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BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.
CRC Press Boca Raton New York
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:
Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.
Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
observing. But more than anything. Over time. Let it reflect brightly upon us. Originally. Initially. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. Galen. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. Mithridates. sorting. Chinese. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. As formulators and purveyors. men like Shen Nong. Dioscorides. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Theophratus. experimenting. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. Always wanting to know more. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. always wanting to find a more active plant. And then the Babylonian. to use plants wisely. and Avicenna.
vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists. He founded BioBotanica.. Sr.AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. Frank D’Amelio. Inc. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. Special thanks to Professor Dr. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. and assistance in editing the manuscript. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. patience. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours.
....................................1 1........3 Procedures ...............................5 1.....................................................................1 Microscopical Techniques...........................................................................................................................................3...................................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2...........................................................................11 2...................................................28 3.............................................1..........................................................................................3 Physical Constants......................1 Constituents of Drugs....................1...................4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents.............5 Preparations of Extracts ......................................5 Yield to Solvents ........24 3......................................................CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1..................................................................41 Infusions .........1 1......14 3.................................1.........................................1........1 Forms 4......................................................................................................23 3.......................................6 Carbohydrates....8 Gas Chromatography........................................................................................................................2 Macromorphology ..............3 Tannins.........................................................1 1................7 Methods of Identification.................................................................7 Assay Procedures ...............................1........2 1...........4 Ultraviolet Light ..........2 1..........11 2............................................................30 3....................1...............10 2..............................................................................................................................9 2.............1.........1.......................................................................................................2 Phenols .............9 Resins and Resin Combinations ..........3.............................................................................11 2...................................................................................1 Plant Identification ........1 Liquids ......................................................................6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems...........................................3 Micromorphology...............................................................................................................................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3..........11 2......................................................................................................................................................................................................................35 Chapter 4 4............................................................................3...................................3.........................................3...............9 2..........1.........................26 3..........................................1 Botanical Terminology .......2 Some Common Terminology .............7 Glycosides ................2 Solubilities ..................................................................................................4 Proteins .1 1.................10 2.................................................2 4......................8 Volatile Oils.................1 1.........................................40 Decoctions ..1...................................................................1......26 3................................39 Percolation ...................5 Alkaloids............39 Extraction Terminology............1 4................................................................43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..........6 Ash Determination ......................1..............4 4........................................3..................1............1........................3.............................................................................5 Infrared Spectroscopy.......................................25 3...........11 References ........................13 3...11 2...............................................................................................................42 Fluid Extracts .3 4.............10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ........9 Adulteration of Drugs ...........5 1.................
........................1..............3 Cellulite Gel Base ..................................................................................247 6...................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table ..........................................................................................289 7..................................................................................10 4...5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+..........225 6......................... Properties...........................................................................................................46 Product Strength..........1........................49 5........................253 6.........295 References ............................7 4...........303 8........2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy...........301 8..................................307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ........................ and Constituents ..........2 Hair Care Botanicals ........................................4................................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5..........................46 Oleoresins .....................................................................4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics ....................................1.........................5 Indian Botanicals..6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table.................300 8.................6 4..............................................................6 Spray Moisturizer .....................1 History ................8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC................................................................................1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo.......... Range............................. and Standardization.......7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe .................302 8.............................................. Description....................................................................................298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8..........................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6........1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table...................................4....................................8 4.......4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil .................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ..........................45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ............................................305 Chapter 9 Glossary.........................................9 4................233 6.........269 6................................................................................299 8...................2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products..1 Habitat....................51 6...............................................................1...........................................................2 Natural Shampoo...........................................304 8....................................................................................229 6.......1..............283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7..... Concentration.......................1 Marine Algae.................................................304 8............................................................................................7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ...............................45 Extracts Strengths................11 Tinctures ....1.........................................................................................................................
They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms.1. roots. In plants. and usually bitter taste. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. (8) volatile oils. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. glycerol. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives.1. They are generally soluble in water. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. (2) phenols. and waxes (lipids). 1.1. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. In the treatment of burns. (3) tannins. spores. TS). palmitic.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. and waxes. hence.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. 1. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. leaves. barks. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils.1 Phytochemistry 1. and coumaric acids. etc. (7) glycosides. stems. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. fats. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. (6) carbohydrates.1. ferulic. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. Recently. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. (4) proteins. fats. (5) alkaloids.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. have astringent action. In most cases. myristyl. they are stored in seeds. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. They are widely distributed in plants. When applied to living tissues. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. 1. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. they are also called triglycerides. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes.
1. antitoxins. and seeds. leaves. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. brucine. which are the building units. stems. which end in -in. gymnosperms. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. for example: colchicine. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. (b) obligosaccharides. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. and steroidal. and oxygen. (a) monosaccharides. indole. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. Proteins are derived from amino acids. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. oil-bearing plant seeds. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. In fact. pyridine. possessing some marked physiological action. quinoline. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. piperidine. Being basic in chemical character.1. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. carboline. and (3) derived carbohydrates. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. Whole glandular products. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. purine.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. 1. serums. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. bark. (2) polysaccharides. they form water-soluble salts with acids.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. roots. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. isoquinoline. hydrogen. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. tropane. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. but mostly in fruits.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. imidazole. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. phenanthrene. and cryptogams. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Glycogen. digitalose (these are 2. and tetrasaccharides i. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. Therapeutically. True sugars a. D-fructose (levulose). sarmentose. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. Inulin. gelling agents.4. their sulfate esters. suspending agents. galacturonic Glucosamine. and apiose. 3. stabilizers. Unlike cellulose. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). mucilages. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. Monosaccharides. diginose. g. epimarose. Pentoses: L-arabinose. gentiobiose.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. iii.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. b.6-linked polyglucan. 2. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. c. It is a linear polysaccharide. L-galactose. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oleandrose. Gums are soluble in water. It contains both B-1. cymarose. it is formed of amylose. D-ribose. alginates. It is an alpha-1.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). fucose Digitoxose. trihalose Reducing: maltose. They include hemicellulose. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose).2)-fructofuranose units. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. melibiose ii. pectins. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. i. cellobiose. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. Cellulose. and some microbial polysaccharides. turanose. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. transluscent. uronic acids. which is a straight chain of alpha1. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. galactosamine b. e. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. f. lactose. gums.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. consisting simply of 1. D-xylose. and Example Rhamnose. tri-. emulsifiers.and B-1. ii. amorphous substances. or amino sugars. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. a. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss.6-linkages. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. d. and thickeners.
. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility.g. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. They are products of plant metabolism. Other glycosides do.g. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. The chief families are Pinaceae... and defensive roles. cascarosides. Such glycosides.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that. the sugar component is called the glycone.. daphnin) Flavone (e. for example. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species.. 6. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae). however.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1. crocin and picrocrocin. regulating. 2. for example. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources. In N-glycosides (e. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. or adenosine). detoxifying. rutin) Anthraquinone (e.g. sennosides. Depending on the plant family. sinigrin).8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant.g. for example. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone.1. 10.. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides.g.g. 1. 8. Occasionally. Myrtaceae.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Rutaceae.g. representing about 87 families). 11. salicin is an analgesic. glucosamine. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. 4. and Asteraceae.. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e.g. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e.g.g... such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e. in the liver of fish. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. sometimes called O-glycosides. digitoxin) Saponin (e. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone.. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures.g. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. and barbaloin are laxatives. Lamiaceae. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). Phenol (e. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. 9. 1.1. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. 7. as sugar reserves. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e. In the conifers. Lauraceae.g. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. for example. There are also C-glycosides (e. occur. 3.. sinigrin) Steroid (e. 12.. digitoxin.g. Apiaceae. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. are the most common ones found in nature. arbutin) Alcohol (e..g. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond. 5. strophanthin.g. In S-glycosides (e.
thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. etc. Ester volatile oils: lavender. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. nutmeg. star anise. 8. bitter almond. chemical. lemongrass. neroli. sweet orange. ajowan. Classification 1. only in the bark and leaves. and odor characteristics. beverages. is rich in camphor.1. in cinnamon. 1. horsemint. cosmetics. diuretics. themselves. cajuput. Undoubtedly. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. fennel. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. are hard. rose. however. These substances. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. parsley. as a class. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. coriander. lemon. 4. etc. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. for example. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 7. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. For example. dill. transparent or translucent brittle substances. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. in the mints. 9. 3. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. local stimulants. However. etc. rosemary. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. 6. carminatives. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. tend to resinify on exposure to air. wintergreen. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. mild antiseptics. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. and tobacco. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. but in few instances. etc. juniper. confections. etc. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. In most cases. sandalwood.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. In general. anthelmentics. they are widely used in perfumery. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). 2. however. and in orange. chenopodium. spearmint. Ethers: anise. cade. etc. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. turpentine. clove. resulting in less food spoilage. etc. They can be used for their therapeutic action. etc. etc. geranium. Resins. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. in umbelliferous fruits. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. only in the pericarp. In addition. thyme. pharmaceuticals. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. or parasiticides. local irritants. 5. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. cassia bark.
resenes (neutral inert compounds). Many products (e. In this case. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol.. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. resinotannols.g. they are divided into resin alcohols. For example. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. and glycosidal resins. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. 0. as well as in fixed and volatile oils. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. but do not contain any nitrogen. acetone. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. chloroform. and medullary rays cells). Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). resin acids. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons.g. they occur as tyloses. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. In plants. carbon bilsulfide). and resenes.g. It is noteworthy to mention here that. forming solutions which. resin alcohols. in rare cases (e. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances..g..e. resin cells (ginger). On this basis. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. Family Coccidae. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . viz. as in case of Pinus. which is called secondary flow. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. and glandular hairs (cannabis). shellac). The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. resins occur in different secretory structures. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. On heating at comparatively low temperatures. in the vessels. mastic). resins soften and finally melt. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. order. They are not pure chemical substances. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure.25).PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). and ether. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. wood parenchyma. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. in Guaiacum wood. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. they are of pathological origin..9–1. with few exceptions (e. on evaporation. when freshly powdered. When heated in a closed vessel. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. but when heated in the air. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film. colophony. esters. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. without volatilization or decomposition. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. Chemically. Hemiptera. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. fibers.. Laccifer lacca. that is. gr.
glucose. hexoses. Mucilages are viscous. they can be incorporated into lotions. On hydrolysis. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. on the other hand. respectively — both contain volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . galacturonic and glucuronic acids). Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. counter irritants. and Podophyllum. which contains no volatile oil. parasiticides. Jalap. ointments.e. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. Guttiferae). they form a mixture of pentoses. therefore. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. barks. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. or esters of these acids. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). Balsams. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. nonadhesive solutions with water. leaves. liquid or semi-liquid substances. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. Another is flax seed. in seaweeds. (e. and seeds. for example. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. viz. that form colloidial. antispasmodic. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam.g.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. expectorants. These are. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. Probably. shave creams. arabinose. and anthelmintics. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. carminatives. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. roots. they can be separated from resins rather easily.) In general. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. resins and related products are used as rubefacients.. flowers. being called glycoresins. (anywhere soothing is required). purgatives. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. copaiba. fruits. and Canada balsam. etc. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. creams. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. balsam of Copaiba. etc. cough syrups. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. and uronic acids. the mixtures being called gum-resins. In some cases. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). like most seeds. xylose. mouthwashes. and malva (Malva sylvestris).. cathartics. asafoetida).
or alcohol and water. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. gauze. or by chemical or physical means. distillation. As with the raw materials.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved.. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. expression. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. water.g. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .). Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. the solution commonly known as lye. In pharmacy.. etc.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. etc. by which it is exhausted of potash. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. suction. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. ether. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. treatment with a solvent. having a bottom outlet. cotton) below. 2. acetone. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. by traction. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). also referred to as the spent herb.
that is compared with the scale. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. the height of sclerenchymatous cells.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. Q. In the same manner. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. the width of vessels. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. That is. always using a definite tube length.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. By its use. for example. the factors for the other objectives can be determined. also known as micrometers. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. However. Therefore. The diameter of fibers.001 mm). Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. 2. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. Most of the time. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions. botanical laboratory.0025 mm = 0.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale.125 mm. 0. if an object. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0.3.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer. and not the object itself. its true size is 50 0. because it is the magnified object. as well as identification of commercial starches. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. both of which are carefully counted.0025 mm. the scale of 1 mm.125 mm = 125 µ. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0.C.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification.3 PROCEDURES 2.
A.3. glycosides. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples. vitamins. oleo-resins. 2. and similar substances. for example.3. E..2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic.. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent.. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. viburnum.3.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. 2. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. Churchill Ltd. W. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. 1978. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. optical rotation. calumba. REFERENCES Wallis. T. Other drugs. Trease. malaccensis. London. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash. 90%. Some pieces of rhapontic. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. Derris elliptica.. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. especially if they are present in the powdered form. 2. viscosity. D. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs.g. balsams. digitalis and henbane leaves). while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. In this way. E.. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. the yield to water of liquorice root. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e. C.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. Pharmacognosy. J. London. and Evans. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 4th ed. they will give a high total ash value. resins. For certain drugs. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol. Bailliere Tindall. 2. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.3. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. However.3. G. 1960. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome.3. such as hydrastis. UV light provides very useful information. 2. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article. 11th ed.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity.. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. Similarly.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. volatile oil.
odor. stem. Many plants have common names and. identification can be confusing. fruit. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. counter current extraction. or the entire plant. leaf. color.e. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. percolation. and microscopy. This starts with the proper solvent system. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. flower.3 Quality Control 3. One should start with botanical terminology. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. and berberine. ask for it by its common name first. methanol. root. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. As seen in the example. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired.. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. i. and other tests like loss on drying. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. distillation. There are many forms of extracts available. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. seed. canadine.. then maceration. ash content. For example. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. Fortunately. etc. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. organic solvents (ethanol. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. If this is not specified. etc.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. etc. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . providing that they were dried properly. lipidic extraction. super critical fluid extraction. hexane). therefore. When ordering a botanical.
Fig.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. to differentiate between mineral powders. For systematic study. viz. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. 3. 1. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium.. primary phloem. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). secondary phloem. while Fig. and hairs (Kamala. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. 2 is that of an angiosperm. glands.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. Cowhage). however. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. 3) is a representative example. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. 2. Dusting powders: One should be able. pollen grains. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. Quassia Wood. starches. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. Lupulin.
QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig. 1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig.
QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig. 3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
tilia of inflorescences and bracts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . There are. papillosed epidermis of petals. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. S /(E + S). by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. called the pericarp. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. fibrous layer of anthers. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. argel leaf.. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. micropyle. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. 6. 4. elder flowers of petals and stamens. 6). stigmas). the calyx made of sepals. for the seeds. In the great majority of plants. and endocarp.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4.e. mm.. red poppy. leaves may be recognized. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. mesocarp. viz. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. red rose and marigold of petals only. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). Flowers: In a commercial sense. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. epicarp. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. Leaves: Example. if there is no stalk.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. (3) the presence of chlorophyll. styles. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. i. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. (2) their thinness. Among common drugs. frequently. in addition. Achillea millefolium L. the leaf is termed sessile. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. which are a useful identification tool. the ovary wall develops to form a case. 7. 5. (Fig. and often a raphe. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. 5) is an example of the flower. the corolla made of petals. however. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. thus forming a fruit. two features that are constant.
QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig. 4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. Orange. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. Colocynth b. Simple Fruits i. 5 Achillea millefolium L. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. 8. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Tamarind. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. Compound Fruits Hops In general. Bael. Caraway (see Fig. Poppy. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. leaves. However. a. flowers and fruits. Cardamon ii.
QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. 6 Grains of paradise seed. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. Aframomum melegueta Rosc.
Fig. Clearing agents. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. or are natural secretions (e. 3. olive oil). They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction..g.. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . opium).. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. by the stomatal index. which are usually slender and adventitious. 8). or by the trichomes.g. decoction (e. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. namely. starch. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. stage and eyepiece micrometers. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals.. expression (e. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. Therefore.g. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. such as incision (e.g. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and. 10. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. mountants. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. similarly. Chiretta herb. 9.. and sclerenchyma. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. branches. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. beeswax and myrrh). Microscopical techniques. however. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. fibers. 9).22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level.g. For example. agar). vertically.
9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig. 8 Fig.
chromic/nitric is mandatory. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. lactophenol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. tannins. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. Sometimes. fats. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. carbolic acid. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. and resins. for bleaching. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. clove oil. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. starch. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. etc. it rapidly dissolves starch. Other solvents include methanol. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. or chlorophyll. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. ether. chlorophyll. protein. water. volatile oils. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. absorbance values should be used.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. the presence of coloring matters. alcohol. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. and petroleum ether (pet ether). Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. 3. and causes swelling of cell walls. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. and expands shrunken cells. hexane. resins. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins.
or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. In addition. depending on solvent and pH. It can also be used to quantitate. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. Then press under anhydrous conditions. If the substance is in a solid state. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. This will give you a transparent disk.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. unless one has an FTIR. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3.
etc. In addition. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. Precoated absorbents on glass plates. Chamomile.g. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). or plastic sheets are also commercially available. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample.g. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. M = medium. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). and (4) it is inexpensive. strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. 1600. 2860 (M). and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. 3400 (M). The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates.7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). 1760 (S). Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. 3400-3100 (variable). organic solvents (usually methanol). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. as one gains experience. Lavender. Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. VS = very strong. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. then the filter paper can be eliminated.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available..26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). 1500. 1455 (S). 3400–2500 (broad M). odor. sulfuric acid). 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). S = strong. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract.. Valerian. Other tests like loss on drying. 3. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained. aluminum. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. 2100–1700 (W). one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations.) When development is complete. and powder microscopy are also performed. Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. ash content histology. 3. 3600–2400 (broad). It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase.
hence. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. natural product.5: 8. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes. antimony chloride UV.
analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. With library search software. However. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. TLC. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. In phytochemistry. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. a separation technique. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. etc. After extraction of the plant material. pharmaceutical. From these spectra. spectrometric. and cosmetic industries. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. data acquisition. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. it will show up by having less soluble solids. HPCL. or chromatographic (GLC. together with UV and IR spectra. spent herb).” However. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted.) procedures in order to establish its strength.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. give excellent fingerprints for identification. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. This system. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. photodiode array detector. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. such as rice hulls or spent herb.. For plant volatiles and essential oils. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. with expected growth well into the next generation. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. information-rich electron ionization spectra.g. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. rice hulls. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. If there is a diluent added. 3. As with the raw materials. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. System control. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. the use of the GC will continue to grow.
Ltd.QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . photodiode array detector. and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass.
Instrument control. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. for example. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. or Provence senna. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. Obovate. coffee. data acquisition. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. African. nutmeg. beeswax. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . honey. 2. 3. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. or Cochin. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. for example. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). such as ergot.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. the adulterant can be any kind of material. the color and general texture are more important.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. in the case of powdered drugs. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. etc. Hence. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug.
galactose. 1.46.. detection. panaxatriol.2 M Pi buffer pH 7. acetonitrile-water (84:16). mobile phase.0 ml/min. 1. 0. genistein Calenduladiol.1 ml/min.8 ml/min for 7 min. distilled water. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7. 50°C. mobile phase.6 50 cm): mobile phase. Rf 0. CH3CN-H2O (73:27). flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5).5. 5% DC560. 220–223°C.d. mobile phase. flow rate. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. 15 cm).2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). panaxadiol. 0. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4. mobile phase.5 ml/min.1) flow rate.0 ml/min. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. 1..4x. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. sparteine.d. UV 320 nm detection. flow rate. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. mobile phase. flow rate. UV detection (homogencity test).5 mm i. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i.5:0. mobile phase. 2. then 1. flow rate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. 1 ml/min. detection./65 cm). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10). spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. 3. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. acetonitrile-water (83:17).0–1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or 3% SE-30. 2. thermopsine. followed by 0. baptifoline. acetonitrile-water (83:17). mobile phase.d. UV 202 nm. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2. 0. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. cytisine Anagyrine. lupanine. 25 mm). 13-OH sparteine. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27).5 ml/min.0 M NaC1 gradient. R1.6 mm i. mobile phase.9 mm x 30 cm).9 mm 30 cm). flow rate. detection. 190 nm flow rate.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.9 mm 30 cm).2. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. flow rate. luteolin. 0.5 ml/min. rhamnos Ginsenosides. 2 ml/min. UV 202 nm. detection.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. 15 psi argon. xylose. HPLC: Zorbax CN.
methanol-water (50:50). 25 cm). methanol-water (15% to 95%.d. 0. phase B: ethyl acetate. detection. hydrastine Rf 0.1 M phorphoric acid. 2 ml/min. mobile phase. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). detection. flow rate. w/guard. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). UV 270 nm. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase.. flow rate. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. 3. 0. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH.0mm i. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2. detection. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). detection. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). mobile phase. vanillin in H2SO4. 2 liters phase B and C.5 ml/min. ethanol-water gradient containing 0.5cm). 4. mobile phase. LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). UV 365 nm. detection. flow rate. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85).5 ml/min. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4). mobile phase. detection.4 cm i. UV 330 nm. increasing 3%/min). 2 ml/min. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9). hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages). detection UV 278 nm. detection. Start w/ 350 ml phase A. 25 cm at 75°C). introduce sample. mobile phase. 75°C. 6 ml/min. i. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate.1 ml/min. 30 cm). hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). vanillin in H2SO4. UV 340 nm.05. methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18.6 mm.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5. begin rotation.5 ml/min.d. flow rate. flow rate. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2.d.9. canadaline.7 & 5. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hydrastine Rf 0. phase A: water. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. 66 m capacity 350 ml). apigenin. berberine.. Rf 0.d. Merck(. luteoline. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase.9 i. flow rate.5. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. 1. mobile phase. detection UV 365 nm.d. flow rate. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i. 1 ml/min. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. 2.0 ml/min.. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. UV 340 nm. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1).5-methanol (67:33). canadine.
UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. caprylic acid. analysis Column (3. formononetin.d. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7.. UV 280 nm.. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2.0) mm i.5.5 ml/min. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin.25m 3 mm). formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). 30 ml/min. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid. detection. 1. detection. methanol-water (2. UV 313 nm.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8).9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35).QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. detection. water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). mobile phase. detection. 50% H2SO4. mobile phase. 25 mm). mobile phase.. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min).5 ml/min.3 ml/min. mobile phase. flow rate.0 ml/min. R1. methanol-water (27:73).. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol. UV 280 & 546 nm. acetonitrile-water (gradient). flow rate 0.d. 1. UV 270 nm. UV 280 nm. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. flow rate. detection. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid.d. detection.0 ml/min. 25 cm). 0. prunitrin Calycosin.9 mm i. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 10 cm). detection.1. caproic acid. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658).0 ml/min. mobile phase.d. genistein. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. flow rate. 150 mm). HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u.. biochanin-A. 300 mm). HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. photodiode array.6 mm i. flow rate. mobile phase. 4 ml/ min.d. flow rate.6 mm i. flow rate. 1. mobile phase. mobile phase. 25 cm) 2 in series. water. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5.1:1). capric acid Isoflavones. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. flow rate. HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. 2. mobile phase. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. flow rate. 2.d.9 mm 30cm).8 ml/min. daidzein. 30 cm). mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. detection. mobile phase.5 ml/min. detection. UV 230 nm. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). detection. mobile phase. helium flow. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. temp.
excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. detection.9 mm 30 cm). Sometimes. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. detection. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2. guaiacum wood. dextrin. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. UV 254 nm. acetonitrile-0. 5u Chrompack). or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. almond shells. mobile phase. 30 cm). dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. for example. mobile phase. etc. detection. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. 1. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. 4. 5. 2 connected in series. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. 2.d. stramonium. mentha.8% methanol in hexane. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8). flow rate. hydrogen flame ionization. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. senna. 0. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. flow rate. mobile phase.0 ml/min.1 M phorphoric acid. detection. powdered olive stones. detection. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). stone. vitexin. usually having no relation to the genuine drug. UV 256 & 206 nm. conc. methanol-water (60:40). vitexinine 3. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). acevaltrate. or lead shot. 250 mm. walnut shells. UV 298 nm.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53).34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. detection. Substitution of exhausted drugs. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. hazelnut shells.7 ml/min. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. 6.5 ml/min. 8. 7.25 m 4 mm). scented bdillium for myrrh. valerosidatum. etc.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. mobile phase. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). flow rate 10 ml/min. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. or hamamelis leaves. acetonitrile-0.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. UV 254 nm. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density.d. for example. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids.6mm i.4 (1:1). GLC: 1. For example. mobile phase. boiler scale. valeranone Vincristine. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. detection. coconut shells. such as lobelia.
Nut shells and fruit stones. Microscopical examination. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. and crystals of calcium oxalate. cellulose parenchyma. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. frequently particles of small seeds. vessels. masks. Mucilage of: Alkanna. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. papillose surface of the stigma. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). 7. fibers. Frequently also delicate yellow. or oil). 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. 4. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. hemicellulose. palisade cells. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. 9. pericyclic and phloem fibers.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. starch grains.g. Frequently also trichomes. stone cells. cutinized and suberized walls. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. gloves. especially the diagnostic epidermis. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. 6. and aleurone grains. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. A little vascular tissue. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. however. 5. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. which often contains starch in large amounts.g.. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. Tincture of: Red with oils. calcium oxalate crystals. Keep for 6 months. in powder. The powder is usually entirely lignified. 2. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. wood parenchyma. 8. Dilution better done on the slide. palisade cells. tracheids. Structures absent: Cork. red. fibrous layer of the anther wall. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. protective glasses.. Also epidermis. palisade tissue. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma..g.) Acacia. xylem vessels. 3. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. fibers. glands. which often cross the fibers and vessels. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . resins. and medullary rays. and aleurone grains. 10. starch. pine and juniper). Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. Frequently also cork. sieve tubes. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. consisting of small-sized elements only. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. usually abundant parenchyma. etc. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests.
Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate).I.I. Deteriorates on keeping. through glass wool. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. To be freshly prepared. The reaction is better carried out in the dark. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. etc. if necessary. with continued stirring. left for some time. 0. etc.5 ml D. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). Benzidine. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. masks. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. filtered. H2O with the aid of heat.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min.I.0 g sodium iodide and 2. Store in amber bottle. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. starch. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. ligno. suberin. gloves. cellulose. and some mucilages. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water. To be freshly prepared. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. protective glasses. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances.880).0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. etc. killed by steam. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. To be freshly prepared. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. gr. H2O. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. Add 7. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. Chlorophyll.
5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. and then diluted to 100 ml with water. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid. Solution A: 34. gloves. e. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals. and 20 ml water.g.. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. 40 g glycerin. on the label. 1.75 g lead monoxide. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed.64 g copper sulfate and 0. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids.27 g iodine and 0. H2O prior to use. dextrose).I. masks. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. 1. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. added to a solution of 2. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water. Indicator. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. protective glasses. the corresponding approximate pH. gives yellow with colchicine. note the coloration and read off from the table. Dilute: Used for mounting. 20 g lactic acid.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. the strong solution will dissolve silk. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . filtered. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. 1.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 1. Set aside until clear.g. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water.. in powder. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting.I.
Store away from light. Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. It must be recently prepared. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. suberin. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. etc. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. 1% solution in water. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. lignin. and 80% by volume. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). masks. 0. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. 10. 10% alcoholic solution. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 66. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%).4% alcoholic solution. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. stains lignified walls red. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. in small pieces. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. Caustic: Used for clearing. 5 ml of glycerin added. and cutin blue.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). 2% solution in alcohol (90%). Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. and then diluted with equal volume of water. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. dissolving certain cell contents.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. with a dropper or a glass rod. Potash. protective glasses. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. gloves.
1. Serial type dilution and succussion. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids.E.E. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. of various dilutions: 1:1. Contains no alcohol. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. etc. but the solvent is glycerin. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form. 60–90%. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. A molasses consistency.G. E. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. Properties Usually high in alcohol. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting.M. 3x. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application. Same as P. Full strength 1:1.E.G. Same as a solid extract (S.F. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. 5x. AQU P. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. An extract in P. 4x. Same as P. etc. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract.3BG. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing. H.G. P. 5:1.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today. but the solvent is 1.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0.4 Preparations 4. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). 0. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum.01 = 2x 0.E. OLEUM N. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate. F. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1.3BG GLY 4.P.G.
Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh.. etc. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. also referred to as the spent herb. or by chemical or physical means. by traction. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. having a bottom outlet. cotton) below. close the lower orifice. The packing of the percolator is very important. and macerate for the prescribed time. ether.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. if packed too loosely. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. the solution commonly known as lye.). usually 48 hours. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods.1. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. treatment with a solvent. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. If packed too tightly. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. In pharmacy. gauze. contained in a suitable vessel. suction. the menstruum will channel. distillation. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. by which it is exhausted of potash.g. expression. etc. 4. the botanical is considered exhausted. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. giving a weak extract (see diagram). When no more actives remain. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. the product will not percolate.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical.. or. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. or alcohol and water. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . water. acetone. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). cover the percolator.
then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . such as twigs. Allow it to cool. 4. etc.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. These are usually the hard substances.1. barks. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. and filter. placed over it. roots. preferably distilled. mix thoroughly.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time.
infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. In order to prepare an infusion. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Therefore. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. after preparation of an infusion. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. Under refrigeration. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. Moisten the herb in water. preferably distilled. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. Refrigerate or preserve. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. 4. it should be placed in a refrigerator.1.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. Refrigerate or preserve. cold water should be used.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter.
Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 4.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. there is also CO2 sterilization. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. However. bacteria. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. especially in inactivating larvae. However. which seems to work well. However.1. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. which is very effective.
check with the manufacturers. need preservatives. Additionally. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. and evaporation. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. Usual laboratory method.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. from either fresh or dry botanicals. are weaker.1.S. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. A typical example: 5:1 P. and the solids are calculated.00 per pound). some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). Therefore. However. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. Filter. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration.2). 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture. At present. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q.. No vacuum concentration is used. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine.1.G. as strengths vary widely. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. and usually precipitate on standing.e. Therefore. However. Maceration is another procedure.* 4. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and canadine. Therefore. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. as they contain alcohol. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. However. berberine. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. i. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day. percolation. or a combination thereof.
returning the first portions. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. to obtain a clear filtrate. spray dried. if necessary. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. Separate the excess oil. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. dry solid.I. a sufficient quantity. or distilled water. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. 2. and pass enough D. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. Solution: The volatile oil. or distilled water.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts.I. which lowers shipping costs. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. while hydrastine is colorless. 2a. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses.I. filtering if necessary. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. or oven dried.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. preferably kept in a cool area.1. Avoid excessive heat. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency.I. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. need no preservation. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. The native extract is usually vacuum dried. respectively. Add 1000 ml D. and add enough D. and time of year collected. age.I. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). and contain very little water. 4.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. Their odors and tastes are similar. and preserve or use the clear water portion. 4. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size.I. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. easily dispensed. filter through wetted filter paper. Then filter the mixture. or distilled water. or other specified volatile substance D.1. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders.
9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). If it was calculated from fresh weight. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. 1. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. The starting botanical. etc. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. Concentration.3-butylene glycol.* 4. 4. However. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. therefore. glycerin. butylene glycol. glycerin. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. This is very controversial. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight.). a 1:1 extract. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tinctures. To avoid confusion. in a true strength extract. in the United States. or roots of plants (see above).46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. 10:1. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. etc. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. bark. in a cosmetic formulation. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition.G. etc. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. 1997. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. fresh or dried.1. depending on the manufacturer. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. would be too concentrated in many instances. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. Obviously.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. are often found in the cosmetic literature. However. In Europe. etc. 10:1. is always measured on the dry basis.10 Product Strength. etc. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color.1. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. Recently. The true strength will vary.
the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract.0% hydrastine. and canadine. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. canadine. Thus. berberine. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. which is approximately 20 times less costly). fixed and volatile oils. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris.S. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. If the dried plants contain 0.04%). Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. This would cause the berberine. which has been standardized on valepotriates.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. standardization can be carried to the extreme.5 to 4. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. the former designation is becoming the standard. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. However. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract.15 to 0. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. and then on valeric acid. resins. dark in color. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. and starches to be significantly reduced.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations.5% of essential oil. Analytical procedures (TLC. and not soluble in most cosmetic products. GLC. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. However. that is. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L.. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract.
most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. Therefore. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution.8% essential oil.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts. A thick.. 4. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e.g. ether.1. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. followed by evaporation of the solvent. consisting of an oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oily resinous mass remains. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0.5% oil. there are usually losses during extraction.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. 1997. However. or 1. either fixed or volatile. alcohol. However.
thereby reducing stress. Stimulant. Cell regeneration. impotence. loneliness. antispasmodic. revitalizing. This.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. antidepressant. cleanser. Stimulant. This is the essence of aromatherapy. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. Poor memory. affects the adrenals. poor memory. Moisturizing. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. aphrodisiac. Skin elasticity. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. mild stimulant. tonic. For example. euphoric. aromatic waters. scalp stimulant. wrinkles. euphoric. digestive problems. and perfumes. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing.5 Aromatherapy 5. soothing. Anti-inflammatory. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. anxiety. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. hair growth. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. sadness. antispasmodic. Revitalizing. nervous fatigue.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. Carminative. aphrodisiac. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antidepressant. soothing. energy imbalance. hair growth. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. calming anger. digestive problems. mental strain. 5. exhaustion. Stimulates scalp. in turn.
uplifting during depression. If the reader has further interest. stimulates metabolism. C. moisturizes. amara) Antidepressant. grief. shock. very little is needed. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. Fabrice. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. anti depressant. Nervous tension. cell proliferant. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Daniel Company. lotions. 1984. Essex. inflammations. Rochester. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. vaporizers. VT.W. Ryman. Example: to be effective. bath oils. opens psychic centers. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Valnet. Therefore. Walden. Jean. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. antidepressant. house sprays. Aging skin. The Aromatherapy Handbook. Mood elevating. anxiety. England. euphoric. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. shampoos. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. mouth ulcers. Destiny Books. Danielle. wrinkles. etc. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. calming. Aging skin. Essential oils are very concentrated. Antidepressant. 1976. Saffron. 1982. uplifting.
slender.1 HABITAT. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. The flower is single. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. obtuse. and 3 or 4 in. PROPERTIES. spotted near the base. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. with purplish or brownish spots. liliaceous. droping. and fawn-colored externally. pale-green. which is white internally. The scape is naked. perennial herb. The leaves are two. lanceolate. long. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. high. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. about 5 in. RANGE. subradical. flowers in April or May. DESCRIPTION. and involute at the point. yellow.
which is somewhat aromatic. and anti-inflammatory.. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. Pub.1. Soc. Its odor is aromatic. terminating in three undivided stigmas. 8th ed. interruptedly pinnate. but unpleasant. 2. silky pubescence. It is much branched at the summit. and surmounted with reddish. No further analytical data available. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . coarsely serrated leaflets. flowering in July and August. antiscrofulous.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid.six. hooked bristles. long. fibrous. functional bleeding. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. from to 1 foot long. 1975. conical.. Hoppe. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. style club-shaped. 2332. The capsule is oblongobovate. and covered with a soft. Ovary obovate. agrimonol (= agrimonine).2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. anthers oblong-linear. W.. and borne in a dense. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. pyrogallic acid. Properties Emollient. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. et al. J. Heinz. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. de Gruyter. and of reddish-brown color.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. The leaves are alternate. 1946. with a loose membranous tip. The root is long. filaments flat. agrimonolide. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. epistaxis. This taste is strongest in the root. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. and phlobaphene. and tapering. producing numerous heads. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. Drogenkunde. Agrimonia has a bitterish. Berlin. A. 68. and three-valved. racemose spike. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. subastringent taste. yellow. mild tonic. diuretic. The whole herb and root contains. in hedges and fields and by ditches. three-lobed at top. nearly smooth beneath.. longer than the stamens. 1. Am. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. pyrocatechol. Cavalitto. harsh. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. and hematuria. Chem.
tonic. 153-157. volatile oil. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. Alder also helps to unclog pores. and also to help relieve dandruff.. The bark is dark gray and ridged.. eupatorin. alterative. flavonoids.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. 29(2).. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. 10(2). Rev. Med. Dermato-Vernol. choline. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. glycosides. luteolin. as do other types of face packs. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils.. V. et al. Ser. Peter-Horvath. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. glutinous. this should only be done once a week. Europe. 1. United States. et al. apigenin. nicotinic acid. ursolic acid. M. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. and polysaccharides. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. usually abrupt at the tip. quercitrin. and minerals. 1994. organic acids. 190-193. Patrascu.. after which a good face cream should be applied. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. gum. triterpenes. Constituents Tannins. citric acid and silicic acid. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. However. wavy-serrated. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. southwest Asia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 7-0-B-glucoside. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. catechin. which are roundish. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. fruiting tops. phytosterin. 2. wedge shaped. 1964.
insect bites. The size of the pieces is variable. etc. hair treatments. calcium and trace minerals. etc. etc. boron. Further reading is recommended. oils. and is employed in skin creams. and Barbados Islands. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. The odor is strongly aromatic. The surface is dull and smooth. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. and tannin. irritated skin. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. lotions.50% (5 grams.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. To date. and burns. ALOE Aloe vera L. hair rinses. a mild exfoliant in oils. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. this has not been verified. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. saponin. chrysophanic acid. creams. carotene. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. Aloe contains 99. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. scratches. lotions. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. The fracture is conchoidal. sun poisoning. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. Alfalfa is also high in minerals. The texture is waxy. cuts. which would suggest its use in baths. West Indies. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. Properties Used in facial steams. bath gels. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook.
Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). Rome. glucomanine.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. Delicious. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. and pectin. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. It contains malic acid. Macintosh. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. Constituents Malic acid. sugars. Granny. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide.
having pale. containing thujone. both internally and externally. Cones oblong.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. tannins. flavonoids. moles. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. wax. long. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. shoddy bark and light. ARNICA Arnica montana L. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. and polyps. in height. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. soft durable wood. Wolf’s Bane. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. and mucilage. ⁿ in.
the pappus plumose and sessile. The heads are discoid and homogamous. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. reddish yellow. and the cypsella not beaked.to 12-veined. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. the receptacle setaceous. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. and undivided leaves. sprains. lauric. tubular flowers perfect. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. fatty acids (fumaric. with subspinose. northern Mediterranean. pectolin arigenin). Sesquiterpene lactones. inflamed insect bite. emarginate and pointed. the scales ovate. xanthophylls. ray flowers yellow. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. inflammation of the oral mucosa. dark brown. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. finely striate. edema. Arnica tincture DAB 10. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. dark green and pubescent. pinnate. Note: There can be side effects. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. receptacle slightly convex. and essential oil. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. palmitic. patuletin. isorhamnetin. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. quercetin. In mouthwashes. pistillate. Description This plant is perennial. leaves. 5 to 7 mm long. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. and surface phlebitis. taste bitter and acrid. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. the cypsella spindle-shaped. malic). three-toothed.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). the involucre dilated and imbricate. kaempferol. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. Odor characteristic and agreeable. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. stamens without a tail-like appendage. Topically. 7. about 1 cm long. with fleshy bases. stearic). Has been used for hematomas. polyacetylenes.
diuretic. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. tannin. choleretic. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. vitamins. garlic.. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. Also employed in jaundice. protein. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. flavonoids. cholagogue. cynarin. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. bread crumbs. and hypocholesterolytic. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. beta-carotene. cynadase. ascorbinase). ascorbic acid. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. Around the holidays. sterols. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oxydase. Cosmetically.e. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. peroxidase. trace minerals.
They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. The margin has projecting points of scales. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is balsamic. resinous substance.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. Herbalists use it for treating colds. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. The taste is pungent and bitter. The base is truncate or depressed. Has been used on blemishes. or in threes occasionally. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. It is a stimulating expectorant. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. and various skin diseases. The apex is acute. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. These buds are sessile. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. The color is reddish brown. cuts. balm buds Part Used: Buds. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. * Formerly CTFA. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. sores. twigs.
populin. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. True Bay. sometimes excentric. chrysin and apigenin. bark 1 mm in thickness. Bactericidal. strongly branched. Internally used to treat liver disorders. and showing rings of growth.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. rhamnetin. magnoflorine. externally light yellowish brown. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. bervulcine. oxyacanthine. has been used for indolent ulcers. and the Middle East. gallstones. usually splitting somewhat on drying. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. circulatory stimulant. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. Flavonoids. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. on chewing. volatile oil. izalpinin. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. pinocembrin. wood yellow. Properties Astringent. salicin. easily separable into layers. tinges saliva yellow. acetophenone. very bitter. distinctly radiate. Europe. Berberine. Odor slight. pith of rhizome small. Grecian Laurel. taste distinctive. berbamine. color more pronounced upon wetting. 5-0-methylgalangin. North America. knotty. Description Cylindrical. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. volatile oil. tannic and gallic acids. galangin. 3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . jateorrhizine. fracture hard and tough.
However. ursolic acid. Constituents 0. Spr. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. astringent. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. phenolcarboxylic acids. -pinene. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. finely reticulate. Uvaursi is astringent. brittle. upper surface dark green. linalool. margin entire. taste slightly bitter. and glossy aromatic foliage. base acute. hydroquinone derivatives. 12 to 30 mm in length. and plant acids. The leaf also contains germacranolides. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). syringic and p-coumaric acids.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. tapering. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. petiole about 3 mm in length. and volatile oil. Description Leaves obovate. alkaloids. gallic and ellagic acids. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. and others. pale yellow flowers. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. odor slight. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. covered. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. glabrous. summit obtuse. slightly revolute. hyperoside. Northern and Central Europe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . along with methyl arbutin. texture coriaceous. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis.3 to 3. spatulate. undersurface yellowish-green. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. Treating small areas works best. and detergents. quercetin. perfumes. shiny black berries. -terpineol acetate. slightly pubescent. Asia. lotions. due to its high tannin content. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. soaps.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. -terpineol. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. catechins. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. cooled and placed in a baby bottle.
. softening. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L..... 20 to 50 cm high.. Wyoming. Good for skin ulcers... reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive... A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx. and to replace retina purple.. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations.. 1 to 2% fat. 1854. dissolving.. ovate... eruptions. reduces inflammation. wounds.1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins.62 BED STRAW. boils.. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones. Michigan.. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees..... clears toxins.. minerals.. and other compounds identified in bee pollen. This is taken up in a collection vessel.. Properties Restoring. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen. reducing visual eye fatigue... only slightly paler beneath. Whortleberry. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries.. leaves Habitat and Range Woods... California. Mirkin. and Asia. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. G. 1989.. leaf-blades thin. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry. restrains infection. 55% carbohydrate. anti-inflammatory. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW.0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels. and abscesses... and ulcers... 3 to 5 cm long.. British Columbia.. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter..... See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees. corolla ovoid-lanceolate. 1.. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive.. Description Dwarf shrub.. enzymes. Europe.. 262. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits... and 3% minerals and trace vitamins.. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva..... Properties Astringent for eyecare products. tonic. 9..1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . amino acids. sores. about 5 mm long... scabs.. JAMA.. 4 mm wide. promotes tissue repair. antiseptic. sores..
