min. flow rate..1:1). UV 280 nm. 0. mobile phase. flow rate 0. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min.. prunitrin Calycosin. HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid. 25 cm).
guaiacum wood. 8. 0. or hamamelis leaves. For example. vitexinine 3. 250 mm. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. detection. mobile phase. UV 256 & 206 nm.25 m 4 mm). almond shells. senna. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. scented bdillium for myrrh.4 (1:1). TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). etc. acetonitrile-0. valerosidatum. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. detection.8% methanol in hexane. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). 7. flow rate 10 ml/min.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). 5. dextrin. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8).9 mm 30 cm).1 M phorphoric acid. detection. mobile phase. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. mentha.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. 2 connected in series. usually having no relation to the genuine drug.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. mobile phase. coconut shells. boiler scale. walnut shells.0 ml/min. for example. 5u Chrompack). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). valeranone Vincristine. mobile phase. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. or lead shot. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. 2. UV 254 nm. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. GLC: 1. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. 4. mobile phase. 6. detection. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. UV 254 nm. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . powdered olive stones.6mm i. for example. flow rate. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. UV 298 nm.5 ml/min. methanol-water (60:40). Substitution of exhausted drugs. acevaltrate. stone. such as lobelia. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. acetonitrile-0.d. hydrogen flame ionization. hazelnut shells. etc. detection. flow rate.7 ml/min. detection. detection. 2. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. vitexin. 30 cm). Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances.d. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. such as adding citral to oil of lemon.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. stramonium. Sometimes. conc. 1. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS.
. Microscopical examination. Frequently also delicate yellow. 9. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. consisting of small-sized elements only. A little vascular tissue. especially the diagnostic epidermis. fibrous layer of the anther wall. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll.) Acacia. frequently particles of small seeds. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. fibers.. masks. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). which often contains starch in large amounts. cutinized and suberized walls. 8. palisade tissue. cellulose parenchyma. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. pericyclic and phloem fibers.g. 4. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. usually abundant parenchyma. The powder is usually entirely lignified. protective glasses. tracheids. xylem vessels.g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. however. Structures absent: Cork. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. which often cross the fibers and vessels. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. and medullary rays. gloves. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. pine and juniper). and aleurone grains. starch. 6. etc. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. vessels. wood parenchyma. Dilution better done on the slide. resins. Nut shells and fruit stones. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. fibers. sieve tubes. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Also epidermis. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. Tincture of: Red with oils. Keep for 6 months. palisade cells. and crystals of calcium oxalate.g. and aleurone grains. starch grains. 10. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. papillose surface of the stigma. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. 5. 2. palisade cells. calcium oxalate crystals. Mucilage of: Alkanna. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. Frequently also cork. 7. glands. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. Frequently also trichomes.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. in powder. 3. red. hemicellulose. or oil). stone cells. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp.. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis.
2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. The reaction is better carried out in the dark. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. etc. cellulose.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath.880). Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. To be freshly prepared. Add 7. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. starch. To be freshly prepared. left for some time.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. To be freshly prepared. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. H2O. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. filtered. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. H2O with the aid of heat. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. and some mucilages. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. if necessary. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. etc. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gloves. with continued stirring. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. Chlorophyll. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. etc. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding.0 g sodium iodide and 2. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid.I. protective glasses. killed by steam. suberin. through glass wool.I. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. Deteriorates on keeping.I. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. ligno.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. 0. gr. masks. Store in amber bottle. Benzidine.5 ml D.
Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. and then diluted to 100 ml with water. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. 20 g lactic acid. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals.I. Solution A: 34. the corresponding approximate pH. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. gloves. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water.27 g iodine and 0.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. filtered. and 20 ml water.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed.g. 1. Dilute: Used for mounting. added to a solution of 2. note the coloration and read off from the table. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc.I. on the label. 1. masks. etc. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. dextrose). in powder.64 g copper sulfate and 0.g. H2O prior to use. protective glasses. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. 1. the strong solution will dissolve silk. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. gives yellow with colchicine. 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. 40 g glycerin.75 g lead monoxide. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use. e.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D.. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. Set aside until clear. Indicator.
1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. 5 ml of glycerin added. dissolving certain cell contents. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. gloves. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. Store away from light. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). stains lignified walls red. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. Potash. and cutin blue. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. 1% solution in water. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. etc. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. 10.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). 66. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. 0.4% alcoholic solution. It must be recently prepared. with a dropper or a glass rod. Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. lignin. Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. Caustic: Used for clearing. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. in small pieces. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. 10% alcoholic solution. masks. and then diluted with equal volume of water.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. suberin. and 80% by volume. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). protective glasses. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0.
Same as a solid extract except in powdered form.E.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting.E.G. but the solvent is 1.01 = 2x 0. AQU P. Full strength 1:1. A molasses consistency. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing. etc.E.3BG GLY 4. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices.G. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application. 1. Serial type dilution and succussion. An extract in P.4 Preparations 4. OLEUM N.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. Same as a solid extract (S. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate. Properties Usually high in alcohol. 5:1. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. etc. H. but the solvent is glycerin. 4x.G.E. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract.F. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. of various dilutions: 1:1.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0.1.P.3BG. 0. Same as P. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). E. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract. 3x.G. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. 60–90%. Contains no alcohol.M.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. Same as P. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. F. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. P. 5x. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical.
and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. or. the botanical is considered exhausted. and macerate for the prescribed time. In pharmacy. treatment with a solvent. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. When no more actives remain. gauze. expression. the menstruum will channel. by traction.). etc. If packed too tightly. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. or alcohol and water. ether. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. if packed too loosely. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. The packing of the percolator is very important. cover the percolator. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). acetone. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass.. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. usually 48 hours. by which it is exhausted of potash.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container.1. or by chemical or physical means. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. having a bottom outlet. also referred to as the spent herb. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. the solution commonly known as lye. water. giving a weak extract (see diagram). close the lower orifice. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. the product will not percolate. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. distillation. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate.g. suction. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. cotton) below. contained in a suitable vessel. etc. 4.. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator.
Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. barks.1. mix thoroughly. placed over it. such as twigs. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. These are usually the hard substances. etc. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). 4.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. roots.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. preferably distilled. and filter. Allow it to cool.
cold water should be used. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter. 4. Therefore. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In order to prepare an infusion.1. Under refrigeration. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. Moisten the herb in water. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. it should be placed in a refrigerator. after preparation of an infusion.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. Refrigerate or preserve. preferably distilled. Refrigerate or preserve.
Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. However. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. especially in inactivating larvae. 4. However.1.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. However. bacteria. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. which seems to work well. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. which is very effective. there is also CO2 sterilization.
crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. and usually precipitate on standing. Therefore.1. berberine. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected.S. Filter. or a combination thereof. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. Usual laboratory method.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. Additionally. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. However. At present. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. are weaker.1. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed.00 per pound). Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. and canadine. No vacuum concentration is used. However. i. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths. as strengths vary widely. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. However.G. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. check with the manufacturers. percolation. from either fresh or dry botanicals.. and the solids are calculated. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. Therefore. as they contain alcohol. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures.* 4. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture.e. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. and evaporation. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. Maceration is another procedure. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day. need preservatives. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate.2). take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. A typical example: 5:1 P. Therefore.
1. and add enough D.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. Add 1000 ml D. filter through wetted filter paper. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. Separate the excess oil. 2a. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. if necessary. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. and preserve or use the clear water portion. 4. or other specified volatile substance D.I. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .I. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. or distilled water. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. Solution: The volatile oil. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency.1.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. filtering if necessary. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1.I. Then filter the mixture. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. and contain very little water. which lowers shipping costs. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. or oven dried.I. and pass enough D. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts.I. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. preferably kept in a cool area. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. or distilled water. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. 2. dry solid. spray dried. The native extract is usually vacuum dried. returning the first portions. easily dispensed. respectively. and time of year collected. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. Their odors and tastes are similar. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. or distilled water. to obtain a clear filtrate. age.I. need no preservation. Avoid excessive heat. a sufficient quantity.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. while hydrastine is colorless. 4. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders.
A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. Concentration. tinctures. 1.1. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. etc. fresh or dried. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves.* 4. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent.).10 Product Strength. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. The starting botanical. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. However. If it was calculated from fresh weight. a 1:1 extract. etc. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. 4. depending on the manufacturer. However. glycerin. are often found in the cosmetic literature. Obviously. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C.G. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. To avoid confusion. 1997.3-butylene glycol. in the United States. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. The true strength will vary. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. etc. in a cosmetic formulation. 10:1. This is very controversial. Recently. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . is always measured on the dry basis. therefore. 10:1.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color.1. or roots of plants (see above). would be too concentrated in many instances. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. In Europe. in a true strength extract. etc. butylene glycol. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. bark. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. etc. glycerin. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P.
1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical. However. which is approximately 20 times less costly). A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. and canadine.04%). Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient.5% of essential oil. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. and then on valeric acid. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. resins. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. This would cause the berberine. fixed and volatile oils. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Analytical procedures (TLC. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. and starches to be significantly reduced.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. canadine. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. the former designation is becoming the standard. which has been standardized on valepotriates.. If the dried plants contain 0. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. that is. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. However.5 to 4.0% hydrastine. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. However. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. and not soluble in most cosmetic products. berberine. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract.S. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. dark in color. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. Thus. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. GLC. standardization can be carried to the extreme.15 to 0. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract.
However. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. However. consisting of an oil. oily resinous mass remains. or 1. alcohol.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts.1. 4. followed by evaporation of the solvent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Therefore.8% essential oil. either fixed or volatile.. ether.5% oil. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution. A thick. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. 1997. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0.g. there are usually losses during extraction.
Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. energy imbalance. calming anger. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. euphoric. Stimulant. digestive problems. in turn. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. nervous fatigue. Moisturizing. Poor memory. impotence. soothing. Cell regeneration. thereby reducing stress. This is the essence of aromatherapy. euphoric. mental strain. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. aphrodisiac. Stimulant. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. Stimulates scalp. tonic. poor memory. antispasmodic. sadness. This. wrinkles. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. Carminative. revitalizing. 5. mild stimulant. Anti-inflammatory. cleanser. soothing.5 Aromatherapy 5. hair growth. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. hair growth. and perfumes. loneliness. digestive problems. Skin elasticity. antidepressant. For example. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . scalp stimulant.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. affects the adrenals. antispasmodic. Revitalizing. aromatic waters. anxiety. exhaustion.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. aphrodisiac. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. antidepressant.
If the reader has further interest. etc. Danielle. moisturizes. Essential oils are very concentrated. Ryman. 1976. vaporizers. Mood elevating. shampoos. Aging skin. anti depressant. Aging skin. house sprays. uplifting. Valnet. Therefore. C. grief. inflammations. Fabrice. 1984. 1982. calming. cell proliferant. Saffron. mouth ulcers. antidepressant. Destiny Books. euphoric. Daniel Company. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. VT. shock. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. Essex. uplifting during depression. lotions.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. The Aromatherapy Handbook. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. very little is needed. bath oils. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. Example: to be effective. Antidepressant. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. anxiety. Jean. England. wrinkles. amara) Antidepressant. Nervous tension. Walden. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Rochester. stimulates metabolism. opens psychic centers.W.
Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. flowers in April or May.1 HABITAT. long. RANGE. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. subradical. pale-green. and fawn-colored externally. obtuse. slender. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. which is white internally. perennial herb. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. and 3 or 4 in. lanceolate. PROPERTIES. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. droping. and involute at the point. about 5 in. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. with purplish or brownish spots. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. yellow. spotted near the base. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. high. DESCRIPTION. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. The flower is single. The leaves are two. liliaceous. The scape is naked.
terminating in three undivided stigmas. Heinz. and surmounted with reddish. de Gruyter. This taste is strongest in the root. Properties Emollient. interruptedly pinnate. No further analytical data available. Pub. longer than the stamens. 2. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and phlobaphene. pyrogallic acid. and borne in a dense.. Chem. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. 2332. Properties Its action is a mild astringent.1. J. anthers oblong-linear. and hematuria. long.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. functional bleeding. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. Hoppe.. A. subastringent taste. racemose spike. antiscrofulous. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. three-lobed at top. agrimonol (= agrimonine). *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. 8th ed. Soc. Cavalitto. and covered with a soft. agrimonolide. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. Drogenkunde. nearly smooth beneath. and three-valved. epistaxis. coarsely serrated leaflets. 1975. 1. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. flowering in July and August. and anti-inflammatory.six. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. mild tonic.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. Ovary obovate. W. style club-shaped. filaments flat. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. yellow. producing numerous heads. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. conical. 1946. Berlin. which is somewhat aromatic. hooked bristles.. The leaves are alternate. The capsule is oblongobovate. Its odor is aromatic. Am. The root is long.. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. but unpleasant. and tapering. diuretic. and of reddish-brown color. harsh. The whole herb and root contains. with a loose membranous tip. fibrous. It is much branched at the summit. from to 1 foot long. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. 68. pyrocatechol. silky pubescence. et al. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. Agrimonia has a bitterish. in hedges and fields and by ditches.
wedge shaped. alterative. tonic. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. catechin. Alder also helps to unclog pores. fruiting tops. United States. eupatorin. Med. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. usually abrupt at the tip. 1964. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and minerals. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. glycosides. gum. flavonoids. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. this should only be done once a week. and polysaccharides. southwest Asia. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. et al. However. Ser. which are roundish. ursolic acid. organic acids. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. 10(2). volatile oil. phytosterin. quercitrin. and also to help relieve dandruff... apigenin.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. The bark is dark gray and ridged. 153-157. et al. luteolin. nicotinic acid. choline. glutinous. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. V. 7-0-B-glucoside.. wavy-serrated. citric acid and silicic acid. Peter-Horvath.. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. as do other types of face packs. 29(2). Patrascu. 1994. M. 2. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. Constituents Tannins. triterpenes. Europe. Dermato-Vernol. 1. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. after which a good face cream should be applied. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. Rev. 190-193.
To date. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. a mild exfoliant in oils. cuts. chrysophanic acid. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). this has not been verified. West Indies. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. which would suggest its use in baths. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. lotions. Further reading is recommended. etc. saponin. Aloe contains 99. lotions. scratches. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. bath gels. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. and tannin. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. The fracture is conchoidal. etc.50% (5 grams. The size of the pieces is variable. calcium and trace minerals. The surface is dull and smooth. creams. and Barbados Islands. Alfalfa is also high in minerals. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. etc. irritated skin. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. Properties Used in facial steams. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and is employed in skin creams. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. sun poisoning. The odor is strongly aromatic. insect bites.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. The texture is waxy. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. boron. carotene. hair treatments. hair rinses. oils. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. ALOE Aloe vera L. and burns.
Constituents Malic acid. Granny. Macintosh. It contains malic acid. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). Delicious. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. Rome. glucomanine. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. and pectin. sugars.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides.
and polyps. wax. Cones oblong. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. containing thujone.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. ⁿ in. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. long. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. and mucilage. Wolf’s Bane. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. ARNICA Arnica montana L. soft durable wood. tannins. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. shoddy bark and light. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. both internally and externally. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. moles. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. having pale. in height.
malic). deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. Topically.to 12-veined. emarginate and pointed. the involucre dilated and imbricate. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. In mouthwashes. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. fatty acids (fumaric. dark green and pubescent. Sesquiterpene lactones. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. reddish yellow. 5 to 7 mm long. palmitic. stearic). Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. polyacetylenes. lauric. ray flowers yellow. patuletin. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. and essential oil. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaves. with fleshy bases. and the cypsella not beaked. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. Arnica tincture DAB 10. and surface phlebitis. Description This plant is perennial. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. the scales ovate. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. the cypsella spindle-shaped. dark brown. Has been used for hematomas. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. pistillate. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). the pappus plumose and sessile. inflammation of the oral mucosa. tubular flowers perfect. the receptacle setaceous. with subspinose. pinnate. kaempferol. three-toothed. 7. and undivided leaves. Note: There can be side effects. isorhamnetin. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. receptacle slightly convex. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. inflamed insect bite. xanthophylls. edema. northern Mediterranean. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. stamens without a tail-like appendage. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. pectolin arigenin). Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. finely striate. taste bitter and acrid. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. about 1 cm long. sprains. quercetin. Odor characteristic and agreeable. The heads are discoid and homogamous. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles.
peroxidase. ascorbinase). vitamins. protein. Cosmetically. Also employed in jaundice. beta-carotene. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. cynarin. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. diuretic. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . choleretic. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. bread crumbs. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. flavonoids. trace minerals. cholagogue. garlic. ascorbic acid..58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation.e. Around the holidays. cynadase. and hypocholesterolytic. tannin. sterols. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. oxydase.
cuts. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. * Formerly CTFA. The base is truncate or depressed. Has been used on blemishes. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. and various skin diseases. The taste is pungent and bitter. It is a stimulating expectorant. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. The margin has projecting points of scales. resinous substance. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. The apex is acute. These buds are sessile. twigs. sores. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. The color is reddish brown. Herbalists use it for treating colds. balm buds Part Used: Buds. or in threes occasionally. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is balsamic. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer.
