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BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.
CRC Press Boca Raton New York
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:
Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.
Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. Originally. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . always wanting to find a more active plant. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. Dioscorides. And then the Babylonian. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. sorting. Theophratus. Galen. experimenting. Mithridates. Over time.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. and Avicenna. Chinese. Always wanting to know more. Let it reflect brightly upon us. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. But more than anything. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. men like Shen Nong. As formulators and purveyors. Initially. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. observing. to use plants wisely. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants.
vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Inc. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists. He founded BioBotanica.AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist.. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry. Sr. Frank D’Amelio. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals.
to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. patience. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. Special thanks to Professor Dr. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. and assistance in editing the manuscript. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions.
..........1.............2 1.......................1..................1 1................................................................................................5 1.................................6 Ash Determination .......43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .....................................1 1..................................................................................................................................................................................2 Phenols .......39 Extraction Terminology.....................................4 Ultraviolet Light .........................3..............................................................................3............................................................................................5 1...............8 Gas Chromatography...........10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ....2 Solubilities ......................................................................1.................................................................................................4 4.......................................................................................................................................................24 3......................3 Micromorphology..............41 Infusions .....................................................3 4.........................................................................1 1......11 References ......9 Resins and Resin Combinations .........................................................................................25 3.....................................6 Carbohydrates...................................................1.................................................1 1.....................................1 Plant Identification .................................................39 Percolation ............5 Infrared Spectroscopy................1 4....................................3 Tannins.................................1...................................................1..7 Methods of Identification..........................................................................................1 1.......................13 3............23 3.................3 Procedures ......6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems.........................................................................1 Liquids ................................30 3...14 3.........1..............................................1..........9 2.........................42 Fluid Extracts .11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3...................40 Decoctions ..............1 Botanical Terminology ..........6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2.................26 3..............1.11 2............3..................................5 Yield to Solvents ..........1.4 Proteins .............................................11 2................................................................................................................1 Microscopical Techniques...........9 2...........................11 2...............................................5 Alkaloids..................................................................................................................................................................................................11 2................................................................3.............................................................................................................................................................7 Glycosides .........................26 3..........1.............5 Preparations of Extracts ............................................................................10 2.......................................................2 1..........................................................9 Adulteration of Drugs .............CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1.............................................2 Some Common Terminology ..............8 Volatile Oils...............2 4.................10 2.........3 Physical Constants.............................................................................................3.........1......................................7 Assay Procedures ...........3..4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents..................................................................................1 Constituents of Drugs.........................11 2..........28 3....2 Macromorphology ..........................................................1 Forms 4.................................35 Chapter 4 4.....................................................1...3.......................................................1..............
....299 8................................................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5.........................................9 4...........................................2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy.........................................................................6 Spray Moisturizer .......45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ....................................................................................51 6.302 8...........................................................................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table..233 6................6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table.10 4.....................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table .11 Tinctures .....................................................................247 6.................................................................................................................................................................................................304 8..................4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil ...................................................................................................................................1....46 Oleoresins .........................................303 8.........................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6........307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ...........................................295 References ...................................7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ............. Description..4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics .....................................................................1 History ...................................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ......................................................................................................................... Properties.... and Constituents .....................1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo....5 Indian Botanicals................ Concentration......................3 Cellulite Gel Base ..253 6............................................229 6..................................................................................................................1..........301 8..........................................289 7............1 Marine Algae.........................................................5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+...4..300 8..................... Range............................................8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC..7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe ......................1......1.........304 8............................................................................2 Hair Care Botanicals .................2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products..................................49 5.............................283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7...................................4................ and Standardization.....................8 4.1..........................................................45 Extracts Strengths....46 Product Strength...........................................................................7 4..6 4.........................1 Habitat.......1...2 Natural Shampoo...305 Chapter 9 Glossary.......................................269 6...............................................................................298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8.................225 6............................................................
fats. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. In plants. and usually bitter taste. spores. have astringent action.1. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. they are stored in seeds. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. They are widely distributed in plants. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. etc. (2) phenols.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. hence. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. (6) carbohydrates. 1. 1. and coumaric acids. glycerol. and waxes (lipids). (4) proteins. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes. When applied to living tissues. (5) alkaloids. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit.1. Recently. fats. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. (8) volatile oils. palmitic. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. (7) glycosides.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. TS). barks. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. 1. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. They are generally soluble in water.1 Phytochemistry 1. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications. roots. ferulic. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. leaves. In the treatment of burns.1. and waxes. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. they are also called triglycerides. myristyl. (3) tannins. stems.1. In most cases. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances.
antitoxins. quinoline.1. 1. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. pyridine. for example: colchicine. phenanthrene. serums. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. roots. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. In fact. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. which end in -in. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. Whole glandular products. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. tropane. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. bark. imidazole. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. but mostly in fruits. and (3) derived carbohydrates. gymnosperms. (2) polysaccharides. (a) monosaccharides.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. and cryptogams. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. possessing some marked physiological action. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. hydrogen. oil-bearing plant seeds. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. Being basic in chemical character. (b) obligosaccharides. brucine. and oxygen. purine. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. isoquinoline. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. indole.1. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. piperidine. stems. carboline. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. Proteins are derived from amino acids. and steroidal. leaves. and seeds. which are the building units. they form water-soluble salts with acids.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. iii. and apiose. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. e.and B-1. and some microbial polysaccharides.2)-fructofuranose units.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. amorphous substances. f. galactosamine b. L-galactose. Pentoses: L-arabinose. 2. sarmentose. emulsifiers. their sulfate esters. b. d. mucilages. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. trihalose Reducing: maltose. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. Gums are soluble in water. and Example Rhamnose. D-fructose (levulose). lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. D-xylose. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). lactose. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing).4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. It is a linear polysaccharide. and tetrasaccharides i. cellobiose. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). uronic acids. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. D-ribose. 3.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. True sugars a. Unlike cellulose. Monosaccharides. fucose Digitoxose. and thickeners.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. suspending agents. diginose. galacturonic Glucosamine. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom.4. consisting simply of 1. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. ii. Therapeutically.6-linked polyglucan. Inulin. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. it is formed of amylose. digitalose (these are 2. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). cymarose. stabilizers. a. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. gums. g. transluscent. or amino sugars. which is a straight chain of alpha1.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. They include hemicellulose. c. gentiobiose. turanose. i. Cellulose. Glycogen. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses.6-linkages. melibiose ii. It is an alpha-1. oleandrose. alginates. gelling agents. tri-. pectins. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. It contains both B-1. epimarose. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
g.. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin).g. 7..g. rutin) Anthraquinone (e. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. detoxifying. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. digitoxin. digitoxin) Saponin (e. They are products of plant metabolism. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae). amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e. regulating.g..g. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species. sinigrin) Steroid (e. arbutin) Alcohol (e. 9. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. 1. 6. glucosamine. and Asteraceae. daphnin) Flavone (e...g.. the sugar component is called the glycone. representing about 87 families). and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues. In S-glycosides (e. sinigrin). or adenosine). sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant.g.g.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. Lauraceae. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). sometimes called O-glycosides. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. 8. Such glycosides. Myrtaceae. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e.. and defensive roles. 4. Phenol (e.g. cascarosides. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis.. Occasionally. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1.g. 1. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. as sugar reserves. 5. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin.1. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e. Lamiaceae.g. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e.. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes.g.g. and barbaloin are laxatives.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e.1. Other glycosides do. for example. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). Apiaceae. Rutaceae... in the liver of fish. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. occur. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall..g.g. salicin is an analgesic. for example. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). sennosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . are the most common ones found in nature. however. 10. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. 11. for example. crocin and picrocrocin. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone. Depending on the plant family. 3. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures. 12.. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond. There are also C-glycosides (e... In N-glycosides (e. The chief families are Pinaceae. 2. strophanthin. In the conifers. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. for example.
cosmetics. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. 3. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. however. 1. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). Ethers: anise. cajuput. ajowan. horsemint. etc. etc. etc. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. Classification 1. spearmint. wintergreen. transparent or translucent brittle substances. in the mints. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. 4. etc. local stimulants. etc. are hard. mild antiseptics. juniper. lemongrass. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. in cinnamon. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. rosemary. clove. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. for example. 2. dill. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). In most cases. They can be used for their therapeutic action. pharmaceuticals. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. geranium. and odor characteristics. 6. lemon. coriander. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. In addition. 9. turpentine. etc. cassia bark. only in the bark and leaves. diuretics. 7. etc. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. in umbelliferous fruits. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. however. as a class.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. For example. neroli. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. thyme. star anise. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. is rich in camphor. but in few instances.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. local irritants. carminatives. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ester volatile oils: lavender. tend to resinify on exposure to air. rose. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. only in the pericarp. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. chenopodium. resulting in less food spoilage. 5. sandalwood. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. chemical. In general. etc. However. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. they are widely used in perfumery. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. etc. bitter almond. confections. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. nutmeg. fennel. Resins. Undoubtedly. sweet orange. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. 8. or parasiticides. and in orange. and tobacco. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. beverages. cade.1. These substances. themselves. parsley. anthelmentics.
Hemiptera. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. and medullary rays cells). chloroform. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. which is called secondary flow. On heating at comparatively low temperatures. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. esters.. gr. order. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. 0. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. In this case.g.. Laccifer lacca. colophony. carbon bilsulfide). wood parenchyma. but do not contain any nitrogen. that is. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. Many products (e. viz. resin acids. in Guaiacum wood.. Family Coccidae. shellac). without volatilization or decomposition. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. It is noteworthy to mention here that. as well as in fixed and volatile oils. When heated in a closed vessel. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. fibers. and ether. resins soften and finally melt. Chemically. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. For example. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities. and glandular hairs (cannabis). when freshly powdered. On this basis. in the vessels. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. as in case of Pinus.25). Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. resenes (neutral inert compounds).9–1. but when heated in the air. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). acetone.e. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances.g. resin alcohols. resin cells (ginger). the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. mastic). they are of pathological origin. resinotannols. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. and resenes. and glycosidal resins.g. in rare cases (e. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules.. they occur as tyloses.g. on evaporation. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. In plants. forming solutions which.. They are not pure chemical substances. resins occur in different secretory structures. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. with few exceptions (e. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. they are divided into resin alcohols. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect.
and anthelmintics. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. Mucilages are viscous.) In general. In some cases. arabinose. and Canada balsam. respectively — both contain volatile oil. viz. leaves. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. therefore. Jalap. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. counter irritants. (e. Guttiferae). liquid or semi-liquid substances. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. like most seeds. hexoses. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. barks. in seaweeds. creams. asafoetida). These are. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. fruits. roots. cathartics. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. cough syrups. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. they form a mixture of pentoses. Probably. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. and uronic acids. antispasmodic. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. purgatives. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . that form colloidial.g. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). ointments. or esters of these acids. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. Balsams. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. being called glycoresins. mouthwashes. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. expectorants. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). the mixtures being called gum-resins. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). which contains no volatile oil. etc. Another is flax seed... on the other hand. and malva (Malva sylvestris). carminatives. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. On hydrolysis. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. copaiba. they can be separated from resins rather easily. balsam of Copaiba. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. and Podophyllum. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. parasiticides. shave creams. xylose. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. and seeds. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium.e. nonadhesive solutions with water. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. (anywhere soothing is required).8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. flowers. they can be incorporated into lotions. for example. glucose.
treatment with a solvent. In pharmacy. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. As with the raw materials. etc. 2. the solution commonly known as lye. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). cotton) below. acetone. by which it is exhausted of potash. ether.). and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. or alcohol and water. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. suction.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. expression. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. having a bottom outlet. water. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. or by chemical or physical means. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. also referred to as the spent herb. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. by traction. distillation. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. etc. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained.. gauze..g.
The diameter of fibers.001 mm). That is. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. also known as micrometers. both of which are carefully counted. if an object.3. as well as identification of commercial starches. for example. By its use. the width of vessels. because it is the magnified object.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. always using a definite tube length. Most of the time.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification.125 mm = 125 µ. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with.3 PROCEDURES 2. the height of sclerenchymatous cells. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. and not the object itself. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. its true size is 50 0. In the same manner. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. Therefore.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. However. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. that is compared with the scale. Q. 2.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. 0. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .C. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. botanical laboratory. the factors for the other objectives can be determined.0025 mm = 0. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. the scale of 1 mm.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer.125 mm.0025 mm.
T. D. E.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. A.3. oleo-resins. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. balsams.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity. Trease. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. for example. vitamins.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. such as hydrastis. C. Similarly. malaccensis.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. In this way. especially if they are present in the powdered form..3. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. W. 1960. 11th ed. and Evans.3. glycosides. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. viburnum. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash. resins. London.. 2. volatile oil.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent. digitalis and henbane leaves).g. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. Bailliere Tindall. Pharmacognosy. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence. 2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Other drugs.3. Churchill Ltd. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome.3. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. calumba. optical rotation. 1978. viscosity. However. and similar substances. 2. For certain drugs. they will give a high total ash value. 2. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. 90%. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate.. 2. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. REFERENCES Wallis.. G.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. E. Some pieces of rhapontic.. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article.3. UV light provides very useful information. the yield to water of liquorice root. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol. London. 4th ed. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Derris elliptica. J..
ask for it by its common name first. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. Many plants have common names and. canadine. i. then maceration. distillation. super critical fluid extraction. and other tests like loss on drying. etc. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix.e.3 Quality Control 3. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. or the entire plant. etc. As seen in the example. and microscopy. One should start with botanical terminology. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. organic solvents (ethanol. For example. methanol. counter current extraction.. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. lipidic extraction. providing that they were dried properly. There are many forms of extracts available. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. stem. and berberine. leaf. seed. flower. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. identification can be confusing. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. ash content. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . This starts with the proper solvent system. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. When ordering a botanical. root. color. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. odor. etc.. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. Fortunately. fruit.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. therefore. hexane). If this is not specified. percolation.
which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market.. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. 2. while Fig. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). however. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. 1. Lupulin. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. glands. Quassia Wood. For systematic study. Fig. 3. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. Dusting powders: One should be able. 1 is an example of a confierous wood.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. 2 is that of an angiosperm. secondary phloem. pollen grains. Cowhage). the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. starches. and hairs (Kamala. primary phloem. viz. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3) is a representative example. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. to differentiate between mineral powders.
1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig.
2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig.
3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig.
Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. Leaves: Example. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. fibrous layer of anthers. red poppy. elder flowers of petals and stamens. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. for the seeds. thus forming a fruit. mesocarp. leaves may be recognized. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. frequently. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. however. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule.. 5. styles. papillosed epidermis of petals. 6.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. which are a useful identification tool. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. 4. In the great majority of plants.e. Flowers: In a commercial sense. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. in addition. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mm. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. Achillea millefolium L. 5) is an example of the flower. red rose and marigold of petals only. Among common drugs. argel leaf. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. if there is no stalk. called the pericarp. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. viz. (Fig. and often a raphe. (2) their thinness.. the leaf is termed sessile. (3) the presence of chlorophyll. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. and endocarp. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. epicarp. the calyx made of sepals. the ovary wall develops to form a case. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. two features that are constant. S /(E + S). stigmas). 6). the corolla made of petals. 7. There are. micropyle. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. i.
QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig. 4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Bael. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. Colocynth b. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. Compound Fruits Hops In general. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. flowers and fruits. a. Caraway (see Fig. Cardamon ii. 5 Achillea millefolium L. Orange. However. Simple Fruits i. Tamarind. leaves. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. 8. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. Poppy.
QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. 6 Grains of paradise seed. Aframomum melegueta Rosc. Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Henna leaf by the absence of starch. 9). stage and eyepiece micrometers. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. Therefore.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. opium).3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. or are natural secretions (e. namely. decoction (e. 10. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. olive oil). For example. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part.. agar). fibers. and sclerenchyma. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. vertically. 8). Clearing agents. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots.g. or by the trichomes. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .g. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e.g. 9. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. Chiretta herb. Microscopical techniques. Fig.. starch.g. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. by the stomatal index. however. such as incision (e. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio. branches. expression (e... similarly.. 3.g. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. which are usually slender and adventitious. beeswax and myrrh). They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. mountants. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels.
QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig. 9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8 Fig.
and causes swelling of cell walls. hexane. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. for bleaching. starch. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. tannins. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. volatile oils. chromic/nitric is mandatory. clove oil. and resins. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. fats. the presence of coloring matters. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. protein. resins. and expands shrunken cells. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. or chlorophyll. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. etc. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. alcohol. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. Other solvents include methanol. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. chlorophyll. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. lactophenol. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. it rapidly dissolves starch. absorbance values should be used. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. Sometimes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . carbolic acid.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. 3. water. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. and petroleum ether (pet ether). ether.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used.
UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Then press under anhydrous conditions. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). It can also be used to quantitate. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. This will give you a transparent disk. unless one has an FTIR. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. If the substance is in a solid state. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. depending on solvent and pH.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. In addition.
and powder microscopy are also performed.g. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). 1600. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. or plastic sheets are also commercially available. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). 3. Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. 3400 (M). aluminum. In addition. Other tests like loss on drying. VS = very strong. 3400–2500 (broad M). Precoated absorbents on glass plates. TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. 3. 1500. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. odor. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M).. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. organic solvents (usually methanol). sulfuric acid). ash content histology.) When development is complete. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained.. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations.g. then the filter paper can be eliminated. Chamomile. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. M = medium. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. 3600–2400 (broad). Valerian. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. etc. it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. and (4) it is inexpensive. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. 3400-3100 (variable).26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). 2100–1700 (W). 2860 (M).7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. S = strong.. as one gains experience. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). Lavender. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1455 (S). one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. 1760 (S).
Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent. hence. natural product.5: 8. antimony chloride UV. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration.
it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. TLC. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. data acquisition. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. If there is a diluent added. information-rich electron ionization spectra. For plant volatiles and essential oils.g. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. spectrometric. rice hulls. From these spectra. photodiode array detector. After extraction of the plant material. System control. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . spent herb). The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. or chromatographic (GLC.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken.) procedures in order to establish its strength. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. etc. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. As with the raw materials. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. 3. pharmaceutical. it will show up by having less soluble solids. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. HPCL. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. However. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. together with UV and IR spectra. and cosmetic industries. This system. with expected growth well into the next generation. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). With library search software. give excellent fingerprints for identification. such as rice hulls or spent herb. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. a separation technique. the use of the GC will continue to grow. In phytochemistry. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist..” However. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products.
Ltd. and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. photodiode array detector.
nutmeg. or Provence senna. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. the adulterant can be any kind of material. 3. honey. data acquisition. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. beeswax.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. 2. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. Obovate. the color and general texture are more important. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. coffee. such as ergot. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. in the case of powdered drugs. or Cochin. African. etc.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. Hence. for example. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. for example. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. Instrument control.
9 mm 30 cm). mobile phase. 0. xylose.9 mm 30 cm). mobile phase. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4. acetonitrile-water (83:17).d. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray. 1.. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin. baptifoline. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. 15 psi argon. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.0–1.2. genistein Calenduladiol. panaxadiol..9 mm x 30 cm). GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60.d. luteolin.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). acetonitrile-water (83:17).02 M Pi buffer pH 7. 2 ml/min. 0. flow rate.5. 0. 1 ml/min. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids.d. flow rate. detection. detection. then 1.0 ml/min. or 3% SE-30. lupanine. 15 cm). HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i. distilled water. 5% DC560. 50°C./65 cm).8 ml/min for 7 min.0 M NaC1 gradient. 13-OH sparteine. 25 mm). HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. galactose. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. UV detection (homogencity test). 0. Rf 0. mobile phase. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.6 mm i. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. mobile phase. panaxatriol.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2.5 mm i. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7. mobile phase. flow rate. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2.5 ml/min. UV 202 nm.2 M Pi buffer pH 7. 3. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10).4x. followed by 0.5 ml/min.1) flow rate.0 ml/min. cytisine Anagyrine. mobile phase. sparteine. HPLC: Zorbax CN. mobile phase. flow rate. mobile phase. 1.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. 2. rhamnos Ginsenosides. CH3CN-H2O (73:27).46. spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. detection. 190 nm flow rate.5 ml/min. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). acetonitrile-water (84:16). UV 202 nm. UV 320 nm detection. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.1 ml/min. 1. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm. detection. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). flow rate. 2.5:0. thermopsine.6 50 cm): mobile phase. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flow rate. 220–223°C. R1.
HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. 2. Merck(.1 ml/min. mobile phase.9 i.0mm i. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9).5cm). phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4). flow rate. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). mobile phase. detection.d. increasing 3%/min).. berberine. 25 cm at 75°C). 3. hydrastine Rf 0. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . w/guard. detection. methanol-water (50:50). flow rate. phase B: ethyl acetate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase. flow rate.1 M phorphoric acid.5-methanol (67:33). UV 270 nm. begin rotation. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). canadine.5 ml/min. 0. detection UV 365 nm. vanillin in H2SO4. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. detection. i. detection UV 278 nm.d. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. detection. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0.d. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. flow rate.9.6 mm. detection. 2 liters phase B and C. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. mobile phase. LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). detection.7 & 5. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. 30 cm).5 ml/min.4 cm i. 2 ml/min. hydrastine Rf 0. 1 ml/min. UV 365 nm. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i.d.. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10).5 ml/min. 0. phase A: water. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. 75°C. UV 340 nm. UV 330 nm.. mobile phase. canadaline. 4. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate. UV 340 nm. 1. Rf 0. 66 m capacity 350 ml). 25 cm).05. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. vanillin in H2SO4. flow rate. introduce sample.0 ml/min. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). methanol-water (15% to 95%. mobile phase. Start w/ 350 ml phase A. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). luteoline.5. detection.d. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. 6 ml/min. mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5. mobile phase. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). apigenin. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. flow rate. flow rate. 2 ml/min. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages).