New York. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . White Birch. BIRCH Betula alba L. essential oil. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. Bugwort. 1. psoriasis.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. arbutin. ursolic acid. anthocyanosides. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. betulol. Properties The bark.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. and eczema. Squaw Root. R. leaves. ascorbic acid. peonidin glucosides. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. methyl salicylate. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. North Asia. betuloside. 76. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. myrtillin. New Age Herbalist. Rattleroot. saponins. (trace amount) asperuloside. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). German Commission E Monograph. BANZ No. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. 1. parts of Arctic Siberia. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. 4-23-87. fatty acids. 1988. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. quinic acid. Europe. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. Bugbane. Mabey. Macmillan. naturalized in northern North America. gaultherin. betuloresnic acid. Rattleweed. apigenin dimethyl ether..
frequently. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. fracture short. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. longitudinally wrinkled. mainly formononetin. bark dark brown. up to 3 mm thick. fatty acids. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. resins. fracture horny.5 cm in thickness. each of which shows a radiate structure. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. externally dark brown. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. somewhat branched. starch. bark thin. It possesses estrogenic activity. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. Rhizome horizontal. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. by deep cup-shaped scars. and rheumatism. tannins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. and sugar. particularly depression and hot flushes. dyspepsia. internally. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. taste bitter and acrid. externally dark brown. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. or less frequently by fibrous strands.
glabrous. fruit globose. rounded or subcordate at the base. taper-pointed at the apex. and trace minerals. lanceolate. Texas.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. anthelmintic. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. with thick ridges. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. Constituents Juglone. glabrous above. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. Florida. Description A tree up to 50 m high. 5 to 8 cm long. serrate. tannins. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. bark. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). leaflets 11 to 23. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. Massachusetts. juglandic acid. and Minnesota. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). fixed and volatile oils. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8 to 10 cm long. It is an astringent. and detergent.
and frequently white deposits of saline matter. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. The thallus is dichotomously branched. sprains. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. The color varies from brown to black.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). cellutitis. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. rheumatism. probably due to its iodine content. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It can be added to hair and skin care products. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. fucans). a prominent midrib. Frequently. steryl glucosides. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. The odor is slight. trace minerals (mainly iodine). Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. massage for cellulite. reproductive tissues. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. and bruises. The texture is cartilaginous. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. slimming activity. Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. as a wash for psoriasis. myxoedema.
frequently split or in broken pieces. mostly in the Eastern States. about 2 cm in diameter. Fruit is ovoid and light brown.. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains... up to 60 cm high. longitudinally wrinkled. Description An annual robust plant. usually blue. It is easily grown from seed. Gobo Part Used: Roots... calyx of five sepals... sparingly naturalized in the United States. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. Description The root is fusiform.. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids. on long stalks.. sometimes white. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. mainly cultivated for commercial use.. saponins.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe. rhizomes. flowers from June through September. elliptical leaves wrinkled. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hollow stem. European Burdock.. fracture somewhat horny..BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. the upper leaves. skin cleansing and lightening. simple or branched.... covered with bristly hairs. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids.. tannins. sessile. the lower ones on short petioles. Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L.. leaf... flowers.. Bugloss.. externally grayish brown. of variable length. and minerals. the crown somewhat annulate. Constituents Vitamin C. Borage has a cucumber-like odor. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin. rough.. five pointed corolla.
and can be used in facial steams. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. Arctinone. gels. North America. sterols. acid soils. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. volatile oils. psoriasis. Odor slight. It is also used in hair conditioners. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. sweetish. It has been combined with comfrey. centrally hollow or containing a white. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. becoming pyroligneous on milling. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. berries with black seeds. arctinal etc. anorexia nervosa. gout. polyalkenes. and slightly bitter. arctinol.. lignin. creams. cutaneous eruption. eczema. fat. fukinanolid. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. in cases of acne. including buxine and buxozine C. licorice. tannins. lotions. and oil. cystitis. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. fatty acids. scaly skin. inulin. taste is mucilaginous. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. shampoos. abrasions. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. and baths. pith-like tissue.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. yellow-green flowers in spring.
dry hills. 2 cm long. rutin. Description A dense. Fruit. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. chrysophanic acid. Emmenagogue.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. ribbed. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. papery ca. 5 mm. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. dark green shrub with thick. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . scale-like. ca. mucilage. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. Flowers greenish. sudorific. bushy places. ruscoside. borne on green. 1 cm. for the treatment of varicose veins. diuretic. 3 mm across. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. a globular red berry ca. oval rigid. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. Properties Increases circulation. Leaves. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. Europe. The extract has been used with success. saponin. inhibits inflammation.
CALENDULA. isorhamnetin-glucoside. quercitrin. together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length. herby odor. or Sierra Leone Pepper... Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America.. taste acidulous and mucilaginous... rutin. penduletin...5 to 4 cm in diameter... See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L... 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Constituents Flavonoids..... Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present. healing for sensitive skin.. from 1. and beta-sitosterol.... Mexican.. Description In pieces of varying length......... luteolin... the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length.C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia... Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments.. dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper.. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear. Mombassa. and from 5 to 9 angled. kaempferol.. piscidic-acids... It has a strong..
Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. Capsicum is a berry. The Mexican variety is deep red. The fruits vary greatly in size. or is free from these. The odor is aromatic. yellow. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. yellow. gray. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. The seeds are compressed and pointed. red. the African variety is yellowish-brown. and brown. the Nyassaland variety is red. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. The epicarp is thin and tough. The taste is pungent and warming. The apex is acuminate or acute. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. and greenish-red.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical.
leaves. naturalized in North America. hairy stem. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. etc. counter-irritant. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. -pinene. Bitter Bark. Bear Wood. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. After. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. antiseptic. rubefacient used for neuralgia. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. geranyl acetate. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. keeping it smooth and soft. colocynth. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. flavonoids. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. Sacred Bark. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. carotene capsanthin.29%). detergents. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. and vitamins A and C. and North America.4%. geraniol. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. segmented. fatty acids. and perfumes up to 0. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. Buckthorn. is obtained by steam distillation. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. CARROT Daucus carota L. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). It has a long tap root. creams. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. Chittem Bark. and others. daucol. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. Asia. jaborandi. lotions. branched. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rheumatic pains.
. In small doses. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. 4. 1. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. C = 10B. G. 1983. Wagner et al.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. 12th ed. R = H. 1. See formula. It is frequently covered with lichen. Trease. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. chrysophanol. B = 10 R = OH. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. including those of emodin. 1974. odor distinct. W. emodin oxanthrone. D = 10 . barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. 3. in Pharmacognosy. 1974. 2. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It gives red color with ammonia TS. 5. aloe-emodin. bryophytes. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. and D.and C-glycosidic linkages. they contain both O. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. It is much used as a laxative. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives. Description The tree is 4. Z. Bailliere Tindall. 267. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. Teil B. and chrysophanol. R = OH. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. The bark occurs in flattened. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. Publ. Aloe-emodin. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. 2. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. and emodin in the free state.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. London. C. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). and Evans. E. it acts as stomach ache treatment.. 444. Naturforsch. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels.5 to 5 mm thick. R = H. Various diathrones. C. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. curved pieces or quills of variable length. B. Two aloins. Teil C.
stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip.... limb bilabiate. bract-like. tubular.. stems quadrangular. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe.. pungent.. in dense.. camphor. carvacol.. downy beneath. lower pair shorter. and aromatic. the middle lobe largest. up to 4 mm in diameter.. margin deeply crenate. Constituents Essential oil. nepetalactone. downy.. crenulate. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed.... pale gray-green. (geraniol.. CENTELLA.. taste bitter. flowers small..CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L. nepetalic acid. Description Top... from 2 to 7 cm long.. from 10 to 20 cm long. ovate or oblong.. nepetariaside.. pointed at the apex. much branched.. citronellal. leaves opposite. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rounded or ear-shaped at the base. the upper lip erect and two-cleft. dotted with purple. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen... Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. petiolate. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed. throat dilated.. or crushed and broken. thymol).. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. softhairy above........ Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like. the larger. the lower spreading and three-cleft. nepetol rosemarinic acid... calyx hairy.. Br.. floral leaves small. interrupted spikes.. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. corolla whitish. naturalized in North America. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling... methyl-nepetalactone.
sessile. Yang.B. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells.C. thymol (1. U. Phillipson. Phytotherapy Res. 8(7). Y. Hu. H. Chem.A. plenolin derivatives. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. Cai. Wu. July 26–30. Yang. Chem.W. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. 2.W. G. cylindrical... 6. Lin. longitudinally striated.18%).3 antiprotozoal. and flavonoids. F.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities.804. Stem 0. and Mirhom.206. Lin.23%). 1991. and amoebiasis.C. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the plant has been used to treat colds. florilenalin-angelate. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. Mutat. Bull. and D.S. and Mirhom. 40(5). UIO. Pharm. 894. Ebizuka. florilenslin derivatives.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant. green.6-beta-oside. 3272. alternate. Bull. Y. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. and C. Sankawa. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. 1973. Yang. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. asthma. Ebizuka.T. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. triterpenes. J.3 to 0.. Pharm. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. 6. Y. W.85%). 8. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. The plant also contains diterpenes. Y. 1992. 1988.5%). brevilin A. 204(2). Patent 5. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1.C. aromatic. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. 4.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes.Y. and rheumatism.50%). 7. Iwakami. J. Odor characteristic. helenalin. 1. Microbiol. myrtenol (5.. apex acute. nasal allergies. and U. Kriby.. venation pinate reticulate.S.L. and alpha-humulene. 3. 436. and U. green. arnicolides. skin infections. oblong. margin dentate.B. Y.97%). 1994.W. internodes short. 22 g. Sept. Lee and J.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic.7.. Pharm.. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. Chun.6 to 1 cm broad. Warhurst. malaria.D. caryophyllane-2. A. J. D’Amelio. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. Res. beta-gurjunene.. S.5 cm in diameter. Aust. and sternutatory. diarrhea. 1196. Wright. S. 97. 1998. the apical cell being elongated filamentous. isoamyl caproate (1. Chin J. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. simple. H. 39(12). 1997. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns.98%).1 In Chinese traditional medicine. 5. J. Y. F. D’Amelio. C. Sankawa. 54. 1973–1974. Compositous glandular hairs are also present.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. Abstr. Wu. wounds. Campbell.I. Leaves. Y. T.
apigenins. involucre hemispherical. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. three-toothed and four-veined. corolla white. It is a carminative. furfural. naturalized in the United States. peduncles light green to brownish-green. bisabolene. farnesol. disk-florets tubular. anti-inflammatory. aromatic. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. perfect. alpha-bisabolol.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. For further reading. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . longitudinally furrowed. pistillate. Chamomile contains azulene. matricarin. creams. and without a pappus. taste aromatic and bitter. calendula. and pubescent scales. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. see the bibliography at the end of the book. usually reflexed. borneol.to 5-ribbed. pappus none. oblanceolate. chamazulene. Odor pleasant. chlorogenic acid. New York southward. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. Constituents Essential oil. hollow receptacles. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. or only a slight membraneous crown.5 cm. lotions. etc. and mullein in shampoo rinses. well over one hundred compounds. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. ray-florets from 10 to 20. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. healing tonic.
a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. The flowers normally occur in January through May.G. restoring.D. Properties Good for softening. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. Also used on skin rashes and infections. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A resinous. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. Chaparral is a source of N. It is native to the southwestern United States. Gobonadorra Greasewood. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra.. and stimulating the skin. Yellow flowers have five petals. long. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. 3/8 in.A. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. The leaves grow in opposite pairs. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates.
will add body to hair. phenolic acids. The outer surface. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. The fracture is weak. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. quercetin). used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. 747.A. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. However.). tannins. if unpeeled. bitteralmond-like when moistened. partially peeled. p. The taste is astringent and pungent. CHERRY BARK. sedating. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. and unpeeled. Properties Soothing. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . this has not been thoroughly investigated.G. 1.D.. south to Florida and Texas. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. which can be peeled. is brownish-black. and uneven. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. brittle.CHERRY BARK. granular and slightly fibrous. it is finely striated and fissured. Constituents Aspartic acid. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. a powerful antioxidant. gossypetin. and 4 mm in thickness. The odor is aromatic. 8th ed. Merck Index. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. astringent.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. 5 cm in width. camphor.
Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. Properties Antipruritic. lotions. long. indolent ulcers. leaves ovate. carboxylic acids. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. psoriasis. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. with a line of hairs along one side. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. small capsule. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. axillary stalks and in terminal. Description A weak. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. coumarins. triterpene gyycosides. leafy cymes. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. rutin. 1⁄6 to 1 in. gamma-linolenic acid. annual.1 mucilage. stems slender. small. emollient. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. creeping or ascending. fatty acids and minerals. the lower petioled. white bird’s eye. vulnerary. on slender. fruit a many-seeded. saponins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flowers white. the uppermost sessile. Can be used in creams. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. entire. satin flower. rooting at the nodes. and facial steams. tocopherols. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. For inflammed eyes. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. baths. swelling. opposite. redness of face erysipelas. high.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. All Europe. acute.
.. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients... white hairs. June to August. hedges. melissic acid.. stalked leaflets. thickets. Leung..See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L.. Description A robust.. fragrant.. Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods.. sterols. mental escape from reality. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy). it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. vitalbiosides.. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches.CLOVES 81 1.. grey.. Duke.. J. John Wiley & Sons.... Carophyllus aromaticus L. woody.. Boca Raton. each with long styles with dense.. antiscrofulous properties.. most of Europe. and inflammation.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba.... Flowers 2 cm.. New York. in lax terminal and axillary clusters. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. 2nd ed. et Herr. protein.. inattentativeness. CINCHONA... densely hairy on both sides. Steven Foster... it is used for dementia.. FL. Caryophyllum. feather fruit clusters. Y. Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands. behenic acid. chlorogenic acid.. Constituents Caffeic acid... CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L. A/B. Fruit with numerous carpels..) Bull. and conspicuous. 1996... 1992. said to have antibiotic properties. sores.. clematine.. rubefacient. In 1770. each 3 to 10 cm.. 2. CRC Press... petals spreading. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters.. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard... spreading. indifference. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval.
Williams & Wilkins. and has carminative properties. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root. Sri Lanka. taste pungent and aromatic. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. and Thailand. It lowers blood pressure. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. E. lipids. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1. odor strongly aromatic.5 mm in length. which alternate with the calyx teeth. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. followed by a slight numbness. flavonoids. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. with numerous ovules. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. and incurved. Burma.. stamens numerous.K. and Tyler. Speedie. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. Robbers. J. dark brown. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator.. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. antispasmodic. afterwards very pungent. where it is widely cultivated. J. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length.. crowded.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. The buds also contain sterols. style 1. glandular-punctate petals. protein. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. It is native to India. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. vitamins. and others. Nepal. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. ovary twolocular. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. carbohydrates.E.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. and somewhat four-angled.
carotenoids. When the leaves are dried. it is said to help relieve asthma. tussillagine. pubescent. faintly herbaceous. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. 83. minerals.. London. senkirkine.L. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. The younger leaves densely white. floccose beneath. glabrous above.. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. Personal communication. landslides.. 3. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. terpene alcohols. flavonoids. 1996. palmately 5. 1998. bitter.to 9-nerved. mucilage. Chevallier. Odor indistinct. Description Petiole long. tussilagone and essential oil. Properties Emollient. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. taste mucilaginous. deeply cordate at the base. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ground. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. Kronenthal. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth. Constituents Tannins. river gravels. screens. R. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. slightly wrinkled. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. and smoked like tobacco. All Europe. banks. blade very brittle. A.
Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. anti-inflammatory. Fillipendula. Capassa F. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue.) Comfrey is also an astringent. up to 10 in.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L.P. 944. shampoos. Description The lower. Bruiswort. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. and has a mucilaginous. marshes. radical leaves are very large. ointments. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. Mascolo N. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. Phytotherapy Res. lotions. phenolics. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). and Fasulo M. Healing Herb. and lithospermic acids. asparagine (1–3%). B-sitosterol amino cids.. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. caffeic. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. althea. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. Autoreg. 1. cone flower. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). on wounds. I. aloe.2–4. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. fractures. chlorogenic. Most of Europe. long. Menghini A. The stalks are hollowed and cornered.. watersides. alkaloids. Knitbone Part Used: Root.. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. feebly astringent taste. a very powerful cell proliferent. It is almost inodorous. Comfrey can be used in creams.. douches. 1987. salves.. hair rinses. Blackwort. and demulcent. antihemorrhagic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .7%). The powder is green in color. very hairy.
1 Dry matter 30.7 0.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .0 1200.285 0.600 0.14 8.05 0.84 4.0 7.93 0.8 44.19 0.14 49.01 14.92 0.8 213.89 0.085 0.72 1. A equiv. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.111 1.10 0.11 25.7 0.41 0.93 0. energy therms cwt Prod. Nutrients Calc. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.40 0.65 0. for cattle Maint.99 1.19 5.037 17.61 0.795 0.01 24.456 0.92 0.74 0.0 100 g 4.29 44.26 0.176 0.0 0.7 7.0 30.624 8.00 57 34 34 1.59 0. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.142 0.0 0.30 1.0 5.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.73 28. Dig.86 49.0 3.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.78 7.0 15.47 1.480 0.79 275.50 1101100.59 2.2 0.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.58 5.8 2. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.208 100.20 0.18 2.10 19600 10 6 28 0.51 4.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.07 100.
86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L. woodland....... riverbanks.. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable. occasionally dark brown in color. mucilaginous.. CONE FLOWER. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface.See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L..... internally creamy white. horny texture. feebly astringent taste..... Europe.... North Africa. *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum.. often more than 2. Bruiswort.5 cm thick and 30 cm long.. Blackwort. Healing Comfrey Herb. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark.. creates astringency. It is almost inodorous.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia.. reduces inflammation and clotting. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin. and dark color.. firm. promotes tissue repair. externally wrinkled. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland. branched. and has a sweetish. Good when used in burn creams.. cultivated extensively...
tannin. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. two or three layers of large. -terpinene. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. and flavors. ferulic). trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. mericarps easily separated. straight. each mericarp with five prominent. undulate secondary ribs. rutin). The essential oil is used in massage oils. fatty acids. frequently with numerous large. coumaric. limonene. geraniol and geranyl acetate. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. chlorogenic. cremocarp nearly globular. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. tangentially elongated. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. Properties Has been used in body lotions. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. p-cymene.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. deodorants. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. etc. endocarp of large tabular cells.). the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. eliptical oil ducts. toothpaste. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. perfumes. toilet waters and after shaves. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. flavonoids (quertcetin. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. phenolic acids (caffeic. camphor.
floccose. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. marginal corollas funnelform. Virginia. more or less floccose. For aging skin. stem 3 to 7 dm high. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. or as a compress for tired eyes. Quebec. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bracts greenish-yellow. involucres round-ureolate. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. it is soothing and emollient. British Columbia.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. native of Europe. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. about 15 mm high. ascending branches. and various skin complaints. varying to rose or white. conjunctivitis. California. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. heads long-peduncled. scrapes. with slender. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. blue. Description Annual.
tannin. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. the epidermal cells rectangular. stigmasterol. fixed oil. cichorin. palmitic acid. polygalacturonic acids. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length.2 to 0. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. spiral or annular tracheae. Europe. light green. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. Topically very soothing and softening.4 mm in diameter. vitamin C. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. Constituents Acetanapthene. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. protein. saponins. segments very slender.4 to 3 mm in length. spherical nucleus. and temperate Asia. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. cultivated extensively. proline. yellow or light brown color. and from 0. purplish-red. minerals. protocyanin. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. corn silk. and 0. potassium. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cnicin. maizeric acid. flavonoids (Maysin).8 m in length. arginine. cyanidin glucoside. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. alanine. frequently unequal. CORN SILK Zea mays L. the upper portion being usually unicellular. tocopherols. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. stigmas bifid. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. the basal trichomes 50.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside.
For blotchiness of skin. *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India. Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. and refreshing. phenolic acids. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America... sweetish. 176. Blatt.. phytosterol. fatty acids... and cylindrical. campferol dirhamnoside. According to the German Commission Monograph E... Wagner. and 3-gentiotrioside. with oval. 1. odor. minerals. broad hairy leaves. Constituents Saponins. astringent....See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L. Both the fruit and seeds are employed. cooling. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis... and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. flavonoids (gossypetin. dark green fruits.. CRESS. Taste.. apricot-like.90 CRESS. hairy perennial. colds. and coughs... Properties Stimulate circulation. Zgalinski......SEE WATERCRESS Description A short... five-lobed.... p. about 1 cm in diameter... tubular yellow flowers. 1984.. Description This trailing annual has rough stems. H.. slightly curved... The flowers are tubular. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties...... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and for chapped skin or sunburn. Plant Drug Analysis... Springer-Verlag. and E. and spotted with orange at the throat. quercetin).. in face creams... amino acids. Berlin.. sunburn.. soothing eye compress. yellow... Constituents Vitamins... Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles.. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging).... Hydrating. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract.. wrinkled leaves. volatile oils.. S.M. cucurbitacins. enzyme (primeverase).