Odor slight.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. bark 1 mm in thickness. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. acetophenone. easily separable into layers. izalpinin. circulatory stimulant. bervulcine. jateorrhizine. Europe. Description Cylindrical. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. tannic and gallic acids. volatile oil. 3. taste distinctive. oxyacanthine. Grecian Laurel. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. externally light yellowish brown. 5-0-methylgalangin. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. distinctly radiate. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. Flavonoids. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. chrysin and apigenin. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. salicin. pith of rhizome small. wood yellow. and showing rings of growth. Internally used to treat liver disorders. galangin. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. usually splitting somewhat on drying. knotty. on chewing. very bitter. berbamine. True Bay. Berberine. gallstones. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. Bactericidal. strongly branched. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . color more pronounced upon wetting. North America. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). sometimes excentric. pinocembrin. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. fracture hard and tough. magnoflorine. Properties Astringent.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. and the Middle East. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. rhamnetin. has been used for indolent ulcers. volatile oil. populin. tinges saliva yellow.
gallic and ellagic acids. Constituents 0. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. and plant acids. -terpineol. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. hydroquinone derivatives. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. margin entire. petiole about 3 mm in length. The leaf also contains germacranolides. astringent. However. undersurface yellowish-green. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. due to its high tannin content. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Treating small areas works best. linalool. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. pale yellow flowers. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. ursolic acid. quercetin. syringic and p-coumaric acids. Spr. phenolcarboxylic acids. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). and volatile oil. and detergents. Asia. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. spatulate. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams.3 to 3. shiny black berries. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. slightly pubescent. and others. soaps.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). upper surface dark green. perfumes. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. Description Leaves obovate. -terpineol acetate. slightly revolute. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. 12 to 30 mm in length. Uvaursi is astringent. -pinene. and glossy aromatic foliage. lotions. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. glabrous. hyperoside. odor slight. brittle. along with methyl arbutin. tapering. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. alkaloids. catechins. covered. texture coriaceous. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. taste slightly bitter. finely reticulate. base acute. summit obtuse. Northern and Central Europe.
leaves Habitat and Range Woods. reducing visual eye fatigue... reduces inflammation... enzymes. 9.. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones..0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels.1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tonic. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx...... SEE GALIUM BED STRAW.62 BED STRAW... leaf-blades thin.. softening.. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive. Whortleberry. clears toxins. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva... G. antiseptic... and abscesses. 1854.. and other compounds identified in bee pollen. about 5 mm long. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter. Good for skin ulcers. promotes tissue repair. anti-inflammatory... German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations.. 1989....... dissolving. Description Dwarf shrub. Europe... 1 to 2% fat.. sores. 1. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen.. 55% carbohydrate. sores. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L... and ulcers. scabs. JAMA... combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees. 20 to 50 cm high.. 4 mm wide.... Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits.. British Columbia.. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry. ovate. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. Wyoming. 3 to 5 cm long. Michigan.1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins.. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries.. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive. and to replace retina purple. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein.... eruptions.. California. only slightly paler beneath. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees.... Mirkin... 262. This is taken up in a collection vessel. amino acids. wounds. Properties Astringent for eyecare products... Properties Restoring. minerals. boils. restrains infection.. and Asia. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit. corolla ovoid-lanceolate.
ascorbic acid.. (trace amount) asperuloside. saponins. BANZ No. psoriasis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gaultherin. R. naturalized in northern North America. methyl salicylate. arbutin. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. 1988. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Rattleweed. New Age Herbalist. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. peonidin glucosides. quinic acid. ursolic acid. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. anthocyanosides. Bugbane. essential oil. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. Bugwort. Europe. apigenin dimethyl ether. 1. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. 1. White Birch.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. Mabey. North Asia. myrtillin. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). betulol. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. 4-23-87. Rattleroot. parts of Arctic Siberia. betuloside. and eczema. 76. leaves. Squaw Root. New York.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. Macmillan. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. fatty acids. betuloresnic acid.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. German Commission E Monograph. Properties The bark. BIRCH Betula alba L.
taste bitter and acrid. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. externally dark brown. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). resins. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. starch. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. bark dark brown. longitudinally wrinkled. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. Rhizome horizontal. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. dyspepsia. frequently. tannins. and rheumatism. up to 3 mm thick. by deep cup-shaped scars. particularly depression and hot flushes. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. or less frequently by fibrous strands. each of which shows a radiate structure. It possesses estrogenic activity. bark thin. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. mainly formononetin. internally. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. somewhat branched. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. externally dark brown. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. fatty acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fracture short. and sugar. fracture horny.5 cm in thickness.
*INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. Florida. and detergent. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. 8 to 10 cm long. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. with thick ridges. Description A tree up to 50 m high. rounded or subcordate at the base. leaflets 11 to 23. lanceolate. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. glabrous. glabrous above. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. and trace minerals. serrate. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. juglandic acid. Constituents Juglone. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). tannins. 5 to 8 cm long. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). and Minnesota. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. fixed and volatile oils. bark. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. anthelmintic. Massachusetts.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. It is an astringent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fruit globose. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. Texas. taper-pointed at the apex.
fucans). rheumatism. probably due to its iodine content. sprains. as a wash for psoriasis. a prominent midrib.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. The odor is slight. The texture is cartilaginous. and bruises. Frequently. slimming activity. trace minerals (mainly iodine). These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. reproductive tissues. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and frequently white deposits of saline matter. It can be added to hair and skin care products. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. The thallus is dichotomously branched. The color varies from brown to black. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. cellutitis. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. steryl glucosides. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. myxoedema. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. massage for cellulite. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting.
... calyx of five sepals.. of variable length.. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. simple or branched. elliptical leaves wrinkled.. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids. about 2 cm in diameter.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids.... usually blue. up to 60 cm high.... European Burdock. flowers.. the crown somewhat annulate.. saponins.. skin cleansing and lightening. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin. Description An annual robust plant. and minerals.. longitudinally wrinkled. fracture somewhat horny. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sometimes white. Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage. It is easily grown from seed. leaf. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains... Borage has a cucumber-like odor. the upper leaves. tannins. mainly cultivated for commercial use. rough.. flowers from June through September. rhizomes.. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe.. Bugloss.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. Constituents Vitamin C. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock. externally grayish brown. on long stalks. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. frequently split or in broken pieces. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage. Description The root is fusiform. five pointed corolla. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L. sparingly naturalized in the United States. covered with bristly hairs. the lower ones on short petioles. hollow stem. mostly in the Eastern States. sessile.. Gobo Part Used: Roots.
sterols. berries with black seeds. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. tannins. acid soils. fatty acids. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. taste is mucilaginous. shampoos. cutaneous eruption. and slightly bitter. gout. becoming pyroligneous on milling. It is also used in hair conditioners. and oil. pith-like tissue.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. polyalkenes. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. psoriasis. fat. arctinal etc. and baths. creams. cystitis. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. North America. fukinanolid. yellow-green flowers in spring. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. and can be used in facial steams. abrasions. licorice. centrally hollow or containing a white. It has been combined with comfrey. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. inulin. gels. anorexia nervosa. volatile oils. lotions. Odor slight. Arctinone. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. lignin. arctinol. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. sweetish. scaly skin. including buxine and buxozine C. eczema. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. in cases of acne.
Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. Description A dense. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. 3 mm across. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. saponin. Emmenagogue. inhibits inflammation. dark green shrub with thick. dry hills. sudorific. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. 5 mm. borne on green. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. Properties Increases circulation. 1 cm. chrysophanic acid. 2 cm long. a globular red berry ca. mucilage. bushy places. Leaves. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. The extract has been used with success. scale-like. papery ca. oval rigid. diuretic. Flowers greenish. ribbed. Europe. ruscoside. ca. Fruit. for the treatment of varicose veins. rutin.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L.
.. healing for sensitive skin... kaempferol. and from 5 to 9 angled.. Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and beta-sitosterol.... It has a strong.. rutin.. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length.. from 1... piscidic-acids.. Description In pieces of varying length. Mombassa.... Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear. Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America.. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material.. together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length. See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L... penduletin.. quercitrin.. CALENDULA.. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present.5 to 4 cm in diameter. Mexican... Constituents Flavonoids. luteolin.... or Sierra Leone Pepper.... taste acidulous and mucilaginous....C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia.. isorhamnetin-glucoside. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments. herby odor... dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper..
yellow. The fruits vary greatly in size. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. gray. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The taste is pungent and warming. and greenish-red. The odor is aromatic. Capsicum is a berry. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The Mexican variety is deep red. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. The apex is acuminate or acute. the African variety is yellowish-brown. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. or is free from these. and brown. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. the Nyassaland variety is red. red. The seeds are compressed and pointed. yellow. The epicarp is thin and tough.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America.
branched. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. and vitamins A and C.29%). Bear Wood. counter-irritant. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. keeping it smooth and soft. geraniol. antiseptic. hairy stem. etc. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. After. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. daucol. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. segmented. leaves. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. jaborandi. naturalized in North America. and perfumes up to 0. detergents. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. Buckthorn. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. and others. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18.4%. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. is obtained by steam distillation. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. geranyl acetate. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. Asia. Sacred Bark. and North America. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. colocynth. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. -pinene. carotene capsanthin. creams. lotions. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). CARROT Daucus carota L. Chittem Bark. fatty acids. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. flavonoids. It has a long tap root. Bitter Bark. rubefacient used for neuralgia. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rheumatic pains.
B. 1974. 12th ed. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. and Evans. 5. B = 10 R = OH.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. London. 2. Trease.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. emodin oxanthrone. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A.5 to 5 mm thick. 267. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. chrysophanol. in Pharmacognosy. It is much used as a laxative. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. 1983. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. and emodin in the free state. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives. It is frequently covered with lichen. R = OH. C = 10B. Wagner et al. including those of emodin. odor distinct. Publ. Teil B. In small doses. 1. R = H. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. Bailliere Tindall. it acts as stomach ache treatment. Teil C.and C-glycosidic linkages. D = 10 . 3. C. R = H. 444. aloe-emodin. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels. bryophytes.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. Various diathrones. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). curved pieces or quills of variable length. and D. G. See formula. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. E. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. 1. Naturforsch. W. 2. Description The tree is 4. Two aloins. Z. It gives red color with ammonia TS. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1.. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects.. The bark occurs in flattened. 1974. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. 4. they contain both O. Aloe-emodin. C. and chrysophanol.
citronellal. rounded or ear-shaped at the base... downy. pointed at the apex. from 10 to 20 cm long. thymol). the middle lobe largest.. Br... the upper lip erect and two-cleft. corolla whitish. much branched.CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L.. pungent.... nepetalic acid. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache. petiolate.. dotted with purple. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas.. up to 4 mm in diameter.... Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties. floral leaves small. the larger. tubular.. pale gray-green. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe.. calyx hairy. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect. in dense. lower pair shorter.. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed. carvacol. flowers small. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A... nepetariaside... (geraniol. margin deeply crenate... leaves opposite. taste bitter. Description Top. crenulate. or crushed and broken. from 2 to 7 cm long. methyl-nepetalactone. ovate or oblong.. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East.. limb bilabiate. bract-like. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling... stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip.... Constituents Essential oil. naturalized in North America. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders..... nepetol rosemarinic acid. and aromatic. CENTELLA.. downy beneath. softhairy above.. interrupted spikes... stems quadrangular. the lower spreading and three-cleft.. Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like. nepetalactone. throat dilated. camphor. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen..
6 to 1 cm broad. Pharm.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic.Y.S. J.18%). 7.. 1998. wounds. W. Chin J. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23..D. A. brevilin A. Chem.W. Sept. oblong. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. Y. Yang. beta-gurjunene.. Compositous glandular hairs are also present. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. simple. arnicolides. Lin.7. 204(2). and U. H.85%). 1. Y. 5.5%). florilenslin derivatives. 436. aromatic. Lin.50%). Chun. Y.C. and C..8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes. S.W. S. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide.3 antiprotozoal.W.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. July 26–30. J. Patent 5. 2.B. Campbell. internodes short. the plant has been used to treat colds. Cai.A. longitudinally striated. J. 1988. and alpha-humulene. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. and Mirhom. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells.6-beta-oside. malaria.. 1992..L. D’Amelio. margin dentate.97%). Wu. and rheumatism.98%). Y. and flavonoids.. venation pinate reticulate. triterpenes. 40(5).206. and amoebiasis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Phytotherapy Res. 3272. 3. 1973. the apical cell being elongated filamentous. Stem 0. Odor characteristic. Sankawa. 39(12).C. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. green. Y. H. Lee and J. F. thymol (1.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. helenalin. Phillipson. caryophyllane-2. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns. diarrhea. 1997. Pharm. cylindrical. myrtenol (5. Abstr.T. Aust. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical.. Warhurst.C. and D. asthma. 6. Yang. alternate. plenolin derivatives.1 In Chinese traditional medicine. sessile. Bull. Bull. isoamyl caproate (1. J. 54. Chem. 8(7). skin infections. Y. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. Yang. 22 g. florilenalin-angelate. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. 1994. apex acute. 894. and sternutatory.804. 8. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. U.S. C. Iwakami. nasal allergies. The plant also contains diterpenes. Wu. F.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant. green. Y. Microbiol. UIO. Sankawa. Wright. 1991. 1973–1974. Ebizuka. 6.5 cm in diameter. Pharm.B. G. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1.3 to 0. Mutat. Hu. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. Leaves.23%). T. 1196. Kriby. and U. 97. Ebizuka.I. Res. D’Amelio. 4. and Mirhom.
Odor pleasant. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. corolla white. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. or only a slight membraneous crown. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. three-toothed and four-veined. pappus none. aromatic. see the bibliography at the end of the book. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. bisabolene. farnesol. and pubescent scales. Chamomile contains azulene.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. peduncles light green to brownish-green. Constituents Essential oil. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. anti-inflammatory. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alpha-bisabolol. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. borneol. naturalized in the United States. healing tonic. and without a pappus. chlorogenic acid. creams. hollow receptacles. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. disk-florets tubular. usually reflexed.to 5-ribbed. well over one hundred compounds. perfect. New York southward. chamazulene. etc. apigenins. ray-florets from 10 to 20. and mullein in shampoo rinses. involucre hemispherical. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. For further reading. furfural. calendula. It is a carminative. pistillate. longitudinally furrowed. lotions.5 cm. taste aromatic and bitter. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. matricarin. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. oblanceolate.
3/8 in. restoring. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra.D. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. The flowers normally occur in January through May. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. long. Chaparral is a source of N. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov.. Gobonadorra Greasewood. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. Yellow flowers have five petals. Also used on skin rashes and infections. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. Properties Good for softening.A. The leaves grow in opposite pairs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall.G. It is native to the southwestern United States. and stimulating the skin. Description A resinous.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs.
it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. astringent. quercetin). this has not been thoroughly investigated. will add body to hair. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. it is finely striated and fissured.. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces.CHERRY BARK. bitteralmond-like when moistened. brittle. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. 747. camphor. Merck Index. The fracture is weak.). The outer surface. sedating. south to Florida and Texas. a powerful antioxidant.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. However. gossypetin. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. CHERRY BARK. 5 cm in width. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. The odor is aromatic. if unpeeled. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. is brownish-black.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. tannins. Constituents Aspartic acid. which can be peeled. The taste is astringent and pungent.D. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. and uneven.G. granular and slightly fibrous. partially peeled. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. Properties Soothing.A. 1. and unpeeled. 8th ed. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. phenolic acids. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and 4 mm in thickness. p.
gamma-linolenic acid. All Europe. white bird’s eye. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. long. acute. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. leaves ovate. fatty acids and minerals. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. and facial steams. leafy cymes. swelling. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. with a line of hairs along one side. small capsule. rutin. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. axillary stalks and in terminal. vulnerary. For inflammed eyes. redness of face erysipelas. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. tocopherols. 1⁄6 to 1 in. triterpene gyycosides. flowers white. stems slender. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. psoriasis.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. the uppermost sessile. fruit a many-seeded. the lower petioled. baths. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. satin flower. indolent ulcers. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. rooting at the nodes. coumarins. high. entire. Description A weak. lotions. opposite. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . small. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. carboxylic acids.1 mucilage. annual. saponins. emollient. creeping or ascending. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. Can be used in creams. on slender. Properties Antipruritic.
melissic acid. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients.. Steven Foster.. 2. and conspicuous. 1992.CLOVES 81 1. et Herr. petals spreading.. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches. fragrant. Boca Raton.) Bull. thickets. woody. Duke.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng. densely hairy on both sides.. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard. sores.. CINCHONA. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy)... New York.. it is used for dementia. rubefacient. Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods. and inflammation. chlorogenic acid.. inattentativeness.. Flowers 2 cm. Leung.. A/B... most of Europe... In 1770. grey. mental escape from reality.. clematine.. vitalbiosides. said to have antibiotic properties... Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands. Y.. Carophyllus aromaticus L. protein. hedges.... Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants.. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion... 1996. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L. feather fruit clusters. Fruit with numerous carpels. spreading.. indifference. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba.. each 3 to 10 cm.. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval.. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. 2nd ed.See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L... antiscrofulous properties. June to August. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A robust. Constituents Caffeic acid. each with long styles with dense.. J. white hairs.. in lax terminal and axillary clusters. FL. behenic acid... CRC Press..... Caryophyllum. stalked leaflets..... John Wiley & Sons.. sterols. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters.
. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. Burma. taste pungent and aromatic. with numerous ovules. and Tyler. It lowers blood pressure. and others. Nepal. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. flavonoids. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. glandular-punctate petals.5 mm in length. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. crowded. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic.. J. protein. odor strongly aromatic. ovary twolocular. and incurved. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. carbohydrates. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. antispasmodic. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. Robbers. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root. J. followed by a slight numbness. It is native to India. style 1. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. stamens numerous. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. lipids.K. Speedie. The buds also contain sterols. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. which alternate with the calyx teeth.E. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. and Thailand. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. Sri Lanka. E. vitamins. and somewhat four-angled. 1. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. and has carminative properties. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene.. dark brown. where it is widely cultivated. afterwards very pungent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Williams & Wilkins. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length.
landslides.L. 3. Description Petiole long. pubescent. palmately 5. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. screens. London. R. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. bitter. taste mucilaginous. Properties Emollient.. faintly herbaceous. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. it is said to help relieve asthma. terpene alcohols.to 9-nerved. tussilagone and essential oil.. Constituents Tannins. glabrous above.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. 1996. Chevallier. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . senkirkine. 1998. deeply cordate at the base. ground. minerals. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth. river gravels. flavonoids. blade very brittle. floccose beneath. and smoked like tobacco. When the leaves are dried. mucilage. The younger leaves densely white. carotenoids. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. slightly wrinkled. banks. 83. tussillagine. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. All Europe.. A. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. Odor indistinct. Personal communication. Kronenthal.
antihemorrhagic. It is almost inodorous.. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. watersides. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. hair rinses. I. 944. Autoreg. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. 1. on wounds. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. very hairy. Capassa F. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). ointments. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation.7%). Most of Europe. and lithospermic acids. phenolics.. and Fasulo M. B-sitosterol amino cids. marshes.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. salves. caffeic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Comfrey can be used in creams. shampoos. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers.2–4. asparagine (1–3%). douches.) Comfrey is also an astringent. Menghini A. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. althea. radical leaves are very large. Fillipendula. anti-inflammatory. fractures. alkaloids. Bruiswort. 1987... feebly astringent taste. a very powerful cell proliferent. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). Description The lower. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. aloe. Mascolo N. Healing Herb. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. long. Phytotherapy Res. The powder is green in color. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. and has a mucilaginous. chlorogenic. Knitbone Part Used: Root. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. and demulcent. Blackwort. cone flower. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. up to 10 in.. lotions.P.
456 0.7 0.89 0.93 0.11 25. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.0 100 g 4.07 100.142 0. for cattle Maint.0 1200.14 8.99 1.72 1.01 24.73 28.61 0.0 30.10 0.40 0.2 0.29 44.18 2.0 0.05 0.7 7.58 5.84 4.26 0.79 275. Nutrients Calc.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.480 0.208 100.59 2. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82. energy therms cwt Prod. Dig.624 8.20 0.0 0.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.01 14.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.92 0.19 5. A equiv.78 7.111 1.00 57 34 34 1.037 17.93 0.74 0.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.19 0.41 0.86 49.0 7.59 0.0 3.0 15.47 1.600 0.8 44.085 0.8 2.92 0.0 5.285 0. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.65 0. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.50 1101100.795 0.7 0.14 49.1 Dry matter 30.51 4.30 1.176 0.8 213.10 19600 10 6 28 0.