5 ml/min.d. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. flow rate 0.6 mm i. 1. 25 cm).1:1). 4 ml/ min.5 ml/min. 300 mm).d. flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. mobile phase.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35).8 ml/min. detection.QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. flow rate. mobile phase. photodiode array. mobile phase. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). genistein. HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. 25 mm). 2. acetonitrile-water (gradient).3 ml/min.0 ml/min. detection. 25 cm) 2 in series. analysis Column (3. temp. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. detection. flow rate.. 1. 150 mm). detection. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). UV 313 nm.25m 3 mm). UV 280 nm. UV 280 nm.. mobile phase. flow rate. methanol-water (27:73). caproic acid. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol. helium flow. detection. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. UV 270 nm.9 mm 30cm). formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). flow rate.0 ml/min. detection.5.. detection. water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. flow rate. flow rate. methanol-water (2.0 ml/min. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2. capric acid Isoflavones. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. UV 280 & 546 nm. mobile phase. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). mobile phase. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. 30 ml/min.9 mm i. detection. water.0) mm i.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid.d. mobile phase. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. mobile phase. mobile phase. daidzein.d.1. biochanin-A. detection. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658). detection. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid.5 10 cm). flow rate.d. mobile phase. R1. 50% H2SO4. prunitrin Calycosin. 0. mobile phase. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min).d. caprylic acid. formononetin. 1. 2.5 ml/min. UV 230 nm.. mobile phase. 30 cm).6 mm i. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i.
7 ml/min. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. such as lobelia. 8. or lead shot. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. mobile phase. mentha. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. vitexinine 3. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). methanol-water (60:40).4 (1:1). 6. UV 254 nm.1 M phorphoric acid. 2. UV 298 nm. acetonitrile-0.d. senna. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. almond shells. detection.6mm i. 5. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). for example. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. etc. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. stramonium. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8).0 ml/min. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. etc. 2 connected in series. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. detection. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. mobile phase. vitexin. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. powdered olive stones.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. coconut shells. UV 254 nm. 1. usually having no relation to the genuine drug. detection. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. GLC: 1. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. 5u Chrompack). 0. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. dextrin. Substitution of exhausted drugs. acevaltrate. detection. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. 4. flow rate. detection. or hamamelis leaves. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances.9 mm 30 cm). cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. 250 mm.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. valeranone Vincristine. valerosidatum. boiler scale. acetonitrile-0. flow rate. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. For example. ethanol-water gradient containing 0.5 ml/min. 2.d. flow rate 10 ml/min. mobile phase. hazelnut shells.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2.8% methanol in hexane. scented bdillium for myrrh. detection. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. for example. mobile phase. guaiacum wood. UV 256 & 206 nm. mobile phase. 30 cm). detection. hydrogen flame ionization. conc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. stone. 7. Sometimes. walnut shells.25 m 4 mm). Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products.
and aleurone grains. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. which often cross the fibers and vessels. pine and juniper).g. and medullary rays. palisade tissue. 7. Structures absent: Cork. cellulose parenchyma. which often contains starch in large amounts. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. Tincture of: Red with oils. consisting of small-sized elements only. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems.) Acacia. 2.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. sieve tubes. fibers. Frequently also delicate yellow. and crystals of calcium oxalate.. fibrous layer of the anther wall. frequently particles of small seeds. usually abundant parenchyma. glands. stone cells. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. The powder is usually entirely lignified.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3.. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. Microscopical examination. resins. Mucilage of: Alkanna. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. Frequently also trichomes. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). Nut shells and fruit stones. 6.g. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll.g. vessels. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. Frequently also cork. calcium oxalate crystals. hemicellulose. 4. and aleurone grains. Keep for 6 months. in powder. tracheids. or oil). starch. etc. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. papillose surface of the stigma. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. starch grains. however. 10. cutinized and suberized walls. red. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. fibers. especially the diagnostic epidermis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . protective glasses. A little vascular tissue. gloves. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. masks. palisade cells. 5. wood parenchyma. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. 9. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues.. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. xylem vessels. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. Dilution better done on the slide. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. palisade cells. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. Also epidermis. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. pericyclic and phloem fibers. 8. 3.
Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. To be freshly prepared.I.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues.0 g sodium iodide and 2.I. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. ligno. H2O. etc. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water. To be freshly prepared. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. gloves. through glass wool. H2O with the aid of heat.5 ml D. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Benzidine. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. and some mucilages. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . etc. if necessary. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). Chlorophyll. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. filtered. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The reaction is better carried out in the dark.I. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. etc. gr. masks. cellulose. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. Deteriorates on keeping. left for some time. red color of precipitate with alkaloids.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. with continued stirring.880). H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. suberin. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. To be freshly prepared. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. killed by steam. protective glasses. starch. Add 7. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. Store in amber bottle. 0. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol.
left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. Solution A: 34.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. the corresponding approximate pH. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water. 40 g glycerin. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use. masks.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. dextrose).) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. 1.27 g iodine and 0. the strong solution will dissolve silk. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. Indicator. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids.75 g lead monoxide. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water. note the coloration and read off from the table. gives yellow with colchicine. 20 g lactic acid. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. in powder. on the label. 1. 1. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. etc. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals. filtered. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml. 1. H2O prior to use. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood.I. gloves. and 20 ml water. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. e.64 g copper sulfate and 0. protective glasses. Set aside until clear.I. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc.g. and then diluted to 100 ml with water.g... Dilute: Used for mounting. added to a solution of 2.
Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. 10% alcoholic solution. It must be recently prepared. stains lignified walls red. 66. Caustic: Used for clearing. 10.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). etc.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1% solution in water. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. and cutin blue.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%).) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. and 80% by volume. Store away from light. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash.4% alcoholic solution. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. suberin. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. lignin. masks. gloves. Potash. and then diluted with equal volume of water. in small pieces. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. protective glasses. 0. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. dissolving certain cell contents. with a dropper or a glass rod. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). 5 ml of glycerin added. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water.
1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices. AQU P. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate. 60–90%. Same as P. P. 4x.E. of various dilutions: 1:1. OLEUM N. Serial type dilution and succussion. A molasses consistency.01 = 2x 0. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1.G. etc.4 Preparations 4. Contains no alcohol. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form.E.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F.E. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract.3BG GLY 4. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). 1. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting. F. 5x. 0.E. 3x.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. 5:1. etc.G.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0.3BG. but the solvent is 1.F.P.G.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. Full strength 1:1. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum.M. Properties Usually high in alcohol. H. Same as a solid extract (S.G. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. E. but the solvent is glycerin. Same as P. An extract in P.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today.1.
is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. When no more actives remain. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. distillation. etc. and macerate for the prescribed time.g. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents.). close the lower orifice. by traction. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. gauze. acetone. The packing of the percolator is very important. by which it is exhausted of potash.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. expression. water. cotton) below. etc. suction. treatment with a solvent. also referred to as the spent herb. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. or. In pharmacy. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. the solution commonly known as lye. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. ether. or by chemical or physical means. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. having a bottom outlet. the product will not percolate. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. usually 48 hours.. giving a weak extract (see diagram). cover the percolator. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. the menstruum will channel. or alcohol and water. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes.1. the botanical is considered exhausted. 4. if packed too loosely. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. contained in a suitable vessel. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. If packed too tightly..
roots. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. These are usually the hard substances. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. 4.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. etc. barks. and filter. preferably distilled. such as twigs. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. placed over it. mix thoroughly. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. Allow it to cool.
They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. 4. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. Therefore. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. Refrigerate or preserve. after preparation of an infusion. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. Moisten the herb in water. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In order to prepare an infusion. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. preferably distilled. it should be placed in a refrigerator. cold water should be used. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. Refrigerate or preserve.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents.1. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. Under refrigeration. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter.
However. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. there is also CO2 sterilization. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. which seems to work well. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. 4. bacteria. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi.1. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant. especially in inactivating larvae. which is very effective. However. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO.
100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture.00 per pound). Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. No vacuum concentration is used. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1. Therefore. percolation. Therefore. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. and evaporation. At present.e. are weaker. i. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). Filter. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. or a combination thereof. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. Maceration is another procedure. A typical example: 5:1 P. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. Therefore. and usually precipitate on standing. as they contain alcohol. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. and the solids are calculated.* 4. from either fresh or dry botanicals. and canadine. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example.2). These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. However.G. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. berberine. as strengths vary widely. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected.1. check with the manufacturers.. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. Additionally. need preservatives.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration.S. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. Usual laboratory method. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. However. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. However. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day.
or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. Avoid excessive heat. respectively. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes.I.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes.I. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. dry solid.I. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. 4. while hydrastine is colorless. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. to obtain a clear filtrate. returning the first portions. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1. or distilled water. or distilled water. Separate the excess oil. The native extract is usually vacuum dried. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. and preserve or use the clear water portion. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. need no preservation. and add enough D. Then filter the mixture.I. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size.1.1. which lowers shipping costs.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. easily dispensed. filtering if necessary. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders. Their odors and tastes are similar. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. Solution: The volatile oil. 2. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. Add 1000 ml D. 2a. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . preferably kept in a cool area. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. or oven dried. and time of year collected. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. or other specified volatile substance D.I. filter through wetted filter paper. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. age.I. spray dried. and pass enough D. and contain very little water. 4. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. or distilled water. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. a sufficient quantity. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. if necessary. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums).
glycerin.* 4. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. fresh or dried. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. would be too concentrated in many instances. glycerin.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. etc. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. in a cosmetic formulation. 1997. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. To avoid confusion. However. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. depending on the manufacturer. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract.10 Product Strength. 10:1. 1. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. tinctures. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color. Obviously. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. This is very controversial. 4.1. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. Concentration. The true strength will vary.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1.3-butylene glycol. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. etc. 10:1. in a true strength extract.G. The starting botanical. are often found in the cosmetic literature. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. etc. butylene glycol. In Europe. However. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . therefore. a 1:1 extract. or roots of plants (see above). is always measured on the dry basis. Recently. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. If it was calculated from fresh weight.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. etc.). in the United States. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. etc. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent.1. bark.
5 to 4. standardization can be carried to the extreme. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations.04%). it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. which has been standardized on valepotriates. and then on valeric acid. and canadine. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0.. However. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. dark in color.15 to 0. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. This would cause the berberine. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract. which is approximately 20 times less costly). and not soluble in most cosmetic products. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical. that is. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract.0% hydrastine. fixed and volatile oils. If the dried plants contain 0. However. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. Thus. the former designation is becoming the standard. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. and starches to be significantly reduced. However.5% of essential oil. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger.S. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. resins. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. canadine. GLC. berberine. Analytical procedures (TLC. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine.
. However. consisting of an oil. However. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. 4. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations. 1997.8% essential oil. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution. alcohol. followed by evaporation of the solvent.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. oily resinous mass remains. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. or 1. either fixed or volatile.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. ether.g. there are usually losses during extraction. A thick.5% oil. Therefore.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0.1.
aphrodisiac. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. mental strain. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. affects the adrenals. calming anger. antispasmodic. loneliness. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. 5. aromatic waters.5 Aromatherapy 5. anxiety. digestive problems. Carminative. Cell regeneration. sadness. Anti-inflammatory. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. Moisturizing. antispasmodic. soothing. poor memory. For example. This. Stimulant. cleanser.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. euphoric.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. Poor memory. impotence. revitalizing. aphrodisiac. exhaustion. wrinkles. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. tonic. mild stimulant. antidepressant. thereby reducing stress. Skin elasticity. antidepressant. Stimulant. energy imbalance. This is the essence of aromatherapy. hair growth. in turn. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. scalp stimulant. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Revitalizing. euphoric. soothing. hair growth. and perfumes. digestive problems. nervous fatigue. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. Stimulates scalp.
La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. shock. opens psychic centers. Fabrice. amara) Antidepressant. grief. VT. wrinkles. Essential oils are very concentrated. Jean. The Aromatherapy Handbook. antidepressant. Valnet. The Practice of Aromatherapy. vaporizers. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. Ryman. 1982. uplifting during depression. If the reader has further interest. England. Mood elevating. stimulates metabolism. anti depressant. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. Example: to be effective. C.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. Danielle. Nervous tension. 1984. Aging skin. 1976. Saffron. shampoos. Aging skin. Antidepressant. inflammations. bath oils. Essex. very little is needed. cell proliferant. calming. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Walden. uplifting. house sprays. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. anxiety. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. Daniel Company. mouth ulcers. Therefore. lotions. etc. euphoric. moisturizes. Rochester. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. Destiny Books.W.
spotted near the base. DESCRIPTION. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. long. slender. and involute at the point. perennial herb. droping. PROPERTIES. The leaves are two. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. The flower is single. pale-green.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. RANGE. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. about 5 in. and fawn-colored externally. with purplish or brownish spots. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lanceolate. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows.1 HABITAT. flowers in April or May. which is white internally. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. obtuse. and 3 or 4 in. subradical. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. liliaceous. The scape is naked. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. high. yellow.
terminating in three undivided stigmas. agrimonolide. and hematuria. Heinz.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. J. with a loose membranous tip. Agrimonia has a bitterish. three-lobed at top. It is much branched at the summit. mild tonic. pyrogallic acid. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. agrimonol (= agrimonine). Pub. Its odor is aromatic. A. producing numerous heads. nearly smooth beneath. 2. and tapering. silky pubescence. and phlobaphene. 8th ed.. fibrous. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. coarsely serrated leaflets. and borne in a dense. The leaves are alternate. The root is long. 1. antiscrofulous. but unpleasant. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. The capsule is oblongobovate. and covered with a soft.. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. This taste is strongest in the root. diuretic.six. hooked bristles. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice.. anthers oblong-linear. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Drogenkunde. The whole herb and root contains. harsh.. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. 68. functional bleeding. and of reddish-brown color.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. in hedges and fields and by ditches. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. and surmounted with reddish. 2332. interruptedly pinnate. conical. longer than the stamens. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. and anti-inflammatory. pyrocatechol. de Gruyter. 1975. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. epistaxis. W. Ovary obovate. from to 1 foot long. racemose spike.1. yellow. Am. Hoppe. Cavalitto. Properties Emollient. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. flowering in July and August. long. Chem. style club-shaped. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. which is somewhat aromatic. et al. Soc. No further analytical data available. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. filaments flat. 1946. subastringent taste. Berlin. and three-valved. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched.
1994.. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. Peter-Horvath. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. 10(2). Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. Dermato-Vernol. after which a good face cream should be applied. glycosides. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. alterative. catechin. triterpenes. 1. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Europe. 190-193. 153-157. However. Ser. V. The bark is dark gray and ridged. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. citric acid and silicic acid. et al. glutinous. Constituents Tannins. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. Patrascu.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. nicotinic acid. which are roundish. United States. 2. and minerals. apigenin. M. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. eupatorin. luteolin. Rev. et al. gum. choline. organic acids.. 1964. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder.. and also to help relieve dandruff. wedge shaped. this should only be done once a week. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. 29(2). tonic. flavonoids. Alder also helps to unclog pores. as do other types of face packs. usually abrupt at the tip. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. and polysaccharides. volatile oil. fruiting tops. quercitrin. ursolic acid. southwest Asia.. Med. wavy-serrated. 7-0-B-glucoside.. phytosterin.
The surface is dull and smooth. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. ALOE Aloe vera L. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. lotions. and is employed in skin creams. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. West Indies. and Barbados Islands. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. irritated skin. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . creams. cuts. oils.50% (5 grams. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. a mild exfoliant in oils. lotions. and tannin. etc. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). etc. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. Further reading is recommended. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. The texture is waxy. which would suggest its use in baths. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. Alfalfa is also high in minerals. bath gels. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. Aloe contains 99. Properties Used in facial steams. The odor is strongly aromatic. scratches. hair rinses. The size of the pieces is variable. boron. hair treatments. To date. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. etc. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. saponin. this has not been verified. The fracture is conchoidal. carotene. sun poisoning. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. chrysophanic acid. insect bites. calcium and trace minerals. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. and burns.
Granny. sugars.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. It contains malic acid. Constituents Malic acid. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. Delicious. and pectin. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. Macintosh. glucomanine. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). Rome.
wax. in height. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. both internally and externally. having pale.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. soft durable wood. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. and polyps. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. shoddy bark and light. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. containing thujone. moles. ⁿ in. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. tannins. Cones oblong. ARNICA Arnica montana L. and mucilage. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. Wolf’s Bane. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. long.
taste bitter and acrid. the involucre dilated and imbricate. Odor characteristic and agreeable. palmitic. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. the receptacle setaceous. emarginate and pointed. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. and undivided leaves. polyacetylenes. Has been used for hematomas. malic). In mouthwashes. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. tubular flowers perfect. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. the scales ovate. about 1 cm long. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. the cypsella spindle-shaped. Arnica should not be used on broken skin.to 12-veined. kaempferol. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. lauric. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. inflamed insect bite. edema. Note: There can be side effects. isorhamnetin. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. ray flowers yellow. dark brown. Description This plant is perennial. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. stamens without a tail-like appendage. with fleshy bases. pinnate. 5 to 7 mm long. inflammation of the oral mucosa. pectolin arigenin). the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. the pappus plumose and sessile. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. leaves. patuletin. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. reddish yellow. Sesquiterpene lactones. three-toothed. sprains. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. 7. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. pistillate. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). and essential oil. xanthophylls. northern Mediterranean. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. with subspinose. and the cypsella not beaked. dark green and pubescent. and surface phlebitis. finely striate. quercetin. fatty acids (fumaric. stearic). The heads are discoid and homogamous. Arnica tincture DAB 10. receptacle slightly convex. Topically.
e. cholagogue. Cosmetically.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. sterols. protein. beta-carotene. oxydase. and hypocholesterolytic. flavonoids. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. trace minerals. peroxidase.. ascorbinase). ascorbic acid. choleretic. tannin. Also employed in jaundice. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. diuretic. cynadase. cynarin. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. vitamins. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. Around the holidays. bread crumbs. garlic. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse.
or in threes occasionally. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. balm buds Part Used: Buds. twigs. These buds are sessile. * Formerly CTFA. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. The apex is acute. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The base is truncate or depressed. resinous substance.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. The color is reddish brown. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. The margin has projecting points of scales. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. Has been used on blemishes. and various skin diseases. cuts. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. sores. The odor is balsamic. It is a stimulating expectorant. Herbalists use it for treating colds. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. The taste is pungent and bitter. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds.
knotty. has been used for indolent ulcers. sometimes excentric. Odor slight. salicin. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . volatile oil. bark 1 mm in thickness. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. oxyacanthine. chrysin and apigenin. distinctly radiate. bervulcine. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. easily separable into layers. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. Description Cylindrical. tinges saliva yellow. fracture hard and tough. very bitter. North America. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. and the Middle East. wood yellow. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. and showing rings of growth. circulatory stimulant. pith of rhizome small. Flavonoids. externally light yellowish brown. on chewing. izalpinin. Bactericidal. galangin. True Bay. Europe. berbamine. taste distinctive. Berberine. 5-0-methylgalangin. color more pronounced upon wetting. 3.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. magnoflorine. acetophenone. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. Internally used to treat liver disorders. tannic and gallic acids. Properties Astringent.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. gallstones. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. Grecian Laurel. strongly branched. populin. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. rhamnetin. usually splitting somewhat on drying. pinocembrin. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. jateorrhizine. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. volatile oil.
summit obtuse. due to its high tannin content. upper surface dark green. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . texture coriaceous. petiole about 3 mm in length. hyperoside. Asia. soaps. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). finely reticulate. astringent. perfumes. slightly revolute.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. Northern and Central Europe. gallic and ellagic acids. brittle. pale yellow flowers.3 to 3. syringic and p-coumaric acids. shiny black berries. Treating small areas works best. and volatile oil. taste slightly bitter. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. However. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. ursolic acid. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. undersurface yellowish-green. slightly pubescent. alkaloids. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. hydroquinone derivatives. -terpineol acetate. The leaf also contains germacranolides. and others. tapering. Constituents 0. Description Leaves obovate. covered. linalool. catechins. -pinene. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. margin entire. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. phenolcarboxylic acids. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. and glossy aromatic foliage. and detergents. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. -terpineol. and plant acids. glabrous. base acute. 12 to 30 mm in length. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. Spr. 5 to 13 mm in breadth.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). Uvaursi is astringent. quercetin. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. odor slight. lotions. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. along with methyl arbutin. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. spatulate.
. Europe..1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antiseptic... Mirkin.. and ulcers.. clears toxins.. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry... Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva. Michigan... BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs.. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein. Description Dwarf shrub. G.. sores. 1989.... promotes tissue repair. Properties Restoring. This is taken up in a collection vessel. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits..0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels. sores. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees.. 262... 9... California.. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones. amino acids. Whortleberry. corolla ovoid-lanceolate... SEE GALIUM BED STRAW. 4 mm wide. minerals... boils. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries... tonic... leaves Habitat and Range Woods.. dissolving. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen... Properties Astringent for eyecare products. softening. 1. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus. reduces inflammation. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees. eruptions... 20 to 50 cm high. 1854. and other compounds identified in bee pollen. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins..... 1 to 2% fat. enzymes... 55% carbohydrate... only slightly paler beneath. 3 to 5 cm long.. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations. ovate. and Asia.62 BED STRAW.. Wyoming. leaf-blades thin. anti-inflammatory. and to replace retina purple. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive.. JAMA.. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx.. Good for skin ulcers. restrains infection. wounds.. scabs. British Columbia... about 5 mm long. reducing visual eye fatigue.... and abscesses. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter...1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins.
betuloresnic acid. Bugwort. 76. Mabey. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. 4-23-87. (trace amount) asperuloside. 1. New York. psoriasis. peonidin glucosides.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. German Commission E Monograph. anthocyanosides. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. White Birch. Squaw Root. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. betulol. ascorbic acid.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. New Age Herbalist. arbutin. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. essential oil. gaultherin. Rattleweed. apigenin dimethyl ether. BANZ No. Europe. myrtillin. Bugbane. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. parts of Arctic Siberia.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. North Asia. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. and eczema. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. R. Properties The bark. naturalized in northern North America. ursolic acid.. methyl salicylate. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. leaves. quinic acid. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). betuloside. Macmillan. BIRCH Betula alba L. 1988. fatty acids. saponins. 1. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. Rattleroot.