The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. with a pronounced midrib. 0. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. Frequent pieces of cut. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number.0 cm long and 0. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. Stomata are present in both epidermises. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T.5 cm wide. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. ending in a spherical secreting cell.S. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. where it is a common weed. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs.5 to 1. approximating 90°. Foreign Dandelion. dark green or brown-green in color. yellow-brown and sometimes purple. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. and for various skin complaints and eczema. naturalized in the United States. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad.5 cm wide. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum.
and is especially high in potassium. as a diuretic. The white sap has been used to treat warts. Vitamin B and C. It is also considered a blood purifier. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile. the root has been used to treat inflammation.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints.
a narrow cortex. porous. becomes tough when slightly moist. also ca. whitish bark in which numerous. but a bitter taste. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. Properties See Dandelion Leaves.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. naturalized in the United States. It has no odor. Description The root consists of a simple. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. The dried root is dark brown. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). brownish concentric rings of sieve. where it is a common weed. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. milky latex exudes. which is rather hygroscopic. straight root. and its derivative taraxacoside. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. the section exhibiting a yellow. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. carotenoids. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. the latter sometimes remains simple.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. flavonoids. It attains a length of about 30 cm. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. and sterols. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. surrounded by a thick. vitamins and minerals. much shriveled. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glucoside.1% mucilage. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. with concentric rings as in the root. whitish and fleshy within. but often divides into several erect branches. it tapers but little below. and the eudesmanolides. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. and wrinkled longitudinally. 1. and a layer of cork externally. which have not been found anywhere else. which toward the upper part. The drug.
Description It has a characteristic large.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside... Antiphlogistic. (oleanolic acid. Fracture short. Odor slight. 1992. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . chlorogenic acid. et al. Planta Med. rheumatism). with some fan-shaped pieces. Xylem radiate. ursolic acid) phytosterols. M. quinones. 117. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. polysaccharides. heavily concentric.-C.5 cm thick. hooked. light grey-brown. procumbide). 58. claw-like fruit. taste astringent. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. slightly analgesic. bitter. triterpenes. flavonoids. Lanhers. polyphenols. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. 1. The plant produces bright red flowers. occasionally with cavities.
E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. Scurvy Root. pallida. Indian head.. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Nutt. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. Black Susans. Part Used: Root. E. Moench. Black Sampson. E. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. purpurea. (Nutt. L. Hedgehog Part Used: Root.
bark less than 1 mm thick. When administered orally. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. ulcers. taste sweetish. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. aromatic. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. sieve tissue in radial rows. slightly annulate in the upper portion. bed sores. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. externally grayish-brown. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. or furrowed. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. wound healing. burns. cylindrical. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . boils. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. Odor faint. For example. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. fibrous. bites. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. fracture short. etc. or poisonous insects. wounds. blood purification. when administered into normal leghorn chickens.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. stings. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. or purplish-brown. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. use for snake bite. light brown.
and Interferon-B2. Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii). Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. interleukin-1 (IL-1). TNF-X.ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities. It also increases T-cell proliferation. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .3 Furthermore.
purpurea)].8Z. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..4E. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E. ferulates of tartaric. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. including an essential oil.6–2.5 Furthermore.3–1. purpurea (0. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. angustifolia.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro. Present in both E. angustifolia). Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus. • Polysaccharides. which is useful for species identification. chlorogenic acid. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. arabinoga lactan). the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood. In E. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan.. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. pyrrolizidine alkaloids.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. pallida.g.1%). Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. – The mono. isobutylamide of undeca (2E. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. purpurea and E. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. angustifolia.7% (except in E.g. but practically absent in E. These include aliphatic amides. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea. albicans pathogens. in vivo.10E)-tetraenoic acid).and dicaffeate of tartaric acid.4Z-diene8.
Intn. Steinmueller.. 27(9).L. 81(8). H..345. Andreas.. 669-675. Arzneim-Forsch. Puhlmann. 5. B. C. 6. E. Wuerdinger. Klumpp and U. Albrecht. Wagner. 1988.ECHINACEA 99 1. Cancer Inst. Wagner. J. H.. Bauer. Roesler. Natl. Wagner. 3. Vet. and M. Jurcic. N. J. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1991. Ser. Luettig. 276-281. 1989. M. 36(5). I. Zenk.E. Gifford. A. 2787-2794. K. Schranner.. 1989 2. Phytochemistry. Immuno Pharmacol. Loesch. 27-38. Brouillard. R. Med. S. H. G. Becker. J. 13(1). 38(2). Christiane. O. B.. M.-L.H. Lohmann-Matthes. R. Lohmann. Zawatzky. Wagner. 353-364. 4. and J. and R. J. Holger.Matthes. 1989. 1988. Cheminat.744. K. J. and H. (Bethesda). Ger Offen De 3.
covered with finely punctate markings. rutin. and tannins.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. joint stiffness etc. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. taste slightly bitter. inflammation. tumors. sterols. flat or slightly campanulate. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. shriveled. It is said to reduce swellings. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. minerals. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. ursolic acid. Description Small. mucilage. astragalin. yellow. five-lobed. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. having three pores and up to 0. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. regularly five-lobed. slender anthers oblong. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. south to Florida and Texas. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. filaments. triterpenes (alpha. from 2 to 3 mm in width. rotate. volatile oils. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid).and beta-amyrin).023 mm in diameter. soreness. stamens five. sambunigrin). calyx superior.
frequently curved or irregularly curled. itching skin. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. taste acrid. south to North Carolina. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. Scabwort. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis.5 cm in diameter. as a bactericide.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. Odor aromatic. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. fracture short and horny. and separated by large intercellular spaces. and pungent. and rashes. central Europe. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. up to 13 cm in length and 1. naturalized in northeastern North America. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bitter. asthma. west to Missouri. wounds. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark.) strongly lignified wood fibers. roots cylindrical and tapering. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. and catarrh.
102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. isolantolactone. sterols. friedelin). polyacetylene. germacrene-D-lactose). triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . inulin.
and phytosterin. 2 to 8 in. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. febrifuge. woolly beneath. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. Description Stems white-woolly. either unbranched in small specimens.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. heads numerous. always deeply cut-in teeth. odor characteristically aromatic. It is odorless. Constituents Tannins. green above. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. The leaves are sometimes almost round. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). resin. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. Astringent tonic. essential oil. woodland. Description It is an elegant little annual plant. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. however. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. small. broad. has a bitter and astringent taste. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. taste bitter and aromatic. and at other times pointed and narrow. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. or with many opposite branches. Hemostatic. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. Also has slight Anodyne properties. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but sometimes tinged with brown. 1 ⁄6 to in. Europe. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. high. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. heaths. The stem is erect and wiry. sessile. long and about in. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. revolute or undulate. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. their margins. obtuse bracts which are white.
ferulic acid. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. Euphrasia contains glycosides. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. caffeic acid. catapol. including aucubin. conjunctivitis.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. poultices. gallotannins. inflammation of the eyelid. geniposide. Constituents Aucubin. and various skin conditions. luproside. inflamation of the blood vessels. minerals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions or drops for eye complaints. and a volatile oil.
105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. conical stylopod. United States. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. brown walls. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. It is * Formerly CTFA. Description Mericarps usually separate. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. For use in eye washes. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. composed of polygonal cells. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. more or less curved. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. New Jersey. dorsal surface convex. south to Florida and Texas. strongly lignified fibers.5 mm in breadth.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. making usually six oil ducts in all.
and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. protein. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. especially if powdered. and flavonoids. However. yellowish-brown. Pakistan. Soaked in water. Israel. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. organic acids. cultivated in India. 2 to 3 mm wide. The odor of Fenugreek. including -pinene. anisaldehyde. there are methylchavicol. horny. and flattened. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. they are hard. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. and Turkey. In addition. the taste is disagreeable and oily. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. the radicle being accumbent.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. is strong and spicy. and 2 mm thick. the fruits contain a fixed oil. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . -phellandrene. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. dark. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. the former appearing as a whitish point. Nearly in the center of one of the long. translucent endosperm. and limonene. In addition.
FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. swollen glands. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. histidine. cystine. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. mucin. and banks. and various skin irritations. Fenugreek contains mucilage. Square stalk. sores. in woods. yamogenin. neurosis. flowering from July to October. It is also used as a galactagogue. wounds. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. Constituents Dioscin. choline. trigofoenoside A-G. glutamic acid. mucilage. diosgenin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . trigonelline. hedges. tumors. A poultice has been employed for gout. damp copses. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. fenugreakin. Scrofula plant. choline. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. aspartic acid. glycine.
and 3 to 7 in. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. hesperetin. forked. slightly drooping. and subglobose. the limb contracted. with paniculate. alkaloids and flavonoids.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. and circulatory stimulant. of a deep-green color. in length. The flowers are small. the corolla of a dull green color. long. acute. erect. whitish. The leaves are opposite. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. thyrsoid panicles. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. adnate to the upper side. 3 to 4 in. which are broadly ovate. obtuse. sharply and unequally serrated. having a green scale or sterile filament. and knotty root. cardio-active glycosides. veined. 2 to 4 ft in height. petiolate. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. ovate-oblong. with a livid purple lip. on axillary and terminal. tuberous. opposite branches above. anodyne. sublabiate. ovoid. cleansing. Constituents Saponins. The calyx is in five segments. lecithin. and slightly margined. dark purple. with a leafy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . quadrangular. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. acutish or broadly cordate at base. or the upper lanceolate. ovate. smooth stem. rounded.
which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. coumarins. and along banks of rivers. retrorsely prickled stem. Stinging Nettle. and astringent. with hooked prickles. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. small. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. sterols. quadrangular. In a green state. and rough on the margins. and n-alkanes. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. styles 2. tapering to the base. numerous and scattered. verticillate in sixes. fatty acids. with a weak. tannins. in length.or 2-flowered. flavonoids. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. astringent. stamens 4 and short. succulent plant. including psoriasis. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). or eights. sevens. Description Galium aparine is an annual. mucronate. and flowering from June to September. phenolic acids. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with an acidulous. but are inodorous when dried. these plants have an unpleasant odor. GARLIC Allium sativum L. and Burdock. and midrib. 2 or 3 lines in width. the flowers white. corolla rotate and 4-parted. cleansing. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. Catch-weed. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. Calyx 4-toothed. moist thickets. the peduncles are axillary and 1. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. procumbent. and is hairy at the joints. growing in cultivated grounds. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. The fruit is large and bristly. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. and bitter taste. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA.
C. and acne. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. sores. each bulbil covered by whitish. dry leaf. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. Properties Cosmetically. (alliin. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. Vitamins A.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. the outer surface convex. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .750 mm in diameter. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. antiseptic. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. Description Bulb subglobular. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. spasmolytic. promotes leucocytosis. pimples. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. and attached to a flattened circular base. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. Italy is a large producer. trace minerals. Constituents Sulfur compounds. antiviral. with 8 to 15 bulbils. and E. The membranaceous scales. However. bacteriostatic. compound. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. scale-like leaves. scordinins. apex acute. g-glutamyl). Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. and fructans. surrounded by whitish. hypotensive and anthelmintic. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. expectorant. Garlic does not lend itself. It has been applied successfully to swellings. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. taste intensely pungent and persistent. membranaceous scales. Internally. allicin — dialltrisulfide. in place of butter. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. about 0. membranaceous. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. Garlic is diaphoretic. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. for obvious reasons. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. B. cultivated extensively. base truncate. peptides.
It is recommended for loss of appetite. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. amarogentin. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. and middle western United States. xanthones. that of the root. sweroside. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. but pliable when it is moist. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. The taste is first sweet. bitter. gastric stimulant. anti-inflammatory. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. and alkaloids (gentiamine). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sialagogue. Cranesbill. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. Properties Gentian is an astringent. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. The cambiam zone is dark brown. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. polysaccharide. and cholagogue. volatile oils. cleansing. swertiamarin). The odor is aromatic. then strongly bitter.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L.5 dm in length. but are usually shorter. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. These roots measure up to 8. and to 37 mm in diameter. phenolic acids.
Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.
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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome
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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.
Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.
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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root
Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.
Ginseng root (american) cultivated
Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its
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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.
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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.
GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves
Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.
Golden rod (Solidago)
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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome
Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.
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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.
GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part
Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near
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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin
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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.
GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit
Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract
Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.
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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.
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ferulic). Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine.. etc. conditioning. which can be used in various sun-care products. creams.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . theobromine. lotions. and phenolic acids (caffeic. hair rinses. shampoos. tannins (catechins. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. theophylline). Green tea contains anti-oxidants. gallo catechins).
Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. Cosmetically. it has been used as a wash for itching. phenolic acids. with five parts. Properties Flowers. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. quercetin and glucosides). purple-brown to brown in color. Description The fruits are small berries. Monogyna (jacq. and frost bite. catechin.) C. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. Medically.C. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. vitexin glucosides. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. leaves. and dimeric procyanidin. and externally wrinkled. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. sores. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. Externally. and central and northern Asia. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. fatty acids.
etc.. Arabia. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. Sci. It can be used in shampoos. 2 to 3 cm long. et al. However. brown. It will add body and highlights to hair. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. 319. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. entire. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. glabrous. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. l. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. triangular pitted seeds. Description Leaves greenish-brown. shortly petiolate. as henna. (2-hydroxy. small. hair rinses. 1 to 2 cm wide. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. Calendula. however. deepening with alkalies. and conditioners. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L..126 HENNA 1. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. India. Persia. oblong or broadly lanceolate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . simple. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. opposite. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. 4-napthoquinone). mucronate. often imported in coarse powder. tapering at the base. fading on the addition of acid. in an aqueous solution. Chamomile. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. decoction orange-brown. It is also said to be cooling. R. and decolorized by a special extraction process. with occasional stems and brown. astringent. 1983. acids destroy its properties. Pharm. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. fruit. Della Loggia. It will not impart any color to the hair. 51. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution.
flavonoids. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. various parts of Africa. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. phenolic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. Chile. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. (glucosides of apigenin.4-napthoquinone). and New Zealand. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. Description Honey is a viscid. Honey obtained from heather. and tannins. and semi-solid on keeping. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. It becomes partially crystalline. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. orange blossom. fatty acids. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. translucent. luteolin). Australia. California.
Hops is a strobulus. one margin is flat. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. Bark Bongay. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. lupulone. wax. and pollen grains. consisting mainly of humulene. and hair conditioning. Hops is a sedative. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin). tannins. humulene. tetters. xanthahumol). face creams. and discoloration. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. it will reduce swellings. The rachis is flexuous and hairy.brown. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. will give body to the hair. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. The taste is pungent and bitter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dextrin. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. ringworm. bactericidal. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. volatile oil. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. The individual bracts are thin and papery. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. and tannins. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. bitter principles. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. The odor is aromatic. In combination with Chamomile. Asia. The strobiles measure 5. Useful in treatment of dandruff. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. It has been used on crural ulcers. the veins are elevated. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. sores. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. It contains small quantities of sucrose. hypnotic. and alleviates pain and itching. formic acid. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil.
The bark is thin. quercetin). peculiar odor. The plant has long. from 1 to 1 in. stimulates digestion and circulation. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. bitter taste. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. large rough leaves. in diameter. and tannin. bitter taste. is nearly odorless. The root has antimicrobial properties. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. and swellings. Gaertn et Schert. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and slimming products. compressed. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. phlebitis. sprains and various sports injuries. increases circulation. tendonitis. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. chestnut-brown testa.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. hand creams. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. Increases venous tone. nearly an inch in diameter. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. phenolic acids.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. varicose veins. when dry. and has an unpleasant.25–0. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. and hemorrhoids. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. It has been used in cellulitis. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. Properties Cosmetically. Properties Astringent. fleshy roots. Description A perennial . HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. aesculin). marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. Constituents Saponins (aescin. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. and non-astringent. fawn-colored. Anti-inflammatory. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. iron gives a green precipitate. The nut. The aqueous infusion is bitter. lotions. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. vasoconstrictor. is subglobular. with a shining. yellowish-white in color. The inner bark has a rough. The nut has a slight. The internal portion is starchy.
causing the skin to blister. after crushing and moistening. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks.5 dm. yields 0. rarely with a few branches. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. mostly with sterile spores. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. 5 to 10 mm. acuminate. sterile stems decumbent to erect. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. branches 3 to 4 angled.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. South Carolina. thick. branched. Alaska. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. Greenland. solid. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. high. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Eurasia. cones peduncled. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. thick. greasy skin. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. which would validate its use on blemished.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. 2 to 3 mm. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. 1 to 3. as the fresh juice can be irritating. high. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. However.5 dm. However. 2 to 4 cm long. California. 10 to 14 furrowed.
Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. very much branched. acute. anthers with linear divaricating cells. spreading. sunny sites. and 1 ribbed underneath. apigenin). and diverging. with the middle of the corolla erect. Used for putrid wounds. The flowers are bluish-purple. rather thick. flat. emarginate. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. palustrine alkaloid. sessile. sometimes narrower. protruding. green on each side.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. sometimes elliptical. punctate. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. usually oblong-linear. and 1 to 2 ft in height. kaempferol. healing. acute. erect. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. seldom white. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. saponin (equisetonin). astringent. scarcely shorter than the calyx. Its stems are quadrangular. southern Europe. silicic acid. minerals. lower lip trifid. flat. with the middle obe larger. but smaller. The leaves are opposite. and external bleeding. gangrenous ulcers. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. entire. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. Will add strength and sheen to hair. the branches are rod-like. It is diuretic. and borne in racemose. second whorls. emarginate. and equistetolic acid. woody at the base. spreading. or lanceolate. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. phenolic acids. Upper lip of the corolla. Stamens 4. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb.
Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. Tannin. oleanic acid. ursolic acid. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. marrubin. and resin. gum. phenolic acids. flavonoid glycosides. Constituents Volatile oil.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
the limb oblique. North America. The flowers are bluish-purple. volatile oil. decongesting tonic. opposite. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. the upper being the largest. The leaves are petiolate. Also useful in cough preparations. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. luteolin [cynaroside]. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. Europe to Caucasus. * Formerly CTFA. amino acids. square. hairy. cordatereniform. forming the appearance of a cross. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . marubiin. with a varegated throat. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. curved. crenate. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. and glaucous on both sides. roundish. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. gray. hairy herb. The calyx is long. about three together in axillary whorls. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. The floral leaves are of the same form. radicating at base. villous. phenolic acids. creeping stem. though often purplish beneath.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. with a prostrate.
with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. molluscicidal. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. exudes from the incised bark. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. control of cellulite. sun or shade. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. and introduced into North America. or Ivy gum). antimutagenic. This plant is common all over Europe. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. rather fragrant odor. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. Properties Anti-fungal. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. Scandinavia. However. The former possesses a peculiar. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. Europe. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. aromatic odor. anthelmintic. Description An evergreen climber. Ivy has been used in face packs. faintly bitter. It is acrid. and when heated emits a pleasant.
and fatty acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids. flavonoids. .IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. malic acid.and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides. hederacoside C (5%). hederacoside.
The odor is slight. dull. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. The under surface is yellowish-green. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. and stems. stalks. The leaves are compound. The blades are asymmetric. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. The upper surface is yellowish-green. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 cm. smooth. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. and the veins are elevated. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. The taste is salty and bitter. tapering and rounded or acute at the base.
lotions. more than half as long as the corolla tube. containing benzylacetate. conditioners. gels. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. Combines well with Nettles. Constituents Essential oil. It induces salivary. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. and soaps. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. isopilocarpine). colocynth. skin creams. volatile oil. It contains pilocarpine. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . isamone. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. calyx linear. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. and mullein as a hair tonic. tincture of Capsicum. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. hair tonics. It can be used in shampoos. pilocarpic acid. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. It increases intestinal motility. antiglaucoma agent. hair rinses. and farnesol. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. gastric. jaborino. benzyl alcohol.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. and sweat hypersecretion. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. very sweet-scented flowers. jaboric acid. Leaves opposite. the terminal leaflet larger. eugenol.
Kelp can be used in bath formulae. dissolving. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors. (For additional information. algin. Constituents Iodine.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. softening. see Chapter 7. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. hair products. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. benefits the skin. Nourishing. potassium. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. restoring. skin care products. each bearing an expanded blade. Description Vesicles large. and many trace minerals and micronutrients.
wide. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. antipyretic. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. and similar skin problems. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. The flowers are in branched panicles. triterpenoids. Antimicrobial properties. tropical habitats in dry soil. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. and alkaloid. Approximately 30 species have been identified. and lotions. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and antifungal. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. shampoos. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. southern India and Sri Lanka. dandruff. analgesic. antioxidant. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. creams.
Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. Russia. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil.) Burman F. dilute it with water. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sweet Wood. and close the pores. giving relief. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. cleanse the skin. Liquorice Root. odor fragrant.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. bacteriastatic. skin creams. Constituents Essential oil. and cleansers. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). taste aromatic. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. It is aromatic and astringent. distinctive. and Hungary. Properties Healing antiseptic. Glycyrrhizae Radix. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. skin bleach. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. flavonoids. southern Europe.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. phenolic acids. When taken on an empty stomach.
it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. antihepatotoxic. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. antiseptic. and cysts. Internally. antiviral. sometimes split longitudinally. antiphlogistic. The upper portion is more or less knotty. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. longitudinally wrinkled. eczema. somewhat tapering. including dermatitis. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. Externally. Its odor is distinctive. when deprived of the outer corky layer. Properties Good for skin eruptions. Anti-inflammatory. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. its taste is sweetish. Internally. anti-infectant. it is externally pale yellow. pruritus. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. it is yellow and radiate. antibacterial.
bracts N/S Flowers. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. limestone. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. rhamnoisoliquiritin. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. licoric acid. echinatin.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. licoisoflavones A and B. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. etc. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. On hydrolysis. licochalcones A and B. Europe. isoglabrolide. licoricone. licuraside. 2 to 20% starch. glabrolide.). liquiritin. glabronin etc. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. neoliquiritin. lignin. B-amyrin.). sterols. bracts Flowers. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. neoisoliquiritin. Basswood. etc.). glabrol. amines. isoliquiritin. formononetin. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. 4-hydroxychalcone. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. glyzarin. glabrone. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). Linn Tree. kumatakenin. 4’. glycyrol. gum wax. licoisoflavanone. bracts N/S Flowers. White Wood. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glycyrrhetol. coumarins.7-dihydoxyflavone. amino acids. liquiritigenin.
when dry. linear. When fresh. odor is agreeable.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaf-like bract. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. For bruises and to reduce swelling. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). are oblong or lanceolate. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. The petals are five and whitish. or approach yellow. faint. Emollient. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. Internally. which are axillary.
naturalized in North America. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. and perfumes. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0.0% volatile oil. mucilage. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps.5 to 1. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. caffeic). LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. creams. D. tannins. Description Lovage has large. high amount of uronic acid. The fruit is a cremocarp. The rhizome and root are aromatic. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. volatile oil. and resin are also present. dark green. gum.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. Coumarins. J. W. lotions. kaempferol). Smallage. sterols. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cultivated in central and southern Europe. Maggi Herb. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer.
the surface is glaucous and very smooth. blackish.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. Properties In rinses. first into two recurving. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. primary forks. phenolic acids and their sulfates. They consist of long. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. The rhizomes are horizontal. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. mucilage. astragalin. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. and then into several spreading pinnae. quinic acid. slender. Constituents Adiantone. and shining frond bases. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. The odor is slight. adiantoxide. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. tannin. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. and with blackish roots. pedately branching at the summit.