Bruiswort.. Europe. It is almost inodorous.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L. feebly astringent taste... internally creamy white. creates astringency.. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey. branched. and has a sweetish.. occasionally dark brown in color... riverbanks. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin. Healing Comfrey Herb. mucilaginous. and dark color. horny texture. Blackwort.. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L.. Good when used in burn creams.. reduces inflammation and clotting... It contains a mucilage that is water extractable. often more than 2. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L.. CONE FLOWER..... Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland.... firm.. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark.. *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum... cultivated extensively. externally wrinkled. promotes tissue repair.. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia....5 cm thick and 30 cm long. North Africa. woodland.. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped.
intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. perfumes. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. p-cymene. phenolic acids (caffeic. endocarp of large tabular cells. etc. cremocarp nearly globular. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. mericarps easily separated. each mericarp with five prominent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. flavonoids (quertcetin. frequently with numerous large. geraniol and geranyl acetate. tangentially elongated. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. and flavors. two or three layers of large. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. The essential oil is used in massage oils. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. -terpinene. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. fatty acids. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. deodorants. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. tannin. undulate secondary ribs. limonene. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. coumaric. eliptical oil ducts.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. ferulic). more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. externally light brown or yellowish-brown.). camphor. toilet waters and after shaves. rutin). apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. straight. chlorogenic. toothpaste. Properties Has been used in body lotions. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity.
88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. with slender. heads long-peduncled. Description Annual. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. For aging skin. bracts greenish-yellow. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. Virginia. and various skin complaints. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. marginal corollas funnelform. involucres round-ureolate. about 15 mm high. floccose. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. it is soothing and emollient. or as a compress for tired eyes. more or less floccose. scrapes. ascending branches. British Columbia. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. stem 3 to 7 dm high. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . native of Europe. California. blue. varying to rose or white. Quebec. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. conjunctivitis. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings.
maizeric acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cyanidin glucoside. potassium. segments very slender. CORN SILK Zea mays L. protocyanin. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. vitamin C. Topically very soothing and softening. corn silk. fixed oil.8 m in length. spiral or annular tracheae. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system.2 to 0. stigmasterol. arginine. frequently unequal.4 mm in diameter. cultivated extensively.4 to 3 mm in length. polygalacturonic acids. the upper portion being usually unicellular. the basal trichomes 50. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. cnicin. and 0. tocopherols. minerals. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. Europe. proline. the epidermal cells rectangular. tannin. flavonoids (Maysin). protein. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. saponins. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. cichorin. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. palmitic acid. and from 0. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. spherical nucleus. purplish-red. light green.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. Constituents Acetanapthene. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. yellow or light brown color. and temperate Asia. stigmas bifid. alanine.
. quercetin). Berlin. phenolic acids. yellow......SEE WATERCRESS Description A short.90 CRESS.. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. sunburn.. and 3-gentiotrioside.. tubular yellow flowers. The flowers are tubular. with oval..... flavonoids (gossypetin.. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles. phytosterol.M.. Description This trailing annual has rough stems. 176... dark green fruits... CRESS.. in face creams.. Plant Drug Analysis.. volatile oils. about 1 cm in diameter.. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract. slightly curved.. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging)... and spotted with orange at the throat. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L. S. wrinkled leaves. 1984. According to the German Commission Monograph E. Zgalinski. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis... and for chapped skin or sunburn. For blotchiness of skin. enzyme (primeverase). Properties Stimulate circulation.. campferol dirhamnoside. odor.... broad hairy leaves.. Both the fruit and seeds are employed. fatty acids... cucurbitacins. and coughs... soothing eye compress. Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India... minerals. Springer-Verlag. and E.... p. Constituents Saponins. colds. Taste. Wagner.... sweetish. hairy perennial.. Constituents Vitamins. and refreshing.. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties. 1... amino acids. and cylindrical. astringent. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America. cooling. Blatt... five-lobed. Hydrating... apricot-like.. H.
D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes.5 cm wide. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0.5 cm wide. ending in a spherical secreting cell. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. dark green or brown-green in color. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. and for various skin complaints and eczema. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur.5 to 1. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. Frequent pieces of cut. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. 0. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. with a pronounced midrib. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous.0 cm long and 0. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate.S. where it is a common weed. approximating 90°. naturalized in the United States. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Foreign Dandelion. yellow-brown and sometimes purple. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. Stomata are present in both epidermises.
Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. as a diuretic. Vitamin B and C. It is also considered a blood purifier.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. The white sap has been used to treat warts. the root has been used to treat inflammation. and is especially high in potassium.
passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. whitish bark in which numerous. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. The drug. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). 1. much shriveled. milky latex exudes. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. with concentric rings as in the root. and sterols. it tapers but little below. but often divides into several erect branches. and its derivative taraxacoside. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. becomes tough when slightly moist. where it is a common weed.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. the latter sometimes remains simple. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. flavonoids. which is rather hygroscopic. glucoside. brownish concentric rings of sieve. which toward the upper part. It attains a length of about 30 cm. The dried root is dark brown. porous. a narrow cortex. which have not been found anywhere else. Description The root consists of a simple. surrounded by a thick. the section exhibiting a yellow. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. vitamins and minerals.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. also ca. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. whitish and fleshy within. straight root. It has no odor. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm.1% mucilage. and a layer of cork externally. and the eudesmanolides. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . naturalized in the United States. but a bitter taste. and wrinkled longitudinally. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. carotenoids.
Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. M. procumbide). heavily concentric. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. ursolic acid) phytosterols. claw-like fruit. et al. bitter.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Odor slight. light grey-brown.-C. Lanhers. Antiphlogistic. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. slightly analgesic. 1992. chlorogenic acid. The plant produces bright red flowers. 1. (oleanolic acid. quinones.. 58. triterpenes. with some fan-shaped pieces. occasionally with cavities. hooked.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. Fracture short.5 cm thick. Planta Med. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. Description It has a characteristic large.. rheumatism). polysaccharides. taste astringent. Xylem radiate. polyphenols. flavonoids. 117.
purpurea. E. L. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. Indian head. Part Used: Root..) Nutt. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. Black Sampson. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. Hedgehog Part Used: Root. (Nutt. E. pallida. Moench. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. Scurvy Root. Black Susans.
The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. For example. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. taste sweetish. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. or purplish-brown. burns. When administered orally. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. Odor faint. externally grayish-brown. bark less than 1 mm thick. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. use for snake bite. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. stings.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. wounds.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. or furrowed. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. or poisonous insects. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. blood purification. light brown. wound healing. etc. bed sores. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sieve tissue in radial rows. fracture short. fibrous. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. bites. ulcers. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. boils. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. slightly annulate in the upper portion. aromatic. cylindrical.
indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1.ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities. A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii). Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Interferon-B2.3 Furthermore. interleukin-1 (IL-1). It also increases T-cell proliferation. TNF-X.
isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea. Present in both E. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These include the following: – Caffeic acid.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. pallida. chlorogenic acid. arabinoga lactan). ferulates of tartaric. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. but practically absent in E. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid.. pyrrolizidine alkaloids.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood.4Z-diene8. angustifolia). – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0.8Z. in vivo. purpurea (0.10E)-tetraenoic acid).7% (except in E.6–2.3–1.g.1%).4E. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans.. which is useful for species identification.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid. isobutylamide of undeca (2E. Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. including an essential oil. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. These include aliphatic amides. • Polysaccharides. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. – The mono. angustifolia.g.5 Furthermore. In E. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. purpurea and E. albicans pathogens. angustifolia. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus. purpurea)]. their respective structures and levels are slightly different.
353-364. and H.E. J. Immuno Pharmacol. 1988. 3. Wagner. S.-L. J. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . E. 1989 2. G.H. Vet. Loesch. Becker. Gifford. and M. 1991. I.. J. and R. Lohmann-Matthes. Roesler. Cheminat. Holger. A. 81(8). Schranner. Natl. 38(2). Wagner. Jurcic. 4. Ser. Phytochemistry. 27(9). C. B. Bauer. Intn. Ger Offen De 3. K. 1988. M.. Christiane.345. 6. Andreas. Cancer Inst. H. 27-38. Wagner. Wagner.. H. K. 5. R. (Bethesda). J.. J.744. 36(5). Steinmueller. Lohmann. Brouillard. 13(1). 1989.ECHINACEA 99 1. 669-675. N. Wuerdinger.Matthes. M. O. Klumpp and U. H. 1989. Albrecht. 276-281. Zenk.. Zawatzky. B. Puhlmann. 2787-2794. Luettig.. and J.L. Arzneim-Forsch. Med. R.
yellow. covered with finely punctate markings. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. five-lobed. stamens five. soreness. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin.023 mm in diameter. sambunigrin). joint stiffness etc. Description Small. shriveled. minerals. slender anthers oblong. and tannins. sterols. filaments. calyx superior. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. taste slightly bitter. rutin. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin.and beta-amyrin). Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. It is said to reduce swellings. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. south to Florida and Texas. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. volatile oils. from 2 to 3 mm in width. inflammation. triterpenes (alpha. tumors. flat or slightly campanulate.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . regularly five-lobed. mucilage. having three pores and up to 0. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. astragalin. ursolic acid. rotate. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree.
up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. fracture short and horny. taste acrid. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. and catarrh. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. and pungent.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. Scabwort. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. south to North Carolina. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. itching skin. and separated by large intercellular spaces. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark.5 cm in diameter. Odor aromatic. frequently curved or irregularly curled. naturalized in northeastern North America. bitter. west to Missouri. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. wounds. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. up to 13 cm in length and 1. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals.) strongly lignified wood fibers. central Europe. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. asthma. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. and rashes. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. roots cylindrical and tapering. as a bactericide. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma.
germacrene-D-lactose). Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. sterols. polyacetylene. isolantolactone. friedelin). inulin. triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate.
leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . has a bitter and astringent taste. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. 1 ⁄6 to in. high. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. The stem is erect and wiry. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. obtuse bracts which are white. or with many opposite branches. and at other times pointed and narrow. Europe. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. broad. always deeply cut-in teeth. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. green above. heads numerous. odor characteristically aromatic. heaths. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). small. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. The leaves are sometimes almost round. either unbranched in small specimens. resin. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. Hemostatic. woolly beneath. It is odorless. sessile. however. long and about in. essential oil. Astringent tonic. Description It is an elegant little annual plant. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. revolute or undulate. taste bitter and aromatic. woodland. Description Stems white-woolly. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. Also has slight Anodyne properties. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. and phytosterin. their margins. but sometimes tinged with brown. Constituents Tannins. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. 2 to 8 in. febrifuge.
gallotannins. inflammation of the eyelid. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . poultices. and various skin conditions. Constituents Aucubin. and a volatile oil. ferulic acid. including aucubin. Euphrasia contains glycosides. luproside.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. caffeic acid. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. conjunctivitis. lotions or drops for eye complaints. catapol. inflamation of the blood vessels. geniposide. minerals.
light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. dorsal surface convex.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. United States. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. composed of polygonal cells. brown walls. south to Florida and Texas. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. New Jersey. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. making usually six oil ducts in all. strongly lignified fibers. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. more or less curved. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. It is * Formerly CTFA. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. Description Mericarps usually separate.5 mm in breadth. conical stylopod. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. For use in eye washes. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil.
including -pinene. the radicle being accumbent. cultivated in India. The odor of Fenugreek. the fruits contain a fixed oil. However. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. protein. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. and limonene. and Turkey. and flattened. Soaked in water. Nearly in the center of one of the long. yellowish-brown. Pakistan. especially if powdered. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. -phellandrene. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. they are hard. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. In addition. and 2 mm thick. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. translucent endosperm. is strong and spicy. there are methylchavicol. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. the taste is disagreeable and oily. and flavonoids. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. 2 to 3 mm wide. horny. anisaldehyde.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. organic acids. In addition. the former appearing as a whitish point. Israel. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. dark.
and banks. flowering from July to October. Square stalk. wounds. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. and various skin irritations. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. trigofoenoside A-G. swollen glands.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. choline. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. mucin. glycine. glutamic acid. A poultice has been employed for gout. fenugreakin. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. aspartic acid. Scrofula plant. yamogenin. sores. Constituents Dioscin. hedges. choline. trigonelline. histidine. in woods. damp copses. It is also used as a galactagogue. tumors. Fenugreek contains mucilage. cystine. mucilage. neurosis. diosgenin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
ovate-oblong. with a leafy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2 to 4 ft in height. acute. forked. alkaloids and flavonoids. thyrsoid panicles. ovate. dark purple. obtuse. of a deep-green color. whitish. anodyne. acutish or broadly cordate at base. 3 to 4 in. The flowers are small. hesperetin. lecithin. rounded. The calyx is in five segments. quadrangular. slightly drooping. sublabiate. with a livid purple lip. petiolate. ovoid. veined. smooth stem. the limb contracted. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. having a green scale or sterile filament. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. the corolla of a dull green color. erect. and subglobose. tuberous. or the upper lanceolate. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. Constituents Saponins.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. The leaves are opposite. which are broadly ovate. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. cardio-active glycosides. adnate to the upper side. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. cleansing. and slightly margined. in length. with paniculate. and circulatory stimulant. on axillary and terminal. and 3 to 7 in. long. opposite branches above. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. and knotty root. sharply and unequally serrated.
G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. including psoriasis. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. fatty acids. sterols. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. and n-alkanes. tapering to the base. in length. and bitter taste. Stinging Nettle. numerous and scattered. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. and midrib. mucronate. or eights. succulent plant. with a weak. with hooked prickles. coumarins. these plants have an unpleasant odor. quadrangular. stamens 4 and short. and flowering from June to September. and is hairy at the joints.or 2-flowered. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. astringent. but are inodorous when dried. GARLIC Allium sativum L. verticillate in sixes. small. phenolic acids. The fruit is large and bristly. In a green state. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. and along banks of rivers. flavonoids. cleansing. procumbent. corolla rotate and 4-parted. tannins. Calyx 4-toothed. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Iridoid glucosides. and Burdock. Description Galium aparine is an annual. moist thickets. growing in cultivated grounds. and astringent. the flowers white. retrorsely prickled stem. the peduncles are axillary and 1. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. styles 2. Catch-weed. 2 or 3 lines in width. and rough on the margins. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. with an acidulous. sevens.
The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. scordinins. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. Constituents Sulfur compounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Cosmetically. (alliin. peptides. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. about 0. expectorant. Garlic does not lend itself. membranaceous scales. dry leaf. base truncate. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. antiviral. antiseptic. and acne. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. pimples. allicin — dialltrisulfide. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. with 8 to 15 bulbils. promotes leucocytosis. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. sores.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. Vitamins A. and fructans. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. However. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. each bulbil covered by whitish. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. The membranaceous scales. hypotensive and anthelmintic. and E. in place of butter. the outer surface convex. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. It has been applied successfully to swellings. apex acute. bacteriostatic. compound. Internally. for obvious reasons. membranaceous. and attached to a flattened circular base. B. taste intensely pungent and persistent. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. C. Garlic is diaphoretic.750 mm in diameter. surrounded by whitish. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. Description Bulb subglobular. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. scale-like leaves. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. cultivated extensively. spasmolytic. g-glutamyl). trace minerals. Italy is a large producer. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells.
The taste is first sweet. cleansing. These roots measure up to 8. xanthones. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. anti-inflammatory. that of the root. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. and alkaloids (gentiamine). Properties Gentian is an astringent. phenolic acids. volatile oils. polysaccharide. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. It is recommended for loss of appetite. and to 37 mm in diameter. but are usually shorter. then strongly bitter. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside.5 dm in length. bitter. amarogentin. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and cholagogue. The odor is aromatic. gastric stimulant. swertiamarin). Cranesbill. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. The cambiam zone is dark brown. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. sialagogue. sweroside. and middle western United States. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. but pliable when it is moist. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem.
Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.
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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome
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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.
Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.
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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root
Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.
Ginseng root (american) cultivated
Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its
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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.
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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.
GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves
Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.
Golden rod (Solidago)
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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome
Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.
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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.
GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part
Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near
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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin
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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.
GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit
Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract
Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.
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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.
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which can be used in various sun-care products. ferulic). tannins (catechins. theophylline). shampoos. creams. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. theobromine. etc. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. and phenolic acids (caffeic.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gallo catechins). hair rinses.. lotions. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. conditioning.
The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. fatty acids. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. sores. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. catechin. Description The fruits are small berries. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. phenolic acids. and frost bite. purple-brown to brown in color. and central and northern Asia. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. Monogyna (jacq. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers.) C. it has been used as a wash for itching. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. with five parts. quercetin and glucosides). and dimeric procyanidin. and externally wrinkled.C. vitexin glucosides. Medically. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. Externally. Properties Flowers. leaves. Cosmetically.
Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. Persia. 319. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. Sci. 51. 1 to 2 cm wide. India. with occasional stems and brown. brown. l. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. decoction orange-brown. astringent. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. Della Loggia. 1983. small. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. fading on the addition of acid. 2 to 3 cm long. opposite. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. etc. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. It will not impart any color to the hair. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. R. 4-napthoquinone). It is also said to be cooling. et al. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. However. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and decolorized by a special extraction process. Arabia. It can be used in shampoos. Description Leaves greenish-brown. shortly petiolate.. (2-hydroxy. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. often imported in coarse powder. tapering at the base. Calendula. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. triangular pitted seeds. fruit. however. simple. Pharm. in an aqueous solution. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. entire. as henna.. It will add body and highlights to hair. acids destroy its properties. Chamomile. and conditioners. glabrous. hair rinses. deepening with alkalies.126 HENNA 1. oblong or broadly lanceolate. mucronate.
and New Zealand. and semi-solid on keeping. Australia. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. flavonoids.4-napthoquinone). fatty acids. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. luteolin). various parts of Africa. phenolic acid. It becomes partially crystalline. Honey obtained from heather. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. Chile. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. California. and tannins. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. (glucosides of apigenin. translucent. Description Honey is a viscid. orange blossom. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste.
*INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. formic acid. ringworm. Useful in treatment of dandruff. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. Hops is a strobulus. and discoloration. lupulone. and alleviates pain and itching.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. one margin is flat. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). It contains small quantities of sucrose. Bark Bongay. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. will give body to the hair. tetters. wax. In combination with Chamomile. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. Asia. Hops is a sedative. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. and hair conditioning. hypnotic. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. dextrin. and tannins. consisting mainly of humulene.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. tannins. The taste is pungent and bitter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. The individual bracts are thin and papery.brown. humulene. The odor is aromatic. bitter principles. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. xanthahumol). It has been used on crural ulcers. The strobiles measure 5. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. sores. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. bactericidal. face creams. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. and pollen grains. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. it will reduce swellings. the veins are elevated. volatile oil. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin).
fawn-colored. compressed. aesculin). iron gives a green precipitate. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. The plant has long. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. and hemorrhoids. when dry. large rough leaves. from 1 to 1 in. vasoconstrictor.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. tendonitis. and swellings. Gaertn et Schert. The internal portion is starchy. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. and tannin. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Increases venous tone. bitter taste. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. The bark is thin. nearly an inch in diameter. with a shining. phlebitis. hand creams. and non-astringent. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. The nut.25–0. Constituents Saponins (aescin. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. lotions. peculiar odor. quercetin). Anti-inflammatory. The root has antimicrobial properties. is subglobular. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. in diameter. fleshy roots. and has an unpleasant. varicose veins. bitter taste. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. increases circulation. The aqueous infusion is bitter. stimulates digestion and circulation. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. yellowish-white in color. Properties Cosmetically. Description A perennial . is nearly odorless. The nut has a slight. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. phenolic acids. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. sprains and various sports injuries. It has been used in cellulitis.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. The inner bark has a rough. Properties Astringent. and slimming products. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. chestnut-brown testa.
teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Alaska. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. 5 to 10 mm. and Eurasia. branched. 2 to 3 mm. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. 1 to 3. yields 0.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. solid. thick. 2 to 4 cm long. South Carolina. Greenland. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. high. However. high. causing the skin to blister. sterile stems decumbent to erect.5 dm. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. mostly with sterile spores. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. thick. cones peduncled. rarely with a few branches. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. California. 10 to 14 furrowed. after crushing and moistening. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. acuminate. branches 3 to 4 angled. greasy skin.5 dm. which would validate its use on blemished. as the fresh juice can be irritating. However.
woody at the base. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. rather thick. punctate. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. seldom white. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sessile. anthers with linear divaricating cells. kaempferol. very much branched. Upper lip of the corolla. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. erect.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. lower lip trifid. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. scarcely shorter than the calyx. protruding. spreading. The flowers are bluish-purple. second whorls. acute. astringent. flat. acute. minerals. entire. Will add strength and sheen to hair. southern Europe. healing. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. sometimes elliptical. sunny sites. emarginate. and borne in racemose. and diverging. Used for putrid wounds. saponin (equisetonin). or lanceolate. and equistetolic acid. Stamens 4. but smaller. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. apigenin). and 1 to 2 ft in height. flat. palustrine alkaloid. with the middle of the corolla erect. green on each side. It is diuretic. sometimes narrower. silicic acid. The leaves are opposite. the branches are rod-like. and 1 ribbed underneath. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. spreading. gangrenous ulcers. phenolic acids. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. emarginate. with the middle obe larger. Its stems are quadrangular. usually oblong-linear. and external bleeding.
ursolic acid. phenolic acids. gum.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. Constituents Volatile oil. and resin. Tannin. flavonoid glycosides. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. marrubin. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. oleanic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
creeping stem. marubiin. gray. cordatereniform. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. The leaves are petiolate. about three together in axillary whorls. curved. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. roundish. crenate. The calyx is long. with a prostrate. radicating at base. hairy. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. decongesting tonic.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. North America. opposite. luteolin [cynaroside]. volatile oil. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. forming the appearance of a cross. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . though often purplish beneath. the upper being the largest. * Formerly CTFA. with a varegated throat. phenolic acids. square. Europe to Caucasus. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. villous. hairy herb. Also useful in cough preparations. the limb oblique. amino acids. and glaucous on both sides. The flowers are bluish-purple. The floral leaves are of the same form. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells.
However. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. aromatic odor. anthelmintic. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. control of cellulite. exudes from the incised bark. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. and when heated emits a pleasant. sun or shade. or Ivy gum). and introduced into North America. antimutagenic. Properties Anti-fungal. Ivy has been used in face packs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. The former possesses a peculiar. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. Europe. Scandinavia. faintly bitter. rather fragrant odor. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. This plant is common all over Europe.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. It is acrid. Description An evergreen climber. molluscicidal. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October.
. malic acid. phenolic acids. flavonoids. hederacoside C (5%).IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides.and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hederacoside. and fatty acids.
stalks. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. The taste is salty and bitter. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. The leaves are compound. dull. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. The upper surface is yellowish-green. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay. The under surface is yellowish-green. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. and stems. smooth. The odor is slight. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. The blades are asymmetric. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and the veins are elevated.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi.5 cm. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin.
widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. and sweat hypersecretion. the terminal leaflet larger. containing benzylacetate. and farnesol. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . skin creams. antiglaucoma agent. isopilocarpine). Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. jaboric acid. tincture of Capsicum. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. It contains pilocarpine. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. conditioners. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. It induces salivary. and mullein as a hair tonic. hair tonics. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. calyx linear. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. hair rinses. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. jaborino. colocynth. isamone. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. Combines well with Nettles. It increases intestinal motility. volatile oil.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. gels. lotions. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. It can be used in shampoos. very sweet-scented flowers. Constituents Essential oil. benzyl alcohol. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. and soaps. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. more than half as long as the corolla tube. pilocarpic acid. eugenol. Leaves opposite. gastric.
Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. potassium. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. (For additional information. benefits the skin. each bearing an expanded blade. Kelp can be used in bath formulae.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. softening. algin. Description Vesicles large. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. see Chapter 7. dissolving. skin care products. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Nourishing. and many trace minerals and micronutrients. Constituents Iodine. hair products. restoring.
Approximately 30 species have been identified. tropical habitats in dry soil. Antimicrobial properties. triterpenoids. and alkaloid.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. creams. wide. The flowers are in branched panicles. and antifungal. analgesic. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. antipyretic. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. antioxidant. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. and lotions. and similar skin problems. shampoos. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. dandruff. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. southern India and Sri Lanka.
Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. Russia. flavonoids. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. taste aromatic. Liquorice Root. giving relief. and cleansers. and close the pores. It is aromatic and astringent. skin creams. southern Europe. distinctive. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. odor fragrant. dilute it with water. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. Sweet Wood. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. and Hungary. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. bacteriastatic. phenolic acids. Constituents Essential oil. skin bleach. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Healing antiseptic.) Burman F. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. cleanse the skin. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). Glycyrrhizae Radix.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. When taken on an empty stomach.
LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. when deprived of the outer corky layer. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. antiphlogistic. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. it is yellow and radiate. and cysts. The upper portion is more or less knotty. Externally. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. antiseptic. antiviral. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. Its odor is distinctive. sometimes split longitudinally. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. its taste is sweetish. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. antihepatotoxic. pruritus. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. including dermatitis. somewhat tapering. Anti-inflammatory. longitudinally wrinkled. Internally. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. Internally. Properties Good for skin eruptions. it is externally pale yellow. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. anti-infectant. eczema. antibacterial.
3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. limestone. and an aroma-rich volatile oil.). etc. licoric acid. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. amines. liquiritigenin. glycyrrhetol. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. On hydrolysis. licoisoflavanone. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. Linn Tree. coumarins.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. White Wood. glabrol. licoricone. liquiritin. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. neoisoliquiritin. B-amyrin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glycyrol. licuraside.).7-dihydoxyflavone. glabrone. isoliquiritin. glyzarin. Europe. formononetin. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. bracts Flowers. licoisoflavones A and B. isoglabrolide. 2 to 20% starch. neoliquiritin. bracts N/S Flowers. 4-hydroxychalcone. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. amino acids. lignin. sterols. echinatin. Basswood. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. gum wax. glabronin etc. etc. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. glabrolide. 4’. rhamnoisoliquiritin. kumatakenin.). licochalcones A and B. bracts N/S Flowers.
Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. Emollient. For bruises and to reduce swelling. when dry. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. When fresh. linear. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. odor is agreeable.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaf-like bract. which are axillary. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. Internally. are oblong or lanceolate. or approach yellow. The petals are five and whitish. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. faint.
caffeic). and resin are also present.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. naturalized in North America. kaempferol). creams. Coumarins.5 to 1. D.0% volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions. Description Lovage has large. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. tannins. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. volatile oil. sterols. The rhizome and root are aromatic. cultivated in central and southern Europe. high amount of uronic acid. Maggi Herb. dark green. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. W.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. gum. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. mucilage. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. and perfumes. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage. The fruit is a cremocarp. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. J. Smallage. phenolic acid (chlorogenic.
blackish. adiantoxide. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. mucilage. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. They consist of long. quinic acid. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. primary forks. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . first into two recurving. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. and then into several spreading pinnae. and shining frond bases. tannin. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. slender.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. phenolic acids and their sulfates. The odor is slight. Properties In rinses. pedately branching at the summit. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. Constituents Adiantone. The rhizomes are horizontal. astragalin. and with blackish roots.
malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. Mary-bud. The blade is cordate at the base. blotchiness. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. greenish-gray bracts. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. The taste is mucilaginous. The individual flowers are yellow. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. niacin. The flower heads have a short. mostly ligulate. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Relieves itching. and insect bites. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. These flowers are oblanceolate. Emollient for sensitive skin. Holligold. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. and fruits. The texture is herbaceous. the veins are elevated.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. distinct. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. curved peduncle. Properties Soothing and softening. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. Useful in eye preparations. flowers. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. Medicinally used in cough preparations. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. British Columbia to Mexico. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. spasmodic colitis. and phenolic acids. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. thick. the veins are palmate. The odor is not distinct. protective. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. hairy. naturalized in North America. and slightly elevated.
The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.
MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root
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yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops
Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.
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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.
MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root
Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.
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Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb
Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)
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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers
Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied
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to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin
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and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. Myrrh is used in incense. sore throats. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. mildly expectorant. The taste is pungent. It is said to bring forth the gods. diuretic. and acrid. The odor is aromatic. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. It is said to promote granulation. carminative. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. powdery. for example. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. antifungal. engler) The surface is dull.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. The fracture is conchoidal. diaphoretic. and anti-inflammatory. Used for halitosis. bitter. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. camphene. and nerol).2 to 0. and blue-black berries. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. cineole. creamy white flowers. geraniol. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. on bruises and hemorrhoids. Constituents Yields 0.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange.
Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant.. Description This plant is a perennial.. common to Europe and the United States. and in gardens.. choline. herbaceous. nervous eczema. and isorhamnetin).... beta-carotene... formic and citric acids. Stimulates hair growth. sterols. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic. by woodsides. and for cutaneous eruptions.... Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant.... Nettles has been used as an astringent.. minerals (high amount)..N NASTURTIUM . amines (histamine.. See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L.. Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll.. dull-green plant... Urtica urens L. and epistaxis malaena. growing in waste places. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy... kaempferol. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. flowering from June to September.... serotonin). (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle. acetyl choline. in hedges.. which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed..
at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet.O OATS Avena sativa L. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. rarely. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . two-veined palet or scale. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. the apex pointed. tapering toward each end. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. taste starchy. above the center.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. Odor slight. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. up to 1. Florida. a scar or. within the groove a narrow. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. Texas. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. and the Yukon. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. thinly membranous. the base somewhat contracted.
lignified. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. pointed hairs. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. avenacin). bent here and there. these are elongated thick-walled. subsessile. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). elliptical stomata up to about 0. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. The drug tastes bitter. Description The tree is small. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. less heavily developed tissue. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. shingles. polyphenols. lignified walls. the cells filled with protein. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. rarely over 25 ft in height. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. some of which give rise to unicellular. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. Medically. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. highly refringent and truncate. Properties Benefits the skin. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. straight or slightly curved. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. eczema. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. The leaves are opposite.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. entire and coriaceous. and herpes. partially beaded. sleeplessness.
oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. 57. 58. antifungal. A. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. few of them have been studied experimentally. 513. et al. Planta Med. et al.. M. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. 2. hypoglycemic. Zarzuelo. and antimicrobial.2 m high. hypotensive. 7. ll-demethyl oleuropein. 1991.. 417. also hollow. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem).11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. ligustroside. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. ONION Allium cepa L. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. Planta Med.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. 1992... diuretic. up to about 1. yellow globe. and red globe onions. 1. hypoglycemic. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. Gonzalez.
and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. Flowers. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. 7 to 8 cm globular. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. oblong-oval. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. alkyl and alkenylcysteines. Description Leaves. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. very sweet-scented. acute. reddish-orange. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with bitter rind and sour flesh. white. fructans. introduced to Europe. 1-propenesulfenic acid. Fruit. 2 to 2 cm long.
2 to 0.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. neohesperidose (2-0. inner surface whitish. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acutely pointed pieces (quarters). such as hesperidin. Constituents Essential oil (ca. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. considerable amounts of pectin. non-bitter flavonoids. and bitter substances. nobiletin. flavonoids. rutoside. conical projections and linear. short.5%). outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. the sugar component of which. taste aromatic and bitter. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. fracture hard. with many slight. with limonene as main constituent. minute pits. used for oily skin and acne. 0. tangeretin. somewhat curved. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. aromatic wash. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. var. furanocoumarins. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. more astringent than rose water. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. odor fragrant and aromatic. It is also given internally.
Sweet orange peel Description The outer. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. It is also an aromatic. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. sinensis Osbeck. and hesperidin. quercetin. Cultivated in Florida and California. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. sinensis L. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. citronellal. taste pungently aromatic. odor fragrant. naringin. skin creams for its flavonoids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . citral. bitter and carminative. globules of volatile oil. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. Flavonoids. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells.
*INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. eczema. Monograph 6. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. but often palmately lobed with a larger. Exerpt from German Commission E. scoparine. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. stipules variable. Properties Used as a healing tonic. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. but sometimes up to twice as long. pruritus. and carotenoids. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. leafy. spur short. antipyretic. arabinose. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. acne. saponins.g. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. flavonoids. magnesium tartrate. anti-inflammatory. meadows. tannin. Petals usually longer than the sepals. p-coumaric acid. tocopherol. Description Flowers mostly tricolored. e. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. rheumatism. anthocyanidin glycosides. gaultherin. impetigo.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. violutoside. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid.. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. rutin. Constituents Essential oil. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. very variable in size. mucilage. galacturonic acid. Leaves variable.
palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. with large. edible berry up to about 15 lb. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). Naturalized in southern Florida. and minerals. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. which resembles sinigrin. carpinine (an alkaloid). shampoos. staminate and pistillate flowers. long petioled. C14H2502N. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. vitamins. etc. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. Carpaine. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. The fruit is a large melon-like.
and B. Veget. p = parenchyma. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation.F. (After T. taste woody and characteristic. Vent. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins.2-benzenediol. ms = latex tubes. Regn. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. Kr´ = crystal rosettes.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. kr = individual crystals. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Odor faint.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. Tabl. q = group of large fibers. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. m = outer lamella. papyrifora. margin dentate to crenate.
spasmolytic. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. apiin. diuretic. antirheumatic. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. Other parts of the plant contain 0. taste faintly sweet. France. fruit. P. aromatic. p-mentha-1. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. and antimicrobial. isopimpenillin. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. expectorant. and others. Furocoumarins including bergapten. ex A. sativum. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. stout. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .05 to 0. Belgium. above-ground herb. Germany.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). and starch. hortense. fruit.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. psoralen. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. Odor characteristic. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. compound umbels. apiole (18%). 8-methoxypsoralen. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. B-phellandrene (12%).) Nym. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. above-ground herb. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. Apium petroselinum.8-triene (9%). extensively cultivated in California. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp.3. The tap root is fusiform. green. and Hungary. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. (Mill. W.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. emmenagogue. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. and imperatorin.
They measure up to 9. and solid or hollow. The blade measures up to 7. ursolic acid. The apex is acute. four-lobed above. The under surface is light green. The cortex and wood are thin. The calyx is campanulate.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. hair tonics. The fracture is tough and incomplete. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. The under surface is light green. large. the leaves are opposite decussate. antiseptic. flavonoids (luteolin. naturalized in North America. interrupted spikes. and minerals. The margin is sharply serrate. carminative. tonic. broad. rosemarinic). cineole. south to Florida and Alabama. The pith is white. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. the texture is fibrous. The nodes are enlarged. and the veins are slightly depressed. The outline is quadrangular. and the color varies from green to purple. and the veins are slightly depressed. The odor is aromatic. mildly sedative. cholagogue.3 cm in width. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . spasmolytic. The stems are simple or branched. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content.5 cm in length and to 3. The corolla is united and tubular below. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. chlorogenic. as it contains flavonoids. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. its color varies from light to dark purple. its five teeth are subulate. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. The bracts are lanceolate. the internodes are of variable length. phenolic acids (caffeic. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. The flowers are arranged in dense. rutin. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. sitosterols. menthofuran. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. triterpenes. menthone (10 to 40%). cultivated in Japan and the United States. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. and the veins are more prominent. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). hesperidin). Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). Properties Stimulant. notably viridoflorol.
Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). 1 to 6 dm long. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. flavonoids. shining. truncate. the lobes obovate. Vinca contains vincamine. as well as Europe. leaves ovate to oblong. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. native of Europe. tannins. hypotensive. Has also been used to stop external bleeding. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. firm. Description Stem spreading. corolla blue. and ursolic acid. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. trailing. astringent.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Used as a hemostatic. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. 1. dark green. vulnerary sedative. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. hypoglycemic. vasodilator. in Connecticut. and Georgia. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. a standardized extract should be used. they are different. Minnesota. entire. however.5 to 3 cm broad. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea.
PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. quercetin. very small. moist places. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. Vessels are absent. long. pinitol. tannins. leaving smooth surfaces. which are the medullary rays. five.35 to 0. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. and insect bites. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. and in grass plats. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. dark band of autumn wood. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. imbricated. The stamens and styles are long. parahydroxybenzoic acid. it has a density varying from about 0. arising from a fibrous root. the seeds numerous. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. dihydroquercetin.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. Plantago major L. in fields. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. n-nonacosane.to seven-nerved. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. The leaves are ovate. malonic acid.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. numerous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. growing in rich. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. Constituents Contains oils. campesterol. channeled petiole. The medullary rays. quinic acid. swellings. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. abietic acid. shikimic acid. Ripple-grass. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. smoothish. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. pinnicorretin. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. aromatics. Properties Astringent. raffinose sequoyitol. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. by the roadsides. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. The flowers are white. balsamic. and applied to sores. ferulic acid. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. In a radial surface. and is common in Europe and America. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. cuts. and abruptly narrowed into a long. somewhat toothed. It flowers from May to October.
aucubin. polysaccharides. catapol. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. Constituents Mucilage. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. tannins. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). fixed oil (linoleic. apparently. asperuloside. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. for healing. balcalin. and palmitic acids). Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sterols. allantoin. and for cell proliferation. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. oleic. they both have the same virtues. essential oils. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. apigenin. and phenolic acids.