5 cm in thickness. bark thin. longitudinally wrinkled. externally dark brown. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. resins. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. externally dark brown. Rhizome horizontal. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. fracture horny. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. or less frequently by fibrous strands. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. each of which shows a radiate structure. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. by deep cup-shaped scars.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. bark dark brown. starch. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. somewhat branched. dyspepsia. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. internally. fracture short. up to 3 mm thick. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. mainly formononetin. fatty acids. particularly depression and hot flushes. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. tannins. frequently. It possesses estrogenic activity. and rheumatism. and sugar. taste bitter and acrid.
5 to 8 cm long. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). and trace minerals. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). Constituents Juglone. glabrous above. fixed and volatile oils. bark. taper-pointed at the apex. leaflets 11 to 23. serrate. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glabrous. rounded or subcordate at the base.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. with thick ridges. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. and Minnesota. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. anthelmintic. tannins. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. It is an astringent. 8 to 10 cm long. Texas. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). and detergent. Florida. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. juglandic acid. Massachusetts. Description A tree up to 50 m high. fruit globose. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. lanceolate.
myxoedema. fucans). Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. It can be added to hair and skin care products. The color varies from brown to black. a prominent midrib. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). and frequently white deposits of saline matter. rheumatism. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. probably due to its iodine content. massage for cellulite. sprains. The odor is slight. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. and bruises. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. The thallus is dichotomously branched. Frequently. slimming activity. cellutitis. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. steryl glucosides. as a wash for psoriasis. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. The texture is cartilaginous.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. trace minerals (mainly iodine). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. reproductive tissues.
.. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sometimes white. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage.. the crown somewhat annulate. on long stalks. usually blue. externally grayish brown... covered with bristly hairs.. tannins.. and minerals. calyx of five sepals. saponins... about 2 cm in diameter. sessile. Constituents Vitamin C. Borage has a cucumber-like odor. hollow stem. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains. Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage... mainly cultivated for commercial use. sparingly naturalized in the United States. Description The root is fusiform. five pointed corolla. elliptical leaves wrinkled.. skin cleansing and lightening.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids. up to 60 cm high.. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. Bugloss.. simple or branched. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin.. rough... mostly in the Eastern States. Gobo Part Used: Roots.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. the upper leaves. of variable length. the lower ones on short petioles... fracture somewhat horny. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe. flowers from June through September. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L. European Burdock. leaf. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown.. longitudinally wrinkled.. flowers.. frequently split or in broken pieces. Description An annual robust plant. rhizomes. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock. It is easily grown from seed.
Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. It has been combined with comfrey.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. North America. yellow-green flowers in spring. eczema. Odor slight. creams. in cases of acne. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. and can be used in facial steams. lignin. sweetish. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. including buxine and buxozine C. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. fukinanolid. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. psoriasis. becoming pyroligneous on milling. pith-like tissue. cutaneous eruption. abrasions. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cystitis. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. licorice. and oil. polyalkenes. It is also used in hair conditioners. and baths. arctinol. centrally hollow or containing a white. gels.. anorexia nervosa. acid soils. shampoos. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. fat. lotions. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. tannins. scaly skin. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. gout. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. volatile oils. sterols. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. fatty acids. arctinal etc. taste is mucilaginous. berries with black seeds. inulin. and slightly bitter. Arctinone.
used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. Europe. ca. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. mucilage. dry hills. ruscoside. Leaves. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. Description A dense. sudorific. Properties Increases circulation. Flowers greenish. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. ribbed. 2 cm long. 3 mm across. Emmenagogue. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fruit. inhibits inflammation. dark green shrub with thick. 1 cm. papery ca. saponin. The extract has been used with success. borne on green. for the treatment of varicose veins. oval rigid. a globular red berry ca. rutin.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. bushy places. scale-like. 5 mm. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. chrysophanic acid. diuretic.
piscidic-acids. and beta-sitosterol. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material... Description In pieces of varying length.... Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA.. kaempferol..C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia. CALENDULA. rutin.. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length..... Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America. It has a strong. and from 5 to 9 angled..5 to 4 cm in diameter. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present...... taste acidulous and mucilaginous.. penduletin. See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L.... 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper... or Sierra Leone Pepper... quercitrin.. herby odor.... Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear.. Mombassa..... together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length. Constituents Flavonoids. Mexican. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments.. healing for sensitive skin.. luteolin.. from 1. isorhamnetin-glucoside.
Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The Mexican variety is deep red. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. The epicarp is thin and tough. The odor is aromatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. The fruits vary greatly in size. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. Capsicum is a berry. and brown. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. The seeds are compressed and pointed. and greenish-red. yellow. gray. The taste is pungent and warming. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. the Nyassaland variety is red. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. The apex is acuminate or acute. the African variety is yellowish-brown. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. yellow. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. red. or is free from these. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter.
and perfumes up to 0. colocynth. leaves. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). hairy stem. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. It has a long tap root. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. daucol. jaborandi. keeping it smooth and soft.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. and vitamins A and C. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. naturalized in North America. CARROT Daucus carota L. rubefacient used for neuralgia. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe.29%). Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. Asia. and North America. etc. branched. Chittem Bark. carotene capsanthin. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. segmented. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. Bear Wood. geraniol. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. geranyl acetate. detergents. -pinene. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. Buckthorn.4%. lotions. After. antiseptic. flavonoids. counter-irritant. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. and others. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. is obtained by steam distillation. Bitter Bark. fatty acids. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . creams. Sacred Bark. rheumatic pains.
Teil B. C. D = 10 . Z. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. 1. Naturforsch. chrysophanol. Bailliere Tindall. 4.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. and emodin in the free state. 2. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . R = H. It is much used as a laxative. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. and D. 3. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. B. they contain both O. G. and Evans. 267. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. B = 10 R = OH. curved pieces or quills of variable length. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). including those of emodin. odor distinct. E.. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. It is frequently covered with lichen. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. C. and chrysophanol. Trease. Wagner et al. 2. See formula. 12th ed.5 to 5 mm thick.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. 444. It gives red color with ammonia TS. emodin oxanthrone. Publ. London. bryophytes. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. it acts as stomach ache treatment. Description The tree is 4. Aloe-emodin. W. Teil C. R = OH. C = 10B. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. 1974. The bark occurs in flattened. 1974. in Pharmacognosy. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. aloe-emodin. Two aloins. 1983. 5. Various diathrones. 1. R = H. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives.. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. In small doses.and C-glycosidic linkages. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated.
. Description Top. citronellal. flowers small. ovate or oblong. limb bilabiate.. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling. nepetol rosemarinic acid. stems quadrangular.. from 2 to 7 cm long.... interrupted spikes.. the middle lobe largest. up to 4 mm in diameter. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect... the lower spreading and three-cleft...CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L. calyx hairy.. (geraniol. nepetalic acid.... downy beneath. throat dilated. downy.. CENTELLA. pointed at the apex. Br.. nepetalactone.. rounded or ear-shaped at the base. thymol). camphor. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed. in dense. pale gray-green..... dotted with purple. from 10 to 20 cm long... Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like.. carvacol. bract-like. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. the upper lip erect and two-cleft. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe... lower pair shorter. softhairy above. corolla whitish. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties. and aromatic.. or crushed and broken. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache. naturalized in North America..... nepetariaside. Constituents Essential oil. leaves opposite.. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A.... puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen. the larger.. margin deeply crenate. petiolate. much branched. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. methyl-nepetalactone. tubular. pungent. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed.. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. crenulate. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. floral leaves small.. taste bitter.
23%). Ebizuka. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. 54. sessile. Y.97%).206. D’Amelio.W.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic. Sankawa. internodes short.1 In Chinese traditional medicine. 1. G. Yang. Yang. H.D. S..C. and alpha-humulene. Warhurst. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells. 8(7). 3.W. Kriby. 6.5%). 1973. Yang. Lee and J. 1991. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. UIO. alternate. Stem 0. 4. Phillipson.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant.18%). trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. asthma. skin infections. Wu. nasal allergies.6-beta-oside.Y.. thymol (1..I. the plant has been used to treat colds. 1196. Lin. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. and Mirhom. Microbiol. 8. green. H.T. J.S. 3272. Ebizuka. and rheumatism. Patent 5. and flavonoids. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. Sept. isoamyl caproate (1. C. J.3 to 0. Chem. 22 g. 2. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. J. plenolin derivatives. Res. 1988. Sankawa. triterpenes. 1994.S. 1973–1974. Campbell. Pharm. simple.B. Pharm. 1992..B. A. and sternutatory.A.C.50%). brevilin A. Cai.98%). Bull. and amoebiasis. Iwakami. oblong. J. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. Odor characteristic. Y. longitudinally striated. Y. and D. Phytotherapy Res. 894. florilenslin derivatives. 97. Abstr. W. Chin J.L. florilenalin-angelate. and U.7. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. 1997. Y. margin dentate.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes. July 26–30. 40(5). malaria. The plant also contains diterpenes. myrtenol (5. cylindrical. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. Bull. S. Y. 39(12). obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. Wu. helenalin. Pharm.5 cm in diameter. 1998. and Mirhom. Compositous glandular hairs are also present. 436. green. F. caryophyllane-2. and U. 5. Y. Aust. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1.85%). beta-gurjunene. aromatic. arnicolides.6 to 1 cm broad. T. diarrhea.W. wounds.804. venation pinate reticulate. Chem. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter... Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns. Mutat. Leaves..C.3 antiprotozoal.. F. apex acute. Hu. D’Amelio. 6. and C. 204(2).2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. the apical cell being elongated filamentous. Y. Chun. Lin. Wright. 7. U.
and mullein in shampoo rinses. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. longitudinally furrowed. lotions. chamazulene. perfect. Chamomile contains azulene. corolla white. alpha-bisabolol. farnesol. peduncles light green to brownish-green. For further reading. anti-inflammatory. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. bisabolene. New York southward. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. ray-florets from 10 to 20. hollow receptacles. pistillate. etc. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. aromatic. calendula. matricarin. disk-florets tubular. pappus none. Odor pleasant. involucre hemispherical. chlorogenic acid.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. or only a slight membraneous crown. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. Constituents Essential oil. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. healing tonic. usually reflexed. borneol. naturalized in the United States. three-toothed and four-veined. It is a carminative. furfural. oblanceolate.5 cm. and pubescent scales. and without a pappus. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. well over one hundred compounds. see the bibliography at the end of the book. taste aromatic and bitter.to 5-ribbed. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. creams. apigenins.
D. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. long. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall. and stimulating the skin. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. Description A resinous. Properties Good for softening. Also used on skin rashes and infections. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs.A. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. 3/8 in.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov.G. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. Gobonadorra Greasewood. The leaves grow in opposite pairs. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. Chaparral is a source of N. It is native to the southwestern United States. The flowers normally occur in January through May.. restoring. Yellow flowers have five petals.
747. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. The fracture is weak. The outer surface. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. The odor is aromatic. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. sedating. partially peeled. and 4 mm in thickness. if unpeeled. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. However. a powerful antioxidant. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. 8th ed. granular and slightly fibrous.G. Merck Index.CHERRY BARK.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. Constituents Aspartic acid. camphor. and unpeeled. and uneven. phenolic acids. 1.A. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. 5 cm in width. astringent. CHERRY BARK. it is finely striated and fissured. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. brittle. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. bitteralmond-like when moistened. Properties Soothing. quercetin). The taste is astringent and pungent. p.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. this has not been thoroughly investigated.. will add body to hair. which can be peeled. tannins. gossypetin. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown.). The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. is brownish-black.D. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . south to Florida and Texas.
Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. psoriasis. carboxylic acids. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. the lower petioled. leaves ovate. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. coumarins. rooting at the nodes. flowers white. Description A weak. leafy cymes. white bird’s eye. gamma-linolenic acid. rutin. fatty acids and minerals.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. For inflammed eyes. stems slender. triterpene gyycosides. 1⁄6 to 1 in. and facial steams.1 mucilage. All Europe. lotions. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. Can be used in creams. Properties Antipruritic. fruit a many-seeded. satin flower. acute. opposite. axillary stalks and in terminal. tocopherols. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. on slender. redness of face erysipelas. indolent ulcers. saponins. vulnerary. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . long. high. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. creeping or ascending. swelling. with a line of hairs along one side. emollient. small. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. entire. annual. baths. the uppermost sessile. small capsule. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals.
antiscrofulous properties... Steven Foster. Y.... densely hairy on both sides. June to August... 2nd ed. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard..See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L.... behenic acid. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba.... protein.. Caryophyllum. CRC Press.. et Herr.CLOVES 81 1.... petals spreading. Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches. inattentativeness. sores. vitalbiosides. Carophyllus aromaticus L. in lax terminal and axillary clusters... Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval... It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply.. melissic acid. fragrant.. Fruit with numerous carpels. CINCHONA. hedges. 1996.. feather fruit clusters. each 3 to 10 cm. and inflammation.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng. A/B. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy). Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands. Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants. said to have antibiotic properties. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In 1770.) Bull. FL.. Boca Raton... Duke. and conspicuous... mental escape from reality. Flowers 2 cm. clematine... woody.. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L.. each with long styles with dense. thickets. Constituents Caffeic acid.. it is used for dementia. most of Europe.. 1992.... chlorogenic acid. grey.. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. spreading. Leung.. New York. sterols. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters. 2. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. John Wiley & Sons. Description A robust. stalked leaflets. J. white hairs.. indifference.. rubefacient..
antispasmodic. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties.. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. and somewhat four-angled. taste pungent and aromatic. which alternate with the calyx teeth. It lowers blood pressure. 1. and has carminative properties. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. and Tyler. It is native to India. and incurved. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. vitamins. and Thailand. E. stamens numerous. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root. Sri Lanka. Burma. afterwards very pungent.K. J. with numerous ovules. style 1.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. carbohydrates. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. crowded. flavonoids. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. ovary twolocular. and others. J. The buds also contain sterols. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. where it is widely cultivated. Nepal. dark brown. odor strongly aromatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . followed by a slight numbness. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. Speedie. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. Robbers. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated.E. Williams & Wilkins. lipids... protein. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. glandular-punctate petals. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug.5 mm in length.
from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. it is said to help relieve asthma. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. and smoked like tobacco. senkirkine.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. Properties Emollient. tussillagine. Chevallier. London. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. Constituents Tannins. screens. palmately 5. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth. Personal communication. All Europe. mucilage. ground. glabrous above.to 9-nerved. bitter. floccose beneath. Kronenthal. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. deeply cordate at the base. landslides. R. 1998. blade very brittle. The younger leaves densely white. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. pubescent. Odor indistinct. 1996. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. flavonoids. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. terpene alcohols. slightly wrinkled. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. Description Petiole long. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. 3. banks. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . minerals.L... taste mucilaginous. carotenoids. 83. A.. tussilagone and essential oil. faintly herbaceous. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. river gravels. When the leaves are dried.
long. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention.. radical leaves are very large. and Fasulo M.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. althea. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. chlorogenic. Comfrey can be used in creams. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. cone flower. on wounds. hair rinses.) Comfrey is also an astringent.P. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. marshes.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. 1987. asparagine (1–3%). lotions. fractures. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. Healing Herb. B-sitosterol amino cids. It is almost inodorous. feebly astringent taste. Menghini A. a very powerful cell proliferent. antihemorrhagic. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo.. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. Description The lower. douches. aloe. Most of Europe. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. Bruiswort. ointments. and lithospermic acids. salves. shampoos. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. up to 10 in. Fillipendula.. Mascolo N. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). and has a mucilaginous. and demulcent. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. I. very hairy. 944. Blackwort. 1. phenolics.7%).. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). Knitbone Part Used: Root. Autoreg. The powder is green in color. anti-inflammatory. Capassa F. alkaloids.2–4. Phytotherapy Res. caffeic. watersides.
20 0.18 2.72 1.0 1200.11 25.05 0.14 8.7 0.0 30.01 24.79 275.1 Dry matter 30.47 1.89 0.29 44. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.99 1.085 0.93 0.58 5.73 28.8 44.10 19600 10 6 28 0.8 213.50 1101100.86 49. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.00 57 34 34 1.74 0.0 5.8 2.07 100.93 0.0 0.456 0.7 0.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.0 3.61 0.600 0.40 0. Dig.0 0.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.795 0.84 4.208 100. for cattle Maint.26 0.111 1.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.59 2.65 0. Nutrients Calc.0 15.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A equiv.01 14.78 7.14 49.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0. energy therms cwt Prod.176 0.51 4.624 8.0 7.92 0.59 0.41 0.480 0.285 0.19 5.19 0.10 0.142 0.30 1.7 7.0 100 g 4.2 0.92 0.037 17.
.. firm. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland.. and dark color.... often more than 2.... creates astringency. Europe.. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf... riverbanks.. cultivated extensively. Bruiswort.... CONE FLOWER. Good when used in burn creams.. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L. Blackwort... occasionally dark brown in color.. horny texture.. reduces inflammation and clotting. and has a sweetish. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark. *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. internally creamy white.. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped. promotes tissue repair...See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L. woodland. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable. externally wrinkled. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia. Healing Comfrey Herb. It is almost inodorous..5 cm thick and 30 cm long. branched.. feebly astringent taste.. mucilaginous. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface.... North Africa.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin.
cremocarp nearly globular. ferulic).CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. perfumes. mericarps easily separated. fatty acids. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. The essential oil is used in massage oils. coumaric. rutin). 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. p-cymene. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. geraniol and geranyl acetate. toothpaste. each mericarp with five prominent. undulate secondary ribs. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. two or three layers of large. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. etc. deodorants. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. toilet waters and after shaves. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. tannin.). phenolic acids (caffeic. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. chlorogenic. flavonoids (quertcetin. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. camphor. endocarp of large tabular cells. Properties Has been used in body lotions. -terpinene. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. frequently with numerous large. and flavors. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. eliptical oil ducts. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. tangentially elongated. straight. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. limonene.
conjunctivitis. heads long-peduncled.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. and various skin complaints. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. British Columbia. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. more or less floccose. ascending branches. native of Europe. involucres round-ureolate. Description Annual. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. stem 3 to 7 dm high. with slender. Quebec. floccose. marginal corollas funnelform. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. it is soothing and emollient. scrapes. about 15 mm high. Virginia. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. bracts greenish-yellow. For aging skin. California. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. blue. varying to rose or white. or as a compress for tired eyes. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
cichorin. frequently unequal. protein. saponins. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. alanine. vitamin C. the upper portion being usually unicellular. stigmas bifid. tocopherols. arginine.8 m in length. Europe. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. maizeric acid. Topically very soothing and softening. and from 0. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. Constituents Acetanapthene.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles.4 to 3 mm in length. the epidermal cells rectangular. cultivated extensively. fixed oil. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. segments very slender. cnicin. cyanidin glucoside. stigmasterol.2 to 0. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. spherical nucleus. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. flavonoids (Maysin). potassium. spiral or annular tracheae. proline. polygalacturonic acids. tannin. yellow or light brown color. purplish-red. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. palmitic acid. the basal trichomes 50. minerals. protocyanin. CORN SILK Zea mays L. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. and 0.4 mm in diameter. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. corn silk. light green. and temperate Asia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . is said to be a diuretic and antilithic.
. Springer-Verlag.. campferol dirhamnoside. and cylindrical. with oval.SEE WATERCRESS Description A short. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America. 1..See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L... Plant Drug Analysis. Berlin.... and coughs. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties.. 1984... *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India. hairy perennial.. Zgalinski. Description This trailing annual has rough stems.. and for chapped skin or sunburn.. apricot-like...90 CRESS.. enzyme (primeverase). amino acids.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Hydrating. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract... odor.. and refreshing... and E. dark green fruits. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. cucurbitacins. S.. and spotted with orange at the throat. Taste... For blotchiness of skin. Constituents Vitamins. phytosterol. flavonoids (gossypetin.. astringent. Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing.. Blatt.. Wagner.. fatty acids. in face creams. quercetin)...... yellow. phenolic acids. Properties Stimulate circulation. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging).. CRESS... broad hairy leaves. tubular yellow flowers. and 3-gentiotrioside. According to the German Commission Monograph E.. about 1 cm in diameter... sweetish. volatile oils.M. Constituents Saponins.. Both the fruit and seeds are employed... colds. H.. sunburn. wrinkled leaves. The flowers are tubular.. minerals... Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis... soothing eye compress. p. five-lobed. cooling. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles.. slightly curved. 176...
which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. yellow-brown and sometimes purple. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. ending in a spherical secreting cell. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. where it is a common weed.S.0 cm long and 0. Frequent pieces of cut. approximating 90°. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs.5 cm wide.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum.5 to 1. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. 0. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. dark green or brown-green in color. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the acute lobes are directed toward the base. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. Foreign Dandelion. and for various skin complaints and eczema.5 cm wide. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. Stomata are present in both epidermises. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. naturalized in the United States. with a pronounced midrib.
the root has been used to treat inflammation. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). Vitamin B and C. and is especially high in potassium. The white sap has been used to treat warts. It is also considered a blood purifier. as a diuretic. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile. probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses.
surrounded by a thick. where it is a common weed. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. The drug. glucoside. which toward the upper part. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. but a bitter taste. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. 1.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. It has no odor. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside).1% mucilage.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. a narrow cortex. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. Description The root consists of a simple. milky latex exudes. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. and wrinkled longitudinally. straight root. vitamins and minerals. naturalized in the United States. whitish bark in which numerous. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. It attains a length of about 30 cm. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. which is rather hygroscopic. carotenoids. the section exhibiting a yellow. with concentric rings as in the root. but often divides into several erect branches. and its derivative taraxacoside. which have not been found anywhere else. and a layer of cork externally. much shriveled. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. it tapers but little below. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. whitish and fleshy within. also ca. porous. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. flavonoids. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the latter sometimes remains simple. becomes tough when slightly moist. and sterols. The dried root is dark brown. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. brownish concentric rings of sieve. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. and the eudesmanolides. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid.
slightly analgesic. Description It has a characteristic large. quinones. et al. triterpenes. Planta Med.. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. Odor slight. occasionally with cavities. polysaccharides. rheumatism). chlorogenic acid.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. claw-like fruit. light grey-brown.-C. with some fan-shaped pieces. Antiphlogistic. polyphenols. 117. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fracture short.5 cm thick. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. taste astringent. Xylem radiate.. 58. The plant produces bright red flowers. heavily concentric. hooked. Lanhers. procumbide).. 1992.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. ursolic acid) phytosterols. bitter. flavonoids. (oleanolic acid. 1. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. M. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber.
