BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.

CRC Press Boca Raton New York

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:

Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper

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DEDICATION
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.

Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

PREFACE
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

But more than anything. sorting. As formulators and purveyors. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. always wanting to find a more active plant. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. Let it reflect brightly upon us. Over time. Always wanting to know more. Originally. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. experimenting. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. men like Shen Nong. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. Mithridates. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. Dioscorides. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. to use plants wisely. Galen. And then the Babylonian. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. observing. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. Theophratus. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Initially. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. Chinese. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. and Avicenna.

Sr. He founded BioBotanica. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists. Frank D’Amelio. vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. Inc.

to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. Special thanks to Professor Dr. patience. and assistance in editing the manuscript. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions.

.............................10 2.............................................1..............................................................................................................................................1............13 3............................................................................................2 4................6 Carbohydrates.......................................4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents...........43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ....25 3........................................................39 Percolation .................................3..........................................8 Gas Chromatography............3 Tannins...............................................................................24 3..........................1.........................1 1.....30 3...................3............................................1 Liquids .................................1.............................1.............1 1.............42 Fluid Extracts .....3..........................3..........3 Procedures .....................................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3.........................26 3..........................................................................................................................................1........................................23 3...........................................................................................................................................................1 1....................................................................................................2 Phenols ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................10 2.....................................5 Infrared Spectroscopy...........................1 Forms 4................11 2......................................................................3 Micromorphology....................4 Ultraviolet Light ........7 Methods of Identification..............1............................................................8 Volatile Oils........................................................................9 2.............CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1........................................................................41 Infusions ..............................................................................................3..................................................................................................................................1...................1.................5 1.........................1......................2 Solubilities ...............................39 Extraction Terminology............................................................................1 4....................................................3 4..............................5 Preparations of Extracts .......................40 Decoctions ...........5 Yield to Solvents ..............................................11 2................................................................3...........................11 2..............4 Proteins ................1.........................................................4 4........1 1..9 Resins and Resin Combinations ..................35 Chapter 4 4................1 Microscopical Techniques...............................1 Plant Identification .14 3.............................5 Alkaloids.......................9 Adulteration of Drugs ...............................................11 2...............6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems.............................................2 1................2 Some Common Terminology ....................................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2...........3 Physical Constants.1...........6 Ash Determination ...........................11 2.28 3...............................26 3...................5 1..................................10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups .................................................1 Constituents of Drugs...................................11 References ..............................1 Botanical Terminology ..........3...........................2 Macromorphology ....................................2 1...................................................1......................1.............................................................7 Assay Procedures ....................................................1 1....................9 2...............7 Glycosides ...............................................

.......................301 8.......................................................303 8............. Description....225 6.............................................................. Range...............................................................269 6.......................................................................................................................................2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy............300 8.....4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil ...........................................................................................................................247 6........................................................... and Standardization.......................................................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table........................5 Indian Botanicals..................................................................46 Oleoresins .............................................................................5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+.......2 Natural Shampoo........................1 History .....................................................................................6 Spray Moisturizer ..........298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8.....1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo....................304 8........8 4.........45 Extracts Strengths................229 6............49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6.........................302 8................................................ and Constituents ..............307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..................233 6.........................1................6 4.........................................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table .1.........................305 Chapter 9 Glossary.......46 Product Strength.......10 4..............................283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7....................1...............7 4.......................8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC.................................................................2 Hair Care Botanicals .................................................1 Marine Algae..................................304 8...... Concentration......4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics ..............1....295 References ...................................3 Cellulite Gel Base ...........................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5........ Properties....2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products.....................................................................................................................4...........................................................6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table...1.........................................................................................45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ..................................................7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ...................7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe ..............................................................................4.......1..................11 Tinctures .....................51 6...44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ...............................................................299 8.........................................................................................................................49 5....289 7........................253 6............9 4.........................1 Habitat..............................................

They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. ferulic. (4) proteins. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications. and coumaric acids. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. In plants. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. In the treatment of burns. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. and usually bitter taste. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. (7) glycosides. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. etc. and waxes.1. palmitic. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. (2) phenols.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated.1. (8) volatile oils. 1. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. In most cases.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils.1. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1. (3) tannins. and waxes (lipids). Recently. spores. hence. (6) carbohydrates. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. roots.1 Phytochemistry 1. fats. glycerol. TS). When applied to living tissues. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. they are stored in seeds. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. leaves. 1. (5) alkaloids.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. barks. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins.1. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. they are also called triglycerides. have astringent action. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. myristyl. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. fats. stems. They are widely distributed in plants. They are generally soluble in water. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives.

The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. quinoline.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. possessing some marked physiological action. and cryptogams. and steroidal. and (3) derived carbohydrates. gymnosperms. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. and oxygen. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. isoquinoline. pyridine. bark. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. In fact. tropane.1. roots. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. hydrogen. serums.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. carboline. imidazole. leaves. Proteins are derived from amino acids. purine. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. (a) monosaccharides. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. oil-bearing plant seeds. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. which end in -in. and seeds. antitoxins. for example: colchicine. indole.1. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. piperidine. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. Being basic in chemical character. stems. (2) polysaccharides.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. but mostly in fruits. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. brucine. phenanthrene.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. which are the building units. 1. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. Whole glandular products. they form water-soluble salts with acids. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. (b) obligosaccharides. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Cellulose. D-ribose. Glycogen. lactose.6-linkages. and some microbial polysaccharides.4. d. D-xylose. Gums are soluble in water. alginates. gelling agents. suspending agents. 3. uronic acids.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). gums. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Therapeutically. which is a straight chain of alpha1. Pentoses: L-arabinose. c. galacturonic Glucosamine.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. sarmentose. diginose. and apiose. galactosamine b. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. turanose. and thickeners. melibiose ii. gentiobiose. i. b. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. It is an alpha-1. e. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. f. Inulin. or amino sugars. Unlike cellulose. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. a. It is a linear polysaccharide. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. transluscent. True sugars a. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). Monosaccharides. stabilizers.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. cymarose. trihalose Reducing: maltose. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. L-galactose. cellobiose. oleandrose. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. and Example Rhamnose. tri-. consisting simply of 1. epimarose. pectins. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. They are natural plant hydrocolloids.6-linked polyglucan. and tetrasaccharides i. They include hemicellulose. fucose Digitoxose. ii. g. it is formed of amylose. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. digitalose (these are 2. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch.2)-fructofuranose units. 2. their sulfate esters. mucilages. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. amorphous substances. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. D-fructose (levulose). It contains both B-1.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). iii. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. emulsifiers.and B-1. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis.

1. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties.1. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures.. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin. The chief families are Pinaceae.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). digitoxin. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. In the conifers.g. There are also C-glycosides (e. for example.g. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage.g.. arbutin) Alcohol (e.. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. 7. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant. occur. and barbaloin are laxatives. sinigrin). the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e..g. Other glycosides do. digitoxin) Saponin (e. 5.. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e. sinigrin) Steroid (e. salicin is an analgesic. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. and Asteraceae.g. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. Depending on the plant family. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae). Phenol (e. 9. as sugar reserves.g. or adenosine). Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. 10. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone. 2. In S-glycosides (e. 11. regulating. sennosides.. Lamiaceae.g. Occasionally. daphnin) Flavone (e. detoxifying.g..g. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. They are products of plant metabolism.. 1.g. cascarosides. crocin and picrocrocin. Rutaceae. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae).g. 8. and defensive roles.1. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond.g. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). for example. rutin) Anthraquinone (e.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1. 4. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. the sugar component is called the glycone. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. strophanthin. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species.. glucosamine.g. for example. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. Myrtaceae.g. for example. sometimes called O-glycosides. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. Lauraceae. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e.g. in the liver of fish. 3. representing about 87 families). 6. In N-glycosides (e. are the most common ones found in nature.. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. however. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e.... Such glycosides.. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). Apiaceae. 12.

either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). or parasiticides. cosmetics. 3. 9. local irritants. 7. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. lemongrass. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. for example. and in orange. 4. Undoubtedly. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. bitter almond. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. Ester volatile oils: lavender. are hard. star anise. etc. chemical. turpentine. However. cajuput.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. In general. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. Classification 1. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. rose. etc. 1. dill. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. however. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. resulting in less food spoilage. These substances. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. diuretics. only in the pericarp. in cinnamon. spearmint. etc. rosemary. only in the bark and leaves. thyme. For example. but in few instances. nutmeg. transparent or translucent brittle substances. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. pharmaceuticals. in umbelliferous fruits. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. sweet orange. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . clove. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. geranium. etc. wintergreen. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). 8. parsley. however. mild antiseptics. horsemint. chenopodium. anthelmentics. etc. confections. local stimulants. beverages. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. sandalwood. They can be used for their therapeutic action. etc. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. 2. Resins. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. In most cases. tend to resinify on exposure to air. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. in the mints. Ethers: anise. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. juniper. as a class. etc.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. they are widely used in perfumery. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. 5. coriander. lemon. fennel. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. cassia bark. cade. ajowan. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. In addition. and odor characteristics. etc. is rich in camphor.1. 6. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. carminatives. neroli. etc. and tobacco. themselves. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria.

resin cells (ginger).. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). and glandular hairs (cannabis). as in case of Pinus. viz. forming solutions which. wood parenchyma. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. Laccifer lacca. colophony. They are not pure chemical substances. mastic). resins soften and finally melt. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol.g... resins burn readily with a smoky flame. they occur as tyloses. In this case. in Guaiacum wood. Hemiptera. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. resin acids. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. they are divided into resin alcohols. Many products (e. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified.g.g. but do not contain any nitrogen. 0. order. without volatilization or decomposition. unless very large quantities of salt are employed.e. resenes (neutral inert compounds). as well as in fixed and volatile oils. which is called secondary flow. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. and resenes.. that is. In plants. On this basis. resins occur in different secretory structures. resinotannols. and glycosidal resins. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. When heated in a closed vessel. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees.9–1. with few exceptions (e. and medullary rays cells). in the vessels. gr. in rare cases (e. on evaporation. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. esters. It is noteworthy to mention here that.g. chloroform. when freshly powdered. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. resin alcohols. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. they are of pathological origin. acetone. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. On heating at comparatively low temperatures.25). Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . carbon bilsulfide). converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. fibers. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. shellac). they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. Family Coccidae. and ether.. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). For example. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. but when heated in the air. Chemically. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities.

Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. they can be incorporated into lotions. cathartics. and malva (Malva sylvestris). and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. etc.e. roots. like most seeds. flowers.g. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. being called glycoresins. balsam of Copaiba. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. fruits. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. (anywhere soothing is required). hexoses. and Canada balsam. Jalap. cough syrups. nonadhesive solutions with water. they form a mixture of pentoses. antispasmodic. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. liquid or semi-liquid substances. and anthelmintics. respectively — both contain volatile oil. mouthwashes. leaves. and uronic acids.. arabinose. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. which contains no volatile oil. etc. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. ointments. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. therefore. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). (e. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. that form colloidial. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. glucose. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. for example. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. xylose. shave creams. Guttiferae). The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses.) In general. viz. Another is flax seed. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). or esters of these acids. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. Probably. parasiticides. the mixtures being called gum-resins. in seaweeds. Balsams. On hydrolysis. barks. expectorants. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. and Podophyllum. In some cases. they can be separated from resins rather easily. Mucilages are viscous. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. carminatives. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. copaiba. on the other hand. asafoetida). counter irritants. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. These are.. purgatives. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. and seeds. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. creams. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

acetone. In pharmacy.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. or alcohol and water. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum..2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. 2. by which it is exhausted of potash. As with the raw materials. ether. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). suction. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. etc. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. also referred to as the spent herb. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved.g. cotton) below. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. expression. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. water. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing.. or by chemical or physical means.). Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. gauze. etc. having a bottom outlet. distillation. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. treatment with a solvent. the solution commonly known as lye. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . by traction.

Therefore. and not the object itself. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. also known as micrometers. always using a definite tube length.3 PROCEDURES 2. Most of the time. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. the height of sclerenchymatous cells. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with.0025 mm.0025 mm = 0. both of which are carefully counted. That is. then the value of each division of the latter is 0.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. In the same manner. its true size is 50 0. the scale of 1 mm. However. if an object. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. By its use. the width of vessels. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. botanical laboratory.3. The diameter of fibers.125 mm = 125 µ. for example. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0.125 mm. because it is the magnified object. the factors for the other objectives can be determined.C.001 mm). Q. that is compared with the scale. as well as identification of commercial starches. 2. 0. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. Other drugs. resins. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. volatile oil. C. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. glycosides. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate.. G. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate.. 90%. D.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. and similar substances.3. balsams. they will give a high total ash value.3. such as hydrastis. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate..3. viburnum. 2. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash. Pharmacognosy. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e. calumba. In this way. 1978. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol. Bailliere Tindall. Trease.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume.. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. E. UV light provides very useful information. Similarly. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome.. 2. London. J.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. For certain drugs.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . for example. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. Derris elliptica. A.. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence. T. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. malaccensis. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples. oleo-resins. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. London.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. 11th ed. optical rotation.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. Churchill Ltd. REFERENCES Wallis. and Evans. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent. 2. However. especially if they are present in the powdered form. the yield to water of liquorice root. 4th ed.3. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. Some pieces of rhapontic.g.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report.3. 2. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. digitalis and henbane leaves).3. 1960. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky. W. E. 2.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. viscosity. vitamins.

.

leaf. This starts with the proper solvent system. ash content. etc. Many plants have common names and. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. There are many forms of extracts available.3 Quality Control 3.. or the entire plant. canadine. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. etc. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. percolation. methanol. When ordering a botanical. distillation. etc. color. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. providing that they were dried properly. flower. fruit. For example. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. and other tests like loss on drying. ask for it by its common name first. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. and berberine. then maceration. therefore. and microscopy. odor. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. counter current extraction. very few plants lose their actives upon drying.. As seen in the example. root. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. identification can be confusing. One should start with botanical terminology. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. seed. organic solvents (ethanol. i. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. lipidic extraction. super critical fluid extraction. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. If this is not specified. stem.e. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. hexane). Fortunately.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cowhage). Fig. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. pollen grains.. For systematic study. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. Lupulin. secondary phloem. however. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. 2. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. primary phloem. 2 is that of an angiosperm. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. glands. Quassia Wood. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). starches. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. 3) is a representative example. while Fig. to differentiate between mineral powders. and hairs (Kamala. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). 1. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. Dusting powders: One should be able. viz. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. 3. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers.

QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig. 1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig.

3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig.

it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. red poppy. S /(E + S). if there is no stalk. papillosed epidermis of petals. In the great majority of plants. 7. 5. in addition. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. 6). and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. fibrous layer of anthers. viz. (Fig. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. however. 5) is an example of the flower. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. argel leaf. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. Leaves: Example. styles. Flowers: In a commercial sense. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . red rose and marigold of petals only. i. thus forming a fruit. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. two features that are constant. and often a raphe. Achillea millefolium L. and endocarp. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. micropyle. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). leaves may be recognized. stigmas). Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. the calyx made of sepals. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. frequently. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. the corolla made of petals. 4. epicarp. Among common drugs. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers.. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. (3) the presence of chlorophyll..18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. There are. for the seeds. 6. mm. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. (2) their thinness. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. elder flowers of petals and stamens.e. the ovary wall develops to form a case. which are a useful identification tool. called the pericarp. mesocarp. the leaf is termed sessile.

QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig. 4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. However. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. Simple Fruits i. Orange. a. Poppy. Compound Fruits Hops In general. Colocynth b. Cardamon ii. 8. leaves. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. Bael. Tamarind. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. 5 Achillea millefolium L. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. flowers and fruits. Caraway (see Fig. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum.

Aframomum melegueta Rosc.QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. 6 Grains of paradise seed. Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. by the stomatal index. 3. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. expression (e. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs.g. starch. decoction (e. Chiretta herb. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio. vertically. Microscopical techniques. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. stage and eyepiece micrometers. beeswax and myrrh). the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios.. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. Therefore.g. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. opium). mountants.g. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. olive oil).g. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. or are natural secretions (e. branches. which are usually slender and adventitious. such as incision (e.g.. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination.. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. 9. similarly. or by the trichomes. Fig. namely. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . agar). Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and. however. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. For example. fibers. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. 8). and sclerenchyma. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. 9). 10... Clearing agents. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots.

9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8 Fig.QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig.

fats. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. and causes swelling of cell walls. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. ether. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. and resins. protein. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. tannins. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. and petroleum ether (pet ether). Other solvents include methanol. it rapidly dissolves starch. volatile oils. chromic/nitric is mandatory. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. clove oil. etc. 3. water. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sometimes. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. and expands shrunken cells. hexane. absorbance values should be used. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. or chlorophyll. alcohol. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. for bleaching. resins. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. the presence of coloring matters. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. starch. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. The most widely used solvent is ethanol.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. carbolic acid. chlorophyll. lactophenol.

This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. If the substance is in a solid state. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. depending on solvent and pH. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. In addition. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. unless one has an FTIR. UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. This will give you a transparent disk. Then press under anhydrous conditions. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. It can also be used to quantitate.

. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. sulfuric acid). Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. odor. and (4) it is inexpensive. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. organic solvents (usually methanol). aluminum. or plastic sheets are also commercially available. Chamomile. as one gains experience. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida.g. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. 1455 (S). Lavender. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. then the filter paper can be eliminated. In addition. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e.. 1760 (S). TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. Valerian. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . S = strong. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). 3400 (M).26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). 3600–2400 (broad). and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. 2860 (M). etc.g. 1600. VS = very strong.. TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). 3400-3100 (variable). 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). and powder microscopy are also performed. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained. 1500.7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. M = medium. 3400–2500 (broad M). Other tests like loss on drying. Precoated absorbents on glass plates. 2100–1700 (W). 3. 3. 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M).) When development is complete. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. ash content histology. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented.

antimony chloride UV. natural product. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance. hence. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent.5: 8. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes.

TLC. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. pharmaceutical. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. If there is a diluent added. data acquisition. together with UV and IR spectra. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. or chromatographic (GLC. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. HPCL. such as rice hulls or spent herb.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis.) procedures in order to establish its strength. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System.” However. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. information-rich electron ionization spectra. and cosmetic industries. In phytochemistry. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. System control. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. With library search software. give excellent fingerprints for identification. From these spectra. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. rice hulls. photodiode array detector. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. spectrometric. with expected growth well into the next generation. the use of the GC will continue to grow. For plant volatiles and essential oils. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. However. spent herb).g. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. a separation technique. As with the raw materials. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. 3. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. etc. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. This system.. After extraction of the plant material. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. it will show up by having less soluble solids.

Ltd. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass.QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. photodiode array detector.

nutmeg. honey. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. 3. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. for example. Methods used for adulteration include: 1.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. or Cochin. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. the color and general texture are more important.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. beeswax. or Provence senna. 2. data acquisition. coffee. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. Hence. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. etc. African. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Instrument control. for example. the adulterant can be any kind of material. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. Obovate. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. such as ergot. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). in the case of powdered drugs.

d.9 mm x 30 cm). Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. detection. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). lupanine. UV 202 nm.1 ml/min.8 ml/min for 7 min. detection. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm. acetonitrile-water (84:16). rhamnos Ginsenosides. 0.4x. or 3% SE-30. 3. sparteine. luteolin.9 mm 30 cm).2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6).46. 1 ml/min. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. mobile phase. flow rate.5. 220–223°C. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. detection. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.6 50 cm): mobile phase..5 ml/min. 1. 50°C.. UV 202 nm. 1. distilled water. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0.5 ml/min.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. galactose. flow rate. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray. genistein Calenduladiol. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. flow rate. spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. UV 320 nm detection. 0. flow rate. HPLC: Zorbax CN.0 ml/min. 0.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2.2. mobile phase.1) flow rate. then 1. 1. mobile phase. panaxatriol. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7.0–1. panaxadiol. R1. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2./65 cm).d. followed by 0.d.0 ml/min. acetonitrile-water (83:17). baptifoline. Rf 0.9 mm 30 cm). mobile phase. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . xylose. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60. 2. UV detection (homogencity test). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10). HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. 2.5 mm i.6 mm i. mobile phase. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4. 190 nm flow rate.0 M NaC1 gradient. 25 mm). flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin. 2 ml/min. 5% DC560. thermopsine. mobile phase. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. CH3CN-H2O (73:27). 15 cm). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection.2 M Pi buffer pH 7. 15 psi argon. detection. 13-OH sparteine. cytisine Anagyrine. acetonitrile-water (83:17).5:0. mobile phase. mobile phase. 0. flow rate.5 ml/min. flow rate.

HPLC: BONDPACK C18.05. mobile phase. 2 ml/min. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase.9 i. w/guard. UV 340 nm. phase B: ethyl acetate. mobile phase. flow rate. flow rate.6 mm. increasing 3%/min).32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column.5. introduce sample. flow rate. 3. ethanol-water gradient containing 0.0 ml/min. luteoline. 0. mobile phase.1 ml/min. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. detection UV 365 nm.d. methanol-water (15% to 95%.d.d. UV 365 nm.. 4. flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. 6 ml/min. detection UV 278 nm. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. flow rate. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i.5 ml/min. Merck(. mobile phase. i. detection.d. 66 m capacity 350 ml). hydrastine Rf 0. 1 ml/min. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9). isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. 25 cm at 75°C). flow rate.7 & 5. 1. methanol-water (50:50). phase A: water. UV 330 nm. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1).1 M phorphoric acid. detection. mobile phase..5 ml/min. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). flow rate. berberine. LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate. vanillin in H2SO4.0mm i. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. detection. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. 25 cm). 75°C. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase. mobile phase. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). 30 cm). 2 liters phase B and C. begin rotation. methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). vanillin in H2SO4. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5.9.4 cm i. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages). 2. hydrastine Rf 0.5cm). canadine. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. canadaline.5-methanol (67:33). HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . detection. 0. Start w/ 350 ml phase A. detection.5 ml/min. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). apigenin..d. Rf 0. 2 ml/min. detection. detection. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). UV 270 nm. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). UV 340 nm. mobile phase. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4).