2.. 32(1).PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial.F. Sch. pinocembrin.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. Hiadon B. 30(1). 1990. fungicidal. Stickley Co. ArnzneimittleForschung. 1. 3.. Nihon Univ. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester. J.E. and anti-inflammatory.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. galagin.. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. 4. pollen. and pinobanksin. antiviral.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro.. Dent.. and caffeic acid. 1847. et al. de Carvalho Ac. Tyler. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. Philadelphia. The New Honest Herbal. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . wax. G. 1980. V.2 Constituents Resin. galangin. essential oils.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. and pinobanksin). and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. balsam. 1987. Magro Filboo.
taste very acrid and unpleasant. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. Description In flat pieces of variable size. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. these species appear to resemble that of Q. fracture uneven. inner surface yellowish-brown. Smegmandermos deC. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. channels. Upon microscopic examination. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. finely wrinkled. Bolivia. and Peru. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. longitudinally striate. coarsely fibrous. odor slight sternutatory. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. * Formerly CTFA. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. Historically. outer surface nearly white. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. and occasional circular depressions.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. conical projections or transverse. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful.
and volatile oils. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. a neutral saponin. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). free acids (quinic acid).8 dm in length. The odor is not distinct. gypsogenin. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. tannins. quinamine). The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. The fracture is tough and uneven. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. and to 6 mm in diameter. calcium oxalate sugars. or compound quilled. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. quilled. Internally. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. Ecuador. quinine and quinidine. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. The bark is flat or chip-like. which is nearly always chip-like. cinchonine. its important alkaloids. partially quilled. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. Remineralizing protein. to 7 cm in width. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . uronic acids. are used. quillaic acid (C19H30O10).176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. The root. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. cinchonidine. quinidine. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. shallowly fissured transversely. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. overlapping quilled.
Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. ovoid or oblong. It is also used as a suspending agent. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. being coated with mucilage. triangularly compressed. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. present in the epidermis of the testa. with water. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together.
Medicinally. benzyl alcohol. stamens diadelphous (nine and one).R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. taste sweetish. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. and esters. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. volatile oil. biochanin A. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. Constituents Flavonoids. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. * Formerly CTFA. contains over 40 compounds. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. style slender. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. tapering. phenolic acids. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. petals united into a tube below. calyx teeth subulate. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. shriveled. and furfural. starch. Properties Historically. eugenol. Mildly anti-spasmodic. sitosterol. including methyl salicylate. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . then slightly bitter. genistein. purplish and more or less brown from drying. fatty acids. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. phenolic acids. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. volatile oil. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. daidzein. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth.
with a short. Properties Soothing. inflorescence short-racemose. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. armed with bristles or weak prickles. They have.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. dark violet claw. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. they are smooth and shining above. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. erect. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. double-serrate. when fresh. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. fruit red. Description Stem biennial. ovate. Maine. etc. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. such as hand creams. doubtfully indigenous to England. The numerous veins run from the base toward. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and are then employed in the fresh state. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. light-colored. shortacuminate. thimble-shaped. lotions. Quinoline alkaloids. with an entire margin. finely tomentose when young. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. By drying.15 to 0. emollient. rounded or cordate at the base. Rhode Island. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. leaving a space about 0. mainly rhoeadine. somewhat smaller. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. hair rinse. and Minnesota.
riboflavin. Dried and whole. Ling-Zhi (Chin. Ergosterol derivatives. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. Japan. it comes in various sizes and shapes. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. B. mouth ulcers. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. minerals. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. nervousness. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. Internally. gallic acid. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes.). lactic acid. granoderan A. and inflammations. fragarine. Happy Herb. Constituents Polysaccharides. and chest and heart diseases. and C. Auspicious Herb. and antibacterial properties. and North American coastal rainforests. ellagic acid. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. malic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. antioxidant. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. A series of tritepenoids. protein.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. China. insomnia. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. consult a qualified physician before using. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. and beta-carotene. succinic acid. have been isolated. thiamine. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. Miraculous chi. Constituents Ascorbic acid. hepatitis. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. Note: However.
*INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. The color is dull reddish-brown. The texture of the cortex is granular. The taste is astringent. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . very tough and hackly. of the larger roots. of the larger roots. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. and P. fibrous. rough and scaly. of the wood. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. and it tapers into the main root. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. that of the wood. dark reddish-brown. which has numerous branches. The odor is not characteristic.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R.5 cm in diameter at the crown. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9.
about 5 mm wide. to give a good appearance. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. barrel-shaped or conical. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. Within the cambium is a ring. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. after-shave lotions. The smoothed. showing that they are leaf traces. If the trimming has been very severe. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. etc. the cortex has been removed. Dark areas may still be found here and there. In the periphery of the pith. After removing the powder. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. III. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. face creams. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. which when carefully shaved off. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. Constituents Gum. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. immediately within the secondary xylem. mouth wash. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. II.5 mm long. and N-methyltyrosine. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. parenchymatous matrix. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ratanine). there is visible a delicate network of white lines. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. officinale. tannins (proanthocyanidines). in the form of a fine yellow powder.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping.
it is often rhein. In small amounts. astringent taste. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant.Eur. of which many aglycones have been identified. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo.and 7-0-glucosides. the fractured surface. 2. chrysophanol. due to the bitter taste. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. and compact. it is very gritty between the teeth. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. min. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). also (+)-catechin 5. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. heavy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mainly of glycosides based on five 1.5% calculated as rhein). the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones).or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). Barbados. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. A very complex mixture is present. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. and (+)-gallocatechin. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. With its high tannin content. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. (+)-afzelechin. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. Flavonoids. aloeemodin. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. it is used as a stomachic. It is then rinsed out. In most cases. The predominant aglycone varies. when chewed. and physcion. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. This is applied to the hair and left to dry. but in one investigation. the mechanism is described under Aloes. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. rhein.
gallic acid. however.0. l-linalool. Tannins. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. catechins. phenylethyl alcohol. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. One example would be rose water. glycerol. taste sweetish. it can be prepared by using rose oil. Minor constituents are citral. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. approx. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. 5 to 10%. and procyanidins. slightly bitter. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. and traces of carvone. filter. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. free and in combined forms with glucose. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. L. pink. odor fragrant and rose-like. French Rose. and astringent. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia.
ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. xanthophyll. flavonoids. Description The fruit of R. opposite. coriaceous. When combined with various other hair preparations. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. alpha-tocopherol. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. citric acid. mildly astringent. invert sugars.5 to 3. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. and slightly diuretic. boron. malic acid. it will add highlights to light hair. essential oil. Description A bushy. lycopene. The achenes themselves are hairy. sucrose. succinic acid. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . linolenic acid. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. and zeaxanthin. they are refrigerant. leucoanthocyanins. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. protein. rubidium. evergreen. gallocatechin. epicatechin.2 cm wide. much branched. Wild Brier. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. isoquercitrin. linoleic acid. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. vanillin.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. catechin-tannins. tannins. sessile. rubixanthin. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. kaempferol-3-glucoside. capric acid. pectin.5 cm in length and up to 2. magnesium. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. low. Constituents Ascorbic acid.
Topically. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. camphoraceous. hair conditioners. boron. tannin. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. and bitter. margin revolute. stimulant. and showing a prominent midrib. etc. characteristic. The oil is used in fragrances. astringent. flavonoids. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. Constituents Essential oil. rosmarinic acid. glandular-punctate. creams. Properties Tonic. camphor. lotions.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . odor aromatic. taste pungently aromatic. diosmin. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. diaphoretic. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. The extract can be used in shampoos. borneol. protein. it is used to increase circulation. phenolic acids. and triterpenic acids. lower surface wooly.
protein. there arises a grayish. antiseptic. phenolic acids. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. 2 to 10 cm in length. the upper branches bear blue. astringent. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. and disinfectant (against inflammations). odor strongly aromatic on crushing.6 cm in breadth. 1 to 2. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. In early summer. Leaves opposite. beta-sitosterol. salvin. carminative. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. taste aromatic and bitter. to 1 ft high. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. thujone. and tannins. the reticulations being very small.5 cm in length. From an underground fibrous root system. apex acute or obtuse. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. caryophyllene. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. cineole. saponins. Sage Garden Sage. linalool. texture velvet-like. ursolic acid. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. pinene. densely pubescent. much branched. carnosolic acid. long petiolate. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. pubescent stem with branches opposite. lamina elliptical. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). midrib and veins prominent. margin crenulate. venation pinnate-reticulate. petiole up to 4. borneol. estrogenic compounds. camphors. Constituents Volatile oil. base rounded or subcordate. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. stimulating. fungistatic. uneven or lobed. Properties Cosmetically. It is antibacterial. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. flavonoids.
carvings. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. North and South America.and -santalols). It is said to be anti-inflammatory. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. the vessels are mostly solitary. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. and erect. and lotions. but easily split. alterative. o.r. or as a perfume. astringent. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders.973 to 0. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. heavy. gr. hard. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. and similar articles. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. White Sandal Wood. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. –13° to –21°). a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. In Yellow Sandal Wood. Asia Minor. pectoral. depurative. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. wounds. palmately lobed leaves. of which it contains over 90%. hemorrhoids. hemostatic. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. the odor strong and fragrant. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . 0. It is also used in perfumery. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. and inflammed skin.985. and for the manufacture of boxes. Black Snakeroot. and dense.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. L. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. The taste is slightly bitter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. vulnerary. burns. and a stomachic. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe.
SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. Mucilage. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. essential oil. saponin. resin. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and a bitter principle.
5 cm in diameter. from 1.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. smooth and somewhat oily. occasionally compressed. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid. Dark Palmetto. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
such as anorexia nervosa. it is coarsely striated longitudinally. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids. Properties Sabal berries... 1. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown.. They are said to be very nutritious.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota. Tarayre. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp.. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous... The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color.. oleic acid. reddish-brown seed. or as cut and sawed pieces.. and slightly acrid.. J. 559.. Constituents Anthranilic acid. inner layer of endocarp smooth. lauric acid.. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar.. sito sterols.. Ann. Ulmus rubra Muhl.. and incomplete. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. caproic acid.. Pharm. et al.. aromatic. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases.. and to 3 mm in thickness. when cork patches are present. 1983. SEAWEED.. ferulic acid. and stearic acid. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles. The fracture is very strong. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. aromatic. Franc. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity. apex marked by the scar of the style. south to Florida and Texas.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich.... somewhat flattened. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. capric acid. a native of the southern United States. were eaten by the Indians... skin creams. myristic acid. beta-sitosterol.6 dm in thickness. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity. The odor is distinct...7 dm in width. lipase. mannitol.. Odor pronounced. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside. ellipsoidal or ovoid. tough.. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. palmitic acid. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. enclosing a hard.1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions.... arabinose.P. which measure up to 3 dm in length... to 17 cm in width. and lotions. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . to 1. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled. taste sweetish. 41.. and to 1..
starch. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). New Brunswick. tannin (minute). 5 to 8 cm long. New Mexico. boils. Colorado. starch. leaves oval or ovate. hexosan. Massachusetts. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. It can be used to emulsify oil. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. and tannin. Colorado. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. minerals. native from Europe. Nova Scotia. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. Soap Wort produces a gentle. pentosans. Can be used in creams. calyx tubular. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes.2 cm long. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. L-rhamnose. d-galacturonic acid. etc. and Saskatchewan. 3 to 5 ribbed. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. ulcers. healing. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. 1 to 5. hair conditioners. and beta-carotene. stem 3 to 6 dm high. and other beverages. protein. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. polysaccharides. soothing. capsule oblong. and tannins. and wounds. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. lotions. Description Glabrous perennial. Florida. petals pink or white. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. North Carolina. chemicals that foam when added to water. blades obcordate.
twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. leaves. corolla 2 to 2. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. obtuse. astringent. 1 to 3 cm long. Virginia. Properties Used as a nervine. Manitoba. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. with revolute margins. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. flowers cymose. having antibacterial properties. and superficial burns. umbelliferone. emmenagogue. lower leaves petioled. ST.5 cm broad. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. capsule ovoid. John’s Wort ing. uterine tonic. toothed above the middle on one side. 2 to 10 mm wide. poultices. 10 to 12 mm long. British Columbia. isofraxidin. and for skin conditions. rutin. uric acid. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. heads numerous. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. frostbite. tonics. tannin. leaves linear to oblong. 4 to 6 cm long. quebrachitol. St. conditioners. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. disk-florets 15 to 20. glandular-punctate. bruises. California. the outer linear-lanceolate.ST. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. Medically. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. 5 to 10 dm high. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. stimulant. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. disinfectant. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. ray florets about 10. slightly tomentose beneath. scopoletin. petals obovate. and scopolin. and anthelmintic. native to Europe. guanine. caffeic acid. Colorado. antiseptic. the rest broadly oval. choline. and anodyne. acute or acuminate. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. bracts canescent. chlorogenic acid. Constituents Essential oil. Nova Scotia. scarious. etc. Used in aromatic baths.
) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. Newfoundland. protein.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. hypericin-like substances. flavonoids. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. saponin. John’s Wort St. resin sitosterol. phenolic acids. hypericin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Manitoba. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. tannins. and Virginia. New Mexico. hyperoside. mannitol.
5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. rhombic-obovate. quercetin). seldom over 1. very thin. fatty acids. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol.5 dm high. ellagitannins. fruit elongate-ovoid. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. condensed tannins). 5 to 7.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . scape slender. very rarely leafy-bracteate. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. and phenolic acids. very soon glabrate on both sides. seldom much exceeding the leaves. sharply and deeply serrate.5 cm long. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. mostly acute.
Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. 1 to 3 ft high. and spasmolytic. erect stem. tanacetin. tannin. English Cost. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. button-like. somewhat reddish. Scented Fern. button-like flowers. Parsley Fern. * Formerly CTFA.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. The roundish. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. usually smooth. and quercetin. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. The entire leaf is about 6 in. Ginger plant. Bitter buttons. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. phenolic acid. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. Also said to be an insect repellant. carminative. are collected at the time of flowering. anthelminitic. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. flat-topped. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. It has a stout. The leaves and flowering tops. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. and branching near the top. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fern-like leaves and yellow. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. resin. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. sesquiterpenes.
involucral bracts spiny-tipped. either singly or with other ingredients. fruit. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. sparingly branched biennial. 0. streamsides. lice. Over-wintering leaves. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. and the like. while cineole is low (about 2.5 to 2. erect. oral infections. in a flattened rosette. abrasions.0 ml high. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. capsule. burns. thickets. cuts. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. scabies. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. constantly renewable tree.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. abrasions. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. insect bites. athlete’s foot. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. terpinene. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. including treatments for sunburn. and Australia. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. boils. New South Wales. bronchial congestion. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. sore throat. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. ringworm. lanceolate. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Tea tree is a fast growing. Description A stiff. It is found in numerous product forms. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. and dense. and vaginal infections. pimples. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. upcurved. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. cymene). stings. with a broad range of health claims. conical. Bark.5%). spongy.
Description Leaves spiny.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. Flowerheads rayless. TX. Ed. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. glucosides. taxifolin). Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). stems. and magnesium. Foster. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. entire or toothed. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. St. quercetin. 1955. flavonoids (keampferol.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. S. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. The root and root stock are short and erect. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. It is said to contain saponins. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. Taste and odor. Mary Thistle.. and tannins. rare in Britain. Austin. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. Blessed Milk Thistle. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. Also used in homeopathy. purple. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. The injection gives better results. yellow spines. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). fatty acids. American Botanical Councin. both orally and also by intravenous injection. dark green.
hair tonics. leaves two-pinnatifid. lobed. cyclohexanol. diarrhea. corolla yellow. vitamins. Properties Fruit: astringent. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. red or yellow. menstrual disorder. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. acne. from 2. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. Colorado. and reddish within. Constituents Proteins. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . -hydroxy acids. subglobose. branching and more or less curved. much branched. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. lycopene. Florida.5 cm thick. It can be incorporated into shampoos. mouth rinse. brown or blackish externally.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. It can be employed in creams.5 to 1. sensitive skin. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. ellipsoid. antihemorrhagic. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L. minerals. rinses. fruit through cultivation very variable. flavonoids. sore gums. New York. etc. conditioners. cystine. Texas. lotions. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. to add sheen. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. 0. and from 0. aspartic acid. facial muds. glutamic acid. somewhat fusiform. and California. 10 to 15 mm broad. abscisic acid. styptic. glucose. gargles. stem 3 to 10 dm high. and dentate.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. Description Viscid-pubescent. and sore throats. and phytosterols. glycine.5 to 8 cm long. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. that can be used for hemorrhoids.5 to 10%. ascorbic acid. or pear-shaped. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red.
Java. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. and break with a short fracture. Curcuma. China. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. Occasionally. and other tropical countries.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . longitudinally wrinkled.. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. caffeic. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. internally. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. bluntly tapering at each end. Indian Saffron. a red pigment. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. They are hard and heavy. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. tormentillin. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. they bear short knob-like branches. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. quinovic.
it colors the saliva yellow. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. etc. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. and anti-edemic. hypotensive. antifungal. zingiberene. when chewed. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane).. It is also choleretic. monodesmethoxycurcumin. ukonan A. is also present. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. comprising mainly bisabolane. guaiane. curlone.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. ar-turmerone. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). antibacterial. 2-7% essential oil. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and antimutagenic. anti-arthritic. but the coloring matter. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species.
valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). acevaltrate. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. The rhizome is vertical. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. and valepotriates (valtrate. phenolic acids. Pith is white or grayish-white. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. * Formerly CTFA. alkaloids (valerianine. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. actinidine). Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. cultivated in Germany. It is sedative. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. Roots are branched or simple. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. Cortex is thick. valerosidatum). *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. and to 3 mm in diameter. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. pungent. Belgium and England. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. and spasmolytic. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. and baldrinal. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. Constituents Essential oil. The taste is sweet. Wood is small. fatty acids. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. simple or branched. However. central and cylindrical. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. and to 2 cm in diameter. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and disagreeable. isovaltrate. relaxant.
206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Description This rather rough. meadows. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. Verbena officinalis L.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. hastatoside. Simpler’s Joy. caffeic acid. artemitin. long. contraceptive. 4 to 7 feet high. verbenelol. anorexic (appetite suppressant). volatile oil. and against sunburns. verbenalin. Constituents Iridoids. and Arizona. and superficial and limited burns. ursolic acid. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. finely haired herb has an erect. in addition to verbenin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . diuretic. tannin. gout remedy. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. Wild Hyssop. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. four-sided stem. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). False Verbain. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. aucubin. straight. Nebraska.