Moench. Indian head. E. Black Susans. pallida. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. purpurea.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. E.) Nutt. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. Part Used: Root. L. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. Scurvy Root.. Hedgehog Part Used: Root. Black Sampson. (Nutt.
sieve tissue in radial rows. wound healing. externally grayish-brown. or purplish-brown. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. boils. Odor faint. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. or furrowed. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. ulcers. aromatic. light brown. fibrous. bark less than 1 mm thick. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. wounds. bites.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stings. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. slightly annulate in the upper portion. blood purification. When administered orally. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. etc. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. cylindrical. bed sores. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. fracture short. use for snake bite.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. or poisonous insects. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. burns. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. For example. taste sweetish.
A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii).ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities. and Interferon-B2. indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. interleukin-1 (IL-1).3 Furthermore. Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). TNF-X. It also increases T-cell proliferation.
pallida. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid.4E.4Z-diene8. Present in both E. purpurea and E.10E)-tetraenoic acid). Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0.1%).5 Furthermore. purpurea (0. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan. angustifolia. albicans pathogens. purpurea)]. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. but practically absent in E.3–1. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro. In E. angustifolia.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. chlorogenic acid. arabinoga lactan). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . in vivo. including an essential oil. These include aliphatic amides. – The mono.8Z.g. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. angustifolia). and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid.g.6–2. ferulates of tartaric. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e.. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. which is useful for species identification. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. • Polysaccharides.7% (except in E.. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. isobutylamide of undeca (2E. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
-L. (Bethesda). M. 81(8). 4. Holger. S.E. Arzneim-Forsch. Klumpp and U. Wagner. B.. Immuno Pharmacol. J. Jurcic. C. Gifford. 27-38. Schranner. and R.H. Luettig. 276-281. G. 36(5). Natl. J. H. Christiane. Ser. 5. R.. Puhlmann.ECHINACEA 99 1. 1988. Cancer Inst. J. Cheminat. Zenk.. Zawatzky. K.744. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . I.345. and M. Lohmann.Matthes. Roesler. Wagner. 1989 2. 1988. H. 1989.L. 353-364.. 3. 27(9).. Loesch. Brouillard. Becker. J. Med. O. 6. 1989. A. Ger Offen De 3. B. Wagner. 13(1). 1991. Wuerdinger. K. Bauer. Andreas. Phytochemistry. Steinmueller. 669-675. Intn. N. 38(2). Lohmann-Matthes. J. M. Vet. E. 2787-2794. H. and H. R.. and J. Albrecht. Wagner.
having three pores and up to 0. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. from 2 to 3 mm in width. yellow. joint stiffness etc. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . south to Florida and Texas. volatile oils.and beta-amyrin). taste slightly bitter.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. regularly five-lobed. sambunigrin). It is said to reduce swellings. and tannins. inflammation. mucilage. soreness. filaments. triterpenes (alpha.023 mm in diameter. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. ursolic acid. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. stamens five. covered with finely punctate markings. tumors. sterols. five-lobed. rutin. rotate. astragalin. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. calyx superior. Description Small. shriveled. minerals. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). flat or slightly campanulate. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. slender anthers oblong.
5 cm in diameter. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. central Europe. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. as a bactericide. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. fracture short and horny. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. bitter. and pungent. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis.) strongly lignified wood fibers. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. itching skin. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. naturalized in northeastern North America. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. wounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . up to 13 cm in length and 1. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. and separated by large intercellular spaces. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. west to Missouri. frequently curved or irregularly curled. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. taste acrid. and rashes.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. and catarrh. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. roots cylindrical and tapering. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. south to North Carolina. Scabwort. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. asthma. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. Odor aromatic.
inulin. Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . friedelin). sterols. triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. isolantolactone. germacrene-D-lactose).102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. polyacetylene.
or with many opposite branches. broad. has a bitter and astringent taste. heads numerous. Europe. odor characteristically aromatic. obtuse bracts which are white. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. febrifuge. small. their margins. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). The leaves are sometimes almost round. however. Also has slight Anodyne properties. 2 to 8 in. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. either unbranched in small specimens. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. revolute or undulate. It is odorless. 1 ⁄6 to in. Hemostatic. high. heaths. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. The stem is erect and wiry. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. essential oil. always deeply cut-in teeth. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. Constituents Tannins. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. but sometimes tinged with brown. and at other times pointed and narrow. resin. Astringent tonic. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. woodland. sessile. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. Description Stems white-woolly. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. woolly beneath. long and about in. and phytosterin. Description It is an elegant little annual plant. taste bitter and aromatic. green above.
and various skin conditions. lotions or drops for eye complaints. Euphrasia contains glycosides. conjunctivitis. gallotannins. and a volatile oil. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. Constituents Aucubin. caffeic acid. poultices. geniposide. inflammation of the eyelid. ferulic acid. catapol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . including aucubin. luproside.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. minerals. inflamation of the blood vessels. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel.
F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. brown walls. strongly lignified fibers. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. conical stylopod. For use in eye washes. It is * Formerly CTFA. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp.5 mm in breadth. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. Description Mericarps usually separate. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. New Jersey. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. dorsal surface convex. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. United States. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. south to Florida and Texas. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. making usually six oil ducts in all. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. composed of polygonal cells. more or less curved. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. and two oil ducts on the ventral side.
irregularly rhomboidal in outline. dark. In addition. and Turkey. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. horny. Soaked in water. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. and flavonoids.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. In addition. and flattened. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. -phellandrene. there are methylchavicol. especially if powdered. Pakistan. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. 2 to 3 mm wide. However. anisaldehyde. The odor of Fenugreek. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. organic acids. translucent endosperm. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. the radicle being accumbent. the former appearing as a whitish point. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. the taste is disagreeable and oily. the fruits contain a fixed oil. yellowish-brown. cultivated in India. including -pinene. is strong and spicy. and limonene. and 2 mm thick. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. they are hard. protein. Nearly in the center of one of the long. Israel.
trigofoenoside A-G. flowering from July to October. mucin. It is also used as a galactagogue. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Scrofula plant. yamogenin. cystine. A poultice has been employed for gout. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. diosgenin. wounds. histidine. and banks. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. trigonelline. sores. glycine. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. Fenugreek contains mucilage. Constituents Dioscin. fenugreakin. glutamic acid. damp copses. tumors. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. and various skin irritations. neurosis. Square stalk. mucilage. in woods. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. swollen glands.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. choline. choline. hedges. aspartic acid.
Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. smooth stem. and knotty root. adnate to the upper side. sublabiate. quadrangular. lecithin. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. and slightly margined. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. thyrsoid panicles. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. rounded. acute. with a livid purple lip. alkaloids and flavonoids. and subglobose. forked. long. erect. cleansing. ovate. Constituents Saponins. which are broadly ovate. whitish. veined. with a leafy. anodyne. on axillary and terminal. 3 to 4 in. dark purple. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. 2 to 4 ft in height. the corolla of a dull green color. cardio-active glycosides. sharply and unequally serrated. ovoid. obtuse. having a green scale or sterile filament. hesperetin. slightly drooping. opposite branches above. of a deep-green color. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. acutish or broadly cordate at base. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the limb contracted. The flowers are small. and 3 to 7 in. in length. The calyx is in five segments.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. ovate-oblong. with paniculate. or the upper lanceolate. The leaves are opposite. tuberous. and circulatory stimulant. petiolate.
Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. and is hairy at the joints. and rough on the margins. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. Calyx 4-toothed. the peduncles are axillary and 1. quadrangular. sterols. and midrib. 2 or 3 lines in width. growing in cultivated grounds. but are inodorous when dried. and astringent. GARLIC Allium sativum L.or 2-flowered. or eights. retrorsely prickled stem. mucronate. stamens 4 and short. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. and flowering from June to September. sevens. The leaves are 1 or 2 in.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. succulent plant. these plants have an unpleasant odor. tapering to the base. and Burdock. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Iridoid glucosides. corolla rotate and 4-parted. In a green state. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. moist thickets. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. Stinging Nettle. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. Description Galium aparine is an annual. small. and n-alkanes. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. flavonoids. verticillate in sixes. Catch-weed. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. including psoriasis. tannins. astringent. with a weak. and along banks of rivers. phenolic acids. coumarins. in length. cleansing. fatty acids. and bitter taste. with an acidulous. the flowers white. with hooked prickles. The fruit is large and bristly. styles 2. numerous and scattered. procumbent.
However. peptides. about 0. (alliin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. and E. The membranaceous scales. scordinins. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. membranaceous. with 8 to 15 bulbils. compound. It has been applied successfully to swellings. cultivated extensively. pimples. in place of butter. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. antiseptic. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. sores. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. antiviral. Properties Cosmetically. promotes leucocytosis. B. Description Bulb subglobular. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. each bulbil covered by whitish. Italy is a large producer. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. apex acute. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. membranaceous scales. Internally. expectorant. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation.750 mm in diameter. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. Garlic is diaphoretic. hypotensive and anthelmintic. allicin — dialltrisulfide. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. dry leaf. and attached to a flattened circular base. Vitamins A. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. for obvious reasons.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. Garlic does not lend itself. base truncate. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. scale-like leaves. taste intensely pungent and persistent. bacteriostatic. surrounded by whitish. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. the outer surface convex. spasmolytic. and acne. Constituents Sulfur compounds. trace minerals. and fructans. g-glutamyl). C.
polysaccharide.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. The taste is first sweet. gastric stimulant. bitter. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. but are usually shorter. cleansing. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. and alkaloids (gentiamine). sweroside. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. sialagogue. that of the root. amarogentin. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. then strongly bitter. The odor is aromatic. It is recommended for loss of appetite. xanthones. These roots measure up to 8. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. and middle western United States. and to 37 mm in diameter. anti-inflammatory. Properties Gentian is an astringent. volatile oils. phenolic acids. but pliable when it is moist. Cranesbill. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. and cholagogue. swertiamarin). The cambiam zone is dark brown. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown.5 dm in length. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem.
Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.
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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome
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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.
Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.
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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root
Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.
Ginseng root (american) cultivated
Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its
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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.
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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.
GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves
Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.
Golden rod (Solidago)
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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome
Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.
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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.
GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part
Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near
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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin
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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.
GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit
Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract
Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.
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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.
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ferulic). Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. conditioning. theobromine.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . shampoos. and phenolic acids (caffeic. lotions.. which can be used in various sun-care products. theophylline). wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. gallo catechins). creams. tannins (catechins. hair rinses.
sores. purple-brown to brown in color. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .C. vitexin glucosides. and dimeric procyanidin. leaves. Description The fruits are small berries. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L.) C. quercetin and glucosides). Properties Flowers. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. fatty acids. Medically. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. Monogyna (jacq. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. Externally. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. with five parts. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. and central and northern Asia. phenolic acids. catechin. it has been used as a wash for itching. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. and externally wrinkled. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. and frost bite. Cosmetically. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped.
as henna. in an aqueous solution. 319. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. entire. hair rinses. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . often imported in coarse powder. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. Pharm. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. brown. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. triangular pitted seeds. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. acids destroy its properties. l. However. Sci. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. oblong or broadly lanceolate. Arabia. and conditioners. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. R. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. with occasional stems and brown. fading on the addition of acid. et al. Calendula. 51. It will not impart any color to the hair. Della Loggia. mucronate. 1983. It can be used in shampoos. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. shortly petiolate. tapering at the base. It will add body and highlights to hair. Chamomile. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L.. however. Description Leaves greenish-brown. It is also said to be cooling. simple. 1 to 2 cm wide. India. decoction orange-brown. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt.126 HENNA 1. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. fruit. deepening with alkalies. (2-hydroxy. Persia. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. etc.. glabrous. and decolorized by a special extraction process. opposite. 2 to 3 cm long. 4-napthoquinone). astringent. small.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and semi-solid on keeping. phenolic acid. and New Zealand.4-napthoquinone). Chile. Australia. owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. Description Honey is a viscid. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. flavonoids. and tannins. luteolin). It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. Honey obtained from heather.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. translucent. fatty acids. California. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. various parts of Africa. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. It becomes partially crystalline. (glucosides of apigenin. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. orange blossom. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid.
will give body to the hair. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. and alleviates pain and itching. sores. bitter principles. ringworm. The taste is pungent and bitter. dextrin. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. The individual bracts are thin and papery. tetters. The strobiles measure 5. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. lupulone.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. Hops is a sedative. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. tannins. wax. Hops is a strobulus. and pollen grains. and discoloration. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. the veins are elevated.brown. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). Bark Bongay. face creams. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. It contains small quantities of sucrose. volatile oil. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. The odor is aromatic. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. and tannins.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin). and hair conditioning. It has been used on crural ulcers. xanthahumol). Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. bactericidal. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. it will reduce swellings. hypnotic. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. one margin is flat. humulene. Asia. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. consisting mainly of humulene. In combination with Chamomile. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Useful in treatment of dandruff. formic acid.
peculiar odor. sprains and various sports injuries. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. compressed. increases circulation. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0.25–0. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. quercetin). one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. bitter taste. stimulates digestion and circulation. lotions. iron gives a green precipitate. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. Anti-inflammatory. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. nearly an inch in diameter. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. and hemorrhoids. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. It has been used in cellulitis. bitter taste. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. yellowish-white in color. aesculin). The aqueous infusion is bitter. large rough leaves. in diameter. with a shining. phenolic acids. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. and has an unpleasant. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. fleshy roots. Description A perennial . The nut has a slight. The bark is thin. is nearly odorless. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. from 1 to 1 in. The root has antimicrobial properties. Properties Astringent. when dry. is subglobular.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. and slimming products. Constituents Saponins (aescin. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. and tannin. fawn-colored. phlebitis. and non-astringent. Gaertn et Schert. vasoconstrictor. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. varicose veins. Increases venous tone. and swellings. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. The internal portion is starchy. The nut. chestnut-brown testa. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. Properties Cosmetically. The plant has long. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. tendonitis. hand creams. The inner bark has a rough. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
5 dm. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. acuminate. greasy skin. high. South Carolina. and Eurasia. 2 to 3 mm. 2 to 4 cm long. thick. cones peduncled. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. after crushing and moistening. However. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. 1 to 3. branches 3 to 4 angled. as the fresh juice can be irritating. 5 to 10 mm. rarely with a few branches. Alaska. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. Greenland. high. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. sterile stems decumbent to erect.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. which would validate its use on blemished. thick. However. yields 0. 10 to 14 furrowed. California.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. branched. mostly with sterile spores. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. solid. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long.5 dm. causing the skin to blister.
anthers with linear divaricating cells. seldom white. second whorls. punctate. with the middle of the corolla erect. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. Used for putrid wounds. spreading. rather thick. and 1 ribbed underneath. very much branched. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. erect. sometimes narrower. healing. and equistetolic acid. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. phenolic acids. usually oblong-linear. Its stems are quadrangular. acute. southern Europe. protruding. and diverging. emarginate. lower lip trifid. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. gangrenous ulcers. or lanceolate. astringent. Will add strength and sheen to hair. spreading. minerals. sessile. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. and borne in racemose. and 1 to 2 ft in height. apigenin). scarcely shorter than the calyx. Upper lip of the corolla. It is diuretic. and external bleeding. The flowers are bluish-purple. green on each side. saponin (equisetonin). entire. flat. acute. but smaller. Stamens 4. woody at the base. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . palustrine alkaloid. with the middle obe larger.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. flat. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. The leaves are opposite. silicic acid. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. kaempferol. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. emarginate. sometimes elliptical. the branches are rod-like. sunny sites.
ursolic acid. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. phenolic acids. oleanic acid. flavonoid glycosides. marrubin. Constituents Volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gum. and resin. Tannin.
luteolin [cynaroside]. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. phenolic acids. The flowers are bluish-purple. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). square. the limb oblique. with a varegated throat. with a prostrate. and glaucous on both sides. The floral leaves are of the same form. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. forming the appearance of a cross. opposite. crenate. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. amino acids. cordatereniform. gray. North America. quercetin [isoquercitrin]).I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . creeping stem. The calyx is long. decongesting tonic. The leaves are petiolate. about three together in axillary whorls. * Formerly CTFA. hairy. Europe to Caucasus. curved. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. volatile oil. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. hairy herb. the upper being the largest. Also useful in cough preparations. roundish. villous. though often purplish beneath. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. radicating at base. marubiin. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel.
rather fragrant odor. antimutagenic. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. and introduced into North America. Ivy has been used in face packs. The former possesses a peculiar. exudes from the incised bark. anthelmintic. and when heated emits a pleasant. faintly bitter. The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. aromatic odor. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. or Ivy gum). and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. Description An evergreen climber. It is acrid. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. control of cellulite. Scandinavia. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. molluscicidal. Properties Anti-fungal. sun or shade. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. However. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. Europe.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. This plant is common all over Europe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used.
hederacoside. and fatty acids. flavonoids.and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides. malic acid. hederacoside C (5%).IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. phenolic acids. . © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
The under surface is yellowish-green. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is slight. dull. and the veins are elevated. and stems. The upper surface is yellowish-green. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. The blades are asymmetric.5 cm.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. smooth. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. stalks. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. The leaves are compound. The taste is salty and bitter.
volatile oil. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. colocynth. eugenol. the terminal leaflet larger. Combines well with Nettles. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. and mullein as a hair tonic. It induces salivary. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. calyx linear. antiglaucoma agent. more than half as long as the corolla tube. and farnesol.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. isopilocarpine). Leaves opposite. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. pilocarpic acid. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. conditioners. hair rinses. isamone. and sweat hypersecretion. gastric. containing benzylacetate. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. hair tonics. jaboric acid. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. jaborino. lotions. It contains pilocarpine. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. very sweet-scented flowers. It can be used in shampoos. tincture of Capsicum. gels. and soaps. It increases intestinal motility. Constituents Essential oil. benzyl alcohol. skin creams. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia.
skin care products. potassium. (For additional information. restoring. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. Nourishing.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . see Chapter 7. softening. each bearing an expanded blade. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. algin. Description Vesicles large.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. dissolving. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. hair products. Constituents Iodine. benefits the skin. and many trace minerals and micronutrients. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors.
antioxidant. and similar skin problems. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. creams. triterpenoids. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and alkaloid. Approximately 30 species have been identified. and lotions. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. analgesic. antipyretic. shampoos. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. tropical habitats in dry soil. wide. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. and antifungal. The flowers are in branched panicles. dandruff. southern India and Sri Lanka. Antimicrobial properties. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. Description This aromatic grass has clumped.
Constituents Essential oil. Glycyrrhizae Radix. When taken on an empty stomach. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond).142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. Properties Healing antiseptic. dilute it with water.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. flavonoids. It is aromatic and astringent. taste aromatic. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. bacteriastatic. and close the pores. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. and Hungary. distinctive. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. skin creams. cleanse the skin. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. giving relief. phenolic acids. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. and cleansers. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. southern Europe.) Burman F. Sweet Wood. odor fragrant. Liquorice Root. skin bleach. Russia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles.
It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. Internally. Internally. antiphlogistic. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. The upper portion is more or less knotty. and cysts. Anti-inflammatory. including dermatitis. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. it is yellow and radiate. pruritus. longitudinally wrinkled. antiseptic. it is externally pale yellow. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. Its odor is distinctive.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. antiviral. anti-infectant. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. eczema. antihepatotoxic. when deprived of the outer corky layer. somewhat tapering. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sometimes split longitudinally. its taste is sweetish. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. Externally. Properties Good for skin eruptions. antibacterial.
coumarins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glabrone. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. isoliquiritin. B-amyrin. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Linn Tree.). glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. licochalcones A and B. glycyrrhetol.). 2 to 20% starch. formononetin. glabronin etc. echinatin. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). licoisoflavones A and B. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. bracts N/S Flowers. bracts Flowers. liquiritigenin. 4’. licoricone. etc. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. 4-hydroxychalcone. Basswood. amines. On hydrolysis. gum wax. amino acids. licoisoflavanone. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. kumatakenin. neoisoliquiritin. sterols.). lignin. licoric acid.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. glabrol. glycyrol. Europe. licuraside. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. limestone. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. glyzarin. neoliquiritin. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. isoglabrolide. White Wood.7-dihydoxyflavone. liquiritin. bracts N/S Flowers. glabrolide. etc. rhamnoisoliquiritin.
odor is agreeable. faint. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. For bruises and to reduce swelling. Internally. Emollient. leaf-like bract. linear. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. The petals are five and whitish. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. When fresh. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). which are axillary.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. or approach yellow. when dry. are oblong or lanceolate.
Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. kaempferol).146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. Smallage. and perfumes. cultivated in central and southern Europe. creams. D. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. lotions. The fruit is a cremocarp. Maggi Herb. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds.5 to 1. W.0% volatile oil. caffeic). sterols. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. tannins. volatile oil. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. high amount of uronic acid. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage. J. dark green.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. The rhizome and root are aromatic. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. naturalized in North America. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. mucilage. Description Lovage has large. Coumarins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and resin are also present. gum. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems.
and shining frond bases. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. first into two recurving. pedately branching at the summit. astragalin. mucilage. primary forks. The rhizomes are horizontal. and with blackish roots. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. Properties In rinses. tannin. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. The odor is slight. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. and then into several spreading pinnae. adiantoxide. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. Constituents Adiantone. blackish. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. phenolic acids and their sulfates. They consist of long. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. quinic acid.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. slender.
and phenolic acids. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. thick. and slightly elevated. hairy. Useful in eye preparations. Mary-bud. spasmodic colitis. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Medicinally used in cough preparations. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. the veins are palmate. distinct. curved peduncle. greenish-gray bracts. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. naturalized in North America. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. mostly ligulate. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. and insect bites. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. Emollient for sensitive skin. The odor is not distinct. Properties Soothing and softening. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. niacin. British Columbia to Mexico. protective. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. blotchiness. The flower heads have a short. The texture is herbaceous. The taste is mucilaginous. The blade is cordate at the base. Relieves itching. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. The individual flowers are yellow. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. the veins are elevated. flowers.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. Holligold. These flowers are oblanceolate. and fruits. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width.
The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.
MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root
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yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops
Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.
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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.
MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root
Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.
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Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb
Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)
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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers
Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied
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to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin
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Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. diaphoretic. engler) The surface is dull. carminative. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. diuretic. The taste is pungent. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. It is said to promote granulation. The fracture is conchoidal. It is said to bring forth the gods. Myrrh is used in incense. mildly expectorant. antifungal. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. for example. and acrid. sore throats. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. powdery. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. and anti-inflammatory. Used for halitosis. The odor is aromatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bitter.
Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene.2 to 0. Constituents Yields 0. on bruises and hemorrhoids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . geraniol. and blue-black berries. and nerol). creamy white flowers. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. cineole. camphene. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction.
. sterols. and isorhamnetin). Stimulates hair growth. Description This plant is a perennial.N NASTURTIUM . herbaceous.. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy. in hedges..... minerals (high amount).. nervous eczema... formic and citric acids. See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L. beta-carotene. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic. Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant. dull-green plant. and epistaxis malaena... Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and for cutaneous eruptions. Nettles has been used as an astringent... (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle..... choline. and in gardens.. Urtica urens L...... serotonin).... acetyl choline. common to Europe and the United States. Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant. flowering from June to September. amines (histamine... which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed. by woodsides.. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles.. growing in waste places. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll.. kaempferol.
fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter.O OATS Avena sativa L. within the groove a narrow. taste starchy. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. two-veined palet or scale. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. the base somewhat contracted. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. Florida. thinly membranous. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. and the Yukon. a scar or. up to 1. Odor slight. Texas. rarely. the apex pointed. tapering toward each end. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. above the center. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L.
broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. avenacin). Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. shingles. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. pointed hairs. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). subsessile. lignified. these are elongated thick-walled. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. partially beaded. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . eczema. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. bent here and there. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. rarely over 25 ft in height. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. The leaves are opposite. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. straight or slightly curved. elliptical stomata up to about 0. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. Medically.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. sleeplessness. less heavily developed tissue. some of which give rise to unicellular. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. the cells filled with protein. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. Description The tree is small. entire and coriaceous. lignified walls. The drug tastes bitter. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. Properties Benefits the skin. polyphenols. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. highly refringent and truncate. and herpes. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells.
diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. hypotensive. up to about 1. ll-demethyl oleuropein. et al. yellow globe.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. also hollow. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. 1991. M. and red globe onions. diuretic.. antifungal. hypoglycemic. Zarzuelo. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). ligustroside.. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and antimicrobial. Planta Med.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. 58. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia.. 7. 57.. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. A. 417. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. hypoglycemic. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. 2. 1992. 1. ONION Allium cepa L. et al. 513.2 m high. Planta Med. few of them have been studied experimentally. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. Gonzalez.
the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. Flowers. 1-propenesulfenic acid. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. fructans. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. acute. alkyl and alkenylcysteines. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. 2 to 2 cm long. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. white. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. Description Leaves. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. Fruit. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. very sweet-scented. oblong-oval. 7 to 8 cm globular. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. reddish-orange. introduced to Europe. with bitter rind and sour flesh.
odor fragrant and aromatic.2 to 0. neohesperidose (2-0. conical projections and linear. flavonoids. and bitter substances. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. used for oily skin and acne. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. considerable amounts of pectin. with limonene as main constituent. taste aromatic and bitter.5%). furanocoumarins. var. more astringent than rose water. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. with many slight. rutoside. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. short. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. fracture hard. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. the sugar component of which. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Essential oil (ca. aromatic wash. It is also given internally. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. somewhat curved. inner surface whitish. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. minute pits. nobiletin. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). non-bitter flavonoids. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. such as hesperidin. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. 0. tangeretin.
Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. Flavonoids. citral. citronellal. taste pungently aromatic. odor fragrant. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. sinensis Osbeck. quercetin. globules of volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bitter and carminative. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. Cultivated in Florida and California. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. It is also an aromatic. sinensis L. and hesperidin. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. naringin. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. skin creams for its flavonoids. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids.
galacturonic acid. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. eczema. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. very variable in size. rutin. anthocyanidin glycosides. flavonoids. Properties Used as a healing tonic. but often palmately lobed with a larger.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants.. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. but sometimes up to twice as long. and carotenoids. antipyretic. leafy. magnesium tartrate. acne. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. arabinose. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. mucilage. Leaves variable. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease.g. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. scoparine. Petals usually longer than the sepals. pruritus. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. saponins. impetigo. e. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. tannin. gaultherin. meadows. Exerpt from German Commission E. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. stipules variable. anti-inflammatory. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tocopherol. Description Flowers mostly tricolored. spur short. p-coumaric acid. Constituents Essential oil. violutoside. Monograph 6. rheumatism.
166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. C14H2502N. which resembles sinigrin. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). carpinine (an alkaloid). Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. shampoos. Naturalized in southern Florida. vitamins. edible berry up to about 15 lb. The fruit is a large melon-like. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. Carpaine. and minerals. etc. staminate and pistillate flowers. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. long petioled. with large. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow.
Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. and B. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. Regn. papyrifora. (After T. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. ms = latex tubes. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. Tabl. Veget. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. taste woody and characteristic.F. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Kr´ = crystal rosettes. margin dentate to crenate. Odor faint. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold.2-benzenediol. m = outer lamella. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. p = parenchyma. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. Vent.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. The roots are brown longitudinally striated.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. kr = individual crystals. q = group of large fibers.
Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. ex A. fruit. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. and Hungary. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. apiole (18%). fruit. Germany. psoralen.3. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. Other parts of the plant contain 0. p-mentha-1. and antimicrobial. W. extensively cultivated in California. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. France. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (Mill. antirheumatic. above-ground herb. Odor characteristic. and imperatorin. and starch. diuretic. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. compound umbels.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. isopimpenillin. spasmolytic. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown.8-triene (9%). P. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. green.) Nym. sativum. The tap root is fusiform. emmenagogue. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. stout. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L.05 to 0. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. expectorant. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. B-phellandrene (12%).3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). apiin. Belgium. Furocoumarins including bergapten. taste faintly sweet. 8-methoxypsoralen. above-ground herb. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. and others. aromatic. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. Apium petroselinum. hortense. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering.
PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. south to Florida and Alabama. Properties Stimulant.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. the internodes are of variable length. rosemarinic). the texture is fibrous. The margin is sharply serrate. and the veins are slightly depressed. The under surface is light green. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. The pith is white. large. its color varies from light to dark purple.3 cm in width. naturalized in North America. The corolla is united and tubular below. rutin. and the color varies from green to purple. hair tonics. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. tonic. The cortex and wood are thin. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. chlorogenic. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. and the veins are more prominent. spasmolytic. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. menthone (10 to 40%). The bracts are lanceolate. ursolic acid. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). and minerals. The outline is quadrangular. its five teeth are subulate. menthofuran. phenolic acids (caffeic. The flowers are arranged in dense. menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). The fracture is tough and incomplete. antiseptic. the leaves are opposite decussate. mildly sedative. The under surface is light green. cultivated in Japan and the United States. flavonoids (luteolin. interrupted spikes. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. carminative. The nodes are enlarged. sitosterols. four-lobed above. The stems are simple or branched. broad. cineole. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. They measure up to 9. The odor is aromatic. cholagogue. The apex is acute. hesperidin). Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). The calyx is campanulate. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. triterpenes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The blade measures up to 7. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. and the veins are slightly depressed. and solid or hollow. notably viridoflorol.5 cm in length and to 3. as it contains flavonoids.
vulnerary sedative. and Georgia. a standardized extract should be used. vasodilator. in Connecticut. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. leaves ovate to oblong. and ursolic acid. the lobes obovate. 1 to 6 dm long. 1.5 to 3 cm broad. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. truncate. native of Europe. however. trailing. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. as well as Europe. Vinca contains vincamine. dark green. Has also been used to stop external bleeding. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. hypotensive. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. Description Stem spreading. corolla blue. shining. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. tannins. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. hypoglycemic. Properties Used as a hemostatic. flavonoids. Minnesota. astringent. firm.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. entire. they are different.
35 to 0. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. which are the medullary rays. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. cuts. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. it has a density varying from about 0. pinitol. Constituents Contains oils. raffinose sequoyitol. numerous. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. dihydroquercetin. long. n-nonacosane. balsamic. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. campesterol. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. by the roadsides. and abruptly narrowed into a long. aromatics. parahydroxybenzoic acid. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. dark band of autumn wood. abietic acid. It flowers from May to October. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. The stamens and styles are long. the seeds numerous. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. and is common in Europe and America. imbricated. The leaves are ovate. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. quercetin. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. Plantago major L. quinic acid. leaving smooth surfaces. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. in fields. growing in rich.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. Vessels are absent. pinnicorretin. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. and insect bites.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. moist places. arising from a fibrous root. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. The flowers are white. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. The medullary rays. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. somewhat toothed. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Astringent. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. channeled petiole. In a radial surface. smoothish. very small. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. and applied to sores. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). Ripple-grass. five. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. ferulic acid.to seven-nerved. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. shikimic acid. malonic acid. tannins. swellings. and in grass plats.
allantoin. apparently. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. and for cell proliferation. catapol. essential oils. asperuloside. tannins. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Mucilage. sterols. fixed oil (linoleic. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. they both have the same virtues. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. balcalin. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata).172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. polysaccharides. aucubin. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. apigenin. oleic. and phenolic acids. and palmitic acids). for healing.
1847. J. galangin. de Carvalho Ac. and caffeic acid. 2. G. 3. Nihon Univ.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids..1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. The New Honest Herbal.. 1987.2 Constituents Resin.. 32(1). et al. Magro Filboo... One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. and pinobanksin). Sch. 4. pollen. wax. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. 1. Philadelphia. galagin. ArnzneimittleForschung. and anti-inflammatory. 1990. balsam. Tyler.E. and pinobanksin. Stickley Co. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. 1980. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester. essential oils. V. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. pinocembrin. 30(1). Dent. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. antiviral.F. Hiadon B. fungicidal.
Smegmandermos deC. Description In flat pieces of variable size. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. Historically.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. Upon microscopic examination. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. Bolivia. taste very acrid and unpleasant. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. these species appear to resemble that of Q. longitudinally striate. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. and occasional circular depressions. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. conical projections or transverse. finely wrinkled. inner surface yellowish-brown. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. fracture uneven. odor slight sternutatory. coarsely fibrous. * Formerly CTFA. and Peru. outer surface nearly white. channels. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean.
The bark is flat or chip-like. quinine and quinidine. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. shallowly fissured transversely. gypsogenin. to 7 cm in width. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. overlapping quilled. uronic acids. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. and volatile oils. are used. Internally. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. cinchonine. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. Remineralizing protein. The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. tannins. a neutral saponin. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. partially quilled. which is nearly always chip-like. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is not distinct. quilled.8 dm in length. its important alkaloids. and to 6 mm in diameter. cinchonidine. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. calcium oxalate sugars. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). quinamine). The fracture is tough and uneven. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). Ecuador. The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. free acids (quinic acid). quinidine. The root. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). or compound quilled.
outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . being coated with mucilage. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. It is also used as a suspending agent. triangularly compressed. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. with water. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. present in the epidermis of the testa. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. ovoid or oblong. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl.
eugenol. genistein. Properties Historically. Constituents Flavonoids. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. petals united into a tube below. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. phenolic acids. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). then slightly bitter. fatty acids. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and furfural. volatile oil. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). tapering. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. purplish and more or less brown from drying. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. benzyl alcohol. volatile oil. taste sweetish. * Formerly CTFA. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. daidzein. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. Mildly anti-spasmodic. and esters. including methyl salicylate. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. style slender. phenolic acids.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. shriveled. calyx teeth subulate. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. starch. Medicinally. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. biochanin A. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. sitosterol. contains over 40 compounds.
the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. they are smooth and shining above.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. inflorescence short-racemose. with a short.15 to 0. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. shortacuminate. doubtfully indigenous to England. They have. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. ovate. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. and are then employed in the fresh state. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaving a space about 0. Rhode Island. mainly rhoeadine. finely tomentose when young. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. Properties Soothing. armed with bristles or weak prickles. fruit red. somewhat smaller. dark violet claw. such as hand creams. lotions. and Minnesota. light-colored. hair rinse. Quinoline alkaloids. erect. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. with an entire margin. double-serrate. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). emollient. etc. rounded or cordate at the base. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. Description Stem biennial. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. By drying. The numerous veins run from the base toward. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. Maine. when fresh. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. thimble-shaped. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste.
Miraculous chi. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. Japan. fragarine. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. malic acid. nervousness. Ergosterol derivatives.). protein.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. succinic acid. riboflavin. gallic acid. Internally. have been isolated. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. Note: However. lactic acid. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . China. Constituents Ascorbic acid. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. thiamine. and beta-carotene. antioxidant. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. Constituents Polysaccharides. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. granoderan A. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. Dried and whole. Happy Herb. mouth ulcers. and C. insomnia. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. hepatitis. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. Auspicious Herb. Ling-Zhi (Chin. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. and inflammations. B. A series of tritepenoids. and chest and heart diseases. and North American coastal rainforests. ellagic acid. consult a qualified physician before using. and antibacterial properties. minerals. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. it comes in various sizes and shapes.
These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. dark reddish-brown.5 cm in diameter at the crown. that of the wood. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. The odor is not characteristic. and P. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. of the larger roots. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. of the larger roots. The taste is astringent. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. fibrous. rough and scaly. The color is dull reddish-brown. which has numerous branches. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. of the wood. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. The texture of the cortex is granular. very tough and hackly. and it tapers into the main root.
which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. Within the cambium is a ring. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. officinale. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R.5 mm long. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. showing that they are leaf traces. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. parenchymatous matrix. tannins (proanthocyanidines). Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. to give a good appearance. The smoothed. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. II. in the form of a fine yellow powder. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. III. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. face creams. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. which when carefully shaved off.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. If the trimming has been very severe. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. and N-methyltyrosine. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. etc. the cortex has been removed. ratanine). the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. In the periphery of the pith. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. about 5 mm wide. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. After removing the powder. barrel-shaped or conical. Constituents Gum. immediately within the secondary xylem. mouth wash. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. after-shave lotions. Dark areas may still be found here and there. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups.
which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. Barbados. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. due to the bitter taste. In small amounts. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. heavy. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones).8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. chrysophanol. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. and compact. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. In most cases. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. 2. min. The predominant aglycone varies. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. With its high tannin content. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives.5% calculated as rhein). also (+)-catechin 5. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . This is applied to the hair and left to dry. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. it is used as a stomachic. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. it is often rhein. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin).and 7-0-glucosides. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. rhein. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. aloeemodin. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. (+)-afzelechin. astringent taste. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. Flavonoids. of which many aglycones have been identified. the mechanism is described under Aloes. the fractured surface. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. It is then rinsed out. when chewed.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). but in one investigation. A very complex mixture is present. and physcion.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm.Eur. it is very gritty between the teeth. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. and (+)-gallocatechin. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B.
free and in combined forms with glucose. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. it can be prepared by using rose oil. filter. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. One example would be rose water. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. pink. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. slightly bitter. taste sweetish. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. Minor constituents are citral. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. catechins. Tannins. glycerol. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. and traces of carvone. odor fragrant and rose-like. l-linalool. gallic acid. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery.0. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. and procyanidins. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. approx. and astringent. phenylethyl alcohol. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. 5 to 10%. however. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. L.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. French Rose.
The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. vanillin. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. isoquercitrin. Description The fruit of R. epicatechin. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. sessile. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. rubixanthin.2 cm wide. opposite. low. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and zeaxanthin. Constituents Ascorbic acid. lycopene. succinic acid. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. rubidium. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. evergreen. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. they are refrigerant. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. Wild Brier. xanthophyll. invert sugars. kaempferol-3-glucoside. protein. gallocatechin. coriaceous. essential oil. linolenic acid. and slightly diuretic.5 to 3. pectin. citric acid. catechin-tannins. flavonoids. linoleic acid. leucoanthocyanins. malic acid. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. it will add highlights to light hair.5 cm in length and up to 2. sucrose. alpha-tocopherol. magnesium. The achenes themselves are hairy. Description A bushy. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. capric acid. boron. When combined with various other hair preparations. much branched. tannins. mildly astringent.
An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. astringent. borneol. glandular-punctate. boron. Properties Tonic. margin revolute.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. lower surface wooly. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. creams. characteristic. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. flavonoids. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Its basic external use is in hair lotions. taste pungently aromatic. and bitter. camphor. rosmarinic acid. etc. tannin. odor aromatic. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. The oil is used in fragrances. it is used to increase circulation. Constituents Essential oil. hair conditioners. diaphoretic. lotions. and triterpenic acids. stimulant. Topically. camphoraceous. diosmin. and showing a prominent midrib. protein. The extract can be used in shampoos. phenolic acids.
salvin. the reticulations being very small. and disinfectant (against inflammations). can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. petiole up to 4. texture velvet-like. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. 1 to 2. and tannins. to 1 ft high.6 cm in breadth. linalool. Sage Garden Sage. saponins. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. 2 to 10 cm in length. uneven or lobed. taste aromatic and bitter. phenolic acids. carnosolic acid.5 cm in length. lamina elliptical.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. astringent. pubescent stem with branches opposite. In early summer. apex acute or obtuse. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. midrib and veins prominent. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. estrogenic compounds. much branched. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. Leaves opposite. margin crenulate. beta-sitosterol. pinene. base rounded or subcordate. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. antiseptic. stimulating. It is antibacterial. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. protein. carminative. caryophyllene. the upper branches bear blue. From an underground fibrous root system. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. camphors. there arises a grayish. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. Properties Cosmetically. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). cineole. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. thujone. fungistatic. ursolic acid. densely pubescent. Constituents Volatile oil. flavonoids. long petiolate. borneol. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. venation pinnate-reticulate.
being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. the medullary rays are very fine and close together.985. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. In Yellow Sandal Wood. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract.r. heavy. palmately lobed leaves. L. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. Asia Minor. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. 0. pectoral. astringent. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. alterative. It is also used in perfumery. or as a perfume. hard. vulnerary. The taste is slightly bitter. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. and lotions. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . gr. and inflammed skin. the odor strong and fragrant. of which it contains over 90%. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. and dense. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. and similar articles. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. hemorrhoids. and a stomachic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . depurative. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. burns. wounds. o. but easily split.and -santalols).973 to 0. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. North and South America. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. and erect. –13° to –21°).190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. Black Snakeroot. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. hemostatic. the vessels are mostly solitary. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. and for the manufacture of boxes. White Sandal Wood. carvings.
saponin.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. resin. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . essential oil. Mucilage. and a bitter principle.