The odor is not distinct. British Columbia to Mexico. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. curved peduncle. spasmodic colitis. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. and slightly elevated. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. the veins are elevated. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. mostly ligulate. Medicinally used in cough preparations. blotchiness. naturalized in North America. distinct. Properties Soothing and softening. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. thick. The individual flowers are yellow. and insect bites. Emollient for sensitive skin. Relieves itching. The flower heads have a short. Holligold. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. The blade is cordate at the base. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. protective. and fruits. These flowers are oblanceolate. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. flowers. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. Useful in eye preparations. niacin. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. Mary-bud. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. hairy. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. and phenolic acids. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. The texture is herbaceous. the veins are palmate. greenish-gray bracts. The taste is mucilaginous.
The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.
MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root
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yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops
Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.
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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.
MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root
Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.
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Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb
Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)
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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers
Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied
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to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin
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The odor is aromatic. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. engler) The surface is dull. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. It is said to promote granulation. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. and anti-inflammatory. Myrrh is used in incense. sore throats. diuretic. diaphoretic. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. The taste is pungent. mildly expectorant. antifungal. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. It is said to bring forth the gods. for example. Used for halitosis. powdery. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The fracture is conchoidal. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. and acrid. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. bitter. carminative.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . camphene. cineole. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. on bruises and hemorrhoids. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. and nerol). creamy white flowers. Constituents Yields 0. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange. geraniol. and blue-black berries.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene.2 to 0.
.. by woodsides. kaempferol. and isorhamnetin). (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle.. herbaceous..... acetyl choline. flowering from June to September.... amines (histamine. Urtica urens L... Nettles has been used as an astringent.. in hedges.. Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant. and in gardens.N NASTURTIUM .. Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant. and epistaxis malaena. serotonin). Stimulates hair growth....... Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic.. formic and citric acids.. choline. Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed. growing in waste places. Description This plant is a perennial.... and for cutaneous eruptions. sterols.. beta-carotene... See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L. dull-green plant. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy. minerals (high amount).. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll. common to Europe and the United States. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. nervous eczema.
Odor slight. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. two-veined palet or scale. Texas. and the Yukon. tapering toward each end. the base somewhat contracted. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. taste starchy. up to 1. within the groove a narrow. above the center. a scar or.O OATS Avena sativa L. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. Florida. the apex pointed. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. thinly membranous. rarely. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Description The tree is small. Properties Benefits the skin.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. polyphenols. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pointed hairs. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. some of which give rise to unicellular. bent here and there. The drug tastes bitter. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. elliptical stomata up to about 0. the cells filled with protein. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. straight or slightly curved. lignified walls. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. subsessile. highly refringent and truncate. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. lignified. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. Medically. sleeplessness. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. rarely over 25 ft in height. shingles. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. avenacin). including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. The leaves are opposite. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. less heavily developed tissue. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. partially beaded. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. and herpes. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. these are elongated thick-walled. eczema. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. entire and coriaceous. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed.
oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). ONION Allium cepa L. A. Planta Med. 7. and red globe onions. 417. hypoglycemic. and antimicrobial.2 m high. few of them have been studied experimentally. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. Planta Med. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. 1991. hypotensive. antifungal. 1992. ligustroside. yellow globe. 1. et al. also hollow. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ll-demethyl oleuropein. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. 58. Gonzalez.. M.. 57. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. Zarzuelo. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. hypoglycemic.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. et al. 2.. up to about 1. 513.. diuretic. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic.
very sweet-scented. Fruit. fructans. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. Flowers. 2 to 2 cm long. 7 to 8 cm globular. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. introduced to Europe. with bitter rind and sour flesh. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. 1-propenesulfenic acid. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. reddish-orange.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. alkyl and alkenylcysteines. oblong-oval. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). Description Leaves. white. acute. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms.
ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. inner surface whitish. rutoside. tangeretin. nobiletin. used for oily skin and acne.2 to 0. and bitter substances. conical projections and linear. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. furanocoumarins. It is also given internally. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). minute pits.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. considerable amounts of pectin.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. aromatic wash. the sugar component of which.5%). short. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. taste aromatic and bitter. fracture hard. with many slight. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. such as hesperidin. 0. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. odor fragrant and aromatic. neohesperidose (2-0. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. non-bitter flavonoids. with limonene as main constituent. somewhat curved. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. Constituents Essential oil (ca. more astringent than rose water. var. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. flavonoids.
and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. taste pungently aromatic. sinensis L. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. It is also an aromatic. Flavonoids. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. skin creams for its flavonoids. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. citronellal. and hesperidin. odor fragrant. bitter and carminative. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. globules of volatile oil. Cultivated in Florida and California. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . quercetin.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. sinensis Osbeck. citral. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. naringin.
Leaves variable. anthocyanidin glycosides. stipules variable. rheumatism. tannin. antipyretic. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. flavonoids. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . p-coumaric acid. meadows. spur short. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. mucilage. Monograph 6. but sometimes up to twice as long. tocopherol. scoparine. Exerpt from German Commission E. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. acne. saponins. pruritus. impetigo. Constituents Essential oil. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side.. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. arabinose. eczema. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. gaultherin. magnesium tartrate. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. but often palmately lobed with a larger.P PANSY Viola tricolor L.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. leafy. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease.g. and carotenoids. e. rutin. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. anti-inflammatory. galacturonic acid. violutoside. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. Petals usually longer than the sepals. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. very variable in size. Properties Used as a healing tonic. Description Flowers mostly tricolored.
Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. etc. edible berry up to about 15 lb. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. The fruit is a large melon-like. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. C14H2502N. carpinine (an alkaloid). Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. vitamins. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). shampoos. and minerals. The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. long petioled. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. with large. Naturalized in southern Florida. which resembles sinigrin. staminate and pistillate flowers. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Carpaine.
or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1.F. Kr´ = crystal rosettes.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. m = outer lamella. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. q = group of large fibers.2-benzenediol. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. (After T. taste woody and characteristic. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. and B. Odor faint. Vent. p = parenchyma. papyrifora. Tabl. ms = latex tubes. margin dentate to crenate. kr = individual crystals. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. Veget. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. Regn.
PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. Furocoumarins including bergapten. stout. spasmolytic. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. compound umbels.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. above-ground herb. Apium petroselinum. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. and starch. above-ground herb. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. antirheumatic. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. Odor characteristic. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). 8-methoxypsoralen. Germany. apiole (18%). trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. France. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. expectorant. fruit. W. ex A. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and others. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. isopimpenillin. B-phellandrene (12%).3.05 to 0. green. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. emmenagogue. extensively cultivated in California. p-mentha-1. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. apiin. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. Other parts of the plant contain 0. (Mill. and imperatorin. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. hortense. diuretic. sativum.) Nym. The tap root is fusiform. P. and antimicrobial. and Hungary. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. Belgium. taste faintly sweet. aromatic. psoralen. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region.8-triene (9%). fruit.
and the veins are slightly depressed. cineole. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. flavonoids (luteolin. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate.5 cm in length and to 3. The stems are simple or branched. The under surface is light green. The calyx is campanulate. and the color varies from green to purple. its five teeth are subulate. chlorogenic. menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). spasmolytic. The bracts are lanceolate. sitosterols. menthone (10 to 40%). south to Florida and Alabama. four-lobed above. and the veins are slightly depressed. ursolic acid. phenolic acids (caffeic. naturalized in North America. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. They measure up to 9. rutin. tonic. carminative. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). The corolla is united and tubular below. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The apex is acute. the texture is fibrous. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. broad. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. rosemarinic). Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. The nodes are enlarged.3 cm in width. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. The blade measures up to 7. The odor is aromatic. large. The pith is white. antiseptic. and the veins are more prominent. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. menthofuran. hair tonics. The outline is quadrangular. and solid or hollow. The flowers are arranged in dense. Properties Stimulant. cholagogue. interrupted spikes. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). the internodes are of variable length. cultivated in Japan and the United States. hesperidin). triterpenes. The under surface is light green. mildly sedative. The margin is sharply serrate. notably viridoflorol. The cortex and wood are thin. the leaves are opposite decussate.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. as it contains flavonoids. and minerals. The fracture is tough and incomplete. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. its color varies from light to dark purple. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx.
trailing. in Connecticut. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. truncate. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. shining. and ursolic acid. the lobes obovate. tannins. a standardized extract should be used. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. they are different. 1 to 6 dm long. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. Vinca contains vincamine. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). however. Minnesota. leaves ovate to oblong. Has also been used to stop external bleeding.5 to 3 cm broad. flavonoids. vulnerary sedative. vasodilator. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. corolla blue. and Georgia. as well as Europe. firm. astringent. dark green. Description Stem spreading. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. hypoglycemic. native of Europe. hypotensive. entire. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. 1. Properties Used as a hemostatic.
and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. quinic acid. The leaves are ovate. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. cuts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .35 to 0. imbricated. parahydroxybenzoic acid. In a radial surface. aromatics. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. Ripple-grass. which are the medullary rays. leaving smooth surfaces. growing in rich. smoothish. pinitol. balsamic. n-nonacosane. and applied to sores. it has a density varying from about 0. pinnicorretin. somewhat toothed. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. It flowers from May to October. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. shikimic acid. numerous. dihydroquercetin. The stamens and styles are long. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. tannins. Constituents Contains oils. and is common in Europe and America. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. by the roadsides. raffinose sequoyitol. arising from a fibrous root. channeled petiole. and insect bites.to seven-nerved. and in grass plats. swellings. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. five. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. in fields. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. The medullary rays. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. The flowers are white. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. malonic acid. Properties Astringent. the seeds numerous. abietic acid. campesterol. dark band of autumn wood. quercetin. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. and abruptly narrowed into a long. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. moist places. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). ferulic acid. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. very small. Vessels are absent. Plantago major L. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. long. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in.
PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. fixed oil (linoleic. and phenolic acids. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. allantoin. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . apparently. Constituents Mucilage. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). catapol. they both have the same virtues. apigenin. and for cell proliferation. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. balcalin. for healing. essential oils. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. sterols. polysaccharides. tannins. and palmitic acids). *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. oleic. asperuloside. aucubin.
p-coumeric acid benzyl ester. Magro Filboo.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. et al. wax.. 1990. Hiadon B. Philadelphia. and anti-inflammatory. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. ArnzneimittleForschung. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. and pinobanksin. 1987. and caffeic acid. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. 3. 1980.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro. de Carvalho Ac. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections.. V.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. 1847. pinocembrin. balsam. 30(1). Stickley Co.. galagin. pollen.F. 32(1). 1.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. J. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. 2. antiviral. 4. The New Honest Herbal. essential oils. Dent..E.2 Constituents Resin.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing.. G. fungicidal. galangin. Sch. and pinobanksin). Nihon Univ. Tyler. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and Peru. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. and occasional circular depressions. these species appear to resemble that of Q. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. * Formerly CTFA. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. Description In flat pieces of variable size. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. Historically. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . outer surface nearly white. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. Smegmandermos deC. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. finely wrinkled. inner surface yellowish-brown. Upon microscopic examination. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. coarsely fibrous. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. conical projections or transverse. fracture uneven. longitudinally striate. Bolivia. odor slight sternutatory. taste very acrid and unpleasant. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. channels. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q .
Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. to 7 cm in width. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. shallowly fissured transversely. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). cinchonidine. The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). tannins. or compound quilled. uronic acids.8 dm in length. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. a neutral saponin. are used. quilled. cinchonine. free acids (quinic acid).176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. its important alkaloids. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. Internally. calcium oxalate sugars. quinine and quinidine. quinidine. gypsogenin. and to 6 mm in diameter. The root. Ecuador. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. The bark is flat or chip-like. partially quilled. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. quinamine). overlapping quilled. Remineralizing protein. The fracture is tough and uneven. The odor is not distinct. and volatile oils. which is nearly always chip-like. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. with water. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. being coated with mucilage. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. present in the epidermis of the testa.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. ovoid or oblong. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also used as a suspending agent. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. triangularly compressed.
including methyl salicylate. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. calyx teeth subulate. fatty acids. Mildly anti-spasmodic.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. volatile oil. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. daidzein. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. purplish and more or less brown from drying. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. and furfural. and esters. starch. eugenol. shriveled. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. genistein. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. petals united into a tube below. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. Constituents Flavonoids. biochanin A. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. Properties Historically. contains over 40 compounds. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. style slender. then slightly bitter. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. phenolic acids. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. phenolic acids. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . benzyl alcohol. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. tapering. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). volatile oil. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. Medicinally. sitosterol. * Formerly CTFA. taste sweetish.
lotions. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. finely tomentose when young. mainly rhoeadine. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. dark violet claw. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. when fresh.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. light-colored. with a short. doubtfully indigenous to England. The numerous veins run from the base toward. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. emollient. Maine. Properties Soothing. They have. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). thimble-shaped. double-serrate. armed with bristles or weak prickles. such as hand creams. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. Quinoline alkaloids. inflorescence short-racemose. ovate. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Rhode Island.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. and Minnesota. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. fruit red. they are smooth and shining above. leaving a space about 0. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. with an entire margin. somewhat smaller. Description Stem biennial. erect. By drying. and are then employed in the fresh state. rounded or cordate at the base. hair rinse. shortacuminate.15 to 0. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. etc.
protein. and North American coastal rainforests. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. nervousness. and antibacterial properties. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. have been isolated. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. consult a qualified physician before using. it comes in various sizes and shapes. Ergosterol derivatives. hepatitis. succinic acid.). B. mouth ulcers. A series of tritepenoids. ellagic acid. and chest and heart diseases. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gallic acid. and C. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. Constituents Ascorbic acid. Miraculous chi. Note: However. Happy Herb. lactic acid. Dried and whole. and inflammations. granoderan A. insomnia. riboflavin. Internally. and beta-carotene. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. Ling-Zhi (Chin. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. malic acid. Auspicious Herb. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. fragarine. China. minerals. Japan. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. Constituents Polysaccharides. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. thiamine. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. antioxidant.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent.
The crown bears numerous short stem bases. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. The color is dull reddish-brown. of the wood. fibrous. rough and scaly.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. The texture of the cortex is granular. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. of the larger roots. The taste is astringent. which has numerous branches. very tough and hackly. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and it tapers into the main root. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. and P. that of the wood. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria.5 cm in diameter at the crown. of the larger roots. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. The odor is not characteristic. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. dark reddish-brown.
the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. about 5 mm wide. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. Constituents Gum. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. which when carefully shaved off. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. etc. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. immediately within the secondary xylem. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . showing that they are leaf traces. after-shave lotions. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. to give a good appearance. ratanine). If the trimming has been very severe. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. and N-methyltyrosine. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. officinale.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. In the periphery of the pith. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. barrel-shaped or conical. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome.5 mm long. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. tannins (proanthocyanidines). and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. parenchymatous matrix. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. II. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. The smoothed.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. face creams. mouth wash. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. in the form of a fine yellow powder. Within the cambium is a ring. the cortex has been removed. Dark areas may still be found here and there. III. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. After removing the powder.
respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. heavy.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. and (+)-gallocatechin. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. it is often rhein. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. 2.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. when chewed. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. the fractured surface.5% calculated as rhein). In most cases. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. With its high tannin content. also (+)-catechin 5. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. it is very gritty between the teeth. (+)-afzelechin. due to the bitter taste. of which many aglycones have been identified. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. In small amounts. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. the mechanism is described under Aloes. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. min. chrysophanol. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. It is then rinsed out. but in one investigation. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . This is applied to the hair and left to dry.and 7-0-glucosides. rhein. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones).or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. The predominant aglycone varies. A very complex mixture is present. Barbados. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. and physcion. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. astringent taste. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. and compact. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives.Eur. aloeemodin. it is used as a stomachic. Flavonoids.
mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. Minor constituents are citral. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. slightly bitter. and procyanidins. free and in combined forms with glucose. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . catechins.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. French Rose. it can be prepared by using rose oil. filter. phenylethyl alcohol. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. odor fragrant and rose-like. gallic acid. however. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. pink.0. glycerol. approx. l-linalool. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. L. One example would be rose water. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. and astringent. Tannins. and traces of carvone. 5 to 10%. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. taste sweetish. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3.
alpha-tocopherol. rubixanthin. and zeaxanthin. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . epicatechin. xanthophyll. sessile. succinic acid. kaempferol-3-glucoside. essential oil. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. rubidium. protein.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. isoquercitrin. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. lycopene. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. The achenes themselves are hairy. Constituents Ascorbic acid. tannins. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. flavonoids. linolenic acid. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. low. they are refrigerant. coriaceous. Wild Brier. capric acid. invert sugars. linoleic acid. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. opposite. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain.5 to 3. evergreen. magnesium.2 cm wide. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. pectin. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. much branched. mildly astringent. gallocatechin. Description A bushy. malic acid. catechin-tannins. leucoanthocyanins. sucrose. and slightly diuretic. vanillin. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. When combined with various other hair preparations.5 cm in length and up to 2. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. boron. Description The fruit of R. citric acid. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. it will add highlights to light hair.
phenolic acids. etc. odor aromatic. characteristic. borneol. camphoraceous. diaphoretic. Properties Tonic. margin revolute. The oil is used in fragrances. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. Constituents Essential oil. glandular-punctate. tannin. diosmin. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and triterpenic acids. boron. astringent. stimulant. Topically. lotions. protein. taste pungently aromatic. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. and bitter. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. The extract can be used in shampoos. rosmarinic acid. it is used to increase circulation. flavonoids. hair conditioners. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. camphor. creams. and showing a prominent midrib.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. lower surface wooly. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants.
linalool. margin crenulate. cineole. lamina elliptical. phenolic acids. ursolic acid. the reticulations being very small. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. flavonoids. fungistatic. 2 to 10 cm in length. and tannins. It is antibacterial. and disinfectant (against inflammations). carminative. camphors. protein. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. In early summer. uneven or lobed. much branched. petiole up to 4. 1 to 2. midrib and veins prominent. taste aromatic and bitter. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). the upper branches bear blue. Sage Garden Sage. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. there arises a grayish. pubescent stem with branches opposite. Constituents Volatile oil. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. apex acute or obtuse. thujone. carnosolic acid. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . caryophyllene. base rounded or subcordate. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. astringent. Leaves opposite.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. long petiolate. borneol. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. Properties Cosmetically. to 1 ft high.6 cm in breadth. estrogenic compounds. saponins. antiseptic. From an underground fibrous root system. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. beta-sitosterol. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. salvin.5 cm in length. pinene. stimulating. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. venation pinnate-reticulate. texture velvet-like. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. densely pubescent. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds.