* Formerly CTFA. scabbing pruritus. The kernel is sweet. scrofula. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. Properties Tonic restorative. gout. irritation of the eyelid. vermifuge. Used for skin complaints. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. The bark varies from nearly smooth. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. rheumatism. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. The leaves are alternate. blisters. astringent. soft and coarse grained. depurative. disinfectant. round-topped. ophthalmia. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. oily. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. eczema. imparipinnate. glandular disturbances. open crown. Juglans nigra L.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. west to Minnesota and Kansas. and varicose ulcers. The wood is light brown. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. styes. deep. *INCI Name . and edible. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. aspartic acid. amino acids. tannin. tyrosine.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. about 2 mm long. South America. methionine. hyperin. threonine. somewhat curved. sepals oblong. high in protein. 5. ellagic acid. A Cure For All Cancers.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. petals white. arginine. -carotene. Externally. tumors. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 4. California. Rubbing on scalp. leucine.. British Columbia. and diastase. histidine. spatulate. 3 mm thick.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. glutamic acid. beak about 1 mm long. protein. proline. phenylalanine. ascorbic acid. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. thiamine. Description Aquatic perennial. 1. it looks rather yellowish. Rheumatism and nervousness.g. tryptophan. its action being both detergent and healing. many trace minerals. about 4 mm long. and kaempferol. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. valine. cystine. Mexico. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). and Europe. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). caffeic acid. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. West Indies. destroying most of its active principles. it will strengthen and thicken hair. glycine. lysine. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. leaves pinnate. fruiting pedicels divaricate. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. alanine. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). folacin. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. biotin. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. Virginia. gluconasturtiin. Clark. lymphatic or edematous swellings. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R.
and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. Durfa Grass. Scutch Grass. Twitch Grass.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. Durfee Grass. Quake Grass. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. westward to Minnesota and Missouri.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. of young grass. Fin’s Grass. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Quitch Grass. Devil’s Grass. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. Dutch Grass. Creeping Wheatgrass. sprouts. Couch Grass. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland.
eczema. externally pale brown. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous.. 6 to 20 mm thick.. bent and branched. insipid. and dried. long. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat.. fracture short but tough. lotions.. often compressed. collected in the spring.. WHITE NETTLES. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist. -carotene. bearing scattered nodular projections. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer. are carefully cleaned. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and stem scars on the upper surface. Over 240 compounds have been identified. creams. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma. yellowish wood bundles. taste starchy. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils... slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. and phenolic acids.212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout.. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root...... Contains diosgenin and plant sterols... with numerous small. flavonoids. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes. The root stocks.See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L.. fatty acids. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos... 1 to 3 ft high. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.. amino acids. creeping root stock.. more or less detached. afterwards acrid. elongated... which are thickened at the joints.. Odorless.. and hair conditioners. Constituents Vitamins. Description Knotted and woody. The flowering heads are produced from July to September. Colic Root.. scattered. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. thickets.... thin outer layer. and dermatitis.. are produced from a long. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached..See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES.. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled... Its smooth hollow stems.. cut into small pieces about in.
odor slightly aromatic. salicortin. diosgenin. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. populin. minerals. naturalized sparsely in North America. it should be standardized for its salicin content. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. and trace minerals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ascorbic acid. vimalin). rinses. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. dioscorin. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. Constituents Steroidal saponins. cortex composed of thin-walled. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. antiseptic. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. White Willow. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. Contains steroid-like substances. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. anti-inflammatory. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. slightly lignified parenchyma. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. and antipyretic. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. in older bark dull. fracture short fibrous. dioscin. shampoos. as it contains salicin. etc. endodermis distinct. triandrin. flavonoids. irregularly wrinkled. fragilin. However. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. It can be used in hair conditioners. taste astringent and slightly bitter. greenish-brown. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. inner surface. analgesic. yellowish-brown to dark brown. as this could vary among different manufacturers. outer surface in young bark smooth. longitudinally striated. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). porous slightly lignified parenchyma. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. antirheumatic.
Wych-hazel. forking branches with smooth. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. Constituents Essential oil. and alcohols. saponins. flavonoids. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. brown bark. and leaves Bark. yellow flowers. tannin. leaves. bark. Spotted Witch Alder. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. due to its high tannin content. and polyphenols.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. and borne on short stalks. eastern Canada. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. long. eastern United States. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. esters. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. scattering the shining black. Winterbloom. Description Witch Hazel. It has a crooked stem and long. Striped Alder. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . thick. when it bursts open.
mint-like odor. in length. Sweet Bugleweed. slender. rather narrow. which appear from about July to September. Description This herb has long. Gypsywort. and bell-shaped. smooth. erect stem from 6 in. tublar. Green Archangel.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. pointed. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. Carpenter’s Herb. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. Missouri. The whitish flowers. including betonicine. to 2 ft in height. Constituents Alkaloids. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. but a disagreeable bitter taste. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. are small. Paul’s Betony. They are followed by four nutlets. Water Bugle. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. Externally. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. Gypsy Herb. The plant has a rather pleasant. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. American Water Hoarhound. bitter. and Nebraska. Therefore. and stachyerine. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Gypsyweed. The leaves are about 2 in. Purple Archangel. shady places from Canada to Florida. Wolf Foot. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves.
antineuralgic. Description A short perennial. tannin. anti-arthritic. vermouths. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. calming. coumarin. with four petal lobes. forwardpointing bristles. unbranched. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. wines. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. when dry. with slender. in loose clusters. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. Odor. of new-mown hay. quadrangular. anti-inflammatory. and the iridoids asperuloside. etc. Used in aromatherapy. astringent. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. Flowers small. citric acid. monotropein. soothing to the nerves. pointed leaves edged with tiny. white. bitters. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. antiseptic.
rutin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bitter stomachic. Absinth. are divided into small leaflets. and antipyretic. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. aromatic. chamazulene.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. and anthelmintic. Description This shrubby. yellow heads. the lower lobe is petiolate. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. camphene. Flower heads greenish-yellow. protein. choleretic. the inner linear with membranous margins. two to three pinnately divided. insignificant. Mingwort. taste bitter. Madderwort. p-coumaric acid. Also used to clean atonic wounds. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. and the grayish-green leaves. thujone. which are from 2 to 5 in. consist of numerous small. especially in Michigan and Indiana. anthelmintic. long. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. absinthin. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. It is cultivated in some localities. used as an external antiseptic. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. thujyl alcohol. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. 2 to 3 mm long. tannins. -carotene. artabsin. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. the florets tubular. drooping. approximately 100 identified constituents. isovaleric acid. Constituents Essential oil. Odor aromatic. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. Old Woman. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls.
. pastures.....Y YAM.... white flower heads.... Thousand-Leaf Clover.. From June to September.. Old-Man’sPepper. It * Formerly CTFA.. Thousand-leaf.. Green Arrow.. diuretic.. high and has many finely divided.. It has a strong odor. and is urinary antiseptic.... Sanguinary... Soldiers’ Woundwort. Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in...... Closely related forms occur in the western states. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small. Carpenter Grass... Gordoloba... dark green leaves...... Cammock. Yarrow Milfoil.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L... hypotensive.... and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada. astringent. antipyretic. Nosebleed. *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields. feathery. Dog Daisy. Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing.. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic. Bloodwort... 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
among rubbish heaps. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. Broad-leaved Rumex. bearing numerous. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. It has been used for cuts. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. injuries. and tannin. it is stomachic. and cholagogue. camphor. and furrowed stem. in cultivated as well as in waste ground. achillin). *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. it is also used in hair care preparations. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. angular. and along roadsides. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. phenolic acids. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. Curled Dock Root. Internally. long. and varicose ulcers. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. Broad-leaved Dock Root. flavonoids. spasmolytic. blue colored chamazulene). green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alkaloids (achilleine). carminative.
only 3 to 6 in. while the upper leaves are narrower. from 6 to 8 in. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. and tannin. nepodin. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. sores. they become rusty brown. and eruptive diseases. and carefully dried. emodin.The root. in length. tapering or spindle shaped. yellowish cortex. with long stalks. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. psoriasis. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. Gum Plant. As the clusters ripen. usually from 8 to 12 in. with few or no rootlets. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. These are followed by the fruits. The root is large and fleshy. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. Consumptive’s Weed. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. lapathinic acid. short stemmed or stemless.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. chrysophanic acid. Bear’s Weed. protein. long. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. They are washed. et Tor. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. and pale radially split wood. in length. swellings.
Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. dark green. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. butyric acid. Constituents Resin. chrysoeriodictyl. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. acetic acid. essential oil. tannin. eriodictyonic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Gabon. cerotic acid. and eriodyctyonine. and the Congo. Schum. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. eriodictyol. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. The rather showy. The narrow.
1 Yohimbine. spreading. the most important of which is yohimbine. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. L. sometimes 2 dm long. concave. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. Roezl. Description Low. R. tannin. shagreen roughened. Kronenthal. It is also being used for arthritis internally. Torr Yucca brevifolia. fleshy. Kansas. 1. hence its aphrodisiac effect. leaves rigid. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. and protein. It also contains corynanthine. 1998. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. Constituents Sarsapogenin. elongate. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. YUCCA Yucca baccata. and Nevada. samogenin. is sympatholytic. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. Personal communication. and epiallo-yohimbine. however. Colorado. pendent. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown.. Texas. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. smilagenin. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. with narrow brown margins. Soap Yucca Root. Properties Yucca contains saponins. the major alkaloid. at low doses. sepals and petals lanceolate. allo-. saponin. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. Arizona. minerals. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. style slender. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. about 7. oblong or conical-ovoid.5 cm long. coarsely filiferous. pseudo-. Soap Weed. tigogenin. fruit large.
224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Oak. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. The leaves contain buxine. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. Hemp. The botanical extract. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. See “Folklore” section. Henna Used to dye hair red. Galls Used to dye the hair black. However. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. Lavender See “Folklore” section. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. not essential oil. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. Dark brown contains juglone. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. Hops See “Folklore” section. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. makes an excellent hair rinse. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black.
Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. The extract contains thymol. and some protein. See Stinging Nettle. Can be used in deodorants. make it soft and shiny. and help keep it free of dandruff. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. A source of potassium and iodine. borneol. Contains a yellow dye. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. leaving it silky and glossy. See Lichwort. Combined with rosemary. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. Vitamins A and D. Lemony fragrance. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. It is antiseptic. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. It also helps to remineralize. The essential oil is used to add sheen.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. it will darken the hair. and linalol. and mouthwashes. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles.
It is said that when blended with rosemary. Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Myrrh. Comfrey. Black Walnut. Thyme. Balsam Peru. Birch. Wild Indigo. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Papaya. Tumeric. Uva Ursi Quassia. Bilberry. Rosemary. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Myrrh. Horsechestnut Papaya. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Lemon Grass. Benzoin. Garlic. Grapefruit. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Artichoke. Soap Root. Lavender. refer to the index). Pansy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Lemon. Bayberry. Peppermint. Cinnamon Agrimony. Bay Laurel. Sandalwood. Lemon. Onion. Lemon. Cucumber. Tilia. Myrrh. Rhatany. Milk Thistle. either when applied topically or taken internally. Corn Flower. White Lily. Lavender. Calendula. Orris.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Anise. Chamomile. Juniper Berries. Thyme. Althea. Witch Hazel. Pineapple. Comfrey. Orange Peel. propylene glycol. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. glycerin. Sandal Wood. Parsley Broom Flowers. Arnica. Rosemary. in various vehicles as water. Arnica Lemon. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Horsechestnut. Wild Alum. White Willow. Southernwood. Lady’s Mantle. Hawthorn Angelica. Oats. Golden Seal. Rosemary. Nasturtium. Cardamom Seed. 1. Proanthocyanidins. Burdock. Plantain. Calendula. Hops. oil. Myrtle. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Vinca Minor. powders or extracts. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Tormentil. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Rosemary. Eucalyptus. Fenugreek. Lemon. Nettles. that is.3-butylene glycol.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Rosemary. Hops. Rose. Nettles. Sage. Yarrow. Inc. Ginkgo. Witch Hazel. Calendula. Sage. Bistort. Violet. Chamomile. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. etc. Raspberry. Chaparral. White Willow. Artichoke. Lavender. Slippery Elm. Echinacea. Yarrow. Thyme. Birch. Asparagus. ethanol. Soap Bark. Burdock. Tomato. Chamomile. Bladderwrack. Bayberry. Quassia. Oak Bark.
Dandelion. Burdock. Comfrey. to add sheen Hair. Parsley. Comfrey. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Thyme. Neem. Rosemary. Thyme. Capsicum. Witch Hazel Bark. Rhatany. dry Hair. Arnica. Comfrey. Chaparral. Quince Seed. Orris Root. Phytoplenolin®. Catnip Bayberry. Chamomile.* Centella. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Southernwood. Oak Bark. Horsetail Grass. Fenugreek. Oregon Grape. Flax. to add highlights Hibiscus. Chamomile. Grapefruit. Horsetail Grass. Roseberries. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Jaborandi. Peppermint Aloe. Oats. Pansy. Echinacea various oils. Mullein Flowers. Echinacea. Horseradish. Rosemary. Southernwood. Tilia. Garlic. Cucumber Chamomile. Chickweed. Alfalfa. Slippery Elm. Lemon Peel. Olive. Rosemary. Sage. Peach Leaf. Elder Flowers. Chamomile. Elder. Cedar. Calendula. Malva Flowers. Cucumber. Calendula Oil. Lavender. Plantain. Fenugreek. Golden Seal. Black or Neutral Henna. Quinine. Horsechesnut. Red Clover. Corn Flower Water. Cade. Red Poppy. Cowslip. dark Hair. Capsicum. White Willow Bark. Wormwood Chamomile. Sage. Quince Seed. Cardamon. Lavender. Capsicum Bistort. Red Clover. Purple Loosestrife. Sage. Rosemary. Brown Henna Rosemary. Capsicum. Chamomile.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Pansy. Cleavers. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Birch. Comfrey. Golden Seal. Hops Chamomile. Melilote. Yarrow. Southernwood. to relieve Nails. Feverfew. Lemon Peel. Cantharides. Cucumber. Red Henna. Sage. Flax Horsetail Grass. etc. Pine Tar. Basil. Patchouli. Basil. Yarrow. Sage Jaborandi. Citronella. Orange Flowers. Jaborandi. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Comfrey Root. Orange Flowers. Althea. rinses. to add highlights Marigold. Broom. split ends Scalp. Centella. Pansy. Seaweed. Figwort. Plantain Horsetail Grass. to add highlights Black Walnut. Bayberry Bark. Wild Alum. Quince. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Marigold Golden Seal. Rosemary. Witch Hazel. Nettles. Comfrey. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Coriander. Raspberry. Echinacea. Comfrey. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Citrus Bioflavonoid. conditioners. Rose. Golden Seal. Capsicum. Onion. Chamomile. Pilewort. Orange Peel. various seaweeds. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Nettles. Rosemary. Quassia. Elder. Sarsaparilla. Anise Rosemary. Fenugreek. Fennel. Tea. Thyme. White Willow Aloe Vera. Camphor. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Southernwood. Yellow Dock. Primula Flowers. Raspberry. Raspberry. Eyebright. Witch Hazel. Eucalyptus. Nettles. Myrrh.
Pansy. Blue Flag. Pine. Seaweeds. Mullein. Quince. Yarrow. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Licorice. Chamomile. Thuja. John’s Wort. Tilia. Hawthorn Berries. St. Arnica. Lemons.Yarrow. Grapefruit. Birch. St. St. Apples. Bistort. Bayberry. Poke Root. Elecampane Skin. John’s Wort. Comfrey. Calendula. St. Lavender. Dandelion. Hawthorn. however. Parsley. Red Clover.804. Yarrow flowers. Chickweed. Slippery Elm. Tilia. Primula Flowers. Sage. Wormwood. White Pond Lily. Elder Flowers.Vinegar. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lemon. Plantain. Jaborandi. Lemon Grass. Fennel. Horsetail grass. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Fennel. Echinacea. Croton. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Cucumber. Calendula. 1998. Comfrey. Capsicum. Echinacea. Oils. Witch Hazel. Plantain. Cinchona. Wild Alum Althea. Slippery Elm bark. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Passion Flowers. Lavender. Witch Hazel. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. dry Botanical Cantharides. Dandelion. Licorice Cleavers. Dulse. Valerian. Citrus bioflavonoids. Capsicum. Evening Primrose. Apple. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Slippery Elm. Lemon.206 for Centipeda. Centella. Chamomile. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Nettles. John’s Wort. Rose. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Seaweed. Golden Seal. Orange Flowers. Arnica. Calendula. Chamomile. Corn Flower. Comfrey. Colts Foot. Bayberry. Althea Root. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Comfrey. Capsicum. Uva ursi Wild Alum.) Aloe Vera. Comfrey. Witch Hazel. John’s Wort. Aloe Vera. Red Poppy. Capsicum. Oats. Horsechestnut. Ginseng Caraway. Cucumber. Sept. Meillot.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Orange Peel. Althea Root. Garlic. Cleavers. Violets. Peach.
can be found in the main section. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. aril white. rough. The powder is used on abscess. elongated. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. which are coriaceous. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. and fleshy. nicotine. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. wounds. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. sores.5 to 2 cm in diameter. wedeloclactone. yellowish brown. and eyebrows. tannin. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. Internally. Ginger. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. 1. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. The seeds are also spherical. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. beard. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. The flowers are polygamous. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. yellowish-white. etc. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. nourishes the blood. elliptical shaped. etc. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. The nuts are spherical. internally used to blacken hair.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. short stiff hairs. Common botanicals such as Lotus.) STEUD. Constituents Saponin. The female flowers are white and ligulate. it strengthens the spleen. 8 stamens. Licorice root. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets. Vitamin A. and tonifies the heart. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed.5 to 5 cm wide. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. It grows in fields and ditches.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics.
adenine. vaginal itches. etc. ringworm. sucrose.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema.70. antiparasitic. tartaric acid. Vitamins A and B. fats. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pruritus. protein. yeast infections. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose. choline.
ostol (C15H16O3). It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. used as an aphrodisiac. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. insomnia. B-sitosterol. lack of appetite. hypertension. amino acids. columbianetin (C14H14O4). and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. dilates the blood vessels. dyspepsia. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. asthma. choline. astragalin-glucose. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. imperatorin. deficiency of energy. etc. diabetes.) Bge. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. Betaine. bornyl isovalerate. dihydrooroseiol. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. any citrus and turnips. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. It is also said to promote blood production. berry-like fruits. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. isoborneol). amino acids. heart palpitations. moisturize. sugars. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. a glucoside C20 H20 011. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. folic acid. weak pulse. and arabinose. L-camphene. It is an astringent. it could nourish. Astragalin. edultin. columbianadin (C19H20O5). Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. xanthotoxol. and has red. When using Ginseng internally. avoid black tea. ginsenosides.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. improves circulation in the skin. cnidiankin. Constituents Saponins. alloimperatorin. isopimpinellin. cnidiadin. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. palmate leaves.
SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. sugar fatty oil. (C18H30O2). The root has antipyretic. trichosanic acid. and antifungal properties.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. tricosanthin. Constituents Triterpenes. essential oil. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. resin. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antibacterial. These are a few of the constituents. saponins (ginsenosides). trichokaurin. protein. To list all would take several pages.
traumatic injuries.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. dissolves clots. nosebleeds. According to Chinese tradition. blood in the stool. it has been used in coughing of blood. Constituents Saponins. reduces swelling. and is analgesic. Rb2-Rb. helps to promote circulation. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. ginsenosides. and Re. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is said to heal without leaving scars. both internally and externally. etc. Internally. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. this herb can be used safely in large doses.
GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. glucose. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. It is also said to be effective for pruritus.V. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. 1/3 in. It has almost no odor. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. stearic acid. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. palmitic acid. Cones oblong. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . long. xylose. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. rhamnose. tannin. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. ziyuglycoside I. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. sitosterol. essential oil. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). and arabinose. and a slightly bitter taste.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. Constituents Flavonoids. glucose. fructose. II. anti-inflammatory. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. L-typhasterol. Vitamin A. U. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7.
and hermaphroditic. the base tapers into a winged petiole. It is a hemostatic. shoddy bark and light.-fenchone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. caryophyllene. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. and is said to have antibacterial. resin. tannin. reddish-purple. Its stem is erect and white cottonly.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. 5 to 8 cm wide. The basal leaves are clustered. flavonoids. which has hairs on both surfaces. fenchone. in height. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. anthelmintic.5 to 1 m high. astringent. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. becoming smaller on top. pinene. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. soft durable wood. and pinnatipartite. Constituents Thujone. The flowers are tubular. L. Vitamin C. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. and antiviral properties. and antipyretic. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. 15 to 30 cm long. having pale. obovate-lanceolate shaped.
It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. antifungal. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. skin infections. -amyrin. antibacterial. and 2 to 6 cm wide. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. and promotes the healing of the flesh. essential oil. The tuber is thick and fleshy. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. 2 to 3 cm long. 15 to 30 cm long. Their base runs into a long sheath. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. It is used in traumatic injuries. and in abscesses. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. reduces swelling. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. anti-inflammatory. and antibacterial.F. B-amyrin. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. The perianth is in 6 segments. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). Constituents Glucose. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. hemostatic. stigmasterol. starch.
linoleic acid. wax. glandular-punctate petals. Constituents D-borneol. humulene. antiparasitic. montanic acid. antibacterial. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated.5 mm in length.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. oleic acid. boils. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. and nasal mucositis. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. acetyl eugenol). dryobalanone. and incurved. fat. essential oil. taste pungent and aromatic. which alternate with the calyx teeth. sores. The dark green. asiatic acid. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. Antibacterial. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. conjunctivitis. having antipyretic properties. It has been used in ringworm. stamens numerous. odor strongly aromatic. cold sores. with numerous ovules. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. B-caryophyllene. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. followed by a slight numbness. chlorogenic acid. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. palmitic acid. tannin. style 1. and antiviral. erythrodiol. oval. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. caffeic acid. analgesic. ovary 2-locular. esculetin. and somewhat 4-angled. arachidic acid. One tree can yield as much as pound. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. hydroxydammarone II. capillarisin. stearic acid. dark brown. See “Botanical” section for further description. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. crowded. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Scoparone. etc. ipterocopal. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. caryophyllene. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol.
with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. and allergic reactions. yellowish-white. Constituents Alkaloids. sores. and other skin ailments. Excellent remedy for sores. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. The stamens are 10 and free. The leaves are alternate. 3 to 4 cm long. 10 to 20 cm long. The raceme is terminal. which are globose and black. The corolla is papilionaceous. The pods are cylindrical. constricted between the seeds. flavonoids. and 1 to 2 cm wide. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is used for vaginal infections. itchy skin. imparipinnately divided. The stem is erect with many branches. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. pruritus.
Constituents Berberine. palmatine. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. fraxin. and swollen eyes. aching. columbamine. red. jatrorrhizine. It is applied externally to swollen. magnoflorine. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. fraxetin. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. used as an eye wash for sore. Antiinflammatory. and red eyes. obakulactone. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). obakunone. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . aesculetin. ferulic acid. coptisine. tannin. Constituents Aesculin.
The leaves are opposite.5 to 1.5 cm wide.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. and 0. Its stem is erect. their margins sparsely serrate. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. 1 to 3 cm long. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ovate shaped. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. The calyx is bilabiate. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb.
and English consume this plant in salads.. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. 5 yellow petals. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .3 cm long. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. decumbent or slanting upward. betanin. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. 1 to 1. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA. 8 to 12 stamens. Italians.5 cm wide. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. Constituents Portulal. gamma-linolenic acid. The Chinese. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. Its stem is cylindrical. gamma-linolenic acid. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. and often purplish in color. abscesses. boils. betanidini. antiphlogistic. Constituents GLA. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. snake bites. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. stomach. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. It is also a good source for GLA.5 to 1. and intestines.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. It is used to reduce swelling. fleshy. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. beta-cyanin. The flower has 2 sepals. French. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary.
246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .4.1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.
90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6. 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6.
84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6. 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8. 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7.
84082-80-4 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2.250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1.
252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1. 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2. 84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Leaves petiolate. covered with numerous black dots. roots. shiny. Burma. and Sri Lanka. sharp recurved spines. ovate or oblong and inflated. Fruit small subglobular. and flavones. ellipticoblong. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. isopsoralidin. starch. oil. hairy tip acute. Leaflets about 10 pairs. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. Several species grow in the United States. hairs few. Seeds are hard. perianth covered withspines. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. Constituents Furanocoumarins. alkaloids. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. tannin. Flowers are dense. and protein in kernel. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. globular. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. and saponin in the seed coat. Kal-karanj Nuts. pitted black. glabrous slightly compressed. corylifolean. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. firm. circular. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). and gray with thick testa. simple. Description Main leaf axis has stout. Flowers yellow. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. sporalidin. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . campesterol group. Description It is an erect herb. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. chalcones. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. etc.BENDUC NUT 253 6. Essential.
Seeds also contain protein. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. However. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. Leaves opposite. flower head white. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. and for infectious diseases. Flowers about 2 cm long. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. bluish-purple. borne on convex flower heads. and sulfurcontaining peptides. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description An erect or prostate annual herb. Few layers of cork cells are present. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. arginine. Leaves membranaceous. margin toothed. arresting hemorrhage. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. The endodermis is indistinct.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. lanceolate. oblong. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). reducing sugar. phytosterol. sterols. with winged petiole. and skin diseases. aspartic acid. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. and citrulline. sessile. starch. Constituents Oil. basal are large. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. upper leaves smaller.
In old samples. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. phyllanthe emblic. The fruit is subglobular. greenish-yellow. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. Feathery. Flowers are small.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. Leaves simple. stipulate. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. mucronate. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. The oil and root contains camphene. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. arranged densely on the branchlets. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. Description A medium tree. linear oblong or elliptic. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla.but white internally. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. apex subacute. slightly broader than long. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. unisexual. entire. slightly recurved. terpene alcohols. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp.
smooth and shining. Flowers small. margin serrate. elliptic-oblong. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. style 2-lobed.& Bpinene. and carvarol. flowers. tulsi. camphor. antispasmodic. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. antifungal. decyladehyde. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. pubescent calyx. very short. Sri Lanka. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. ovate compressed. antiviral. Each flower consists of. bitter. sacred basil Leaves. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. such as antistress. exserted. testa light-red. odorant. in terminal raceme-like panicle. Leaves pinnate. krishna tulsi. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. 2 to 4 inches long. antidiabetic. and luteolin. antiulcer. antihistaminic. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antihepatotoxic. antispermatogenic. subcoriaceous. cotyledons very oily. Leaves are simple. apigenin. taste bitter. hairy along the veins. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. corolla 2-lipped. CNS-depressant. seeds. opposite. antipyretic. filament slender. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. antibacterial. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. A. point decurved. The leaves yield ursolic acid.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. apex thick and blunt. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. pod woody. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. insecticidal.
pongamol. rheumatism. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. The bark contains alkaloids. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. the testa is double. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. the pulp translucent. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. yellow within. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. except at the scar. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. and translucent. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. cotyledons unequal. Properties The seeds. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. S. When dry. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. firm and fleshy. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. and other cutaneous diseases. pectin. The seed is black. The root bark is rustybrown externally. then bitter. where it is woody. pointing to lower and inner angle. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. kaemferol. pengaglabrone. and as an anthelmintic. glucose. the berries are the color of a raisin. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. Constituents Saponins. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. smooth. herpes. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. Radicle at the base of the seed. (S. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. spirally incurvate. and butyric acid. the inner membranaceous. pongamin. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. the skin is shriveled. singly. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. each berry is the size of a cherry. The oil is used to treat scabies. Emarginatus. with a peculiar pungency. . leaves. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. the outer very thick and hard. tough. thick. the size of large a pea. sitosterol.
These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. Leaves heart shaped.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. leucoderma. freckles. skin diseases such as ulcers. and tonic. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. and sugar. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A climbing plant. The taste is sweetish at first. scaly. and discoloration of skin. alterative. alizarin. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. fruit long. and xanthine. deobstruent. Constituents Roots contain resins. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. It also has anodyne properties. flowers small yellow in color. inflammations. coloring matter. Root consists of short stock. gum. Properties The roots are astringent. garancin. then acrid and bitter. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. round violet colored and seeds light black.
Bhutan. It is a good substitute for valerian.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. is used to dye the hair black. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. Description An herbaceous plant. dark brown. mainly in palpitation of heart. nardostechone. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These layers occurs in the outer cortex. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. starch. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. and combined with Henna. Pods broadly oblong. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves.000 to 15. Roots contain valeranone. oblong or ovate.5% essential oil. nardol. slightly curved. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. nervous headache. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Himalaya (11. Rhizomes long. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. calarenol. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. which also contains sesquiterpenes. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. Senna is also a safe purgative. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. Tracheids and few fibers. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. valeranal. B-sitosterol. and bitter extractive matter. n-hexaconsanol. Corolla 5-lobed. and flatulence. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. Flowers in racemes. sugar. Leaves usually in pairs sessile. and Nepal. resin. valves papery smooth. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. seeds. Epidermal hairs are few. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. and contain obvate. greenish-brown to dark brown in color.
Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume
Synonyms: Parts Used:
Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.
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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.
Neem (whole plant)
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PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.
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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Southern India.
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Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed
Synonyms: Parts Used:
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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.
WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.
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a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. Somnifera. Iso-zeylinone. Leaves simple. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. For improving sight. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. 3. rheumatism. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. tapering. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. and starchy. zeylinone. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. Isolation of nicotine. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. It is also cultivated. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. erect. withanine. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. elliptinone. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. gastric stimulant. somniferine. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. greenish or yellow flowers. smooth. brittle. brain lag. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. It is in flower all year long. loss of muscular energy. and spermatorrhoea. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. Constituents It contains alkaloids. a mixture of W. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. plump. It bears small. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. Licorice powder. ovate hair-like branches. white internally. smooth. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. fracture short. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. branching perennial. as in enlarged glands. and droserone. petiolate and alternate. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. globose. withananine. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. and appetite stimulant. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. senile debility. somniferinine. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The root is seldom branched.3-biplumbagin. loss of memory. The dried root is of uniform appearance. grayish or hoary.
Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pseudotropine. In addition to alkaloids. Roots also contain tropine. choline. and cuscohygrine.
6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6. These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938.
Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. U. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. Black Ash. White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Bitter Orange Peel.
S. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
black Cohosh. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. pale Cinchona. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. blue Cohosh. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yellow Cinchona. pale Cinchona. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. calisaya Cinchona.
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara. U.S.
S.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula. U. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum. U.S. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. S. American Hellebore. Canadian Hemp. U. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. White Indian Hemp. Black Indian Hemp. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Black Hellebore. S.
276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier. Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. U. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. S. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Green Osier.
278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica.S. U.
U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. U. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . S.S.
Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Cynara scolymus L. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Optuntia. Capsicum annum/frutescens L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Alnus glutinosa L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. Fucus vesiculosus L. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Betula alba L. Aloe vera L.F. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. Ruscus aculeatus L. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L.) Juglans nigra L.
Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Larrea divaricata Cav. Scrophularia nodosa L. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. purpurea. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Zea mays L. Symphytum officinale L. Sambucus nigra L. Cucumis sativus L. Geranium maculatum L. Symphytum officinale L. spp. & Aschers. Allium sativum L. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. Br. See Coleus Galium aparine L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Centaurea cyanus L. Inula helenium L. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. Gentiana lutea L.
Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Solidago Virgaurea L. Calendula officinalis L. Hedera helix L. Althaea officinalis L. et. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Pongamia glabra P. Camellia sinensis L. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Ocimum sanctum linn. Schert Equisetum arvense L. Mac Fad. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Melissa officinalis L. Amoracia rusticana. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Centella asiatica L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Justicia Adhatoda. Hydrastis canadensis L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Limm Malva sylvestris L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Gaertn. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Citrus paradis. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L.) Burman F. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L.
Commiphora molmol. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. Regn. Papaver rhoeas L. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Tabl. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. papyrifora. & P. Engler Myrtus communis L.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Veget. Vent. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L.L. Carica papaya L. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. Rheum rhabarbarum L. and B. Vinca minor L. Lythrum salicaria L. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Pinus silvestris L. Allium cepa L. ssp. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Mentha piperita L. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Nasturtium officinale R. Trifolium pratense L. Rubus idaeus L. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Olea europoea L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. Artemisia abrotanum L.) Tanacetum vulgare L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. Betonica officinalis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Salix alba L. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. Salvia officinalis L. Juglans nigra L.) Acacia Concinna.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St. Juglans regia L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L.
Gentiana lutea L. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Yucca brevifolia. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L.) Perre Yucca baccata.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Schum. Artemisia absinthium L. Torr. Rumex crispus L.
and vitamin content. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. mud baths. 10. Xanthophyta. Seawater. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. weeds. and sterols. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. 9. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. including: 1. Xanthophylls. It is said that life started in the seas. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. sea grasses. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. 7.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. 4. They are also used as thickeners in jams. as well as vitamins. etc). However. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. sauces. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. ice cream. blue. 2. body rubs. Cryptophyta — Contain green. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. bath. and sometimes in seawater. and red pigments. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. The sea holds an endless source of life. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. 6. high in carotenoids. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. cosmetics. etc. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. mineral. phytoplanktons. 3. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls.7 Marine Natural Products 7. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. 5. and have even been used to put a head on beer. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . e 8.
acetylenes. and cosmetic fields. polyphenols. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . proteins. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. Kelp is also the main source for algin. such as ursolic acid derivates. furanoterpenes. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. glycine. cranberry. emulsion stabilizer. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. second. mainly from some gelidium species. it is resistant to microorganisms and. and herbicides. For example. marshmallows. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. B12. steroids). and imparts slip. and lycine). Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. carotenoids. and other fruits. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. diterpenes. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. B2. fucose polymers. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. anticoagulants. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. Therefore. prostaglandins. growth substances. pharmaceutical. prunes. for example. cardiac substances. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. For plating microorganisms. and polysaccharides. and C. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. pears. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. sulfur compounds. and ice cream as a thickening agent. emulsions. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. First. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. proline. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. and vitamins.. anthelmintics. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents.g. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. lipids.
is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. fat. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. bromide. palmitic. lotions. A). and antiglaucomic. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. Sargassum contains fructose. However. sodium. including iodine. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. Co. B 2. antioxidant. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. shampoos. and ointments. and glutamic acid. phosphorus. potassium. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. B. B. Cr. Fe. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. particularly fluoride. and zinc. salads. both in vivo and in vitro. and carbohydrates. mannitol. B3. oleic. Mn. B12. Mg. and lauric acids). It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. etc. Ca). Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. iron. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phosphorus. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. protein. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. K. Na. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. potassium. L. a synergestic effect was exhibited. broadspectrum. which is a polysaccharide. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. it has a high content of potassium. B6. magnesium. and iodide ions. antimicrobial agent. calcium. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. Laminaria longicruris (L. In addition. There are traces of chloride. B3. galactose. in combination with Vitamin E. Algin. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. iodine. creams. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. minerals (Zn. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. P. C. B12. B6. I. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). myristic. and mannitol. F. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp.
It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. sterols as free fucosterol. single-cell.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. polar lipids. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L.6 Fucus contains trace minerals.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. Eisenia contains a complex polymer. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. rheumatism. It is a single-cell protein.1%). a well-known anti-inflammatory. sulfated.500 IU/100 g 180. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and as a massage for cellulite. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year. Lyngb. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic. sulfonate. which means it is a self-sufficient.000). Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. Echinus esculentus L. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. Halidrys siliquosa L. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity.8 mg/100 g 1. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. fucans. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). containing all the essential amino acids. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products.02 to 0. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation.3. F. the Pacific. mainly iodine (0. polysaccharides. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. and the Baltic Sea. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols. phlorotannins. alginic acid.
8% 18. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder.64 w/w% 1.29 w/w% 2.59 w/w% 3. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.8 mg 1.63 w/w% 5.46 w/w% 1. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll.08 w/w% 0. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation.29 w/w% 3. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin.40 w/w% 4. Dr.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation..500 IU/100g 180.8 mg 1. called the Chlorella Growth Factor. Spirulina Spirulina.5% 11.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.. Tests performed by the U.S. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell. et al. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.1% 0.38 w/w% 3.26 w/w% 2. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron.6% 60.09 w/w% 3.70 w/w/% 2.9 mcg 15. pp. It is found in both brackish and fresh water.2% 4.2% 55. Chlorella.3 mg 26. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.469 mg 613 mg 1. 14-15.64 w/w/% 5.8 mg 1. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).45 w/w% 2. Moreover. The Emerald Food. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.9 mcg 191. B.7 mg 125.80 w/w% 0.5 mg 4.20 w/w% 2. In a controlled study.0% 20.06 w/w% 0.A.78 w/w% 6.93 w/w% 3.08 mg Potter.6 mcg 0.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.
Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. Cu.A. minerals.40) B1. Fe. Na. P. Spirulina. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). carbohydrates (15 to 25%). at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . G. Mg. vitamins. Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. B2. etc. Zn. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. Ge.L. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments.. and minerals (5 to 10%). Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. Biotin.A.L. B3. B12 Folacin. lipids (4 to 7%). carotenoids. K. as it is high in plant protein. Mn. Cr. B6. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca.
11 4. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. were isolated from marine organisms. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. cyanophyta. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms).13 6. are common in marine environments. anticancer. plant. such as the curacins. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. and imidazole disulfides. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. and ascidians. Related unicellular microorganisms. kalkitoxin. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. bactericidal. bacteristatic. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. sponges.12 5. Thus. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. or temperature. but no chemical study has been reported. as a soothing demulcent. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas. Oahu. 7. having distinct anti-cancer properties. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. anti-inflammatory. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. penazetidines. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. melemeleones. Significant compounds. which although poorly known. Unfortunately. the Bacteria. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored.9 2.10 3. the following being some examples: 1. including phaeophyta.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the search is only beginning. microcolin C. barbamide. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. antillatoxin. and marine organisms. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. and chlorophyta. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered.8 The results obtained are quite promising. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. soft corals. pressure. such as those of elevated salinity. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold.