150 mm). daidzein. flow rate. flow rate. mobile phase. water.5 10 cm).5 ml/min.1:1). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. biochanin-A. mobile phase. acetonitrile-water (gradient). caprylic acid.9 mm i. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i.6 mm i. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4.6 mm i. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid.0 ml/min.d.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). 0. detection. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. UV 280 nm. UV 270 nm.5 ml/min. 30 cm).25m 3 mm). formononetin. flow rate. mobile phase. 50% H2SO4.d. detection.QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. mobile phase. detection.8 ml/min. 4 ml/ min. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). mobile phase. mobile phase. detection. 2.d.5. mobile phase. prunitrin Calycosin.. 1. 1. methanol-water (2.d. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). methanol-water (27:73). methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min). gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol. mobile phase. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. 2. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. mobile phase. flow rate 0.5 ml/min. detection. caproic acid.0 ml/min. 25 mm). R1. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. photodiode array. flow rate.. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector... UV 313 nm. flow rate.. helium flow. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). 300 mm). UV 280 nm. detection. 30 ml/min. UV 230 nm. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658). detection. detection.9 mm 30cm). pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid. analysis Column (3. 1. UV 280 & 546 nm. capric acid Isoflavones. flow rate.d.d. mobile phase. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2. mobile phase. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min.0 ml/min. genistein.0) mm i. 25 cm) 2 in series. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. detection.3 ml/min. flow rate. HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. 25 cm). water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i.1. detection. flow rate. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. temp.

coconut shells. guaiacum wood. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. 30 cm).6mm i. mobile phase. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. walnut shells. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. senna. 2 connected in series. Sometimes. valerosidatum. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8).0 ml/min. detection. 6. such as lobelia. 4. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. powdered olive stones. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . conc. for example.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7.d. 8.7 ml/min. usually having no relation to the genuine drug.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. UV 298 nm.4 (1:1). stramonium. 2. mobile phase.d. acetonitrile-0. or hamamelis leaves.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. detection. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. detection. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. dextrin. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. boiler scale. mobile phase.1 M phorphoric acid. detection. etc. 250 mm. GLC: 1. 1. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. hydrogen flame ionization. scented bdillium for myrrh.8% methanol in hexane. detection. detection.5 ml/min. UV 254 nm. UV 256 & 206 nm.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). flow rate 10 ml/min. mentha. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). flow rate. methanol-water (60:40). 0. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. or lead shot. acetonitrile-0. stone. acevaltrate. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. hazelnut shells. UV 254 nm. 5. Substitution of exhausted drugs. almond shells.9 mm 30 cm). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). vitexinine 3. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. for example. 7. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. flow rate. etc. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. 5u Chrompack). mobile phase. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances. mobile phase. valeranone Vincristine. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. detection. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. For example. vitexin. 2. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1).25 m 4 mm).

and aleurone grains. papillose surface of the stigma. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. masks. sieve tubes. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. calcium oxalate crystals. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. A little vascular tissue. Frequently also trichomes. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. fibrous layer of the anther wall. fibers.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. cellulose parenchyma. red. palisade tissue. cutinized and suberized walls. hemicellulose. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. etc. Woods: Structures present: Vessels.g. Keep for 6 months. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. 2. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. The powder is usually entirely lignified. 7. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. 9. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. vessels. gloves. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. or oil). often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. glands. Frequently also delicate yellow. wood parenchyma. starch. however.g.. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. 6.) Acacia. and crystals of calcium oxalate. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. protective glasses. Structures absent: Cork. 5. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). xylem vessels. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. resins.g. fibers. Mucilage of: Alkanna. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. Dilution better done on the slide. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. Also epidermis. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. 10. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which often cross the fibers and vessels. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Tincture of: Red with oils.. stone cells. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. 3. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. consisting of small-sized elements only. tracheids. in powder. pine and juniper). and medullary rays. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. 8. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. and aleurone grains. Frequently also cork. 4. frequently particles of small seeds. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. Microscopical examination. especially the diagnostic epidermis. usually abundant parenchyma. palisade cells. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers.. pericyclic and phloem fibers. palisade cells. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. which often contains starch in large amounts. starch grains. Nut shells and fruit stones.

5 ml D. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30).0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. protective glasses. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc.I. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. To be freshly prepared. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. filtered. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. ligno. if necessary. Benzidine. suberin. red color of precipitate with alkaloids.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . Chlorophyll.I.0 g sodium iodide and 2. Add 7. Store in amber bottle. To be freshly prepared. etc. The reaction is better carried out in the dark. and some mucilages. etc. Deteriorates on keeping. H2O. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added.880).I. H2O with the aid of heat. To be freshly prepared. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. with continued stirring. killed by steam. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. masks. gr. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water. through glass wool. cellulose. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. gloves. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. 0. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. etc. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. starch. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). left for some time.

the strong solution will dissolve silk. and 20 ml water. 1. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting. and then diluted to 100 ml with water. e. etc. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid. 20 g lactic acid.I. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. Set aside until clear. 1. the corresponding approximate pH. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gives yellow with colchicine. note the coloration and read off from the table. masks..) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. filtered. 1. on the label. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids. 40 g glycerin. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. added to a solution of 2. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc.g.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D.I.64 g copper sulfate and 0. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin.75 g lead monoxide. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals. Indicator. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. dextrose).27 g iodine and 0.g. gloves. Dilute: Used for mounting. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. 1. H2O prior to use. in powder. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. protective glasses.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use.. Solution A: 34.

Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). with a dropper or a glass rod. Store away from light. and then diluted with equal volume of water. and 80% by volume. It must be recently prepared. lignin. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. 5 ml of glycerin added. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). 66. and cutin blue. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression.4% alcoholic solution. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%).38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. stains lignified walls red. dissolving certain cell contents. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. 10% alcoholic solution. etc. Caustic: Used for clearing. suberin. gloves. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. Potash. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. in small pieces. 10. 1% solution in water. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. masks. protective glasses. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0.

the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application.E. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. E. of various dilutions: 1:1.4 Preparations 4.G.1. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. 1. 60–90%.P. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing. Properties Usually high in alcohol. P. Serial type dilution and succussion. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1.G. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. etc.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting. 5x. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices.E. Same as P. H.E. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate. 3x. AQU P.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. Full strength 1:1. 5:1.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today. etc.G. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. 4x.G. A molasses consistency. Same as a solid extract (S. F.E.3BG GLY 4. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. An extract in P. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). but the solvent is 1. 0.F.01 = 2x 0.M. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. Contains no alcohol. but the solvent is glycerin. OLEUM N. Same as P.3BG.

The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. if packed too loosely. cotton) below. suction. giving a weak extract (see diagram).g. close the lower orifice.. usually 48 hours. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. ether. also referred to as the spent herb. having a bottom outlet. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. cover the percolator. etc. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. by traction. by which it is exhausted of potash.. or alcohol and water. When no more actives remain. acetone. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. the solution commonly known as lye. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. If packed too tightly. gauze. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum.). extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. The packing of the percolator is very important. In pharmacy. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. contained in a suitable vessel. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the menstruum will channel. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. the botanical is considered exhausted. distillation. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. 4. expression.1. water. or by chemical or physical means. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. and macerate for the prescribed time. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). treatment with a solvent. the product will not percolate. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. or. etc.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it.

preferably distilled.1. These are usually the hard substances.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. such as twigs. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). placed over it. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. Allow it to cool. 4. roots. and filter. mix thoroughly. barks. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate.

Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . after preparation of an infusion. Refrigerate or preserve. Refrigerate or preserve.1. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. it should be placed in a refrigerator. Moisten the herb in water. preferably distilled.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. 4. In order to prepare an infusion. Therefore. Under refrigeration. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. cold water should be used.

there is also CO2 sterilization. which is very effective. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. However. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. especially in inactivating larvae. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. However. bacteria. However. which seems to work well. 4.1. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant.

there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts.G.* 4. Maceration is another procedure. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture.00 per pound). Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day. No vacuum concentration is used. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. as strengths vary widely. and evaporation. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. Usual laboratory method. check with the manufacturers. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical.2). are weaker. Therefore. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. However. i.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. A typical example: 5:1 P. and canadine. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). and the solids are calculated. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. as they contain alcohol. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. berberine. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. However. from either fresh or dry botanicals. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate.. Therefore. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. need preservatives. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. Additionally. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. or a combination thereof. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine.S. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract.1.e. Filter. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. However. and usually precipitate on standing. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. Therefore.1. At present. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. percolation. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris.

while hydrastine is colorless.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. or distilled water. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. age.I. or distilled water. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. or oven dried. and pass enough D. and add enough D. spray dried. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. filtering if necessary. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. returning the first portions. 4. Avoid excessive heat. and contain very little water. preferably kept in a cool area. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. or other specified volatile substance D.I. and preserve or use the clear water portion. 2a. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. and time of year collected. a sufficient quantity. 4. filter through wetted filter paper.I.I. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which lowers shipping costs. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer.I. easily dispensed.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. to obtain a clear filtrate. dry solid. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. The native extract is usually vacuum dried.1. 2. Then filter the mixture. need no preservation. or distilled water. Solution: The volatile oil. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. respectively. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. Add 1000 ml D. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. Their odors and tastes are similar. if necessary. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1. Separate the excess oil.1.I. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml.

should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. The starting botanical.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. are often found in the cosmetic literature. However.1.* 4. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. therefore. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. in the United States. or roots of plants (see above).3-butylene glycol.1. is always measured on the dry basis. The true strength will vary. Obviously. 1997. in a true strength extract. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. To avoid confusion. etc. fresh or dried. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. In Europe. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. glycerin. etc. butylene glycol.G. 10:1. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight.10 Product Strength. Recently. However. Concentration.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. etc. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. depending on the manufacturer. 10:1. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. in a cosmetic formulation.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. etc. a 1:1 extract. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color. glycerin. This is very controversial. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. etc. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. would be too concentrated in many instances. 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish.). If it was calculated from fresh weight. tinctures. 4. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). bark.

standardization can be carried to the extreme. However. Analytical procedures (TLC. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7.15 to 0. However. This would cause the berberine. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. which has been standardized on valepotriates. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. canadine. resins. and starches to be significantly reduced. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. dark in color. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. If the dried plants contain 0. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. and canadine.5 to 4. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. berberine. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. the former designation is becoming the standard. which is approximately 20 times less costly). and then on valeric acid. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical.5% of essential oil. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0.04%).0% hydrastine. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. GLC. However.. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. and not soluble in most cosmetic products. fixed and volatile oils. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. that is. Thus.S.

or 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1997.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. A thick.8% essential oil. However.5% oil. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution.1. ether. Therefore.. 4. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. followed by evaporation of the solvent. alcohol.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts. there are usually losses during extraction. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations. either fixed or volatile.g. consisting of an oil. oily resinous mass remains. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. However.

aphrodisiac. calming anger. antidepressant. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. wrinkles. Poor memory. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. thereby reducing stress. sadness. Stimulant. poor memory. euphoric. digestive problems. aromatic waters. in turn. tonic. Skin elasticity. antispasmodic. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. and perfumes. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. For example. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. soothing. mental strain. aphrodisiac. revitalizing. euphoric. hair growth. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. if one walked through a forest on a spring day.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. This. Stimulates scalp. digestive problems. anxiety. Stimulant. antidepressant.5 Aromatherapy 5. Revitalizing. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. antispasmodic. 5. soothing. nervous fatigue. hair growth. mild stimulant. affects the adrenals. impotence. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Anti-inflammatory. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. Carminative. Moisturizing. scalp stimulant. This is the essence of aromatherapy. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. exhaustion. energy imbalance. loneliness. cleanser. Cell regeneration.

Example: to be effective. Essential oils are very concentrated. shock. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. 1982. lotions. mouth ulcers. stimulates metabolism. C. Daniel Company. vaporizers. uplifting. 1976. inflammations. Jean. Fabrice. bath oils. opens psychic centers. wrinkles. Saffron. VT. If the reader has further interest. Essex. Destiny Books. Danielle. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The Practice of Aromatherapy.W. amara) Antidepressant. Valnet. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. Aging skin. Therefore. Aging skin. The Aromatherapy Handbook. moisturizes. England. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. Nervous tension. anti depressant. uplifting during depression. Mood elevating. grief. Ryman. 1984. euphoric. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. antidepressant. Antidepressant. calming. anxiety. house sprays.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. cell proliferant. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. etc. very little is needed. Walden. Rochester. shampoos.

AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. and involute at the point. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. and fawn-colored externally. flowers in April or May. perennial herb. lanceolate. yellow. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. RANGE. The scape is naked. which is white internally. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. subradical. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. and 3 or 4 in.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous.1 HABITAT. long. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . PROPERTIES. droping. high. spotted near the base. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. liliaceous. slender. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. DESCRIPTION. pale-green. The flower is single. with purplish or brownish spots. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. about 5 in. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. obtuse. The leaves are two.

Hoppe. fibrous. agrimonolide. and covered with a soft. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. The capsule is oblongobovate. which is somewhat aromatic. flowering in July and August. anthers oblong-linear. 2. nearly smooth beneath. filaments flat. and surmounted with reddish. diuretic. W. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. Am. coarsely serrated leaflets. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. Drogenkunde. et al. and of reddish-brown color. 1. harsh. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions.. 1946. J. and anti-inflammatory. A. Soc. hooked bristles. Properties Emollient.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. racemose spike. subastringent taste. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. terminating in three undivided stigmas.six. No further analytical data available. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. from to 1 foot long. and borne in a dense. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. interruptedly pinnate. long. de Gruyter. and especially more fragrant when in bloom.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. Ovary obovate. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. The leaves are alternate. The root is long. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. Its odor is aromatic. mild tonic. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. 2332. agrimonol (= agrimonine). antiscrofulous. 1975. 8th ed.1. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. conical. pyrocatechol. and tapering. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . epistaxis. functional bleeding. 68. and phlobaphene. and hematuria.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. pyrogallic acid. three-lobed at top. Chem. The whole herb and root contains.. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. Heinz. Pub. Cavalitto. in hedges and fields and by ditches. Agrimonia has a bitterish. It is much branched at the summit. silky pubescence. style club-shaped. but unpleasant. longer than the stamens. producing numerous heads. This taste is strongest in the root. yellow. with a loose membranous tip.. and three-valved. Berlin..

apigenin. Rev. 7-0-B-glucoside. glutinous.. nicotinic acid. et al. M. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. 29(2). Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. after which a good face cream should be applied. Alder also helps to unclog pores. 10(2). phytosterin. The bark is dark gray and ridged. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. this should only be done once a week. glycosides. as do other types of face packs. Ser. alterative. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. luteolin. et al.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin.. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. Europe. quercitrin. and minerals.. Dermato-Vernol. catechin. southwest Asia. Constituents Tannins. ursolic acid. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. organic acids. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. V. citric acid and silicic acid. 1994. gum. triterpenes.. 190-193.. wedge shaped. However. and also to help relieve dandruff. wavy-serrated. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. tonic. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. usually abrupt at the tip. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. Med. 2. Peter-Horvath. flavonoids. and polysaccharides. which are roundish. United States. 1. choline. fruiting tops. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. Patrascu. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. eupatorin. 153-157. volatile oil. 1964.

which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. boron. insect bites. The surface is dull and smooth. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. creams. this has not been verified. lotions. etc. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. etc. and is employed in skin creams. cuts. oils. etc. irritated skin. hair treatments. hair rinses. and tannin. carotene. Aloe contains 99. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. To date. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. lotions. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sun poisoning. and burns. calcium and trace minerals. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. a mild exfoliant in oils. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. which would suggest its use in baths. scratches. chrysophanic acid. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. Properties Used in facial steams. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. The fracture is conchoidal. Alfalfa is also high in minerals. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. and Barbados Islands. The size of the pieces is variable. Further reading is recommended. The odor is strongly aromatic. West Indies. bath gels. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C).50% (5 grams. ALOE Aloe vera L. saponin. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. The texture is waxy. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves.