The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. and a stomachic. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. Asia Minor. o. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. astringent. hard.and -santalols). Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. heavy. It is also used in perfumery. –13° to –21°). The taste is slightly bitter. alterative. vulnerary.973 to 0. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. and for the manufacture of boxes. pectoral. but easily split. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. White Sandal Wood. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. gr. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. and inflammed skin. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. carvings. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . the odor strong and fragrant. and erect. hemorrhoids. wounds. palmately lobed leaves. In Yellow Sandal Wood. 0. L. hemostatic. Black Snakeroot. burns. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. North and South America. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. and dense. of which it contains over 90%. or as a perfume. the medullary rays are very fine and close together.985. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. depurative. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the vessels are mostly solitary. and lotions. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. and similar articles.r. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree.
resin. Mucilage. and a bitter principle. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . saponin.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. essential oil.
smooth and somewhat oily. Dark Palmetto. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. from 1. occasionally compressed. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto.5 cm in diameter.
aromatic.. skin creams.. were eaten by the Indians. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous. it is coarsely striated longitudinally. sito sterols.. capric acid. somewhat flattened.. when cork patches are present.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich... such as anorexia nervosa. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota. They are said to be very nutritious. 1. south to Florida and Texas.. and incomplete..P. and slightly acrid. ellipsoidal or ovoid. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. 1983. palmitic acid. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp.6 dm in thickness. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. beta-sitosterol. Ann. and lotions. 41. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. The fracture is very strong.... Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. a native of the southern United States. to 17 cm in width. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases... epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity. et al. inner layer of endocarp smooth.. Odor pronounced. SEAWEED. and to 1. and to 3 mm in thickness.. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar.. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh.. 559.... reddish-brown seed.1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions.. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles. J..... mannitol. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled. oleic acid.. enclosing a hard.. or as cut and sawed pieces.. caproic acid.. aromatic.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. tough. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. Pharm... myristic acid. taste sweetish. The odor is distinct. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. Tarayre. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ferulic acid. Franc.. arabinose. which measure up to 3 dm in length.. and stearic acid. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity. lipase.7 dm in width.. lauric acid. Properties Sabal berries. apex marked by the scar of the style. Ulmus rubra Muhl. to 1. Constituents Anthranilic acid.
and other beverages. Nova Scotia. starch. 5 to 8 cm long. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. polysaccharides. pentosans. stem 3 to 6 dm high. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. blades obcordate. and beta-carotene. protein. Description Glabrous perennial. 3 to 5 ribbed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. chemicals that foam when added to water. New Mexico. d-galacturonic acid. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. hair conditioners. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. capsule oblong. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). and tannin. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. petals pink or white. starch. Can be used in creams. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. lotions. healing. and wounds. It can be used to emulsify oil. ulcers. and Saskatchewan.2 cm long. tannin (minute). hexosan. 1 to 5. Florida. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Soap Wort produces a gentle. Massachusetts. North Carolina. New Brunswick. calyx tubular. etc. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. boils.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. Colorado. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. soothing. leaves oval or ovate. Colorado. minerals. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. native from Europe. and tannins. L-rhamnose.
about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. Constituents Essential oil. conditioners. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. having antibacterial properties. scopoletin. Virginia. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. disinfectant. toothed above the middle on one side. emmenagogue. Used in aromatic baths.5 cm broad. Manitoba. 2 to 10 mm wide.ST. Nova Scotia. St. ray florets about 10. antiseptic. heads numerous. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. scarious. astringent. leaves. frostbite. bracts canescent. petals obovate. guanine. and scopolin. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. uric acid. and for skin conditions. Colorado. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. disk-florets 15 to 20. corolla 2 to 2. stimulant. Medically. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. ST. uterine tonic. California. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. leaves linear to oblong. flowers cymose. with revolute margins. the rest broadly oval. umbelliferone. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. rutin. British Columbia. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. and superficial burns. and anodyne. and anthelmintic. tannin. obtuse. glandular-punctate. John’s Wort ing. capsule ovoid. the outer linear-lanceolate. bruises. 5 to 10 dm high. chlorogenic acid. Properties Used as a nervine. native to Europe. 4 to 6 cm long. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. slightly tomentose beneath. lower leaves petioled. caffeic acid. etc. acute or acuminate. tonics. 10 to 12 mm long. 1 to 3 cm long. quebrachitol. isofraxidin. choline. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. poultices.
Manitoba. resin sitosterol. phenolic acids. mannitol. Newfoundland. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . protein. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. saponin. and Virginia. hypericin-like substances. tannins.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. John’s Wort St. hypericin. flavonoids. hyperoside. New Mexico. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G.
Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. quercetin). fatty acids. and phenolic acids. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. seldom much exceeding the leaves.5 cm long. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. sharply and deeply serrate. 5 to 7. condensed tannins). rhombic-obovate. very thin. very soon glabrate on both sides. mostly acute. seldom over 1. scape slender. fruit elongate-ovoid. very rarely leafy-bracteate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 dm high.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. ellagitannins. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long.
* Formerly CTFA. resin. phenolic acid. button-like flowers. carminative. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. flat-topped. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. fern-like leaves and yellow. usually smooth. sesquiterpenes. The leaves and flowering tops. somewhat reddish. and branching near the top. button-like. and quercetin. are collected at the time of flowering. The roundish. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. It has a stout. and spasmolytic. tanacetin. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. Bitter buttons. The entire leaf is about 6 in. 1 to 3 ft high. Scented Fern. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. Also said to be an insect repellant. anthelminitic.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. tannin. English Cost. erect stem. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. Ginger plant. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. Parsley Fern.
stings.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. streamsides. Over-wintering leaves. scabies. and Australia. while cineole is low (about 2. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. and vaginal infections. capsule.5%). bronchial congestion.0 ml high. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. cuts.5 to 2. and the like. cymene). TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. boils. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. spongy. It is found in numerous product forms. fruit. upcurved. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . burns. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. either singly or with other ingredients. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. New South Wales. sore throat. conical. Description A stiff. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. terpinene. thickets. ringworm. with a broad range of health claims. lice. athlete’s foot. oral infections. in a flattened rosette. including treatments for sunburn. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. and dense. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. pimples. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. erect. Bark. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. lanceolate. constantly renewable tree. abrasions. abrasions. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. 0. sparingly branched biennial. insect bites.
Ed. St. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. Foster. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. entire or toothed. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. 1. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. flavonoids (keampferol. TX. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. Flowerheads rayless. both orally and also by intravenous injection. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Blessed Milk Thistle. and tannins..1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. Mary Thistle. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. The injection gives better results. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. purple. rare in Britain. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. glucosides. Also used in homeopathy. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. Austin. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. It is said to contain saponins. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. Description Leaves spiny. American Botanical Councin. The root and root stock are short and erect. quercetin. and magnesium. stems. taxifolin). fatty acids.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. dark green.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. yellow spines. 1955. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). S. Taste and odor.
abscisic acid. brown or blackish externally. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 cm thick. Texas. to add sheen. glutamic acid. Constituents Proteins. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin.5 to 10%. that can be used for hemorrhoids. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. styptic. minerals. glucose. Florida. It can be incorporated into shampoos. menstrual disorder. lobed. rinses. cyclohexanol. stem 3 to 10 dm high. sore gums. cystine. etc. and phytosterols. glycine. much branched. vitamins. ellipsoid. Description Viscid-pubescent. and reddish within. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne.5 to 8 cm long. gargles. It can be employed in creams. antihemorrhagic. and dentate. -hydroxy acids. or pear-shaped. and California. fruit through cultivation very variable. mouth rinse. Properties Fruit: astringent. Colorado. somewhat fusiform. 10 to 15 mm broad. leaves two-pinnatifid. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. ascorbic acid. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. and from 0. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L.5 to 1. and sore throats. lotions.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. 0. facial muds. sensitive skin. aspartic acid. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. branching and more or less curved. hair tonics. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. New York. corolla yellow. acne. subglobose. red or yellow. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. flavonoids. diarrhea. lycopene. conditioners. from 2.
Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. China. tormentillin. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . internally. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). and break with a short fracture. caffeic. they bear short knob-like branches. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. They are hard and heavy. quinovic. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. a red pigment. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. Java.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin).. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. Occasionally. Curcuma. longitudinally wrinkled. bluntly tapering at each end. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. and other tropical countries. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. Indian Saffron.
Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. etc. comprising mainly bisabolane. hypotensive.. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. anti-arthritic. monodesmethoxycurcumin. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antibacterial. and anti-edemic. guaiane. and antimutagenic. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. is also present. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. when chewed. ar-turmerone. it colors the saliva yellow. It is also choleretic. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. antifungal. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. ukonan A. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. zingiberene.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. 2-7% essential oil. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. curlone. but the coloring matter.
It is sedative. Roots are branched or simple. relaxant. The taste is sweet. cultivated in Germany. actinidine). * Formerly CTFA. The rhizome is vertical. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. and to 2 cm in diameter. Wood is small. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. Belgium and England. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. phenolic acids. Pith is white or grayish-white.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. isovaltrate. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. and to 3 mm in diameter. central and cylindrical. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. and baldrinal. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. and spasmolytic. fatty acids. and disagreeable. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. pungent. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. simple or branched. and valepotriates (valtrate. Constituents Essential oil. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. However. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. Cortex is thick. alkaloids (valerianine. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). acevaltrate. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. valerosidatum). *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots.
206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. anorexic (appetite suppressant). straight. verbenalin. long. tannin. and Arizona. False Verbain. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. finely haired herb has an erect. hastatoside. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. and against sunburns. gout remedy. 4 to 7 feet high. Simpler’s Joy. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). four-sided stem. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. contraceptive. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . verbenelol. diuretic. in addition to verbenin.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. Description This rather rough. Verbena officinalis L. Nebraska. artemitin. Wild Hyssop. Constituents Iridoids. meadows. volatile oil. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. and superficial and limited burns. aucubin. ursolic acid. caffeic acid.
round-topped. * Formerly CTFA. The leaves are alternate. depurative. and varicose ulcers. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . astringent. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. Juglans nigra L. scrofula.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. blisters. west to Minnesota and Kansas. soft and coarse grained. and edible. deep. imparipinnate. vermifuge. open crown. *INCI Name . scabbing pruritus. The bark varies from nearly smooth. ophthalmia. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. Used for skin complaints. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. eczema. irritation of the eyelid. disinfectant. rheumatism. glandular disturbances. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. oily. Properties Tonic restorative. gout. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. The kernel is sweet. styes. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. The wood is light brown.
Mexico. fruiting pedicels divaricate. Rheumatism and nervousness. histidine. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. ellagic acid.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. many trace minerals. glutamic acid. 3 mm thick. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. Clark. West Indies. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. aspartic acid. spatulate. gluconasturtiin. -carotene.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. phenylalanine. its action being both detergent and healing. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. ascorbic acid. amino acids.g. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). British Columbia. and Europe. leaves pinnate. destroying most of its active principles. folacin.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. tryptophan. 4. Virginia. sepals oblong. and kaempferol. tumors. Description Aquatic perennial. cystine. California. biotin. about 2 mm long. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. petals white. lysine. it looks rather yellowish. it will strengthen and thicken hair. tyrosine. proline. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. arginine. alanine. leucine. and diastase. about 4 mm long. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. somewhat curved. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). hyperin. Externally. 1. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. 5. lymphatic or edematous swellings. threonine. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). glycine. valine. methionine. beak about 1 mm long. A Cure For All Cancers.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . caffeic acid. Rubbing on scalp. tannin. protein. South America. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. high in protein. thiamine.
sprouts. Devil’s Grass. of young grass.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. Couch Grass. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. westward to Minnesota and Missouri.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. Dutch Grass. Fin’s Grass. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Twitch Grass. Durfee Grass. Durfa Grass. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. Quake Grass. Creeping Wheatgrass. Quitch Grass. Scutch Grass. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in.
. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. and stem scars on the upper surface. Description Knotted and woody. Odorless. which are thickened at the joints.. amino acids.. and dried. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes.. WHITE NETTLES. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish... and hair conditioners. taste starchy. are carefully cleaned. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout. 1 to 3 ft high.. collected in the spring.. and dermatitis. creams... Over 240 compounds have been identified... The root stocks... scattered. and phenolic acids... Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. with numerous small. creeping root stock.See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. eczema.. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer.. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. Its smooth hollow stems... elongated... thickets. bent and branched. often compressed.212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. Colic Root.. 6 to 20 mm thick. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root.. fatty acids.. The flowering heads are produced from July to September. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma.. bearing scattered nodular projections. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous. flavonoids... China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist. are produced from a long. afterwards acrid. Constituents Vitamins. cut into small pieces about in. insipid.. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos. lotions. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat..See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L. long. thin outer layer. -carotene. externally pale brown. yellowish wood bundles... It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fracture short but tough. more or less detached.
Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. cortex composed of thin-walled. outer surface in young bark smooth. irregularly wrinkled.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. yellowish-brown to dark brown. it should be standardized for its salicin content. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). and trace minerals. dioscorin. antirheumatic. flavonoids. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. fragilin. fracture short fibrous. vimalin). It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. triandrin. anti-inflammatory. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. endodermis distinct. rinses. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. minerals. and antipyretic. diosgenin. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. taste astringent and slightly bitter. analgesic. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. dioscin. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. longitudinally striated. inner surface. slightly lignified parenchyma. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. salicortin. as it contains salicin. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. Constituents Steroidal saponins. as this could vary among different manufacturers. populin. antiseptic. etc. White Willow. in older bark dull. Contains steroid-like substances. odor slightly aromatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. shampoos. greenish-brown. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. ascorbic acid. It can be used in hair conditioners. naturalized sparsely in North America. However.
brown bark. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. and alcohols. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. esters. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. when it bursts open. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. and polyphenols. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. long. thick. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. Striped Alder. bark. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. scattering the shining black. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. eastern United States. tannin. yellow flowers. Winterbloom. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . due to its high tannin content. It has a crooked stem and long. flavonoids. and borne on short stalks. Description Witch Hazel. Wych-hazel. eastern Canada.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. Spotted Witch Alder. Constituents Essential oil. leaves. saponins. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. forking branches with smooth. and leaves Bark. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate.
It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. Green Archangel. and Nebraska.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. which appear from about July to September. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. bitter. Therefore. The leaves are about 2 in. but a disagreeable bitter taste. Paul’s Betony. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. Purple Archangel. They are followed by four nutlets. smooth. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. Gypsywort. Carpenter’s Herb. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. Water Bugle. erect stem from 6 in. tublar. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. Externally. Missouri. American Water Hoarhound. The plant has a rather pleasant. including betonicine. Wolf Foot. and bell-shaped. Sweet Bugleweed. shady places from Canada to Florida. to 2 ft in height. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. Constituents Alkaloids. The whitish flowers. slender. mint-like odor. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rather narrow. in length. are small. Description This herb has long. and stachyerine. Gypsyweed. Gypsy Herb. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. pointed. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled.
with slender. wines. forwardpointing bristles. coumarin. anti-arthritic. when dry. Description A short perennial. monotropein. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. astringent. vermouths.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. antiseptic. antineuralgic. calming. bitters. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. pointed leaves edged with tiny. Flowers small. unbranched. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. in loose clusters. and the iridoids asperuloside. etc. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. white. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. tannin. Used in aromatherapy. of new-mown hay. quadrangular. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. Odor. anti-inflammatory. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. citric acid. with four petal lobes. soothing to the nerves.
Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. isovaleric acid. approximately 100 identified constituents. especially in Michigan and Indiana. Absinth. used as an external antiseptic. -carotene. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. choleretic. Bitter stomachic. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. It is cultivated in some localities. rutin. the inner linear with membranous margins. artabsin. Odor aromatic. are divided into small leaflets. Mingwort. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . long. Constituents Essential oil. insignificant. thujone. taste bitter. tannins. Also used to clean atonic wounds. thujyl alcohol. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. two to three pinnately divided. and the grayish-green leaves. Description This shrubby. drooping. consist of numerous small. anthelmintic. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. absinthin. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. aromatic. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. and antipyretic. Old Woman. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. protein. yellow heads. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. and anthelmintic. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. camphene. Madderwort. Flower heads greenish-yellow. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. chamazulene. 2 to 3 mm long. the lower lobe is petiolate. the florets tubular. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. p-coumaric acid. which are from 2 to 5 in.
Dog Daisy. 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Gordoloba.. dark green leaves...... Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing..Y YAM.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L... *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium.. Thousand-leaf.... Soldiers’ Woundwort. white flower heads....... Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in... Old-Man’sPepper.. Nosebleed. astringent... the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small. antipyretic. It has a strong odor. hypotensive. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic. Green Arrow. and is urinary antiseptic.. Yarrow Milfoil. Sanguinary.. feathery.. diuretic. pastures.. From June to September... Cammock. Thousand-Leaf Clover. and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada.. It * Formerly CTFA....... Carpenter Grass. Closely related forms occur in the western states...... high and has many finely divided.. Bloodwort...
The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. among rubbish heaps. Curled Dock Root. it is also used in hair care preparations. angular. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. flavonoids. camphor. and tannin. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. it is stomachic. in cultivated as well as in waste ground. and varicose ulcers. alkaloids (achilleine). blue colored chamazulene). and cholagogue. and furrowed stem. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. and along roadsides. phenolic acids. Internally.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. bearing numerous. Broad-leaved Rumex. Broad-leaved Dock Root. achillin). green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. It has been used for cuts. spasmolytic. long. carminative. Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. injuries.
YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. long. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and pale radially split wood. et Tor. only 3 to 6 in. with few or no rootlets. short stemmed or stemless. They are washed. yellowish cortex. and eruptive diseases. protein. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. from 6 to 8 in. in length. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. lapathinic acid. they become rusty brown. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. with long stalks. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. psoriasis. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. in length. tapering or spindle shaped. chrysophanic acid. sores. emodin. and tannin. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. nepodin. Gum Plant. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. while the upper leaves are narrower. swellings. The root is large and fleshy.The root. and carefully dried. As the clusters ripen. These are followed by the fruits. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. Consumptive’s Weed. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. usually from 8 to 12 in. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. Bear’s Weed.
Schum. Constituents Resin. chrysoeriodictyl. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. The rather showy. tannin. cerotic acid. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. eriodictyonic acid. Gabon. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. eriodictyol. dark green. essential oil. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. and the Congo. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. acetic acid. butyric acid. and eriodyctyonine. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. The narrow.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe.
tigogenin. Personal communication. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. pseudo-. sepals and petals lanceolate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1998. is sympatholytic. tannin. concave. L. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. It is also being used for arthritis internally. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. spreading. sometimes 2 dm long. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. the most important of which is yohimbine. leaves rigid. smilagenin. Roezl.5 cm long. oblong or conical-ovoid. Soap Yucca Root. style slender.. saponin. hence its aphrodisiac effect. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. R. YUCCA Yucca baccata. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. elongate. Arizona.1 Yohimbine. with narrow brown margins. 1. Constituents Sarsapogenin. Description Low. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. and Nevada. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. at low doses. samogenin.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. pendent. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. and protein. fleshy. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. Properties Yucca contains saponins. the major alkaloid. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. about 7. It also contains corynanthine. minerals. Kronenthal. Kansas. coarsely filiferous. fruit large. and epiallo-yohimbine. allo-. Soap Weed. shagreen roughened. Torr Yucca brevifolia. Colorado. Texas. however.
224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Oak. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. The botanical extract. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Hemp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. However. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. The leaves contain buxine. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Galls Used to dye the hair black. Lavender See “Folklore” section.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. makes an excellent hair rinse. See “Folklore” section. not essential oil. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. Henna Used to dye hair red. Hops See “Folklore” section. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. Dark brown contains juglone. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica.
The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. borneol. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. See Lichwort. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. It also helps to remineralize. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. The extract contains thymol. Vitamins A and D. A source of potassium and iodine. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. See Stinging Nettle. Combined with rosemary. it will darken the hair. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. and linalol. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. make it soft and shiny. and mouthwashes. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. Contains a yellow dye. Can be used in deodorants. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. Lemony fragrance. The essential oil is used to add sheen. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. It is antiseptic. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. and some protein. leaving it silky and glossy. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. and help keep it free of dandruff.
It is said that when blended with rosemary. Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp.
The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Orange Peel. Peppermint. Althea. Chamomile. Black Walnut. Lemon. Tumeric. Soap Root. Golden Seal. Rhatany.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. 1. powders or extracts. Bistort. Uva Ursi Quassia. Wild Indigo. glycerin. Cinnamon Agrimony. Chaparral. Artichoke. Cardamom Seed. Burdock. Asparagus. ethanol. Violet. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Fenugreek. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. Yarrow. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Nasturtium. Tormentil. Birch. Bay Laurel. Lemon. propylene glycol. Thyme. Lemon Grass. refer to the index). Wild Alum. Bayberry. White Willow. Pineapple. Slippery Elm.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Milk Thistle. Bladderwrack. Horsechestnut Papaya. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Balsam Peru. Hawthorn Angelica. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Rosemary. Witch Hazel. Parsley Broom Flowers. etc. Ginkgo. Pansy. that is. Bilberry. Benzoin. Thyme. Echinacea. Quassia. Rosemary. Papaya. Rosemary. Arnica Lemon. Artichoke. Rosemary. Arnica. Calendula. Myrrh. Lady’s Mantle. Corn Flower. Horsechestnut. Grapefruit. Inc. White Lily. oil. Plantain. Sage. Tomato. Calendula. Soap Bark. Hops. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Sandalwood. Eucalyptus. Onion. Chamomile.3-butylene glycol. Rosemary. Southernwood. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Tilia. Garlic. either when applied topically or taken internally. Cucumber. Birch. Calendula. Bayberry. Rose. Myrrh. Burdock. Sandal Wood. Anise. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Hops. Sage. Oak Bark. Lemon. Orris. Witch Hazel. Myrrh. Chamomile. Thyme. Myrtle. Comfrey. White Willow. Oats. Juniper Berries. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Comfrey. Lavender. Lemon. Raspberry. Vinca Minor. in various vehicles as water. Lavender. Yarrow. Lavender. Nettles. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Proanthocyanidins. Nettles.
Capsicum. Rosemary. Peppermint Aloe. Wild Alum. Calendula Oil. Comfrey. Comfrey. Citronella. Witch Hazel. Chickweed. Coriander. Flax Horsetail Grass. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Orange Peel. Cowslip. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Patchouli. Feverfew. Sage. Rosemary. Black or Neutral Henna. Lemon Peel. Witch Hazel. Lavender. etc. Yarrow. Quince Seed. Citrus Bioflavonoid. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Parsley. Cleavers. Orris Root. Quassia. Capsicum. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Pilewort. Cucumber. Elder. Yellow Dock. Pine Tar. Brown Henna Rosemary. Golden Seal. Horsechesnut. Garlic. various seaweeds. Anise Rosemary. Flax. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Comfrey. Chamomile. Orange Flowers. Comfrey. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Hops Chamomile. Red Clover. Neem. to add sheen Hair. Capsicum. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Marigold Golden Seal. Capsicum Bistort. Wormwood Chamomile. Cedar. Horsetail Grass. Pansy. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Catnip Bayberry. Echinacea. Plantain. Orange Flowers. Fenugreek. Red Clover. Horseradish. Elder. Pansy. to add highlights Black Walnut. Quince Seed. Fennel. Thyme. Echinacea. Sage.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Cantharides. Comfrey. Cucumber. Purple Loosestrife. Thyme. Mullein Flowers. Fenugreek. Witch Hazel Bark. White Willow Aloe Vera. Chaparral. Oregon Grape. Southernwood. Fenugreek. Quince. Capsicum. Quinine. Southernwood. Jaborandi. to add highlights Marigold. Raspberry. White Willow Bark. Comfrey Root. to relieve Nails. Melilote. Primula Flowers. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Tea. to add highlights Hibiscus. Rosemary. Eucalyptus. Southernwood. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Broom. Slippery Elm. Raspberry. Figwort. Raspberry. Lemon Peel. Tilia. Yarrow. Elder Flowers. Dandelion. rinses. Red Poppy. Rosemary. Red Henna. Basil. Oats. Echinacea various oils. Grapefruit. Southernwood. Malva Flowers. Comfrey. Bayberry Bark. Golden Seal. Lavender. Camphor. Roseberries. Golden Seal. Sarsaparilla. Sage Jaborandi. Birch. Arnica. Chamomile. Rose.* Centella. Oak Bark. Basil. Cade. Cardamon. Chamomile. Nettles. Olive. Nettles. Onion. Cucumber Chamomile. Sage. Seaweed. Sage. Jaborandi. Eyebright. Horsetail Grass. dark Hair. Rosemary. Nettles. Chamomile. Corn Flower Water. Thyme. conditioners. Calendula. Rosemary. Pansy. Phytoplenolin®. Rhatany. Althea. Alfalfa. Peach Leaf. Burdock. split ends Scalp. Centella. Chamomile. dry Hair. Myrrh.