The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp.17 10.16 9. antimicrobial. a unique anti-viral protein. including potent antiviral. actinomycetes.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. which display a variety of pharmacological activities. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum. and true symbionts from sponges.. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum.19 12.18 11. A series of B-carboline derivatives. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. the swinholides. tunicates. and gorgonians. including corals and sponges. Cyanovirin-N. and the theonellapeptolides. the eudistomins. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. and cytotoxic activities. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. which produce anti-tumor compounds.15 8.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria. fungi.
34 27.29 22. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. Okoadene and Mailidene. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. and anti-tumor promoting properties. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides.22 15. makaluvone. phorboxazole A and B. immunopotentiating. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Cyclomarin A.23 16. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin.21 14. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins. Isolation of Microcolin C.37 30. Several new classes of compounds. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii.24 17. latrunculin B and swinholide A. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus.31 24. including makaluvamines A. C. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges). They have shown remarkable antineoplastic.35 28. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. cytotoxic natural products. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. D.39 32.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .27 20.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13.26 19. Isolation of Dysidiolide.36 29.38 31. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. discorhabdin A.32 25. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.33 26. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. Many novel. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. and F. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. Phorbas sp.30 23. a novel. Diamirone B. E.25 18.28 21. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. B. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents. New antimycotics. were isolated from the marine sponge.
J.. Wright.. ibid P 25.... H. Baker..P.. Varoglu. G.A.B. ibid O 11. G. July 27-31.. M..R. 7. Lam. Beutler. L.W. C. 26. R.. P.. J. ibid S 22.. and Hamann. M. 33.. Bohlin.. N. L. and Hung... J. and Gould.P.. and Ireland..Y. O 50. July 27-31. M. Ph. B. de Silva. M. J. Andersson.F.. K. 13. W. P. UCSC. W. and Rodriguez. Hargraves.A. 64.. T.A. T. T. ibid P 149..E. Hemling. L. S. Andrew.. S. L.. S.. R. R. M.A. 35. D. D. D. Wilkins. 23. J. M.. 2441-2446. ibid P 141. B. Kloareg. Andersen. Xie.. Papers presented at the 37th Annu. ibid P 151... Goins.. ibid S 15. Davidson.A.. K. Mendola. ibid P 28.-P.. McInnes. J..-Y.R. O’Sullivan. P. F. A.H... L.. Shangxiao. Dumdei.. J. Beverly A. 9.. K. L. McCombs.. and Joseleau. Gunasekera. McKee.S. L.K. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. G. Lill. D. Plubrukarn. ibid O 10. T.. E. B. ibid S 14.. Shoemaker. and Munro. 31.. Phytochemistry..R.. 16. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae. El-Sayed.. Fernandes. The Emerald Food.-R. 1996. Franklin... Carney. Janda. ibid O 26. ibid O 25.P.. and Walter.J.. Potter. J. 18. Gush.J. 36. and Hamann..D.. H. 37. C.A. 20. S 8.. T.J. and Francis... J... ibid P 30.. D. Clark.K. J. Bewicke. 1975. 10. B. J. and Wang... O’Keefe. C.. Gerwick. Cardellina. 14. Sheehan. Pomponi. Ogren...J. Schumacher.. Barrows. Maranda. M. 1983. H. M. P. A.T. J. 6. K. 6.... Blunt. Abstr. H..A. Janus.. Zheng. Javor.. J. S. Gerard. J. Solimabi. M. G.. Mendola. B. Meeting. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy.. Natural Prod. C. ibid P 19... S.. 34. Sci. 1258. and Bair. 21. and Kerr.S. 56(4). et al. D... Santa Cruz (UCSC).A. K.. K. Acta Pharm. G.-D. D. J. R. Brielmann... R.. Duh. 180.. Major.. Schmitz. Haden. 27.T. ibid P 36.H.. and Gerwick. Green. Yoshida. ibid O 7. ibid P 26.. ibid P 27. R. B. Slate. 1990..A. and Kelly-Borges. B. A. ibid P 150.K. McMahon. J.. S.J. Harrison.. Lawry. M.. 4... Sci. J. Brzezinski.J..A. G. and Afzelius. Hook. 5..J. 22. 39. Ferrante. and Crews. and Scheuer.. ibid O 36. R. P. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. Al. Haughey...E... J. 304-313. 29.. 1985. McCarthy. Lidgren.. J.M. 478-488. S. Westley. H. B. J. and Crews. B. Chikarmane. L. Smith. Pettit. Jayatilake.F.. S.. Heath. ibid P 145. Forenza. Dunbar. Hamel. P... The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae. and Russel G. 15. ibid P 155... D.T. O’Keefe..... El Sayed. 32. 14-15. Haygood. L. ibid P 154. 19. W. Venables.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. J.P. 12. J. B. Allen. M. Mar. S.M. Castor. Boyd. Perry. Suecica. Chan. Coleman.. 1977.. 29. 1993. 63. L. Dhyana. M. W. Harrigan. Y. Gulakowski. Yoo. P. T. Blunt.. D..W. ibid O 49. P.W. 30. C. 25. G. L. ibid S 9.. 28. ibid P 156. J.M.. Zhang. ibid O 38. and Thompson. Gulakowski. M. K. 2. J.. Fucus Vesiculosus L. I. J. R.. T. Chlorella. Can..J. and Leahy. and Cardellina.. pp. M. ibid P 9. and Harrigan. P. Freyer. Crews.. Chem. J. R. ibid P 31. J. and Kelly.E. W. Ragan.. 401-414. 20(6).G. M. 3.G..F. N. Bringano.G..C.. ibid S 23.. 17. A..H.. D. 8.. Magni. Ind.. Gustafson. B.J. Screening of biological activity.. and Bauer.E..R. Copp.A. I. Erim. Rodriguez.. D. S. R.A. Kerr. S. M. and Molinski. 11.. R. and Baker. Gerwick.. and Boyd.C.. Mokinski. Searle. Linton.. P. and Yavor. 38.J. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lassota. J. S. Nakao. 40..S.A.A. 24... 1996. Rea...J. and Munro. and Scheuer. Fulton. P. Hong. B. Lloyd. McMahon. Carte’.. Mabeau.. Pharmaceut..
The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. NJ 07504.00 6. Inc.2) with Sequence 5. 5. 5. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous.10 0. 8.10 q.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq. 2./Lipo Chemicals. 4. Henkel.00 0. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes. Adjust pH to 9.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous..10 0.5 (±0. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Patterson. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products. Therefore. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc.00 10. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature.2 (±0. Adjust pH to 5. 3. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. either alone or in combination with other products. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.s.00 q.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.60 21. Rohm & Haas.s. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used. 207 19th Avenue. PROCEDURE: 1.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47. In main kettle.10 0.00 10.
at room temperature. 3.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural. Adjust pH to 9. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. 10.00 1.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. Lipo Chemicals.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. 7. Inc. high-foaming. Rohm & Haas.5 (±0. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31. 2.10 0.10 0.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. 6. In main kettle.00 6.00 10. Amerchol. Henkel.2 (±0.10 0. combine Sequence 1 ingredients.50 15.00 0. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.s. 5.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq. Adjust pH to 5.10 q. Inc.00 20. 4.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.00 0. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. 6. Procedure: 1.10 q. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous.s.
Inc. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine.F. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform.50 3. In main kettle at room temperature.(Induchem).10 5. Inc. 4. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . B. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.50 1. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch. 6.10 0. 3.45 0.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22.95 0. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed. Procedure: 1. 2.FORMULATIONS 301 8.00 1. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform.10 0.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq. Goodrich Co. Aqualon. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed.00 0. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens. 5.
At 30°C.s. At 25°C.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0.10 q.10 0. add Sequence 3 to correct shade.00 0. In main kettle.10 0.10 0.00 10.96 63. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.00 5. Inc. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Inc. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C.10 0.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15. Procedure: 1. Cool to 30°C.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals. 3.54 5. 2.
10 0. Inc. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. Haarmann & Reimer Corp.10 0. 3. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals.50 0. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86.50 0. BASF.02 0. Fanning Corp. Cool to 25°C. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 0.00 4. 2. Procedure: 1. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved. Begin cooling.00 2.10 0. Inc.FORMULATIONS 303 8.10 0. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. In main kettle. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C .5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base. Givaudan Corp.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No.28 0.10 0.05 6.
00 0.30 0. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant. 10% sol’n Supplier B.70 2. Cool to 60°C. F. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 0. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel. Procedure: In main kettle. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92.82 0.00 0.75 0. 2.25 0.00 0.05 0.80 0. 3. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. Inc.88 45. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform. Inc.05 20. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous. Spl Phosphoric acid. 8.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.10 g.00 5.s.10 0.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals. 4. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized.
65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0. 2.30 0. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C. Guardian Chemicals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5.00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine. Goodrich. B.F.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp. Lipo Chemicals. Lipo (Kingston).20 0.70 1.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25. Inc.00 5. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.00 2. 3.FORMULATIONS 305 8.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.05 1 2 Triethanolamine. 99% Hypan SA100H 25. Procedure: 1. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible.00 0.10 0. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem).
with firm pericarp. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. Acerose: Needle-shaped. indehiscent. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Achaenium. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Acicular: Needle-shaped. or flower-arrangement. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). as ferns. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. like the leaves of pines. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. one-celled. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. containing the pollen. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. or Akene: A dry. one-seeded fruit. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. the fecundating material from an antheridium.
a pulpy. Cardamon). Calcarate: Spurred. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Capsule: A dry. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. meristematic cells. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary.. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues.g.. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. Blisters: See Vesicants. carrying the ovary. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. with two leaves. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly.g. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. Bacca: A berry. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Capitate: With globose head. Bi-: Signifying double. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. Axillary: Growing in an axil. the hilum and the chalaza being together. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves... Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. Apetalous: Without petals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .g. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. cinnamic). Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Atropous: With erect ovule. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. stiff hairs. Bristles: Sharp. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Nutmeg). Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. Carina: The keel. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Bulb: An underground discoid stem.g. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. rare in present times). Appendages: Superadded parts. as bi-foliate. Castor seed). Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity.
Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. Cohesion: Attachment. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. Convolute: Rolled up. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Umbelliferous fruits). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cilia: Marginal hairs. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals.. Cespitose: Tufted. Cortex: The bark. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. thick. Clavate: Club-shaped. Also a name given to a short. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. indehiscent fruit. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. one-seeded. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. usually distinct. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. Cathartic: A purgative. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. Coriaceous: Leathery.g. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. upright rhizome. Contorted: Twisted. Cordate: Heart-shaped. become joined. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Caulis: The stem. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. one-celled. tuber-like. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. Corm: A solid. Costa: The midrib.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. outer layer. from which they hang when ripe. Caudale: Having a hairy style. Caudex: The axis. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. Connate: where two parts. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit.
Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. dividing into irregular branches. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Dentate: With sharp teeth. producing intellectual confusion. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Deflexed: Bent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. downward throughout the length. Didynamous: With four stamens. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Deciduous: Falling off. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Deliquescent: Dissolving. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Deltoid: Triangular. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. or tending to fall.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Determinate: Definite. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Crispate: Curled. Dichotomous: Forked. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. two long and two short. Decompound: Many times compound. lymphatic. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Discoid: With convex face. etc. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Didymous: In pairs. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Definite: Constant. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped.
E: Signifies deprived of. the outermost layer. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. Exogenous: Having bark. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Epispastics: See Vesicants.g. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. and pith distinct. Etiolated: Blanched. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Episperm: The coat of seed. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Epidermis: The true skin. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Extrorse: Turned outward. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. the ovary. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Fibrils: Root-hairs. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Falcate: Sickle-shaped.. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. Escharotics: See Caustics. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. wood. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. without. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. or borne on. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. and bark. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. Echinate: Prickly. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Epigynous: Adnate to. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. purgation). Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. wood. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. nearly parallel.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith.
Herbs: Plants having annual stems. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. the point of attachment. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion.. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. as in the cypress and juniper. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Fimbriated: Fringed. Filiform: Thread-like. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Hepatic: Referring to the liver.g. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. algae. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. etc.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Furcate: Forked. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. orange). Fid: Cleft. devoid of hairs. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. more swollen on one side than on the other. as petals and leaves. Globose: Roundish. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Flexuose: Wavy. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. as bifid. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Glabrous: Smooth. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Flocculose: Woolly. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and irritation. Inferior: Growing below another. Causing watery evacuations. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Imbricated: Overlapped.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. etc. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. i. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. rabbits. Innate: Adhering to apex. Laxative: A mild purgative. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Lacinate: Fringed. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. cats. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. the lower petal of an orchid. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. as innate anther. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Keel: See Carina. dogs. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. i. Lateral: Attached to the side. either by mechanical or chemical action. Incanescent: Hoary. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens).e. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. layer.. inflammation. Internode: Interval between nodes. Lacuna: A space between cells.e. Inarticulate: Not jointed. or appearing to have. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. squirrels. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). like shingles. two or three times longer than broad. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . joints or nodes. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Inflexed: Bent inward. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). on the receptacle. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Jointed: Having. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Labellum: (Lip). Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects.. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Involute: Rolled inward.
with parallel sides. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. and roots. found at the ends of young stems. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. often caused by fungus infection. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). or stigma. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Muricate: Rough. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. but with lipclosed (flower). Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Monopetalous: Having petals united. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Lobate: Divided into lobes. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Medulla: The pith of exogens. Monospermous: One-seeded. style. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. with hard tubercles. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. leaves. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Masked: Labiate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Multifid: Many-cleft. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Ligulate: Strap-like. Linear: Narrow. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Monogynous: Having one carpel. Locusta: The spike of grasses. Monandrous: Having one stamen. with upper lobes largest.
death. as ergot. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. with lateral divisions again subdivided. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. and nourished by. one-celled fruit. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Pedatipartite: Pedate. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. thick runner. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. indehiscent. having tufts of leaves at extremity. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Offset: A short. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. apex broad (leaf). Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Palmate: Having usually five lobes. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Oblique: Unequal sided. Pedatifid: Pedate. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Obsolete: Suppressed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Orbicular: Circular. Obtuse: Blunt. as in the pea-flower. rounded. Pedate: Palmate. with lobes nearly free. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. in large doses. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). another plant. Parasitic: Growing upon. and the keel. the wings. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Nut: A hard.
Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. Petals: The corolla leaves. melon. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. fleshy fruit. pointed cells. with petiole attached at or near the center. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Petaloid: Resembling petals. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. and perfect flowers on the same plant. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Periderm: The corky layer of bark. Polygamous: With male. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. and the like. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Pentandrous: Having five stamens. few-seeded. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Pendulous: Hanging down. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Pubsecent: Downy. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. indehiscent. Pome: An inferior. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. squash. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pod: A general name given to dry. resembling a mouth. Peltate: Shield-shaped. two or more celled. Personate: Masked. usually of family Leguminosae. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. female. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. dehiscent fruits. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Pilose: Hairy. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Primine: Outer coat of ovules.
Runcinate: Jagged margin. bearing leaves and rootlets. and shriveled. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. with deep notch in middle (leaves). Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). winged. Revolute: Rolled backward. with reflexed margins (estivation). with wide lips (corolla). creeping. rooting and budding at nodes. Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Retrorse: Directed backward. Scarious: Thin. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. and producing pustules. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. etc. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). its function being to support the flower organs. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Saccate: Sac-like. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Reclinate: Bent downward. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. bristly hairs. Recurved: Bent backward. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Runner: A slender. Setae: Stiff. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. one. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. Sclariform: Barred or striated..or two-celled fruit. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Radical: Springing from roots. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. dry. Ringent: Labiate. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). such as glands. Sheath: See Ocrea. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. prostrate stem. Retuse: Obtuse. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). Reduplicate: Valvate. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. indehiscent. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. Radicle: The embryo root (small root).
Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. and one short pair. may be modified leaf or stem.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. falsely two-celled pod. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Spine: A pointed modified branch. Suture: A line of junction. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. leafless. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. dehiscing from below upward. Tomentose: Pubescent. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Style: The prolongation of ovary. spiral branch. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Squamose: Scaly. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Sporangium: A spore-case. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. Subulate: Awl-shaped. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. with short hairs. Tendril: A thread-like. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). bearing the stigma. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Stipitate: Stalked. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Ternate: Arranged in threes. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. in pairs.
Volute: Rolled up. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus.. pp. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Verticel: A whorl. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Uncinate: Hooked. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). Lucius E. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. 529-536. 1895. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). few-seeded fruit. Versatile: Freely swinging. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Trichomes: Hairs. Toxic: Poisonous. Utricle: A superior. Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Zones: Concentric bands. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem.GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Vexillum: The standard. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. one-celled. Sayre. Valvate: United only by the margins. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts).
London. Haworth Press. Washington. 1996. Bisset. 4. 1932. O.. 1997. 1995. 1964. Academic Press. Bailliere Tindall. Churchill Ltd.. 1992. CRC Press. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. Wallis... I and II.. Ehrhart & Karl. Lavoisier.E. Vol. A.. 1971. Inc. 1989. Rockville. Tyler. Merck Research Laboratories.. J.. P.A. IL. Pharmacognosy.C. 21. Potter & Clarke. 1993. Paris. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. G.. Ltd. 19. A Modern Herbal. 15. Boca Raton. The National Formulary XVIII. British Herbal Medicine Association. 1996. 16. 3rd ed. 10.. N. E. 7th ed. 1974. Leung and S. Louis. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. Vol.E. Boca Raton. D. Boca Raton. Wall. 1960. 8. U. Robert E. British Herbal Compendum. 1990. H. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 11.W. MIS Publication. Vol. 24. U. Guenther.. 17. Duke. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Ltd. 7. 12th ed. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. J.. Vol. The Merck Index. Biddles. The Honest Herbal. CRC Press. Youngken. Y. Krieger Publishing. 1996.. New York. 5. Mack Publishing. Herbs of Choice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia. Grieve.C. 13. Ltd. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. CRC Press. 1994. 1975. A. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. Haworth Press. V. I and II. 1995. & A.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Bladt.. Aug. 2nd ed. 14.. U. 1983. 2. NY.. R. The Essential Oils. 1994. New York. 23. Biddles.. 1930. St. Plant Drug Analysis. 13th ed. 12. J. 9. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. 1936. New Jersey. Tyler. New York. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. FL. FL 1992. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. M. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. Wagner and S. Foter. Nakanishi et al.E. Wren. SpringerVerlag. John Wiley & Sons. Natural Products Chemistry. American Pharmaceutical Association.A. 20.K. H. V.K. 4th ed. MD. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. 1992. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. J. 6. Tease and Evans. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. Blakiston’s Son & Co. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Stuttgart. Huntington. Dover Publications. Bruneton. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. T. 3. Bournemouth. Merck & Co.K. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. 22.. FL. 1902. K. 1. London. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. New York. 18.. 1–7. Notes on Parmacognosy.. Berlin. 4th ed. Duke. Chicago. PA. MO..
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