Rome. sugars. Macintosh. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Granny. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. Constituents Malic acid. Delicious. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. It contains malic acid.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. glucomanine. Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). and pectin.

long. ⁿ in. moles. tannins. containing thujone. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mountain slopes of eastern Canada. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. and polyps. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. wax. Wolf’s Bane. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. ARNICA Arnica montana L. Cones oblong. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. flavonoids. soft durable wood. both internally and externally. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. shoddy bark and light. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. and mucilage. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. in height. having pale.

due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. kaempferol. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. leaves. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. the involucre dilated and imbricate. Odor characteristic and agreeable. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. sprains. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. inflamed insect bite. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. 5 to 7 mm long. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). inflammation of the oral mucosa. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. In mouthwashes. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. Arnica tincture DAB 10. ray flowers yellow. Description This plant is perennial. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. Topically. pistillate. polyacetylenes. pinnate. stamens without a tail-like appendage. and essential oil. and undivided leaves.to 12-veined. about 1 cm long. edema. tubular flowers perfect. dark green and pubescent. palmitic. and surface phlebitis. malic). lauric. reddish yellow. 7. fatty acids (fumaric. pectolin arigenin). the cypsella spindle-shaped. receptacle slightly convex. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. and the cypsella not beaked. patuletin. quercetin. Has been used for hematomas. finely striate. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. the pappus plumose and sessile. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. the receptacle setaceous. the scales ovate. xanthophylls. Note: There can be side effects. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. The heads are discoid and homogamous. emarginate and pointed. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dark brown. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. stearic).ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. Sesquiterpene lactones. with subspinose. northern Mediterranean. isorhamnetin. three-toothed. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. taste bitter and acrid. with fleshy bases.

artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. Around the holidays.e. choleretic. beta-carotene. and hypocholesterolytic. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. ascorbic acid. vitamins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannin. peroxidase. diuretic.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. protein. oxydase. cynadase. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. flavonoids. bread crumbs. trace minerals. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. Also employed in jaundice. cholagogue. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. cynarin. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed.. garlic. sterols. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. Cosmetically. ascorbinase).

and various skin diseases. Has been used on blemishes. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. The base is truncate or depressed. balm buds Part Used: Buds. * Formerly CTFA.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. Herbalists use it for treating colds. sores. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. The taste is pungent and bitter. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. resinous substance. These buds are sessile. The margin has projecting points of scales. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. The apex is acute. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. It is a stimulating expectorant. The color is reddish brown. The odor is balsamic. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. cuts. or in threes occasionally. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. twigs.

fracture hard and tough. usually splitting somewhat on drying. jateorrhizine.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. North America. very bitter. pinocembrin. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. distinctly radiate. berbamine. Europe. Odor slight. Description Cylindrical. Flavonoids. Bactericidal. tinges saliva yellow. izalpinin. easily separable into layers. externally light yellowish brown. 3. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. Properties Astringent. pith of rhizome small. True Bay. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. taste distinctive. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. Internally used to treat liver disorders. has been used for indolent ulcers. acetophenone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . volatile oil. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. gallstones. 5-0-methylgalangin. sometimes excentric. salicin. and the Middle East. tannic and gallic acids. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. Berberine. bark 1 mm in thickness. and showing rings of growth. rhamnetin. Grecian Laurel. magnoflorine.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. circulatory stimulant. bervulcine. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. wood yellow. knotty. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. volatile oil. on chewing. galangin. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. strongly branched. populin. chrysin and apigenin. oxyacanthine. color more pronounced upon wetting. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L.

-terpineol. The leaf also contains germacranolides. 12 to 30 mm in length. soaps.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. Spr. and others. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. Asia. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. quercetin. due to its high tannin content. slightly pubescent. finely reticulate. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. petiole about 3 mm in length. astringent. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. brittle. undersurface yellowish-green. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). slightly revolute. texture coriaceous. hydroquinone derivatives. glabrous. linalool. margin entire. catechins. perfumes. taste slightly bitter. and volatile oil. along with methyl arbutin. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. and glossy aromatic foliage. covered. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. upper surface dark green. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. alkaloids. summit obtuse. odor slight. ursolic acid. However. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. and plant acids.3 to 3.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). lotions. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. phenolcarboxylic acids. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. spatulate. shiny black berries. base acute. gallic and ellagic acids. -pinene. Constituents 0. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. hyperoside. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. Northern and Central Europe. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. Uvaursi is astringent. pale yellow flowers. Description Leaves obovate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . syringic and p-coumaric acids. Treating small areas works best. and detergents. tapering. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. -terpineol acetate.

minerals. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L.. enzymes..... and 3% minerals and trace vitamins. eruptions. antiseptic.. restrains infection.. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits. about 5 mm long. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen. and to replace retina purple. and other compounds identified in bee pollen.1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... tonic. corolla ovoid-lanceolate.... SEE GALIUM BED STRAW. 55% carbohydrate.. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus... promotes tissue repair... reduces inflammation. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive. 9.. 1989. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations.. sores..... boils. Europe... Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein..... 1. and Asia.. and abscesses. 4 mm wide. 262. G. anti-inflammatory. Whortleberry. 1 to 2% fat. 20 to 50 cm high.62 BED STRAW.. JAMA.. Mirkin. Properties Restoring. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive. sores.. amino acids. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries. leaves Habitat and Range Woods. Michigan.. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees. Good for skin ulcers. This is taken up in a collection vessel. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs.. British Columbia.... leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry... scabs... *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit.... 3 to 5 cm long. Wyoming. California. reducing visual eye fatigue....0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels.. wounds. leaf-blades thin. dissolving... Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones. clears toxins..... Properties Astringent for eyecare products. and ulcers.. ovate.. Description Dwarf shrub. softening. 1854. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter.1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins. only slightly paler beneath.

essential oil. Squaw Root. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. Rattleweed. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. White Birch.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. myrtillin. betulol. fatty acids. gaultherin. saponins. anthocyanosides. Rattleroot.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. Bugbane. peonidin glucosides. 1988.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot.. ascorbic acid. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. parts of Arctic Siberia. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. New York. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. (trace amount) asperuloside. New Age Herbalist. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ursolic acid. psoriasis. 76. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). Properties The bark. naturalized in northern North America. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. betuloside. Bugwort. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. 4-23-87. BIRCH Betula alba L. Mabey. betuloresnic acid. 1. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. Europe. German Commission E Monograph. quinic acid. apigenin dimethyl ether. R. leaves. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. BANZ No. North Asia. Macmillan. methyl salicylate. arbutin. and eczema. 1.

particularly depression and hot flushes.5 cm in thickness. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. It possesses estrogenic activity. or less frequently by fibrous strands. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. taste bitter and acrid. fracture short. by deep cup-shaped scars. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. Rhizome horizontal. externally dark brown.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. up to 3 mm thick. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. starch. fracture horny. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. bark thin. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. dyspepsia. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. and sugar. and rheumatism. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. frequently. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). tannins. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. externally dark brown. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. internally. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. somewhat branched. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. each of which shows a radiate structure. resins. bark dark brown. longitudinally wrinkled. fatty acids. mainly formononetin.

Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). fruit globose. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. glabrous above. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). taper-pointed at the apex. and trace minerals. Florida. serrate. and detergent. Texas. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. anthelmintic. Massachusetts. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. and Minnesota. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. 5 to 8 cm long. fixed and volatile oils. rounded or subcordate at the base. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. 8 to 10 cm long. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. bark. leaflets 11 to 23. Description A tree up to 50 m high. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. with thick ridges. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. tannins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glabrous. It is an astringent. Constituents Juglone. juglandic acid. lanceolate.

probably due to its iodine content. trace minerals (mainly iodine). The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. reproductive tissues. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). The taste is saline and mucilaginous. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. slimming activity. as a wash for psoriasis. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. fucans). It can be added to hair and skin care products. steryl glucosides. The thallus is dichotomously branched. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. cellutitis. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a prominent midrib. rheumatism. The texture is cartilaginous. Frequently. sprains. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. The odor is slight. myxoedema. massage for cellulite. The color varies from brown to black. Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. and bruises. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols).

mostly in the Eastern States.. five pointed corolla. about 2 cm in diameter. hollow stem.. rough. sometimes white.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF.. fracture somewhat horny. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids. Borage has a cucumber-like odor. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin. and minerals..See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. covered with bristly hairs.. externally grayish brown.. tannins. on long stalks. European Burdock. frequently split or in broken pieces.. longitudinally wrinkled. saponins. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L.... flowers from June through September.. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia.. up to 60 cm high. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage. flowers. Bugloss. of variable length. Gobo Part Used: Roots. sparingly naturalized in the United States. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains.. sessile. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... the upper leaves. usually blue. Description An annual robust plant..... Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe. the lower ones on short petioles. elliptical leaves wrinkled.. rhizomes.. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. skin cleansing and lightening. leaf. It is easily grown from seed. Constituents Vitamin C. mainly cultivated for commercial use. Description The root is fusiform. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. simple or branched. calyx of five sepals. the crown somewhat annulate.. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock.

Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. shampoos. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. North America. centrally hollow or containing a white. pith-like tissue. creams. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. eczema. abrasions. It has been combined with comfrey. and slightly bitter. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. in cases of acne. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. cystitis. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. yellow-green flowers in spring. becoming pyroligneous on milling. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. arctinal etc. lotions. cutaneous eruption. tannins. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. lignin. fukinanolid.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. gout. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. taste is mucilaginous. psoriasis. berries with black seeds. including buxine and buxozine C. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. polyalkenes. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. It is also used in hair conditioners. sterols. Arctinone. scaly skin. fatty acids. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. and oil. acid soils. and can be used in facial steams. Odor slight. anorexia nervosa. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. volatile oils. licorice. sweetish. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small.. and baths. inulin. fat. gels. arctinol.

bushy places. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. Fruit. inhibits inflammation. rutin. Europe. Description A dense. dark green shrub with thick. oval rigid. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. The extract has been used with success. Properties Increases circulation. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. saponin. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. ruscoside. 2 cm long. borne on green. for the treatment of varicose veins. scale-like. 3 mm across. Emmenagogue.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. Flowers greenish. mucilage. dry hills. 1 cm. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. Leaves. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. ribbed. sudorific. 5 mm. diuretic. ca. a globular red berry ca. papery ca. chrysophanic acid.

.

...... rutin. Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA...5 to 4 cm in diameter. from 1. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments. Mombassa. luteolin. piscidic-acids..... quercitrin.. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present..... dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper.. Mexican. kaempferol.. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material. isorhamnetin-glucoside. Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America. Constituents Flavonoids... together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length. taste acidulous and mucilaginous. It has a strong.. healing for sensitive skin... Description In pieces of varying length. and beta-sitosterol...... Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear.C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia.. and from 5 to 9 angled....... or Sierra Leone Pepper. herby odor.. See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length. penduletin... CALENDULA. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

and greenish-red. The odor is aromatic. or is free from these. yellow. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. the Nyassaland variety is red. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. The Mexican variety is deep red.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. yellow. Capsicum is a berry. and brown. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. red. gray. The fruits vary greatly in size. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. the African variety is yellowish-brown. The epicarp is thin and tough. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The apex is acuminate or acute. The taste is pungent and warming. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The seeds are compressed and pointed.

Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hairy stem. keeping it smooth and soft. Bitter Bark. Chittem Bark. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. etc. geranyl acetate. counter-irritant. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. detergents. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. CARROT Daucus carota L.29%). carotene capsanthin.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. and vitamins A and C. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. rheumatic pains. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. is obtained by steam distillation. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. Bear Wood. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. and others. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. leaves. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. and perfumes up to 0. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. flavonoids. branched. daucol. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. It has a long tap root. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. -pinene. creams. rubefacient used for neuralgia. After.4%. Asia. Buckthorn. and North America. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. antiseptic. naturalized in North America. geraniol. lotions. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. segmented. colocynth. jaborandi. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. fatty acids. Sacred Bark.

Teil C. The bark occurs in flattened. Trease. 5. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels. It is much used as a laxative. D = 10 . 444. aloe-emodin. Naturforsch. C = 10B. it acts as stomach ache treatment. 1974. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). Wagner et al. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. Z. See formula. 4. Publ. C. It is frequently covered with lichen. 1983. 1.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. chrysophanol. and D. and emodin in the free state. Various diathrones.and C-glycosidic linkages. 12th ed. and Evans. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic.5 to 5 mm thick. B = 10 R = OH. It gives red color with ammonia TS. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. 267. odor distinct. 1. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. including those of emodin. G. emodin oxanthrone.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. 2. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. B. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. R = H. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. Description The tree is 4. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. Teil B.. they contain both O. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. curved pieces or quills of variable length. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. R = OH. bryophytes. W. 2. R = H. Aloe-emodin. London. C. E. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone.. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. In small doses. in Pharmacognosy. Two aloins.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. Bailliere Tindall. 1974. and chrysophanol. 3. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives.

the upper lip erect and two-cleft.. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen.CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L.. nepetalic acid. Constituents Essential oil. downy beneath.. petiolate. tubular. the middle lobe largest.. Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like. limb bilabiate... nepetariaside. pointed at the apex... from 10 to 20 cm long. from 2 to 7 cm long. carvacol.. much branched. softhairy above. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip... stems quadrangular. corolla whitish. thymol).... pungent.. Description Top. nepetalactone... lower pair shorter. methyl-nepetalactone. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache.... in dense. up to 4 mm in diameter. pale gray-green. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect.. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... and aromatic.. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling. the larger. bract-like. dotted with purple. taste bitter. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders.. (geraniol. leaves opposite. citronellal. throat dilated. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas...... downy. nepetol rosemarinic acid... Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. interrupted spikes... floral leaves small. naturalized in North America. Br. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe. flowers small.... or crushed and broken... crenulate. camphor.. rounded or ear-shaped at the base. CENTELLA. ovate or oblong. calyx hairy. the lower spreading and three-cleft. margin deeply crenate.