5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. from 1. smooth and somewhat oily.5 cm in diameter. Dark Palmetto. occasionally compressed. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto.
it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers.. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar. The fracture is very strong.. such as anorexia nervosa. Ulmus rubra Muhl. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside... 559... SEAWEED. aromatic. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity... somewhat flattened. They are said to be very nutritious.. 1.. oleic acid. sito sterols. lauric acid. myristic acid. arabinose. Properties Sabal berries. apex marked by the scar of the style... They are said to promote the growth of new flesh.. et al. and lotions. ferulic acid.P. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. lipase. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled. J. reddish-brown seed. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity. ellipsoidal or ovoid.. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. taste sweetish.. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous... beta-sitosterol.. capric acid.. and slightly acrid..See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich... skin creams. Odor pronounced. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp.1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions.7 dm in width.6 dm in thickness. inner layer of endocarp smooth. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp.. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. and incomplete.. Franc. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous. The odor is distinct.. Tarayre. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases.. and stearic acid.. were eaten by the Indians. Ann. it is coarsely striated longitudinally.. tough. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. Constituents Anthranilic acid.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. a native of the southern United States... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and to 3 mm in thickness. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles. mannitol. enclosing a hard. south to Florida and Texas. to 17 cm in width.. 1983. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota. palmitic acid. to 1. which measure up to 3 dm in length. 41. caproic acid. Pharm.. or as cut and sawed pieces. and to 1.. aromatic. when cork patches are present.. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids.
chemicals that foam when added to water. Colorado. d-galacturonic acid. 5 to 8 cm long. starch. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. hair conditioners. leaves oval or ovate.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. native from Europe. tannin (minute). Can be used in creams. calyx tubular. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. Massachusetts. Nova Scotia. Colorado. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. pentosans. New Mexico. Florida. and tannin. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. 3 to 5 ribbed. New Brunswick. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 cm long. soothing. Description Glabrous perennial. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. Soap Wort produces a gentle. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. L-rhamnose. and tannins. polysaccharides. It can be used to emulsify oil. etc. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. starch. stem 3 to 6 dm high. petals pink or white. blades obcordate. 1 to 5. and other beverages. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. protein. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. capsule oblong. ulcers. lotions. North Carolina. hexosan. minerals. and beta-carotene. and wounds. and Saskatchewan. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. boils. healing.
isofraxidin. Virginia. native to Europe. poultices. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. Properties Used as a nervine. caffeic acid. acute or acuminate. umbelliferone. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. slightly tomentose beneath. scarious. the rest broadly oval. ray florets about 10. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. obtuse. disinfectant. frostbite. 4 to 6 cm long. stimulant. Nova Scotia. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. glandular-punctate. leaves. guanine. 5 to 10 dm high. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. emmenagogue. with revolute margins. leaves linear to oblong. 1 to 3 cm long. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. and anodyne. 2 to 10 mm wide. and superficial burns. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. rutin. quebrachitol. Used in aromatic baths. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. lower leaves petioled. California. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. bruises. tannin. and for skin conditions. bracts canescent. and anthelmintic. having antibacterial properties. Manitoba.ST. chlorogenic acid. disk-florets 15 to 20. conditioners. Colorado. toothed above the middle on one side. petals obovate. uterine tonic. capsule ovoid. ST. corolla 2 to 2. astringent. antiseptic. Medically. uric acid. heads numerous. scopoletin. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. 10 to 12 mm long. and scopolin. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. John’s Wort ing.5 cm broad. etc. British Columbia. St. choline. flowers cymose. the outer linear-lanceolate. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Essential oil. tonics.
Manitoba. flavonoids. protein. hyperoside.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. mannitol. and Virginia. New Mexico. tannins. resin sitosterol. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. saponin.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hypericin. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. hypericin-like substances. phenolic acids. John’s Wort St. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. Newfoundland.
very soon glabrate on both sides. ellagitannins.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. very rarely leafy-bracteate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mostly acute. fatty acids. seldom much exceeding the leaves. 5 to 7. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. condensed tannins). Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth.5 dm high. and phenolic acids. seldom over 1.5 cm long. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. scape slender. sharply and deeply serrate. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. quercetin). fruit elongate-ovoid.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. rhombic-obovate. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. very thin.
long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. erect stem. sesquiterpenes. button-like flowers. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. fern-like leaves and yellow. flat-topped. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The entire leaf is about 6 in. button-like. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. English Cost. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. carminative. and spasmolytic. It has a stout. tannin. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. Scented Fern. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. 1 to 3 ft high. anthelminitic. and branching near the top. somewhat reddish.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. Bitter buttons. The roundish. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. resin. phenolic acid. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. usually smooth. * Formerly CTFA. tanacetin. The leaves and flowering tops. Also said to be an insect repellant. and quercetin. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. are collected at the time of flowering. Ginger plant. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. Parsley Fern. and as a compress for rheumatic pains.
abrasions.5%). It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. and vaginal infections. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves.5 to 2.0 ml high. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. including treatments for sunburn. stings. sparingly branched biennial. burns. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. 0. It is found in numerous product forms. and dense. erect. terpinene. fruit. capsule. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. spongy. and the like. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. scabies. cuts.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. insect bites. oral infections. boils. thickets. bronchial congestion. upcurved. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. while cineole is low (about 2. conical. and Australia. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. pimples. Over-wintering leaves. athlete’s foot. Bark. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. sore throat. lanceolate. Description A stiff. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The trees are now commercially grown in stands. in a flattened rosette. lice. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. either singly or with other ingredients. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. streamsides. cymene). About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. ringworm. New South Wales. abrasions. constantly renewable tree. with a broad range of health claims.
Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. and magnesium. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rare in Britain. glucosides. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. flavonoids (keampferol. The root and root stock are short and erect. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. dark green. 1955. Austin.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. stems. Ed. TX. and tannins. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. S.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. Flowerheads rayless. Taste and odor. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers.. purple. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. The injection gives better results. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. both orally and also by intravenous injection. Foster. 1. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. American Botanical Councin. St. Description Leaves spiny. Blessed Milk Thistle. taxifolin). Mary Thistle. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. entire or toothed. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). It is said to contain saponins. Also used in homeopathy. yellow spines. fatty acids. quercetin.
or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. New York. 10 to 15 mm broad. Constituents Proteins. to add sheen. aspartic acid. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. cystine. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L.5 to 8 cm long. etc. 0. Colorado. sensitive skin. corolla yellow. antihemorrhagic. leaves two-pinnatifid. much branched. glucose. minerals.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. ellipsoid. cyclohexanol.5 cm thick. sore gums. lobed. hair tonics. and phytosterols. brown or blackish externally. menstrual disorder. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. ascorbic acid. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. Description Viscid-pubescent. red or yellow. acne. glutamic acid.5 to 1. conditioners. abscisic acid. rinses.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . somewhat fusiform. glycine. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. Texas. gargles. and sore throats. Florida. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. or pear-shaped. subglobose. It can be employed in creams. from 2. -hydroxy acids. lycopene. mouth rinse. flavonoids. fruit through cultivation very variable. branching and more or less curved. that can be used for hemorrhoids. and dentate. vitamins. Properties Fruit: astringent. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. and reddish within. and from 0. styptic. facial muds. It can be incorporated into shampoos. stem 3 to 10 dm high. lotions. and California. diarrhea.5 to 10%.
waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. China.. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. Indian Saffron. tormentillin. quinovic. a red pigment. They are hard and heavy. and break with a short fracture. and other tropical countries. longitudinally wrinkled. Java. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. they bear short knob-like branches. caffeic. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. Occasionally. Curcuma. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars).TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). TURMERIC Curuma longa L. bluntly tapering at each end. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. internally.
The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. anti-arthritic. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. it colors the saliva yellow. It is also choleretic. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. 2-7% essential oil. antifungal. monodesmethoxycurcumin. ukonan A. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. zingiberene. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. hypotensive. etc. curlone.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. is also present. guaiane. but the coloring matter. and anti-edemic.. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). and antimutagenic. antibacterial. ar-turmerone. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. comprising mainly bisabolane. when chewed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. and valepotriates (valtrate. Wood is small. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. cultivated in Germany. acevaltrate. Roots are branched or simple. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. Belgium and England. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. and disagreeable. relaxant. and baldrinal. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. central and cylindrical. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. alkaloids (valerianine. pungent. It is sedative. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. Pith is white or grayish-white. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. and to 2 cm in diameter. * Formerly CTFA. isovaltrate. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. Cortex is thick. and to 3 mm in diameter. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. However. The rhizome is vertical. valerosidatum). The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. Constituents Essential oil. phenolic acids. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. and spasmolytic. The taste is sweet. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. simple or branched.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . actinidine). fatty acids.
206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. ursolic acid. aucubin. volatile oil. caffeic acid. artemitin. long. and against sunburns. verbenelol. diuretic. finely haired herb has an erect. and superficial and limited burns. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). gout remedy. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. meadows. in addition to verbenin. tannin. 4 to 7 feet high. hastatoside. Constituents Iridoids. Description This rather rough. verbenalin. False Verbain. and Arizona. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Simpler’s Joy.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. straight. Wild Hyssop. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. anorexic (appetite suppressant). Nebraska. four-sided stem. Verbena officinalis L. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. contraceptive.
209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The bark varies from nearly smooth. * Formerly CTFA. astringent.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. irritation of the eyelid. disinfectant. The kernel is sweet. scabbing pruritus. round-topped. eczema. and varicose ulcers. scrofula. styes. Juglans nigra L. gout. soft and coarse grained. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. rheumatism. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. ophthalmia. glandular disturbances. vermifuge. *INCI Name . serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. deep. The leaves are alternate. imparipinnate. oily. open crown. depurative. west to Minnesota and Kansas. blisters. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. Used for skin complaints. The wood is light brown. and edible. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. Properties Tonic restorative.
tannin.g. destroying most of its active principles. glycine. sepals oblong. gluconasturtiin. California. -carotene. arginine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it looks rather yellowish. somewhat curved. Rheumatism and nervousness. Rubbing on scalp. ascorbic acid. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. West Indies. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. 3 mm thick. alanine. folacin. high in protein. phenylalanine. its action being both detergent and healing. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. British Columbia. A Cure For All Cancers. tryptophan. fruiting pedicels divaricate. Clark. petals white.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. 4. Virginia. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. protein. leaves pinnate. thiamine. methionine. beak about 1 mm long. spatulate. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. 5. aspartic acid. valine. hyperin. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). histidine. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). South America. proline. tumors.. lymphatic or edematous swellings.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. tyrosine. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. amino acids. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. leucine. and kaempferol. 1. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. Externally. it will strengthen and thicken hair. Mexico. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. and Europe. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). caffeic acid. ellagic acid. and diastase. lysine.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). many trace minerals. glutamic acid. cystine. biotin. about 4 mm long. about 2 mm long. Description Aquatic perennial. threonine. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia.
and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. Durfee Grass. Twitch Grass. Dutch Grass. Quitch Grass. Quake Grass. Devil’s Grass. Scutch Grass. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. Durfa Grass. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. Creeping Wheatgrass. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. sprouts. of young grass. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. Couch Grass. Fin’s Grass. westward to Minnesota and Missouri.
creeping root stock. thickets. collected in the spring. Description Knotted and woody. often compressed.. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout.. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish... its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas. yellowish wood bundles..See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L.. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States... with numerous small. -carotene. which are thickened at the joints. cut into small pieces about in.. elongated. thin outer layer.. more or less detached.. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. lotions...See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES.. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. fracture short but tough. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . WHITE NETTLES.. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath.. afterwards acrid.. 6 to 20 mm thick.. flavonoids.. and hair conditioners. Colic Root. 1 to 3 ft high. externally pale brown. are produced from a long.... long. Over 240 compounds have been identified. Its smooth hollow stems. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes... *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root. amino acids. creams. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. The root stocks. fatty acids.. and stem scars on the upper surface. The flowering heads are produced from July to September. Odorless.. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached.. eczema. scattered. bent and branched. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos.212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. insipid. and phenolic acids.. and dermatitis. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled.. bearing scattered nodular projections... and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat.. Constituents Vitamins. are carefully cleaned. taste starchy. and dried.. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer.
European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. Contains steroid-like substances. populin. It can be used in hair conditioners. Constituents Steroidal saponins.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. However. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. cortex composed of thin-walled. greenish-brown. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. it should be standardized for its salicin content. dioscin. as this could vary among different manufacturers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . shampoos. minerals. as it contains salicin. ascorbic acid. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. and trace minerals. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). yellowish-brown to dark brown. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. and antipyretic. antiseptic. fragilin. White Willow. diosgenin. dioscorin. irregularly wrinkled. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. vimalin). naturalized sparsely in North America. anti-inflammatory. fracture short fibrous. in older bark dull. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. odor slightly aromatic. antirheumatic. rinses. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. salicortin. inner surface. flavonoids. longitudinally striated. analgesic. etc. outer surface in young bark smooth. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. slightly lignified parenchyma. taste astringent and slightly bitter. endodermis distinct. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. triandrin. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe.
Spotted Witch Alder. Striped Alder. bark. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. due to its high tannin content. Constituents Essential oil. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. yellow flowers. brown bark. It has a crooked stem and long. Wych-hazel. long. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. eastern Canada. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. esters. saponins. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . thick. and alcohols.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. and leaves Bark. and polyphenols. scattering the shining black. eastern United States. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. forking branches with smooth. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. tannin. when it bursts open. leaves. and borne on short stalks. Description Witch Hazel. Winterbloom. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. flavonoids. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season.
to 2 ft in height. Gypsy Herb. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. Water Bugle. and stachyerine. Externally. Gypsyweed. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. Purple Archangel. The whitish flowers. smooth. American Water Hoarhound. and Nebraska. tublar. rather narrow. but a disagreeable bitter taste. The plant has a rather pleasant. Wolf Foot. mint-like odor. Green Archangel. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. bitter. Therefore. Carpenter’s Herb. shady places from Canada to Florida. including betonicine. Sweet Bugleweed. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. Constituents Alkaloids. and bell-shaped. in length. Description This herb has long. The leaves are about 2 in. Missouri. pointed. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. Gypsywort. are small. slender. They are followed by four nutlets.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. which appear from about July to September. Paul’s Betony. erect stem from 6 in. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves.
astringent. wines. quadrangular. coumarin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. monotropein. Description A short perennial. white. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. etc. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. tannin. calming. and the iridoids asperuloside. forwardpointing bristles. with four petal lobes. vermouths. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. Flowers small. anti-inflammatory. pointed leaves edged with tiny. Odor. bitters. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. of new-mown hay. with slender. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. anti-arthritic. antineuralgic. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. citric acid. when dry.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. in loose clusters. antiseptic. Used in aromatherapy. soothing to the nerves. unbranched.
It is cultivated in some localities. and antipyretic. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. are divided into small leaflets. the inner linear with membranous margins. anthelmintic. consist of numerous small. Odor aromatic. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. two to three pinnately divided. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. thujone. and anthelmintic. Madderwort. absinthin. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. the lower lobe is petiolate. especially in Michigan and Indiana. approximately 100 identified constituents. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. artabsin. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Mingwort. camphene. choleretic. Absinth. 2 to 3 mm long. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. Constituents Essential oil.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. insignificant. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. long. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. chamazulene. used as an external antiseptic. Bitter stomachic. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. the florets tubular. taste bitter. thujyl alcohol. which are from 2 to 5 in. p-coumaric acid. isovaleric acid. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. Old Woman. Flower heads greenish-yellow. rutin. aromatic. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. and the grayish-green leaves. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. -carotene. yellow heads. drooping. Description This shrubby. protein. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannins. Also used to clean atonic wounds.
.. antipyretic. Sanguinary... Green Arrow. white flower heads.. It has a strong odor. Yarrow Milfoil. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields.....Y YAM.. hypotensive. Dog Daisy......... Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic.. diuretic....See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L.. Thousand-leaf.... dark green leaves. *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium.. Nosebleed. high and has many finely divided... astringent. It * Formerly CTFA. Closely related forms occur in the western states.... Old-Man’sPepper.. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small.. feathery. Carpenter Grass.. Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in.... Gordoloba.. Cammock.. From June to September. Bloodwort.. and is urinary antiseptic. Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing.. 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada.. pastures. Thousand-Leaf Clover. Soldiers’ Woundwort..
in cultivated as well as in waste ground. camphor. Broad-leaved Dock Root. Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. flavonoids. It has been used for cuts. it is stomachic. and along roadsides. blue colored chamazulene). dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. Internally. it is also used in hair care preparations. Curled Dock Root. Broad-leaved Rumex. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. angular. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. among rubbish heaps. achillin). and varicose ulcers. injuries. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. spasmolytic. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. and tannin. long. and furrowed stem. alkaloids (achilleine). bearing numerous. carminative. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. and cholagogue. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool.
Bear’s Weed. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. and carefully dried. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. protein. Gum Plant. et Tor. they become rusty brown. and pale radially split wood. psoriasis. while the upper leaves are narrower. swellings. emodin. lapathinic acid. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. Consumptive’s Weed. in length. in length. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. tapering or spindle shaped. only 3 to 6 in. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. with long stalks. and eruptive diseases. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. with few or no rootlets. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. long. These are followed by the fruits. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. nepodin. short stemmed or stemless. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. chrysophanic acid. The root is large and fleshy. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. yellowish cortex. usually from 8 to 12 in. As the clusters ripen. from 6 to 8 in. They are washed. and tannin.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. sores.The root.
and the Congo. chrysoeriodictyl. Schum. The rather showy. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. tannin. Gabon. eriodictyonic acid. cerotic acid. The narrow. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. acetic acid. Constituents Resin. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. essential oil. eriodictyol. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. and eriodyctyonine. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. butyric acid.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. dark green. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
5 cm long. sepals and petals lanceolate.. Torr Yucca brevifolia. is sympatholytic. Arizona. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and epiallo-yohimbine. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex.1 Yohimbine. however. spreading. L. fruit large. pendent. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. samogenin. oblong or conical-ovoid. Kansas. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. shagreen roughened. hence its aphrodisiac effect. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. and Nevada. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. R. Properties Yucca contains saponins. Description Low. Kronenthal. It also contains corynanthine. leaves rigid. minerals. elongate. allo-. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. Personal communication. pseudo-. 1. tannin. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. with narrow brown margins. concave. the major alkaloid. It is also being used for arthritis internally. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. fleshy. sometimes 2 dm long. Constituents Sarsapogenin. Soap Weed. the most important of which is yohimbine.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. Texas. and protein. about 7. 1998. saponin. coarsely filiferous. tigogenin. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. YUCCA Yucca baccata. Roezl. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. Soap Yucca Root. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. smilagenin. at low doses. Colorado. style slender.
224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Henna Used to dye hair red. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. The botanical extract. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Dark brown contains juglone. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. makes an excellent hair rinse. Galls Used to dye the hair black. Lavender See “Folklore” section. The leaves contain buxine. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. Oak. Hops See “Folklore” section. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. Hemp. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. However. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. not essential oil. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. See “Folklore” section. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip.
An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. Combined with rosemary. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. The essential oil is used to add sheen. The extract contains thymol. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. borneol. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. It also helps to remineralize. Lemony fragrance. make it soft and shiny. leaving it silky and glossy. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. it will darken the hair.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. and linalol. Can be used in deodorants. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. It is antiseptic. See Lichwort. A source of potassium and iodine. Contains a yellow dye. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and help keep it free of dandruff. Vitamins A and D. See Stinging Nettle. and some protein. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. and mouthwashes.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp. It is said that when blended with rosemary. Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye.
Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Arnica Lemon. Birch. Balsam Peru. Vinca Minor. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. Parsley Broom Flowers. Myrrh. Horsechestnut. Witch Hazel. Sage. Hawthorn Angelica. Yarrow. refer to the index). White Lily. Calendula. Lavender. Raspberry. Tilia. Lemon Grass. Soap Root. Peppermint. Benzoin. Chaparral. Corn Flower. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Golden Seal. Sage. Sandalwood. etc. Violet. Yarrow. Calendula. Cucumber. Comfrey. Comfrey. Cinnamon Agrimony. Echinacea. Althea. Orange Peel. in various vehicles as water. Milk Thistle. Chamomile. propylene glycol. Rosemary. Thyme. Oats. Lady’s Mantle. Nettles. Eucalyptus. Juniper Berries. powders or extracts.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Fenugreek. Myrtle. Cardamom Seed. Garlic. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Burdock. Wild Indigo. Rosemary. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Pineapple. Chamomile. ethanol. Lemon. Oak Bark. Ginkgo. Horsechestnut Papaya. Thyme. Anise. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Pansy. 1. Southernwood.3-butylene glycol. Lavender. Slippery Elm. Plantain. Sandal Wood. Myrrh. Uva Ursi Quassia. Bilberry. Bayberry. Burdock. Witch Hazel. oil. Rosemary. Hops. Bay Laurel. White Willow. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. White Willow. Rosemary. that is. glycerin. Black Walnut. Proanthocyanidins. Chamomile. Tormentil. Rose. Wild Alum. Artichoke. Grapefruit. Lavender. Soap Bark. Nettles. Bladderwrack. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Papaya. Hops. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Arnica. Bistort. either when applied topically or taken internally. Lemon. Rosemary. Rhatany. Asparagus. Birch. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Thyme. Orris. Calendula. Quassia. Onion. Tomato. Bayberry. Nasturtium. Inc. Lemon. Artichoke. Tumeric. Lemon. Myrrh.