Althea Root. Licorice Cleavers. Plantain. Yarrow. Wormwood. John’s Wort. Mullein. Oats. Fennel. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1998.) Aloe Vera.Yarrow. Calendula. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Comfrey. Thuja. Orange Flowers. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Fennel. Arnica. Citrus bioflavonoids. Birch. Dandelion. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Quince. Bayberry. Dandelion. Slippery Elm. dry Botanical Cantharides. St. Jaborandi. Elder Flowers. Aloe Vera. Echinacea. Comfrey. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Tilia.206 for Centipeda. Cinchona. Witch Hazel. Lemon. Cucumber. Elecampane Skin. Apples. Hawthorn Berries. Lemon Grass. St. Seaweeds. Sept. Colts Foot. Grapefruit. John’s Wort. Violets. Witch Hazel. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Orange Peel. Capsicum. Chamomile. Slippery Elm. Comfrey. John’s Wort. Arnica. Golden Seal. Nettles. Oils. Echinacea. Lemon. Cleavers. Poke Root. Centella. Hawthorn. Chamomile. Blue Flag. Red Clover. Meillot. Horsetail grass. Capsicum. Sage. Lavender. St. Comfrey. Primula Flowers. Bayberry. Witch Hazel. John’s Wort. Bistort. Capsicum. Capsicum. Red Poppy. Pine. St. Evening Primrose. Peach. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties.804. Croton. Apple. Corn Flower. Chickweed. Horsechestnut. Yarrow flowers. Wild Alum Althea. Chamomile. White Pond Lily. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Seaweed. Calendula. Passion Flowers. Dulse.Vinegar. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Althea Root. Valerian.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Lemons. Ginseng Caraway. Licorice. Tilia. Calendula. however. Comfrey. Lavender. Uva ursi Wild Alum. Garlic. Cucumber. Slippery Elm bark. Parsley. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Pansy. Plantain. Rose.
which are coriaceous. tannin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. The female flowers are white and ligulate. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. beard. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. and eyebrows. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. The powder is used on abscess. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. Common botanicals such as Lotus. aril white. It grows in fields and ditches. The flowers are polygamous.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. 6 to 20 cm long and 2.5 to 2 cm in diameter. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. and tonifies the heart.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. 8 stamens. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. nicotine. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. yellowish-white. sores.5 to 5 cm wide. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. Internally. 1. nourishes the blood. wounds. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. internally used to blacken hair. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. etc.) STEUD. can be found in the main section. yellowish brown. wedeloclactone. elliptical shaped. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. and fleshy. elongated. it strengthens the spleen. The seeds are also spherical. Vitamin A. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. short stiff hairs. Constituents Saponin. etc. rough. The nuts are spherical. Licorice root. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets. Ginger. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high.
SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. ringworm. adenine. etc. vaginal itches. antiparasitic.70. yeast infections. Vitamins A and B. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . choline. protein. sucrose.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose. pruritus. tartaric acid.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema. fats.
dihydrooroseiol. Betaine. avoid black tea. edultin. and arabinose. moisturize. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. insomnia. alloimperatorin. sugars. bornyl isovalerate. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. It is also said to promote blood production. berry-like fruits. dyspepsia.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. and has red. etc. it could nourish. weak pulse. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. diabetes. amino acids. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Bge. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. folic acid. deficiency of energy. used as an aphrodisiac. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. L-camphene. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. asthma. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. heart palpitations. a glucoside C20 H20 011. cnidiadin. any citrus and turnips. columbianetin (C14H14O4). and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. amino acids. imperatorin. It is an astringent. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. Constituents Saponins. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. isoborneol). lack of appetite. isopimpinellin. choline. Astragalin. astragalin-glucose. ostol (C15H16O3). improves circulation in the skin. columbianadin (C19H20O5). and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. When using Ginseng internally. cnidiankin. palmate leaves. dilates the blood vessels. xanthotoxol. hypertension. B-sitosterol. ginsenosides. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.
essential oil. antibacterial. These are a few of the constituents. trichosanic acid. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. saponins (ginsenosides). sugar fatty oil. To list all would take several pages. Constituents Triterpenes. The root has antipyretic. (C18H30O2). trichokaurin. resin. tricosanthin.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. and antifungal properties. protein. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
traumatic injuries. helps to promote circulation. this herb can be used safely in large doses. dissolves clots. According to Chinese tradition. both internally and externally. blood in the stool. ginsenosides. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. Internally. reduces swelling. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. it has been used in coughing of blood. nosebleeds. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. and is analgesic. etc. Rb2-Rb. It is said to heal without leaving scars. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. and Re. Constituents Saponins.
anti-inflammatory. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. essential oil. rhamnose. It has almost no odor. L-typhasterol. II. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. stearic acid. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. and a slightly bitter taste. Cones oblong. fructose. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. palmitic acid. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. 1/3 in. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. U. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. sitosterol. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. and arabinose. tannin. long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glucose. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7.V. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. Constituents Flavonoids. ziyuglycoside I.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. glucose. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). xylose. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. Vitamin A.
which has hairs on both surfaces. soft durable wood.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. reddish-purple. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. in height. becoming smaller on top. L.5 to 1 m high. resin. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The flowers are tubular. and antipyretic. Constituents Thujone. having pale. fenchone. astringent. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. flavonoids. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. Vitamin C.-fenchone. 15 to 30 cm long. The basal leaves are clustered. tannin. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. and hermaphroditic. and pinnatipartite. caryophyllene. 5 to 8 cm wide. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. the base tapers into a winged petiole. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. obovate-lanceolate shaped. and antiviral properties. pinene. It is a hemostatic. and is said to have antibacterial. shoddy bark and light. anthelmintic.
The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. -amyrin. 15 to 30 cm long. essential oil. and 2 to 6 cm wide.F. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. reduces swelling. antifungal. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. and antibacterial. starch. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. hemostatic. Constituents Glucose. antibacterial. and promotes the healing of the flesh. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. anti-inflammatory. It is used in traumatic injuries. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. and in abscesses. Their base runs into a long sheath. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. The tuber is thick and fleshy. The perianth is in 6 segments. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. stigmasterol. 2 to 3 cm long. B-amyrin. skin infections.
terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. caffeic acid. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. caryophyllene. antibacterial. oleic acid. essential oil. cold sores. humulene. wax. It has been used in ringworm. arachidic acid. B-caryophyllene. conjunctivitis. crowded. and antiviral. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. linoleic acid. Constituents Scoparone. having antipyretic properties. ipterocopal. style 1. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. sores. One tree can yield as much as pound. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. Constituents D-borneol. ovary 2-locular. asiatic acid. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. acetyl eugenol). tannin. dryobalanone. Antibacterial. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. antiparasitic. montanic acid. chlorogenic acid. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. stamens numerous. analgesic. The dark green. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. hydroxydammarone II. and nasal mucositis. glandular-punctate petals. esculetin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . erythrodiol. odor strongly aromatic. stearic acid.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. etc.5 mm in length. See “Botanical” section for further description. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. taste pungent and aromatic. followed by a slight numbness. boils. fat. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. capillarisin. and somewhat 4-angled. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. with numerous ovules. dark brown. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. oval. palmitic acid. which alternate with the calyx teeth. and incurved. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across.
and 1 to 2 cm wide. 3 to 4 cm long. yellowish-white.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. itchy skin. imparipinnately divided. and other skin ailments. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. It is used for vaginal infections. The corolla is papilionaceous. The stem is erect with many branches. constricted between the seeds. sores. Excellent remedy for sores. The pods are cylindrical. which are globose and black. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. The stamens are 10 and free. 10 to 20 cm long. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Alkaloids. flavonoids. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. The leaves are alternate. The raceme is terminal. and allergic reactions. pruritus. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped.
probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. jatrorrhizine. aesculetin. and swollen eyes. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. obakunone. magnoflorine. ferulic acid. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). and red eyes. Constituents Aesculin. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. used as an eye wash for sore. Antiinflammatory. Constituents Berberine. aching. red. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . columbamine. coptisine. tannin. obakulactone. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. It is said to be a natural antibiotic.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. fraxin. fraxetin. palmatine. It is applied externally to swollen.
their margins sparsely serrate. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. The calyx is bilabiate.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. Its stem is erect. and 0.5 cm wide. 1 to 3 cm long. ovate shaped. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent.5 to 1. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. The leaves are opposite. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers.
. The Chinese. boils. fleshy.3 cm long.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. betanin. betanidini. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. snake bites. stomach. antiphlogistic. French. gamma-linolenic acid. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. It is also a good source for GLA. and often purplish in color. The flower has 2 sepals. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. beta-cyanin. It is used to reduce swelling. Its stem is cylindrical. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. 1 to 1.5 to 1.5 cm wide. Italians. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. gamma-linolenic acid. 5 yellow petals. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. and intestines. 8 to 12 stamens. Constituents GLA. and English consume this plant in salads. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA. abscesses. Constituents Portulal. decumbent or slanting upward. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic.
246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
4.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.
84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3.
97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6. 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3.
84929-52-2. 84082-80-4 68917-49-7.250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4.
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1. 84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1. 84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Leaflets about 10 pairs. Burma. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. alkaloids. covered with numerous black dots. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. Leaves petiolate. Description Main leaf axis has stout. roots. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. Seeds are hard. sporalidin. Description It is an erect herb. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). and flavones. corylifolean. and gray with thick testa. Flowers are dense. glabrous slightly compressed. circular. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. tannin. Fruit small subglobular. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. Several species grow in the United States. ovate or oblong and inflated. Essential. and saponin in the seed coat. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. firm. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. simple.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. hairs few. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. etc.BENDUC NUT 253 6. chalcones. sharp recurved spines. Flowers yellow. isopsoralidin. Constituents Furanocoumarins. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . campesterol group. starch. perianth covered withspines. oil. globular. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. hairy tip acute. ellipticoblong. and protein in kernel. shiny. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. Kal-karanj Nuts. and Sri Lanka. pitted black.
BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. and for infectious diseases. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. upper leaves smaller.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. and citrulline. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. Flowers about 2 cm long. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. and skin diseases. oblong. phytosterol. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). Few layers of cork cells are present. Constituents Oil. arginine. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. basal are large. sterols. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. arresting hemorrhage. Leaves membranaceous. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. lanceolate. with winged petiole. The endodermis is indistinct. flower head white. and sulfurcontaining peptides. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . starch. borne on convex flower heads. However. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. aspartic acid. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. Leaves opposite. reducing sugar. margin toothed. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. sessile. bluish-purple. Seeds also contain protein. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces.
Stem bark is light brownish-gray. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. Feathery. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. greenish-yellow. entire. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. slightly recurved. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. Flowers are small. apex subacute. mucronate. linear oblong or elliptic. Description A medium tree. In old samples. arranged densely on the branchlets. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. terpene alcohols.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The fruit is subglobular. slightly broader than long. The oil and root contains camphene. with small shallow conical depressions at either end.but white internally. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. stipulate. unisexual. phyllanthe emblic. Leaves simple.
The leaves yield ursolic acid. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. hairy along the veins. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. Leaves are simple. Flowers small. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. bitter. opposite. margin serrate. very short. antiulcer. antispasmodic. tulsi. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. A. antibacterial. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. point decurved. antispermatogenic. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. filament slender. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. style 2-lobed. Each flower consists of. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. ovate compressed. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. seeds. subcoriaceous. antifungal. testa light-red. odorant. krishna tulsi. apex thick and blunt. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. Leaves pinnate. CNS-depressant. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. taste bitter. corolla 2-lipped. sacred basil Leaves. camphor. antihistaminic. and luteolin. Sri Lanka. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. elliptic-oblong. smooth and shining. flowers. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. and carvarol. exserted.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. in terminal raceme-like panicle. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. antiviral. antipyretic. decyladehyde. insecticidal. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn.& Bpinene. apigenin. such as antistress. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. pubescent calyx. pod woody. antihepatotoxic. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2 to 4 inches long. antidiabetic. cotyledons very oily.
When dry. pongamol. The oil is used to treat scabies. yellow within. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. the inner membranaceous. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. tough. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. sitosterol. the outer very thick and hard. firm and fleshy. Radicle at the base of the seed. where it is woody. spirally incurvate. singly. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. The root bark is rustybrown externally. pointing to lower and inner angle. (S. The bark contains alkaloids. pengaglabrone. the pulp translucent. S. . Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. glucose. and other cutaneous diseases. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. then bitter. rheumatism. and translucent. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. herpes. The seed is black. the skin is shriveled. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. the size of large a pea. each berry is the size of a cherry. leaves. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. and butyric acid. Constituents Saponins. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. with a peculiar pungency. pectin. Emarginatus. kaemferol. except at the scar. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. thick.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. smooth. the testa is double. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. the berries are the color of a raisin. Properties The seeds. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. cotyledons unequal. pongamin. and as an anthelmintic. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe.
deobstruent. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. leucoderma. flowers small yellow in color. freckles. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties The roots are astringent. alizarin. fruit long. gum. skin diseases such as ulcers. alterative. scaly. and sugar.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. Leaves heart shaped. inflammations. Constituents Roots contain resins. The taste is sweetish at first. garancin. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. It also has anodyne properties. and discoloration of skin. and xanthine. round violet colored and seeds light black. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. then acrid and bitter. Description A climbing plant. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. coloring matter. and tonic. Root consists of short stock.
valeranal. Roots contain valeranone. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. Tracheids and few fibers. oblong or ovate. mainly in palpitation of heart. Corolla 5-lobed. sugar. and contain obvate. resin. nardol. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. Description An herbaceous plant. and Nepal. Senna is also a safe purgative. Epidermal hairs are few. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. Rhizomes long. Flowers in racemes. is used to dye the hair black. n-hexaconsanol. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. valves papery smooth. starch. seeds. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . slightly curved. B-sitosterol. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. and bitter extractive matter. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. Leaves usually in pairs sessile.000 to 15. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). It is a good substitute for valerian. which also contains sesquiterpenes.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim.5% essential oil. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. Himalaya (11. calarenol. nardostechone. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Pods broadly oblong. and flatulence. dark brown. Bhutan. nervous headache. and combined with Henna. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green.
Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume
Synonyms: Parts Used:
Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.
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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.
Neem (whole plant)
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PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.
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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Southern India.
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Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed
Synonyms: Parts Used:
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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.
WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.
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For improving sight. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. a mixture of W. and starchy. withanine. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. brittle. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. Iso-zeylinone. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. The dried root is of uniform appearance. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. branching perennial. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. fracture short. loss of memory. greenish or yellow flowers. and appetite stimulant. gastric stimulant. Licorice powder. grayish or hoary. zeylinone. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. senile debility.3-biplumbagin. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. petiolate and alternate. somniferinine. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. loss of muscular energy. smooth. and droserone. 3. tapering. The root is seldom branched. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. elliptinone. Isolation of nicotine. Leaves simple. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. rheumatism. ovate hair-like branches. erect. plump. and spermatorrhoea. It bears small. white internally. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. as in enlarged glands. Somnifera. somniferine. globose. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. brain lag. smooth. It is in flower all year long. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. Constituents It contains alkaloids. It is also cultivated. withananine.
In addition to alkaloids. Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. Roots also contain tropine. and cuscohygrine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . choline.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. pseudotropine.
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938.6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference.
White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Black Ash.270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bitter Orange Peel. U.S.
Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba. U.
Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh. blue Cohosh. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. calisaya Cinchona. black Cohosh. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pale Cinchona.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. yellow Cinchona. pale Cinchona.
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion.S. American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.
Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . S.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula.S. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum. U. U.
Black Hellebore. S. S. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. American Hellebore. Canadian Hemp. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. Black Indian Hemp. U. U. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. White Indian Hemp. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis.
276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. Green Osier. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. U. S.
278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica.S.
Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U. U. S. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber.S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum.
Agrimonia eupatoria L. Ruscus aculeatus L. Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Aloe vera L. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. Fucus vesiculosus L. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L.) Juglans nigra L. Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Betula alba L. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. Optuntia. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Capsicum annum/frutescens L.F. Cynara scolymus L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6.
spp. Br. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. & Aschers. Sambucus nigra L. Gentiana lutea L.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. Geranium maculatum L. Inula helenium L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. Centaurea cyanus L. purpurea. Sanguisorba officinalis L. See Coleus Galium aparine L. Scrophularia nodosa L. Symphytum officinale L. Zea mays L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Symphytum officinale L. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Cucumis sativus L. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. Allium sativum L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Larrea divaricata Cav.
Limm Malva sylvestris L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Gaertn.) Burman F. Camellia sinensis L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Calendula officinalis L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Hedera helix L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. et. Melissa officinalis L. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Pongamia glabra P. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Amoracia rusticana. Citrus paradis. Ocimum sanctum linn. Schert Equisetum arvense L. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Solidago Virgaurea L. Centella asiatica L. Justicia Adhatoda. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hydrocotyle asiatica. Hydrastis canadensis L. Mac Fad. Althaea officinalis L.
Papaver rhoeas L. Tabl. Commiphora molmol. ssp. and B. Carica papaya L. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Olea europoea L. Nasturtium officinale R. Rheum rhabarbarum L. papyrifora.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Lythrum salicaria L. Regn. Mentha piperita L. Vent. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Allium cepa L. Veget. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. & P. Vinca minor L. Engler Myrtus communis L.L. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Trifolium pratense L. Pinus silvestris L. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Rubus idaeus L.
Salix alba L. Salvia officinalis L. Juglans regia L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L.) Acacia Concinna.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L.) Tanacetum vulgare L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Artemisia abrotanum L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Juglans nigra L. Betonica officinalis L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L.
Artemisia absinthium L. Gentiana lutea L. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Torr. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Rumex crispus L. Yucca brevifolia. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Perre Yucca baccata. Schum.
which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. 6. 4. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life.7 Marine Natural Products 7. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. high in carotenoids. 3.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. It is said that life started in the seas. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. e 8. cosmetics. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. The sea holds an endless source of life. Seawater. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and sometimes in seawater. blue. They are also used as thickeners in jams. Xanthophyta. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. 7. 10. and red pigments. bath. mineral. mud baths. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. 5. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. and have even been used to put a head on beer. and sterols. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. 2. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. 9. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. Xanthophylls. weeds. sea grasses. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. etc). and vitamin content. ice cream. However. etc. phytoplanktons. sauces. as well as vitamins. Cryptophyta — Contain green. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. body rubs. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. including: 1. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits.
Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. diterpenes. B2. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. and vitamins. second. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. proline. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. proteins. First. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. pharmaceutical. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. glycine. cranberry. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. Therefore. marshmallows. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. prostaglandins. such as ursolic acid derivates. and C. for example. carotenoids.. and other fruits. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. and imparts slip. polyphenols. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. and polysaccharides. and ice cream as a thickening agent. anthelmintics. lipids. B12.g. For plating microorganisms. cardiac substances. furanoterpenes. fucose polymers. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. For example. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. it is resistant to microorganisms and. sulfur compounds. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. Kelp is also the main source for algin. pears. mainly from some gelidium species. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. prunes. and lycine).290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. steroids). growth substances. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. and herbicides. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. emulsions. and cosmetic fields. anticoagulants. acetylenes. emulsion stabilizer.
which is a polysaccharide. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. mannitol. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . L. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. antioxidant. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. However. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. it has a high content of potassium. F. In addition. A). phosphorus. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. B3. and lauric acids). Mg. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. Laminaria longicruris (L. broadspectrum. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. and zinc. lotions. and iodide ions. B3. and antiglaucomic. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. salads. B. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. B. particularly fluoride. Cr. Fe. a synergestic effect was exhibited. and glutamic acid. and ointments. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. protein. C. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). magnesium. antimicrobial agent. B12. including iodine. bromide. galactose. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). shampoos. K. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. Algin. calcium. B 2. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. palmitic. Sargassum contains fructose. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. There are traces of chloride. B6. and carbohydrates. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. creams. etc. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. myristic. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. and mannitol.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. iodine. phosphorus. P. iron. Mn. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. in combination with Vitamin E. B6. potassium. potassium. minerals (Zn. Ca). sodium. oleic. fat. both in vivo and in vitro. I. B12. Na. Co.