Echinacea. Witch Hazel. Sage Jaborandi. Raspberry. rinses. to relieve Nails. Comfrey. Wild Alum. Lemon Peel. Eucalyptus. Patchouli. Thyme. Lavender. Pansy. Sage. Nettles. Horsetail Grass. Comfrey Root. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Horsetail Grass. Cleavers. Jaborandi. Chamomile. Brown Henna Rosemary. Chickweed. Raspberry. White Willow Bark. Pine Tar. Rosemary. Raspberry. Capsicum. Fenugreek. Fenugreek. Comfrey. Wormwood Chamomile. Witch Hazel. Quassia. Citrus Bioflavonoid. Roseberries. Comfrey. Capsicum. Rosemary. Black or Neutral Henna. split ends Scalp. Rosemary. Red Clover. Golden Seal. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Slippery Elm. Mullein Flowers. Citronella. Feverfew. Elder. Tea. Calendula. Red Henna. Alfalfa. Nettles. Quince Seed. Coriander. Anise Rosemary. Capsicum Bistort. Primula Flowers. Rosemary. Cucumber Chamomile. Pilewort. Sarsaparilla. Althea. Parsley. Capsicum. Capsicum. Elder. Comfrey. Hops Chamomile. Cardamon. Cucumber. Nettles. Calendula Oil. Echinacea various oils. Elder Flowers. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Chamomile. Southernwood. Rosemary. Southernwood. various seaweeds. Horsechesnut. to add sheen Hair. Phytoplenolin®. Orange Flowers. Tilia. Melilote. White Willow Aloe Vera. Eyebright. Lemon Peel. Pansy. Camphor. Peppermint Aloe. Jaborandi. Basil. Bayberry Bark. Red Poppy. Cucumber. Comfrey. White Willow Balm of Gilead. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Chaparral. Cowslip. Burdock. Neem. Orange Flowers. Arnica. Chamomile. Plantain. Quince. Southernwood. Centella. Fenugreek. to add highlights Black Walnut. Orange Peel. Seaweed. Corn Flower Water. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Sage. Purple Loosestrife. Peach Leaf. to add highlights Hibiscus. Cade. Sage. Witch Hazel Bark. Myrrh Pennyroyal.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Garlic. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Figwort. Rose. Chamomile. Cedar. Thyme. Cantharides. Grapefruit. Onion. Horseradish. Comfrey. Myrrh. Oregon Grape. dark Hair. Quince Seed. Yellow Dock. Flax Horsetail Grass. conditioners. Yarrow. Orris Root. Sage. Olive. etc. Broom. Rhatany. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Flax. to add highlights Marigold. Golden Seal. Southernwood. Golden Seal. Echinacea. Yarrow. Rosemary. Marigold Golden Seal. Catnip Bayberry. Thyme. Fennel. Malva Flowers. Oak Bark. Chamomile.* Centella. Red Clover. Basil. Pansy. Oats. dry Hair. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dandelion. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Birch. Quinine. Lavender.
Blue Flag. Tilia. Seaweeds. Althea Root. Cucumber. Lemon. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Chamomile. St. dry Botanical Cantharides. Sage. Calendula. Ginseng Caraway. Bayberry. Seaweed. Echinacea. Elecampane Skin. Licorice Cleavers. Comfrey. Dandelion. Parsley. Fennel. Chickweed. Poke Root. John’s Wort. Golden Seal. Lemon. Capsicum. Tilia. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Comfrey. Mullein. Colts Foot. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Oils. Nettles. Althea Root. Plantain. Chamomile. Corn Flower. St. Comfrey. Pansy. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Arnica. Passion Flowers. Valerian. John’s Wort. John’s Wort. Fennel. Sept. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Uva ursi Wild Alum. 1998.) Aloe Vera. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Comfrey. Citrus bioflavonoids. Horsetail grass. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. John’s Wort. Dandelion. Echinacea. Cinchona. Dulse. Capsicum. Primula Flowers. Lavender. St. Capsicum. Red Clover. Apple. Licorice. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Yarrow. Cleavers. Wild Alum Althea. Chamomile. Centella.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Orange Peel. Rose. Plantain. Lemons.Vinegar. Peach. Bistort. Witch Hazel. Violets.206 for Centipeda. Lavender. Witch Hazel. Horsechestnut. Yarrow flowers. Elder Flowers.804. Arnica. Red Poppy. Wormwood. Grapefruit. Thuja. St. Bayberry. Birch. Orange Flowers. Witch Hazel. Garlic. Pine. Evening Primrose. Quince. Calendula.Yarrow. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Hawthorn. Calendula. Lemon Grass. Cucumber. Meillot. Aloe Vera. Slippery Elm bark. however. Jaborandi. Oats. Comfrey. Slippery Elm. Slippery Elm. White Pond Lily. Capsicum. Croton. Apples. Hawthorn Berries.
It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. nicotine. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. The seeds are also spherical.5 to 5 cm wide. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. Constituents Saponin.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. nourishes the blood. and tonifies the heart. yellowish-white. can be found in the main section. The powder is used on abscess. Vitamin A. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. it strengthens the spleen.) STEUD. which are coriaceous. and eyebrows. etc. internally used to blacken hair. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. wounds. elliptical shaped. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. Ginger. rough. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. tannin. 1. Common botanicals such as Lotus. and fleshy. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. The female flowers are white and ligulate. short stiff hairs. The flowers are polygamous. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. beard. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. It grows in fields and ditches. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . wedeloclactone.5 to 2 cm in diameter. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. sores. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. yellowish brown. aril white. Licorice root. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. The nuts are spherical. 8 stamens. Internally. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. etc. elongated.
pruritus. antiparasitic. fats. Vitamins A and B. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. adenine.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . choline. protein. sucrose. etc. ringworm.70. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose. vaginal itches. tartaric acid. yeast infections.
and has red. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. avoid black tea. improves circulation in the skin. astragalin-glucose. B-sitosterol. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. insomnia. imperatorin. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. ginsenosides. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. alloimperatorin. Betaine. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. and arabinose. amino acids. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. ostol (C15H16O3). etc. sugars. Constituents Saponins. used as an aphrodisiac. isopimpinellin. bornyl isovalerate. amino acids. xanthotoxol. cnidiadin. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. palmate leaves. any citrus and turnips. moisturize. Astragalin. it could nourish. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . When using Ginseng internally. columbianetin (C14H14O4). It is an astringent. lack of appetite. asthma. choline. hypertension.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. berry-like fruits. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. cnidiankin. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. dihydrooroseiol. columbianadin (C19H20O5). and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. heart palpitations. dilates the blood vessels. isoborneol). GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. L-camphene. a glucoside C20 H20 011. It is also said to promote blood production.) Bge. edultin. folic acid. weak pulse. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. diabetes. dyspepsia. deficiency of energy.
SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. (C18H30O2). Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. and antifungal properties. These are a few of the constituents. protein. The root has antipyretic. trichosanic acid. essential oil. saponins (ginsenosides). Constituents Triterpenes. To list all would take several pages. trichokaurin. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tricosanthin. sugar fatty oil.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. resin. antibacterial.
NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. It is said to heal without leaving scars. helps to promote circulation. this herb can be used safely in large doses. traumatic injuries. both internally and externally. nosebleeds. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. blood in the stool. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. reduces swelling. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rb2-Rb. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. ginsenosides. and is analgesic. etc. According to Chinese tradition. and Re. Constituents Saponins. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. it has been used in coughing of blood. dissolves clots. Internally.
It is also said to be effective for pruritus. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. Constituents Flavonoids. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. ziyuglycoside I. and arabinose. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. essential oil.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. long. rhamnose. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L.V. glucose. sitosterol. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. II. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. anti-inflammatory. palmitic acid. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. glucose. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). L-typhasterol. 1/3 in. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. Vitamin A. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. Cones oblong. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. tannin. xylose. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. fructose. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. It has almost no odor. U. and a slightly bitter taste. stearic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and pinnatipartite.5 to 1 m high. 5 to 8 cm wide. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. obovate-lanceolate shaped. soft durable wood. pinene. tannin. and antipyretic. having pale. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. astringent. Vitamin C. in height. Constituents Thujone. caryophyllene. and hermaphroditic. the base tapers into a winged petiole. The basal leaves are clustered.-fenchone. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. The flowers are tubular. resin. becoming smaller on top. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. flavonoids. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. reddish-purple. and is said to have antibacterial. 15 to 30 cm long. shoddy bark and light. L. It is a hemostatic. anthelmintic. which has hairs on both surfaces. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. and antiviral properties. fenchone.
It is used in traumatic injuries. stigmasterol. The tuber is thick and fleshy.F. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. and in abscesses. reduces swelling. Their base runs into a long sheath. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Constituents Glucose. B-amyrin. starch. anti-inflammatory. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. antifungal. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. -amyrin. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. essential oil. antibacterial. hemostatic. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. skin infections.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. The perianth is in 6 segments. and antibacterial. and promotes the healing of the flesh. 15 to 30 cm long. 2 to 3 cm long. and 2 to 6 cm wide. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high.
wax. The dark green. style 1. montanic acid. having antipyretic properties. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. asiatic acid. hydroxydammarone II. glandular-punctate petals. oleic acid. tannin. linoleic acid. sores. ovary 2-locular. and somewhat 4-angled.5 mm in length. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. dark brown. antibacterial. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. See “Botanical” section for further description. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. acetyl eugenol). They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. cold sores. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. fat. stamens numerous. conjunctivitis. stearic acid. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. ipterocopal. palmitic acid. analgesic. It has been used in ringworm. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Scoparone. Constituents D-borneol. crowded. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. which alternate with the calyx teeth. and incurved. chlorogenic acid. taste pungent and aromatic. essential oil. and nasal mucositis. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. with numerous ovules. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. esculetin. odor strongly aromatic. caffeic acid. One tree can yield as much as pound. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. capillarisin. and antiviral. arachidic acid. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. oval. B-caryophyllene. erythrodiol. Antibacterial. humulene. antiparasitic. dryobalanone. boils. etc. caryophyllene. followed by a slight numbness.
Excellent remedy for sores. sores. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. 10 to 20 cm long. The stamens are 10 and free. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. itchy skin. The raceme is terminal. and 1 to 2 cm wide. 3 to 4 cm long. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. The pods are cylindrical. Constituents Alkaloids. constricted between the seeds. It is used for vaginal infections. flavonoids. The leaves are alternate. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . imparipinnately divided. and allergic reactions. pruritus.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. and other skin ailments. The corolla is papilionaceous. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. yellowish-white. which are globose and black. The stem is erect with many branches.
magnoflorine. and red eyes. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). It is applied externally to swollen. ferulic acid. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. obakunone. tannin. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. and swollen eyes. fraxin. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. aesculetin. fraxetin. jatrorrhizine. Antiinflammatory. aching. used as an eye wash for sore. obakulactone. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Aesculin. coptisine. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. palmatine. red. columbamine. Constituents Berberine.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision.
and 0. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The leaves are opposite. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb.5 cm wide.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers.5 to 1. their margins sparsely serrate. ovate shaped. The calyx is bilabiate. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. 1 to 3 cm long. Its stem is erect. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes.
5 yellow petals. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. Italians. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. beta-cyanin. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. The flower has 2 sepals.5 to 1. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. Its stem is cylindrical. betanin. It is used to reduce swelling. Constituents Portulal. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. French. fleshy. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. It is also a good source for GLA. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. Constituents GLA. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color.. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and often purplish in color. decumbent or slanting upward. and English consume this plant in salads. and intestines. 8 to 12 stamens. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. abscesses.3 cm long. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA.5 cm wide. 1 to 1. snake bites. The Chinese. gamma-linolenic acid. gamma-linolenic acid. stomach. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. boils. betanidini. antiphlogistic.
246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.4.1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.
84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3.248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6.
Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4. 84929-52-2.
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1. 84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1.
pitted black. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and flavones. sharp recurved spines. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. circular. ovate or oblong and inflated. Leaves petiolate. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. covered with numerous black dots. Leaflets about 10 pairs. shiny. and gray with thick testa. Flowers yellow. etc. chalcones. starch. campesterol group. and Sri Lanka. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally.BENDUC NUT 253 6. glabrous slightly compressed. sporalidin. Fruit small subglobular. roots. Description It is an erect herb. ellipticoblong. Burma. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. hairs few. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. oil. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. hairy tip acute. corylifolean. Constituents Furanocoumarins. Essential. Seeds are hard. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). and saponin in the seed coat. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. Description Main leaf axis has stout. simple. Kal-karanj Nuts. alkaloids. perianth covered withspines. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. Flowers are dense. firm. isopsoralidin. tannin. and protein in kernel.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. Several species grow in the United States. globular.
Constituents Oil. flower head white. upper leaves smaller. margin toothed. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. starch. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. arresting hemorrhage. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. reducing sugar. The endodermis is indistinct. Leaves membranaceous. Few layers of cork cells are present. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. arginine. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. Flowers about 2 cm long. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. lanceolate. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. borne on convex flower heads. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. aspartic acid. However. basal are large. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). and citrulline. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. and for infectious diseases. Seeds also contain protein. phytosterol. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. with winged petiole. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. bluish-purple. and sulfurcontaining peptides. sessile. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. sterols. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. Leaves opposite. and skin diseases. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. oblong.
isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. slightly recurved. arranged densely on the branchlets. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. terpene alcohols. apex subacute. linear oblong or elliptic. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. slightly broader than long. unisexual. The oil and root contains camphene.but white internally. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. entire. Leaves simple. Flowers are small. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. stipulate. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. Feathery. In old samples. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. The fruit is subglobular. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. phyllanthe emblic. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. greenish-yellow. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. mucronate. Description A medium tree. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown.
antiviral. apigenin. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. taste bitter. pubescent calyx.& Bpinene. Sri Lanka. antispasmodic. A. krishna tulsi. style 2-lobed. seeds. The leaves yield ursolic acid. bitter. antihistaminic. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. antihepatotoxic. cotyledons very oily. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. opposite. flowers. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. antipyretic. margin serrate. apex thick and blunt. 2 to 4 inches long. Leaves pinnate. odorant. very short. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. antibacterial. such as antistress. elliptic-oblong. antifungal. filament slender. antidiabetic. Each flower consists of. exserted. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. and luteolin. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . corolla 2-lipped. hairy along the veins. decyladehyde. pod woody. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. and carvarol. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. smooth and shining. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. tulsi. subcoriaceous. antiulcer. antispermatogenic. in terminal raceme-like panicle. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. insecticidal. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. sacred basil Leaves. Leaves are simple. Flowers small. point decurved. testa light-red. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. camphor.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. ovate compressed. CNS-depressant.
yellow within. the berries are the color of a raisin. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. Properties The seeds. Emarginatus. spirally incurvate. The oil is used to treat scabies. . Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. pointing to lower and inner angle. When dry. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. kaemferol. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. the inner membranaceous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rheumatism. smooth. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. pengaglabrone. leaves. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. glucose. thick. and translucent. tough. except at the scar. with a peculiar pungency. each berry is the size of a cherry. The root bark is rustybrown externally. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. the testa is double. Constituents Saponins. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. where it is woody. the size of large a pea. S. and other cutaneous diseases. pongamol.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. the pulp translucent. sitosterol. then bitter. the outer very thick and hard. The bark contains alkaloids. and as an anthelmintic. The seed is black. (S. the skin is shriveled. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. pongamin. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. herpes. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. firm and fleshy. and butyric acid. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. singly. cotyledons unequal. pectin. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. Radicle at the base of the seed.
Leaves heart shaped. alizarin. inflammations. coloring matter. freckles. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. scaly.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. Properties The roots are astringent. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. Root consists of short stock. gum. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. and xanthine. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. garancin. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. Description A climbing plant. deobstruent. and tonic. The taste is sweetish at first. and sugar. leucoderma. flowers small yellow in color. It also has anodyne properties. Constituents Roots contain resins. round violet colored and seeds light black. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. then acrid and bitter. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alterative. fruit long. and discoloration of skin. skin diseases such as ulcers.
internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic.5% essential oil. n-hexaconsanol. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . valves papery smooth. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. Himalaya (11. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. dark brown. calarenol. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. and bitter extractive matter. and combined with Henna. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections.000 to 15. nervous headache. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. mainly in palpitation of heart.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. Bhutan. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. and Nepal. sugar. Flowers in racemes. Pods broadly oblong. starch. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. It is a good substitute for valerian. which also contains sesquiterpenes. nardostechone. is used to dye the hair black. and contain obvate. Tracheids and few fibers.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). Leaves usually in pairs sessile. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. valeranal. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. Rhizomes long. resin. and flatulence. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. oblong or ovate. Description An herbaceous plant. B-sitosterol. nardol. seeds. Senna is also a safe purgative. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. Epidermal hairs are few. Corolla 5-lobed. Roots contain valeranone. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. slightly curved.
Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume
Synonyms: Parts Used:
Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.
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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.
Neem (whole plant)
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PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.
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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Southern India.
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Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed
Synonyms: Parts Used:
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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.
WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.
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It has also been employed in paralytic affections. rheumatism. tapering. loss of muscular energy.3-biplumbagin. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. plump. ovate hair-like branches. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. The dried root is of uniform appearance. gastric stimulant. It is in flower all year long. Isolation of nicotine. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. smooth. globose. brittle. and starchy. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. Leaves simple. withananine. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. zeylinone. senile debility. somniferinine. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. somniferine. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. It bears small. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. For improving sight. Somnifera. It is also cultivated. erect. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. and appetite stimulant. white internally. greenish or yellow flowers. Constituents It contains alkaloids. Licorice powder. loss of memory. smooth. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. branching perennial. and spermatorrhoea. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. as in enlarged glands. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. The root is seldom branched. 3. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. and droserone. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. petiolate and alternate. fracture short. withanine. grayish or hoary. elliptinone. Iso-zeylinone. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. brain lag. a mixture of W.
Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. Roots also contain tropine. and cuscohygrine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In addition to alkaloids. pseudotropine. choline.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide.
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6.6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference. These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
S. Black Ash. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. Bitter Orange Peel. White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel.
U. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba.
red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . black Cohosh. pale Cinchona. yellow Cinchona.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. pale Cinchona. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh. blue Cohosh. calisaya Cinchona.
U. American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.
S. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum. U. U. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula.S.
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. U. S. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. White Indian Hemp. Canadian Hemp. Black Hellebore. S. Black Indian Hemp. U. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. American Hellebore.
276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Green Osier. U. S. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier. Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica.S. U.
Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . S. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber.S. U. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum.
Alnus glutinosa L. Aloe vera L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L.F. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Optuntia. Ruscus aculeatus L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Cynara scolymus L. Fucus vesiculosus L. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L.) Juglans nigra L. Betula alba L. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L.
Geranium maculatum L. Larrea divaricata Cav. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. Sanguisorba officinalis L.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Cucumis sativus L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. Br. Allium sativum L. Inula helenium L. Gentiana lutea L. Sambucus nigra L. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Symphytum officinale L. See Coleus Galium aparine L. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Zea mays L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. & Aschers. Scrophularia nodosa L. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Symphytum officinale L. purpurea.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. spp. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Centaurea cyanus L.
Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Mac Fad. Camellia sinensis L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Hedera helix L. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Althaea officinalis L. Justicia Adhatoda. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Melissa officinalis L. Solidago Virgaurea L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L.) Burman F. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Hydrastis canadensis L. Ocimum sanctum linn. Amoracia rusticana. Centella asiatica L. Citrus paradis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Aesculus hippocastanum L. Gaertn.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Pongamia glabra P. Calendula officinalis L. Limm Malva sylvestris L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Schert Equisetum arvense L. et. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L.
& P. papyrifora. Lythrum salicaria L. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Mentha piperita L. Nasturtium officinale R. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Pinus silvestris L. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Engler Myrtus communis L. Vinca minor L. Commiphora molmol. Allium cepa L. Regn. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Carica papaya L. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Rubus idaeus L. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L.L. Trifolium pratense L. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Veget. Vent. Papaver rhoeas L. and B. Rheum rhabarbarum L. ssp.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Olea europoea L. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Tabl. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L.
Juglans nigra L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Salix alba L.) Tanacetum vulgare L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Artemisia abrotanum L. Salvia officinalis L.) Acacia Concinna. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. Juglans regia L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Betonica officinalis L. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L.
Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Torr. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Yucca brevifolia. Gentiana lutea L. Rumex crispus L.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Schum. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L. Artemisia absinthium L.) Perre Yucca baccata.
which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. Cryptophyta — Contain green. However. etc). 4. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. body rubs. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. and sterols. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. including: 1. mineral. and sometimes in seawater. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. and have even been used to put a head on beer. 3. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. Xanthophylls. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. Xanthophyta. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. as well as vitamins. 9. The sea holds an endless source of life. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. 5. and red pigments. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. mud baths. 10. Seawater. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water.7 Marine Natural Products 7. e 8. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. ice cream. blue. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. high in carotenoids. etc. weeds. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. 2. sea grasses. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. bath. sauces. 7. 6. It is said that life started in the seas. They are also used as thickeners in jams. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. and vitamin content. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. cosmetics. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. phytoplanktons. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein.
and other fruits. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. and imparts slip. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cardiac substances. and herbicides. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. and lycine). Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. and polysaccharides. emulsions. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. furanoterpenes. This allows incubation at higher temperatures.. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. prunes. steroids). cranberry. pears. marshmallows. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. glycine. it is resistant to microorganisms and. and ice cream as a thickening agent. growth substances. for example. For plating microorganisms. diterpenes. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. Kelp is also the main source for algin. mainly from some gelidium species. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. and C. and cosmetic fields. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. Therefore. acetylenes. emulsion stabilizer. proline. For example. pharmaceutical. prostaglandins. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. anticoagulants. such as ursolic acid derivates. lipids. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. carotenoids. B2. second. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. polyphenols. sulfur compounds. First. proteins. and vitamins. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A.g. anthelmintics. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. B12. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. fucose polymers.
minerals (Zn. Ca). calcium. antioxidant. A). broadspectrum. a synergestic effect was exhibited. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. Laminaria longicruris (L. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. B3. oleic. However. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. including iodine. potassium. in combination with Vitamin E. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. magnesium. which is a polysaccharide. There are traces of chloride. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. B 2. B. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. myristic. and carbohydrates. iodine. and lauric acids). It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. K. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. B6. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. salads. and zinc. Co. and antiglaucomic. and mannitol. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. Mg. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). C. Fe. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. mannitol. and iodide ions.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. Cr. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. L. Mn. etc. Algin. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. sodium. In addition. fat. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. galactose. antimicrobial agent. iron. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. P. B12. it has a high content of potassium. bromide. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. particularly fluoride. phosphorus. both in vivo and in vitro. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. creams. palmitic. B12. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. shampoos. Na. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). F. phosphorus. B3. Sargassum contains fructose. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. lotions. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. B6. potassium. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. and glutamic acid. B. protein. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . I. and ointments.