Eisenia contains a complex polymer. sulfonate.000).8 mg/100 g 1. and the Baltic Sea. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world.500 IU/100 g 180. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. polar lipids. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity.1%). a well-known anti-inflammatory. phlorotannins. sulfated. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). single-cell. It is a single-cell protein. which means it is a self-sufficient. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. Echinus esculentus L. alginic acid. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids.3. rheumatism. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. and as a massage for cellulite. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. fucans. containing all the essential amino acids. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. polysaccharides. Halidrys siliquosa L. the Pacific.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55.6 Fucus contains trace minerals. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O. F.02 to 0. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. sterols as free fucosterol. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. mainly iodine (0. Lyngb. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus.
B.46 w/w% 1. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.08 w/w% 0...469 mg 613 mg 1.29 w/w% 2. Spirulina Spirulina.0% 20.8 mg 1. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.38 w/w% 3.8 mg 1. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0.5% 11. It is found in both brackish and fresh water.70 w/w/% 2.6 mcg 0.1% 0.45 w/w% 2. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.93 w/w% 3. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.59 w/w% 3. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.64 w/w% 1. called the Chlorella Growth Factor.2% 55.A. 14-15. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).08 mg Potter.8% 18. pp.20 w/w% 2.06 w/w% 0.S. In a controlled study.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0. Dr.78 w/w% 6.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll.9 mcg 191.500 IU/100g 180.8 mg 1. Chlorella.26 w/w% 2.63 w/w% 5.6 mg less than 1 IU 23. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation.5 mg 4.64 w/w/% 5. Tests performed by the U.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3.2% 4.80 w/w% 0.29 w/w% 3. et al. Moreover.6% 60.09 w/w% 3.9 mcg 15. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder.7 mg 125. The Emerald Food.40 w/w% 4.3 mg 26.
Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. K. B2. vitamins. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca.. B6. Mn.L. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. carotenoids. P.A.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). as it is high in plant protein. minerals. Spirulina. Mg. G. Cr. etc. and minerals (5 to 10%). Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. Biotin. Fe.A. B12 Folacin. lipids (4 to 7%). carbohydrates (15 to 25%). Zn. at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .L. B3.40) B1. Ge. Na. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. Cu.
bactericidal. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. cyanophyta.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . plant. or temperature. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. Related unicellular microorganisms. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. having distinct anti-cancer properties. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . and imidazole disulfides. which although poorly known. barbamide. Unfortunately. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. the following being some examples: 1. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. 7. anticancer. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. but no chemical study has been reported. penazetidines. bacteristatic.10 3. as a soothing demulcent. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. Oahu. were isolated from marine organisms. Significant compounds. pressure. anti-inflammatory.8 The results obtained are quite promising. melemeleones.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. kalkitoxin.11 4. such as the curacins. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. sponges. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals.13 6. and ascidians. are common in marine environments. including phaeophyta. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans.9 2. and chlorophyta. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. Thus. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. microcolin C. soft corals.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. antillatoxin. and marine organisms. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. the search is only beginning. the Bacteria. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. such as those of elevated salinity.12 5. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial.
. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp.18 11. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp.19 12. which produce anti-tumor compounds. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum. tunicates. and gorgonians.15 8. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia. the swinholides. including potent antiviral. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. actinomycetes. which display a variety of pharmacological activities.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina.16 9. the eudistomins. Cyanovirin-N.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fungi. A series of B-carboline derivatives. and the theonellapeptolides. and true symbionts from sponges. a unique anti-viral protein. and cytotoxic activities. antimicrobial. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum.17 10. including corals and sponges. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria.
Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. Cyclomarin A. and F. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. and anti-tumor promoting properties. New antimycotics. Diamirone B. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle. discorhabdin A. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . They have shown remarkable antineoplastic.29 22.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13.23 16.33 26.35 28. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. were isolated from the marine sponge. immunopotentiating. cytotoxic natural products. Isolation of Microcolin C. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus. phorboxazole A and B.34 27. Okoadene and Mailidene.25 18.36 29. B. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor.24 17.31 24.38 31.27 20. D. Several new classes of compounds. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line.39 32.22 15. latrunculin B and swinholide A. makaluvone. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina.21 14. Isolation of Dysidiolide. C. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria.28 21. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. a novel. Many novel.26 19. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani.37 30. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa.32 25. E.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins. including makaluvamines A.30 23. Phorbas sp. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges). Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.
and Hamann. 28.. 12. July 27-31. 10.. Coleman. 40. and Joseleau. J. Acta Pharm.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. J.-R.A. R.. B. R.. McMahon..Y. and Scheuer. M. K.A. L. P. G. Xie. ibid P 25.... Chikarmane.A. 2. Maranda. J. Westley.. Lam. S. M.K.. Dumdei. and Hung. Brielmann.. G. Mendola. M.J.. Cardellina. ibid P 156. ibid P 9. Papers presented at the 37th Annu... Plubrukarn.. J. ibid O 11.. Lloyd. C. R. ibid O 38. J.. 1977. Forenza.F. 27.F. Rodriguez. El-Sayed. B. and Cardellina. Copp. O 50. K. 36.W. ibid O 25.M. Fucus Vesiculosus L.. 15. 19... ibid P 151. 24. 1983. Gerwick. P. Bringano.. Erim. Yoshida.. J. Rea. Haughey. et al. 34. S... S.. and Bair. C. ibid S 15. J. 25. J. Can. J.J.J. J. Hemling. ibid O 26..... 1985. Freyer. and Ireland. Gulakowski.. 39.. Smith..G. B.S. 64.H.R. C. Janda.. B. Hong.K..J. J. T.... Lassota. UCSC.. T.A. Al. Carney. and Francis. D.K.. 6. I. 26. McCombs. H. S.-Y. W.. 401-414. L. K. D. L. ibid P 141. Ogren. Varoglu.. J. Duh. and Molinski. Major. O’Keefe. B. D. M.. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. Shoemaker. Harrigan. K. R. W. Mar.. 21. R. Andersen. L. B. Jayatilake. Franklin.E..F. Beutler... Pharmaceut. McInnes.. Crews. ibid P 28. Hargraves. H. Gunasekera..A. McCarthy.. 7... Goins.. de Silva. P. S.. L. and Kelly.. and Gerwick. and Rodriguez.. 56(4).G.. W. J... 13. P. B. Wilkins.J.T. The Emerald Food.. W. E..J. D. R. July 27-31. Mendola.. R.. L.. B.. Meeting.W.-D. Schmitz. 37. Gustafson. 1993. ibid S 22. ibid P 154. D.. and Munro..H. B. Castor. 38. J. B. M. N. Sheehan. G.E.G. 63. and Harrigan. Andrew.A. M. Allen. and Baker. 20(6).. M.. ibid P 31. Lawry. 11. 14-15.H. Phytochemistry. 16. Baker. Harrison.. Beverly A.B.. ibid P 36.. ibid O 49. L. D. and Yavor. M.. McMahon.E. Hamel. T.. O’Sullivan..R. 3. M. Solimabi. 6.. and Gould. D. J. P. M. and Munro.. Shangxiao. R..R. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .D.C... McKee. 18... P. and Kelly-Borges. K. B.M... Magni..... Gulakowski. and Scheuer. J. Screening of biological activity. Fernandes. pp. 9.A. H. Mokinski.. Santa Cruz (UCSC). Slate. D. S 8. 35. Y.....P.J. 1996. S.. J. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae.. Dunbar..A... 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy. Natural Prod. M. and Hamann. Venables. J.S. 17.... and Crews. M. Carte’. ibid P 19. C.A. Schumacher..R.. L. Green. T. ibid P 150. Linton.A. G.. S.. Blunt.A. Ferrante. L. ibid P 145. and Wang. 33. Ragan.P. ibid S 9. L.. J. and Walter. 22. and Afzelius.S.E.. ibid P 26. Suecica.W. ibid O 7. Bewicke. Davidson. Kerr. ibid O 36. Perry. S.J. Sci.J..P. Potter.. Janus.. 8. Sci. 29. 2441-2446. Fulton.T.. T. Haygood.. 14.. Lill. D. and Bauer.. Clark. P.P. D. ibid P 27.. J. J. Javor..J. G. B. Heath. Chan.. Andersson. Blunt. 1258.. J. 29. Searle.. D.. M. R..T.. and Thompson. 23. T.. S.. 1975.. Ind. El Sayed. Brzezinski. Bohlin. S. Pomponi. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. ibid P 30.. P. J. 1990.C. Ph.. J. C. 32..-P. Gush. A.. G. K. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae. P. J. W.J.. ibid P 155. 1996. A. Pettit. Wright. Yoo.. A.A. L.. Gerard.. Chlorella. Mabeau. M.. Dhyana. and Crews. A. P.A. 180.. 4. Hook. T. K.. 31. Gerwick. P.. ibid S 14. ibid O 10. and Kerr. Kloareg.. Zhang.. Abstr. M.A. R.. Barrows. R.. Nakao. ibid P 149. S. 20. 478-488. O’Keefe. J. and Russel G. F. N. 30. J. I.. 5. and Leahy. and Boyd. G. 304-313. J. Boyd. Zheng.. ibid S 23. M. Chem. H.M. Lidgren. H.. Haden. S.
s.00 6.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC.2) with Sequence 5. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.10 0.5 (±0. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products. Patterson. Rohm & Haas. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc.s.00 q.00 10. 5. 3. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes. 8. 5.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47.2 (±0. 2. NJ 07504.. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. Henkel. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 q.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient./Lipo Chemicals. Adjust pH to 9.60 21. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Inc.00 10.10 0.00 0. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. Adjust pH to 5. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. PROCEDURE: 1.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq. 207 19th Avenue. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature. In main kettle. either alone or in combination with other products. Therefore.10 0. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. 4. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.
10 0. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31.50 15.10 q.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient.00 6. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. Amerchol. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. combine Sequence 1 ingredients. Inc. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.2 (±0.10 q. 7. Adjust pH to 5. 5.5 (±0.00 1.00 20.00 0. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Henkel. Rohm & Haas. 6. 10.10 0. In main kettle.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural. 3.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. Adjust pH to 9. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq.s. Lipo Chemicals.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .s. 2.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq. Inc.00 10. high-foaming.00 0.10 0. at room temperature. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. 6. 4. Procedure: 1.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.
F. 2. 4. Inc. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform.(Induchem). Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed.50 1.10 0. Aqualon.00 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 5. Procedure: 1. 5. 3. Goodrich Co.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens.50 3. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals.10 0. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. B. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch. In main kettle at room temperature.00 1. Inc. 6.95 0.45 0. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine.FORMULATIONS 301 8.
Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.10 0. Procedure: 1.10 0.00 5.s. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. 2. Cool to 30°C. add Sequence 3 to correct shade.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. In main kettle.10 q. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .00 0.96 63.54 5.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C. Inc. At 25°C.00 10. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved. Inc. 3. At 30°C.10 0.10 0.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15.
05 6.10 0. Inc.50 0. Givaudan Corp.50 0. 3. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.FORMULATIONS 303 8. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Cool to 25°C. Haarmann & Reimer Corp. Inc. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . BASF.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No.10 0. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C .10 0. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved. Begin cooling.10 0. Fanning Corp. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86.28 0.10 0.02 0. Procedure: 1. In main kettle.10 0.00 2. 2.00 4.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base.
Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel. F. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext. Inc. 2.25 0. Inc. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940.30 0.05 20. 8.00 0.00 0.00 5. Spl Phosphoric acid. Cool to 60°C. 10% sol’n Supplier B. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.05 0.88 45.s. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.00 0.75 0.82 0.70 2.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.10 g. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. Procedure: In main kettle. 4.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31. 3. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals.80 0.10 0.10 0.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant.
00 3 Lubragel MSb 35.00 0.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin.F.05 1 2 Triethanolamine. Procedure: 1. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp. Lipo (Kingston). Goodrich. 99% Hypan SA100H 25. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0.00 2.30 0. Lipo Chemicals.20 0. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem). 2. 3. Inc.FORMULATIONS 305 8. B.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine.10 0. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .70 1.00 5. Guardian Chemicals.
Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. or Akene: A dry. as ferns. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Acicular: Needle-shaped. containing the pollen. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. or flower-arrangement. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). with firm pericarp. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). like the leaves of pines. the fecundating material from an antheridium. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. indehiscent. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. one-celled. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Achaenium. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. one-seeded fruit. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary.
Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. Blisters: See Vesicants. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Apetalous: Without petals. rare in present times). dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Atropous: With erect ovule. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. Calcarate: Spurred. the hilum and the chalaza being together.. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue..g.. Axillary: Growing in an axil. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. meristematic cells. carrying the ovary. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. Capitate: With globose head. Carina: The keel. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body.g. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. as bi-foliate. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. cinnamic). Capsule: A dry. Nutmeg). indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary. Bristles: Sharp. stiff hairs. with two leaves. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Cardamon). Bacca: A berry. Appendages: Superadded parts.g. Castor seed). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a pulpy. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. Bi-: Signifying double. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Bulb: An underground discoid stem..g. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves.
from which they hang when ripe. upright rhizome.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Corm: A solid. tuber-like. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. Connate: where two parts. Convolute: Rolled up. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Coriaceous: Leathery. indehiscent fruit. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Also a name given to a short. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Costa: The midrib. Clavate: Club-shaped. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Caudale: Having a hairy style. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. Cortex: The bark. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo.. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Umbelliferous fruits). Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. one-seeded. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. Cilia: Marginal hairs. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. Caulis: The stem.g. Cohesion: Attachment. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Cespitose: Tufted. outer layer. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. usually distinct. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. become joined. one-celled. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Cathartic: A purgative. thick. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. Contorted: Twisted. Caudex: The axis.
two long and two short. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Didynamous: With four stamens. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Deliquescent: Dissolving. downward throughout the length. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Crispate: Curled. producing intellectual confusion. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Discoid: With convex face. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Deltoid: Triangular. Determinate: Definite. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Didymous: In pairs. Deciduous: Falling off.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. or tending to fall. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Decompound: Many times compound. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. Cupule: An acorn-cup. lymphatic. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Dichotomous: Forked. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. Definite: Constant. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. etc. Deflexed: Bent. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. dividing into irregular branches.
and pith distinct. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Falcate: Sickle-shaped. Episperm: The coat of seed. the outermost layer. Escharotics: See Caustics. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary.. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. wood. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine.g. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. the ovary. without. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). wood. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. purgation). Echinate: Prickly. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. Etiolated: Blanched. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. and bark. E: Signifies deprived of. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Epigynous: Adnate to. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. Fibrils: Root-hairs. Extrorse: Turned outward. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. or borne on. nearly parallel. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Exogenous: Having bark. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Epidermis: The true skin. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. Epispastics: See Vesicants.
Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. etc. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. Furcate: Forked. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. Gamopetalous: Having petals united.. as bifid. Flexuose: Wavy. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. algae. Flocculose: Woolly. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. Fid: Cleft. more swollen on one side than on the other. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. orange). Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. the point of attachment. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Filiform: Thread-like. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. as petals and leaves. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. as in the cypress and juniper. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. devoid of hairs. having both stamens and pistil (flower).312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Fimbriated: Fringed. Glabrous: Smooth. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Globose: Roundish. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Hybrid: A mixture of two species.g. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united.
Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. on the receptacle. like shingles. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. Keel: See Carina.. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. either by mechanical or chemical action. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. Jointed: Having. the lower petal of an orchid. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Inflexed: Bent inward. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate.. two or three times longer than broad. Incanescent: Hoary. Innate: Adhering to apex. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Imbricated: Overlapped. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem.e.e. and irritation. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. or appearing to have. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Lateral: Attached to the side. rabbits. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Internode: Interval between nodes. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). cats. Laxative: A mild purgative. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Labellum: (Lip). Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Involute: Rolled inward. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. i. as innate anther. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. layer. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. joints or nodes. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. Causing watery evacuations. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Lacuna: A space between cells. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Lacinate: Fringed. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. inflammation. Inarticulate: Not jointed. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. etc.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. Inferior: Growing below another. squirrels. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. dogs. i. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits).
Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Monogynous: Having one carpel. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Monandrous: Having one stamen. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. often caused by fungus infection. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. Medulla: The pith of exogens. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Ligulate: Strap-like. Masked: Labiate. Multifid: Many-cleft. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Monopetalous: Having petals united. with hard tubercles. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. or stigma. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. and roots. but with lipclosed (flower). with upper lobes largest. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Lobate: Divided into lobes. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). found at the ends of young stems. Monospermous: One-seeded. Locusta: The spike of grasses. leaves. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Muricate: Rough. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Linear: Narrow. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. style. with parallel sides. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil.
Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. another plant. with lobes nearly free. Orbicular: Circular. rounded. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as ergot. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. Obsolete: Suppressed. apex broad (leaf). Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. the wings. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. Pedatipartite: Pedate. indehiscent. having tufts of leaves at extremity. in large doses. with lateral divisions again subdivided. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. Offset: A short. one-celled fruit. and the keel. and nourished by. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Partite: Divided nearly to base. thick runner. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Pedatifid: Pedate. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. as in the pea-flower. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Pedate: Palmate. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Obtuse: Blunt. Parasitic: Growing upon. Nut: A hard. Oblique: Unequal sided. death.
Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Pilose: Hairy. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Pod: A general name given to dry. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. melon. squash. and perfect flowers on the same plant. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). dehiscent fruits. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). few-seeded. fleshy fruit. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. with petiole attached at or near the center. Pentandrous: Having five stamens. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. two or more celled.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. usually of family Leguminosae. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. pointed cells. Peltate: Shield-shaped. Pome: An inferior. Pubsecent: Downy. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. female. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Polygamous: With male. indehiscent. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. and the like. Petals: The corolla leaves. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. resembling a mouth. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Petaloid: Resembling petals. Personate: Masked. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Periderm: The corky layer of bark. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Pendulous: Hanging down.
bearing leaves and rootlets. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. with reflexed margins (estivation). with wide lips (corolla). Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. etc. dry.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Serrate: Toothed like a saw. Saccate: Sac-like. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. indehiscent. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. Runcinate: Jagged margin. Revolute: Rolled backward. Setae: Stiff. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. Reduplicate: Valvate. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). Runner: A slender. Recurved: Bent backward. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. creeping. Ringent: Labiate. Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. Scarious: Thin. Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead.. rooting and budding at nodes. such as glands. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. winged. prostrate stem. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Radical: Springing from roots. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. and producing pustules. its function being to support the flower organs. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. Retuse: Obtuse. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Retrorse: Directed backward. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. one. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. and shriveled. with deep notch in middle (leaves).or two-celled fruit. Sheath: See Ocrea. Reclinate: Bent downward. bristly hairs. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point.
Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with short hairs. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Stipitate: Stalked. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. dehiscing from below upward. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Spine: A pointed modified branch. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. may be modified leaf or stem. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Tendril: A thread-like. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). leafless. Squamose: Scaly. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. and one short pair. bearing the stigma. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. falsely two-celled pod. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. Sporangium: A spore-case. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Ternate: Arranged in threes. Tomentose: Pubescent. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Suture: A line of junction. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Subulate: Awl-shaped. in pairs. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. spiral branch. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering.
Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). Volute: Rolled up. Trichomes: Hairs. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. Versatile: Freely swinging. Zones: Concentric bands. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. 1895.GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Valvate: United only by the margins. Vexillum: The standard. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). 529-536. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. few-seeded fruit. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Lucius E. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Sayre. one-celled. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Urceolate: Urn-shaped. Verticel: A whorl. Uncinate: Hooked. Toxic: Poisonous.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Utricle: A superior. Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. pp.
13.C. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. E. Ehrhart & Karl. R. Ltd... Aug. Dover Publications. 4th ed.. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. Paris. Bournemouth. Academic Press. 1995. V. V. MD. Wall. The Essential Oils. I and II. 7.A.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1.E. NY.. 1996. Tease and Evans. Vol..K. British Herbal Medicine Association. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. Plant Drug Analysis. H. Ltd.. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia..E. Vol. A. 1983. FL. O. Merck & Co. 1995. Boca Raton.. 15. Boca Raton. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 24. Philadelphia. American Pharmaceutical Association. H.. A Modern Herbal. 1930. 4th ed.. 1994. 4. Chicago.K. Bailliere Tindall. London. 1932. New Jersey. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities.. 1936. 12. 18. 7th ed. Tyler. 2. SpringerVerlag. St. N. 5. 23. Foter.. Duke. 1996. K. New York. Robert E. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. Wren. 1971. FL 1992. 1975. D. 14. Lavoisier. Inc. Blakiston’s Son & Co. Louis. New York. John Wiley & Sons.W.A. Berlin. U. CRC Press. Wagner and S. Washington. 17. Stuttgart. New York. P. 21.E. 1960. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. Bruneton.. 1993. IL. 1989. The National Formulary XVIII. Vol. 22. Guenther. 20. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Grieve.. 3rd ed.. 13th ed. CRC Press. 19. British Herbal Compendum. 1994. Natural Products Chemistry. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. 1997. Y. 1974. MIS Publication. Nakanishi et al. Leung and S. T. 12th ed. CRC Press. J.. Biddles. Pharmacognosy. 1992. 10. 16. Youngken. Notes on Parmacognosy. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ltd. Krieger Publishing. 3. Mack Publishing. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 11. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. 1902. Potter & Clarke. I and II. The Honest Herbal. 1996.C. Duke.. 1992. Haworth Press... Haworth Press. 1. Bisset. 1–7. & A. London. Biddles. 1990. Wallis. The Merck Index. J. MO. 8. J. FL. J. 1964. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. New York. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.K. Vol. Rockville.. Boca Raton. Churchill Ltd. U. Tyler. Herbs of Choice. A. Merck Research Laboratories. 6. Huntington. Bladt. U. 2nd ed. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients.. M. 9. PA. G. 2nd ed.
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