The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year. polar lipids. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. which means it is a self-sufficient.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. the Pacific. and as a massage for cellulite. mainly iodine (0. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L.02 to 0. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues).2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). Halidrys siliquosa L. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L. a well-known anti-inflammatory. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. It is a single-cell protein.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. Chlorella contains over 60% protein.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6 Fucus contains trace minerals. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. sulfated. polysaccharides. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity.3. F. sulfonate. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. rheumatism. and the Baltic Sea. phlorotannins.000). a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O. single-cell. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. alginic acid. containing all the essential amino acids. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. Eisenia contains a complex polymer. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro.1%). sterols as free fucosterol. Echinus esculentus L. fucans.500 IU/100 g 180. Lyngb. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125.8 mg/100 g 1. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids.
et al.2% 4.29 w/w% 2.8 mg 1.8% 18.09 w/w% 3.78 w/w% 6.93 w/w% 3.8 mg 1. The Emerald Food. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is found in both brackish and fresh water.63 w/w% 5.7 mg 125.9 mcg 191.70 w/w/% 2.38 w/w% 3.40 w/w% 4.469 mg 613 mg 1.0% 20.26 w/w% 2.46 w/w% 1.S. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation.64 w/w% 1.5 mg 4.5% 11.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.8 mg 1. B. Dr. 14-15.2% 55.6 mcg 0. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa..6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81. Moreover.. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron. Chlorella. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0. pp.3 mg 26.08 mg Potter. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.06 w/w% 0.500 IU/100g 180. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll. In a controlled study. Spirulina Spirulina. Tests performed by the U.29 w/w% 3.6% 60.08 w/w% 0.64 w/w/% 5. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.9 mcg 15.80 w/w% 0. called the Chlorella Growth Factor.1% 0. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.45 w/w% 2.A.20 w/w% 2.59 w/w% 3. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).
B3. at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as it is high in plant protein. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). Na. carotenoids.40) B1.. Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. Zn. minerals. B2. Cu. K. vitamins. etc. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. Fe.A. Mn. P. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca. lipids (4 to 7%). Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. Biotin. and minerals (5 to 10%). Cr.L. B6. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. Ge.L.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). Spirulina. G.A. Mg. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. B12 Folacin.
are major organisms in the world’s oceans. such as the curacins. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. the following being some examples: 1. and ascidians. having distinct anti-cancer properties. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. penazetidines. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. Related unicellular microorganisms. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. including phaeophyta. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial.9 2. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. anticancer.13 6. anti-inflammatory.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . plant. and chlorophyta. bactericidal. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. Significant compounds. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. such as those of elevated salinity. barbamide. antillatoxin.8 The results obtained are quite promising. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans.11 4. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. 7. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas. were isolated from marine organisms. bacteristatic. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. sponges. cyanophyta. kalkitoxin. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. or temperature. soft corals. the Bacteria. but no chemical study has been reported.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. are common in marine environments. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . melemeleones. microcolin C. the search is only beginning. Thus.10 3. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. Unfortunately. pressure. which although poorly known. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. and imidazole disulfides.12 5. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. Oahu. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. and marine organisms. as a soothing demulcent.
including corals and sponges.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A series of B-carboline derivatives. antimicrobial. the swinholides. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. fungi. including potent antiviral. and cytotoxic activities.16 9. the eudistomins. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum. and the theonellapeptolides. and gorgonians. which display a variety of pharmacological activities. actinomycetes. and true symbionts from sponges. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. a unique anti-viral protein..18 11.19 12. Cyanovirin-N. which produce anti-tumor compounds. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum.17 10.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria.15 8. tunicates.
40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity.38 31. cytotoxic natural products. Cyclomarin A.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. a novel. B. including makaluvamines A. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. Many novel. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina.37 30. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. C. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. immunopotentiating.28 21.30 23. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii.21 14. discorhabdin A.26 19. latrunculin B and swinholide A. Diamirone B. Isolation of Microcolin C. were isolated from the marine sponge.27 20.39 32. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp.22 15. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus.35 28.24 17. Isolation of Dysidiolide. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges). were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents. E. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines. and anti-tumor promoting properties.23 16. Several new classes of compounds. D. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor.29 22.36 29. Okoadene and Mailidene. and F. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. New antimycotics.25 18.34 27. Phorbas sp. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro.31 24. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. phorboxazole A and B. makaluvone. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides.33 26. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp.32 25.
.. ibid P 28.. ibid S 23. 6.J. M. W.. Mar.B. P.. Xie. El-Sayed. Nakao. Gerard. D.. Perry. Sheehan. ibid P 145. 2441-2446. ibid O 26. S. ibid O 11.M. ibid P 151. Rea.. Dunbar. Zheng. and Gould.. 37. and Yavor. Jayatilake.. and Kerr. W. Y.K. McMahon. M. Carney..A. and Hamann... 33. B. Copp..W.. July 27-31. J.. J..A. M. Linton.D. R..M.T.. O’Sullivan. Varoglu. M. T. D.. and Crews.. D. Chem. C. 1975. B. P. Wilkins.. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae. Ragan. and Wang.F.A. Shangxiao. 24. R. 35. S. Lloyd. McKee. and Afzelius. J. and Rodriguez. 8.. N. K.E. 11.J. 3. Castor. Yoshida. 21.A. L.. Sci. 9.H. Mabeau... B. and Hung.. B. J.K. G.. and Munro. and Joseleau. M... Magni.. O’Keefe. J. R. G. Pettit.. McInnes. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. Rodriguez.W... Janda. Hargraves. and Bair..J..P.. 30. Blunt. Shoemaker.. K. S. P. D. and Hamann.. Kerr. ibid P 154. ibid O 7.. Crews.-P.T. and Molinski. and Cardellina. 1258.E. M..G.... ibid S 22.. Ind. J. McCombs. R.. M. D.. ibid P 27.. R.. S.A.. ibid P 155.. A.. and Munro.A. J.. et al. P.. Franklin. C. J. Major..A. Green. G...S.. 7. Searle. S. Hong. Chikarmane. ibid O 49.J.W. Lawry. J. L. and Thompson. Forenza. Brielmann... Lill. and Walter.J.. and Harrigan. J. Natural Prod. E. P.. N. D. Fernandes. UCSC. Schumacher. J. 29..F.A. ibid P 36.. Gerwick. P.. Boyd.. B. Beverly A. and Bauer. ibid P 26. and Scheuer. ibid P 141. 15. Cardellina.J.Y.A. R.J.. Mendola.J.. L.. C. and Francis. L.. ibid S 15.. K. Javor. and Kelly. ibid P 30.S.. 18.. Goins. 28. Freyer. 1996. Lidgren.A.. Ph. W. S.. Blunt.. W..P. Baker. J. Zhang. Heath. 31.. Coleman. H. T. R. and Scheuer. P.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1.C. 40. 10... M. Bringano. D..P. 16. Smith. 180.... B.. Sci.. Haygood... T.. T... Clark. pp. Harrigan. R. Solimabi. J.H. J... D.. H. 19.. R..-D. G. L. Bewicke. J. ibid P 31. 1996. and Crews.M. 14. Brzezinski. ibid S 14. B.. Hamel. de Silva. S. J.. H... T.. C. and Russel G.T. Gustafson. ibid P 25. M. Suecica. ibid O 36. P. 25. D.. Acta Pharm..G.. B. T. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. 1990. B. Potter.. G. Andersen. J.K.. 32.. Westley.. K. J. Maranda. Andersson. 26. H. ibid O 10. 6.R. Beutler. D.-R. Harrison. 401-414. McCarthy. L. 29. J. M... Chan. El Sayed. K.R. 304-313. Venables. J. H. and Ireland. Barrows. G. Kloareg. ibid P 156. 1977... ibid O 38. Dhyana.F. ibid O 25. B.J. Gulakowski. Yoo. M. F..A. J. Lassota. ibid S 9. K. 12.. L. I. 1983.. R.. B.C. B. and Gerwick.. 1985.J.. Plubrukarn. J.J. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. M. M. T.A.. P.H.S. J... L.. Schmitz. S.. L. Gulakowski. P. 38.. 63.. G. ibid P 150. Duh...G.P.. 20(6). 23. 20. Hemling. Al. Mendola. M. S. 1993. Ferrante. 34. J.. 36. Haughey. Phytochemistry. 17. Erim. 478-488.E. Allen. McMahon.. J. O’Keefe.. and Baker. Gush. J.. Davidson. Santa Cruz (UCSC). ibid P 9.-Y. 4. Slate. Bohlin. Meeting. M.. ibid P 19.A. Screening of biological activity. Gerwick. S. D. Gunasekera. Fulton. ibid P 149. P. Pharmaceut.... Can. 39. Ogren. and Boyd. R. L. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy. C. J. J. 56(4). A.R. Haden. Dumdei.. 5.. and Leahy. The Emerald Food. S. Janus.. July 27-31.. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae.. Chlorella. Pomponi. I. M. Wright. S. K. 13.E.R. and Kelly-Borges. 27. 14-15. Mokinski.A. Abstr. Andrew. 64. Hook. L. 2. Papers presented at the 37th Annu.. Fucus Vesiculosus L. A. W. 22. Carte’.. S 8. Lam. A. O 50.
Therefore. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.2) with Sequence 5. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq.s.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.00 10.5 (±0.10 0.10 q. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. 5.10 0. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used. Rohm & Haas. 8./Lipo Chemicals. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. either alone or in combination with other products.00 q.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47. 207 19th Avenue. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products. NJ 07504.00 0. 5. 4. Patterson. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. Adjust pH to 9.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC. PROCEDURE: 1.. 2.00 6. In main kettle.s.10 0. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature. Henkel.00 10. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Inc.2 (±0. 3. Adjust pH to 5.60 21.
10.00 0. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. 2. Inc.50 15. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .00 20.s.10 0. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.00 1.10 0.00 10. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Rohm & Haas. high-foaming.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq. Henkel. 3.10 q. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. 5. 6.s.10 0. combine Sequence 1 ingredients.10 q. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. at room temperature. In main kettle. Adjust pH to 5. 6. Inc.2 (±0. Adjust pH to 9. 7. Lipo Chemicals.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31.5 (±0. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.00 6. Procedure: 1. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. 4.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Amerchol.00 0. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.
disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine. In main kettle at room temperature. Procedure: 1. Goodrich Co.FORMULATIONS 301 8. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens.10 5. 2. Inc.45 0.10 0. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22. Inc. B.F.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. 6.95 0.10 0. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform. 4. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform.50 1. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.00 0. Aqualon. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch.50 3. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals. 5. 3.00 1.(Induchem).
Inc. Procedure: 1. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 0.00 10.10 0. add Sequence 3 to correct shade. Inc.54 5. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15.10 0.10 q. At 30°C.00 0.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. Cool to 30°C.00 5.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals. At 25°C. In main kettle.s.96 63.10 0. 3.
Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86.00 2. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals. Haarmann & Reimer Corp. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .00 4. Procedure: 1. Givaudan Corp. Inc.05 6.10 0.50 0.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C . In main kettle. Fanning Corp.10 0. Inc.10 0.28 0. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved.02 0.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No. BASF.10 0.FORMULATIONS 303 8. 2. 3.10 0. Cool to 25°C.50 0. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. Begin cooling.10 0.
Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4.s. Inc.75 0.82 0. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92. 10% sol’n Supplier B. 8.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31.88 45.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant.00 0. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals.10 0.00 0.25 0.00 5.80 0.10 g. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel. Cool to 60°C. Spl Phosphoric acid.70 2. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. 2.30 0. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940. F. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.05 20. 3. Procedure: In main kettle.00 0. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Inc.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 0. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform.05 0. 4.
10 0. 99% Hypan SA100H 25. 3. Inc.00 2. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible.00 0.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C. Procedure: 1.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35.00 5. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity. Goodrich.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp.F.00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0. Lipo (Kingston).30 0. Lipo Chemicals.05 1 2 Triethanolamine.70 1. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.FORMULATIONS 305 8. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem). Guardian Chemicals. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25. B.20 0. 2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Acicular: Needle-shaped. Alveolate: Honey-combed.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. Achaenium. containing the pollen. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. one-seeded fruit. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. as ferns. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. like the leaves of pines. indehiscent. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. the fecundating material from an antheridium. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. one-celled. with firm pericarp. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. or flower-arrangement. or Akene: A dry. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain.
Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. Bristles: Sharp. the hilum and the chalaza being together. as bi-foliate. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Bacca: A berry. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. Appendages: Superadded parts. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Bracteate: Possessing bracts.. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. Bi-: Signifying double.g. Atropous: With erect ovule. Capitate: With globose head. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. Bulb: An underground discoid stem. Apetalous: Without petals. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. meristematic cells.. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root.. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. Blisters: See Vesicants. rare in present times). cinnamic). Capsule: A dry.. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. Axillary: Growing in an axil. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Calcarate: Spurred.g. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. carrying the ovary. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary.g. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. Castor seed). the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. Cardamon). Nutmeg). a pulpy. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Carina: The keel. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic.g. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. with two leaves. stiff hairs.
Cilia: Marginal hairs. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. Coriaceous: Leathery.. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract.g. Umbelliferous fruits). Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. Costa: The midrib. Corm: A solid. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. one-celled. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. indehiscent fruit. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. usually distinct. Cortex: The bark. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Cespitose: Tufted. Caulis: The stem. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. upright rhizome. tuber-like. Connate: where two parts. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. Caudex: The axis. one-seeded. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. thick. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. outer layer. from which they hang when ripe. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. Convolute: Rolled up. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Cathartic: A purgative. Also a name given to a short. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. Caudale: Having a hairy style. Cohesion: Attachment. Contorted: Twisted. Clavate: Club-shaped. become joined. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla.
Decompound: Many times compound. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. not exceeding 20 (stamens). producing intellectual confusion. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. lymphatic. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Dichotomous: Forked. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Deliquescent: Dissolving. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Definite: Constant. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Deltoid: Triangular. Determinate: Definite. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Discoid: With convex face. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or tending to fall. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Cupule: An acorn-cup. downward throughout the length. Didynamous: With four stamens. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Deciduous: Falling off. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. two long and two short. Didymous: In pairs. dividing into irregular branches. Crispate: Curled. Deflexed: Bent. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. etc. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla.
Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Echinate: Prickly. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Exogenous: Having bark. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Dorsal: Fixed upon the back.g. Epidermis: The true skin. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. wood. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs.. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. or borne on. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. and bark. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Extrorse: Turned outward. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Episperm: The coat of seed. Etiolated: Blanched. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Escharotics: See Caustics. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. the outermost layer. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . purgation). Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. nearly parallel. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. without. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. wood. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Fibrils: Root-hairs. the ovary. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. Epigynous: Adnate to. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. E: Signifies deprived of. and pith distinct.
as in the cypress and juniper. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements.. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as bifid. Flocculose: Woolly.g. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. more swollen on one side than on the other. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. the point of attachment. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. etc. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Flexuose: Wavy. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. Fid: Cleft. Globose: Roundish. Furcate: Forked. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Glabrous: Smooth. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. algae. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. devoid of hairs. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Filiform: Thread-like. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. orange). as petals and leaves. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Fimbriated: Fringed. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. Hepatic: Referring to the liver.
Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary.e. Inarticulate: Not jointed. inflammation. rabbits. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. i. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. Causing watery evacuations.. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. two or three times longer than broad. on the receptacle. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. Inflexed: Bent inward. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. and irritation. cats. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Laxative: A mild purgative. like shingles. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. or appearing to have. as innate anther. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. dogs. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. Inferior: Growing below another. Lacuna: A space between cells. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). i. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. squirrels. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. the lower petal of an orchid. Lateral: Attached to the side.. Internode: Interval between nodes. Jointed: Having. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. joints or nodes. Incanescent: Hoary. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil.e. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. etc. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Lacinate: Fringed. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). Keel: See Carina. layer. Introrse: Turning toward the axis.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. Innate: Adhering to apex. either by mechanical or chemical action. Involute: Rolled inward. Labellum: (Lip). Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. Imbricated: Overlapped.
Linear: Narrow. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Medulla: The pith of exogens. Multifid: Many-cleft. found at the ends of young stems. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. with parallel sides. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. often caused by fungus infection. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. but with lipclosed (flower). Locusta: The spike of grasses. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Monospermous: One-seeded. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Ligulate: Strap-like. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Monopetalous: Having petals united. and roots. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Monandrous: Having one stamen. Lobate: Divided into lobes. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. or stigma. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Masked: Labiate. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. with hard tubercles. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Monogynous: Having one carpel. Muricate: Rough. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. with upper lobes largest. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx).314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. style. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. leaves. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets.
with lateral divisions again subdivided. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Obtuse: Blunt. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Orbicular: Circular. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. Obsolete: Suppressed. rounded. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. and nourished by. death. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). Parasitic: Growing upon. indehiscent. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Nut: A hard. and the keel. Oblique: Unequal sided. Offset: A short. Pedate: Palmate. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. with lobes nearly free. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Pedatifid: Pedate. in large doses. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. apex broad (leaf). Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. as ergot. another plant. as in the pea-flower. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. thick runner. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. one-celled fruit. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). but lobe extending only half way to midrib.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Pedatipartite: Pedate. having tufts of leaves at extremity. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Obcordate: Inversely cordate. the wings. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae.
and perfect flowers on the same plant. two or more celled. resembling a mouth. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. pointed cells. Pome: An inferior. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Personate: Masked. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. dehiscent fruits. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. indehiscent. Pubsecent: Downy. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Pendulous: Hanging down. fleshy fruit. usually of family Leguminosae. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Pentandrous: Having five stamens. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. with petiole attached at or near the center. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. melon. Petals: The corolla leaves. Polygamous: With male. few-seeded. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. and the like. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Petaloid: Resembling petals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). squash. Peltate: Shield-shaped. Pod: A general name given to dry. female. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Pilose: Hairy. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers.
with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. Retrorse: Directed backward. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. Sheath: See Ocrea. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). with deep notch in middle (leaves). bristly hairs. Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle.. one. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. its function being to support the flower organs. Retuse: Obtuse. Saccate: Sac-like. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). creeping. and producing pustules. Runner: A slender. dry. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. Reduplicate: Valvate. indehiscent. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Ringent: Labiate. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. with wide lips (corolla). Recurved: Bent backward. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health.or two-celled fruit. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. winged. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). such as glands. Reclinate: Bent downward. Setae: Stiff. Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. prostrate stem. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. Radical: Springing from roots. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. and shriveled. bearing leaves and rootlets. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Runcinate: Jagged margin. rooting and budding at nodes. Scarious: Thin. etc. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. with reflexed margins (estivation). Revolute: Rolled backward. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat).
Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe).318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Soboles: Slender rhizomes. falsely two-celled pod. leafless. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. bearing the stigma. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. in pairs. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Tomentose: Pubescent. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Squamose: Scaly. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. and one short pair. Subulate: Awl-shaped. Testa: The external integument of the seed. may be modified leaf or stem. dehiscing from below upward. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. with short hairs. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. Suture: A line of junction. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Stipitate: Stalked. Tendril: A thread-like. spiral branch. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Spine: A pointed modified branch. Sporangium: A spore-case. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Ternate: Arranged in threes.
* Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). one-celled. Toxic: Poisonous. Utricle: A superior. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. 529-536. Lucius E. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. pp. few-seeded fruit. Versatile: Freely swinging. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Sayre. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). Verticel: A whorl. Volute: Rolled up. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. 1895. Uncinate: Hooked. Zones: Concentric bands. Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root.GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Valvate: United only by the margins. Vexillum: The standard. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy.. Trichomes: Hairs. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla.
.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. 4th ed. 1997.. Tyler. 1996. 1964. 1993. Notes on Parmacognosy. Rockville. Wall. E. The Essential Oils. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Boca Raton. 1. 1995. American Pharmaceutical Association.. FL.. Ltd. J. Lavoisier. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. J. G. 3rd ed. Berlin. Bournemouth. 2.. Ehrhart & Karl. 4th ed.. Pharmacognosy. Churchill Ltd. U. U. A Modern Herbal.K.. Leung and S. 13. SpringerVerlag.. Merck Research Laboratories. Wren. J. Potter & Clarke. 1932. 18. Aug. A. J.. 7. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy.. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. British Herbal Compendum. 4. Robert E. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. 24. 2nd ed. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. 23. New York. Stuttgart. CRC Press. A.W. Biddles. British Herbal Medicine Association. Boca Raton. Wallis. 6. John Wiley & Sons.E. 1992. Blakiston’s Son & Co. 3. 1902.. CRC Press. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. Duke. IL. Plant Drug Analysis.C. D. P. Wagner and S. Ltd. N.K. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. K. CRC Press.. Bladt. 8. 11. The Honest Herbal. Mack Publishing. MO. London. 10. 12. Bailliere Tindall. T. 9. Paris. Tyler.A. 16. 1989. New York. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. 1960. Bisset. PA. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. 13th ed.K. Nakanishi et al. I and II.. Vol. Ltd. New Jersey. 1994. 21.. Tease and Evans. The National Formulary XVIII. Academic Press. FL 1992. Vol. V. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. London. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. MIS Publication. M. Philadelphia. O. 1975. R. 1930. 14. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States.A. 22. Y. 1992. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. 1994. 7th ed. NY. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. Huntington. Guenther. Krieger Publishing. Foter.. MD. Merck & Co. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. Louis. New York. 1971. 2nd ed. 1996. Vol.. Duke. St. 20.E. Boca Raton. Natural Products Chemistry. Chicago. FL. 1–7. 15. U. 1990. 17. H.. 1936. 5.. & A. I and II. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Inc. 1995. New York. Dover Publications. V. The Merck Index. H. Haworth Press. Haworth Press. Washington. 1996. 19.. Herbs of Choice.C. Biddles. Vol. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy..E.. Youngken. 1974. Bruneton. 1983. Grieve. 12th ed.