S. Stem 0. Y. myrtenol (5. Y. and rheumatism. Lin. D’Amelio. July 26–30. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells. and amoebiasis. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. longitudinally striated. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. Microbiol. Yang. asthma.50%). Yang. J. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity.3 to 0. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1. Abstr. Y. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns. 5. T. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm.3 antiprotozoal. Y. Odor characteristic. oblong. 1992. Chem. Pharm. apex acute. helenalin. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. 97. 1997. Mutat. and alpha-humulene..85%). beta-gurjunene. green. Lin. and Mirhom. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. 40(5). 1973.7. Leaves.98%). Y. U. Phytotherapy Res. alternate.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. D’Amelio. and U. triterpenes. S. 7. C. plenolin derivatives. Yang.206. Aust. 1994. venation pinate reticulate.18%)..W. Kriby. Sept. margin dentate. 4. Iwakami. florilenalin-angelate.S. Y. F.5%). Chem.L. 2. W. Bull. 1998. caryophyllane-2. arnicolides.W..804. A. 3. F. 1. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. and sternutatory. Phillipson. 894. Pharm.. Wright. and C. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. Chun. florilenslin derivatives. 6.W. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1 In Chinese traditional medicine. Lee and J. green. diarrhea.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant.B. and D.B. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. thymol (1. 1991.23%). 1196. J. Pharm. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. Ebizuka. UIO. skin infections. and Mirhom.D. 1973–1974.5 cm in diameter. and U.97%).C. cylindrical. 436. malaria. Warhurst. Sankawa. Chin J. Wu. 8. nasal allergies. brevilin A. isoamyl caproate (1.. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. Bull. the plant has been used to treat colds.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic. 39(12). 6. wounds. Wu. sessile. 3272.6 to 1 cm broad.S. Campbell.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes.I. J. H. J. Compositous glandular hairs are also present.. 22 g.C. 8(7). The plant also contains diterpenes. internodes short.. and flavonoids. Res. Y. 204(2).6-beta-oside. Patent 5.C. H. G. 54. Hu. simple. Sankawa.A.. Cai. Ebizuka. 1988.T. the apical cell being elongated filamentous.Y. aromatic.

Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. aromatic. Constituents Essential oil. and without a pappus. and pubescent scales. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. perfect. hollow receptacles. taste aromatic and bitter. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. pappus none. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. alpha-bisabolol. or only a slight membraneous crown. bisabolene. ray-florets from 10 to 20. creams.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. etc. Odor pleasant. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . matricarin. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. disk-florets tubular. well over one hundred compounds. For further reading. oblanceolate. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. New York southward. see the bibliography at the end of the book. furfural. longitudinally furrowed. It is a carminative.5 cm. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth.to 5-ribbed. borneol. three-toothed and four-veined. chamazulene. chlorogenic acid. calendula. corolla white. farnesol. apigenins. lotions. Chamomile contains azulene. and mullein in shampoo rinses. usually reflexed. peduncles light green to brownish-green. involucre hemispherical. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. pistillate. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. healing tonic. anti-inflammatory. naturalized in the United States.

Properties Good for softening.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov.D. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid.A. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The leaves grow in opposite pairs. The flowers normally occur in January through May. Also used on skin rashes and infections. 3/8 in.. Chaparral is a source of N. Yellow flowers have five petals. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. Gobonadorra Greasewood. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. and stimulating the skin. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. long. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush.G. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. Description A resinous. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall. It is native to the southwestern United States. restoring. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates.

and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. which can be peeled. astringent.G. phenolic acids. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. and 4 mm in thickness.A. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N.). Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. Merck Index. gossypetin. tannins. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . granular and slightly fibrous. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. Constituents Aspartic acid. p. 1. Properties Soothing.D.. south to Florida and Texas.CHERRY BARK. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. it is finely striated and fissured. if unpeeled. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. The taste is astringent and pungent. The fracture is weak. camphor. sedating. and uneven. quercetin). CHERRY BARK. will add body to hair. The odor is aromatic. However. 5 cm in width. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. The outer surface. 8th ed. a powerful antioxidant. and unpeeled. this has not been thoroughly investigated. partially peeled. brittle. is brownish-black. 747. bitteralmond-like when moistened.

coumarins. on slender. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. 1⁄6 to 1 in. small capsule. fruit a many-seeded. annual. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. triterpene gyycosides. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. axillary stalks and in terminal. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. flowers white. and facial steams. creeping or ascending. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . entire. All Europe.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. redness of face erysipelas. leaves ovate. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. Properties Antipruritic. Can be used in creams. vulnerary. acute. emollient. psoriasis. rooting at the nodes. stems slender. swelling. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. satin flower. high. small. leafy cymes. white bird’s eye. the lower petioled. carboxylic acids. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles.1 mucilage. For inflammed eyes. with a line of hairs along one side. opposite. long. baths. gamma-linolenic acid. lotions. saponins. indolent ulcers. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. the uppermost sessile. rutin. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. Description A weak. fatty acids and minerals. tocopherols.

..... inattentativeness. grey.. CRC Press.. chlorogenic acid. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard.. 1992. mental escape from reality.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng. Caryophyllum. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L. white hairs.. clematine. 2nd ed. each 3 to 10 cm.... J. indifference. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches.. woody..... stalked leaflets. Carophyllus aromaticus L.. petals spreading. Steven Foster.. Boca Raton. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba.. vitalbiosides.. Flowers 2 cm..See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L. Y. New York. hedges. sterols... each with long styles with dense... Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. densely hairy on both sides.. fragrant.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants.... Description A robust. June to August. feather fruit clusters.. John Wiley & Sons.) Bull. Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. protein. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands.. and inflammation. et Herr.. rubefacient. thickets. Leung.... Duke. 2. CINCHONA... most of Europe. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. melissic acid. behenic acid. 1996. FL. Constituents Caffeic acid. antiscrofulous properties.. in lax terminal and axillary clusters. said to have antibiotic properties. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters. spreading.CLOVES 81 1.. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval. In 1770. it is used for dementia. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy).. and conspicuous. sores.... Fruit with numerous carpels. A/B.

antispasmodic. Williams & Wilkins. Robbers. and Tyler. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. Speedie. It is native to India. glandular-punctate petals. taste pungent and aromatic. protein. style 1. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. where it is widely cultivated. dark brown. E. flavonoids. Sri Lanka. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root. and has carminative properties. ovary twolocular.5 mm in length. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin.K. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. with numerous ovules. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Thailand. and somewhat four-angled. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. afterwards very pungent. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties.E. carbohydrates. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. 1. J. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. It lowers blood pressure. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic.. The buds also contain sterols. crowded. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. vitamins. stamens numerous. Burma. which alternate with the calyx teeth. and incurved. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. and others. odor strongly aromatic. followed by a slight numbness. Nepal. Properties They are due to the volatile oil.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. J. lipids. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol...

*INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places.. carotenoids. palmately 5. 83.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. senkirkine. slightly wrinkled. ground. Personal communication. A. bitter. All Europe. tussilagone and essential oil. When the leaves are dried. The younger leaves densely white. minerals. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. tussillagine.. taste mucilaginous. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L.to 9-nerved. blade very brittle. river gravels. Odor indistinct. Chevallier. London. mucilage. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. glabrous above. 1996. deeply cordate at the base. landslides.L. and smoked like tobacco. pubescent. screens. Kronenthal.. banks. Description Petiole long. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. 3. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. floccose beneath. 1998. faintly herbaceous. R. flavonoids. Constituents Tannins. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. it is said to help relieve asthma. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . terpene alcohols. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. Properties Emollient. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth.

ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. B-sitosterol amino cids. watersides.P. caffeic.. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. Menghini A. 1. up to 10 in.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue.. Fillipendula. fractures. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. long. chlorogenic. Bruiswort. althea.) Comfrey is also an astringent. and has a mucilaginous. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. lotions. Comfrey can be used in creams. and Fasulo M. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1987. It is almost inodorous. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. ointments. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. aloe. marshes. Healing Herb. Description The lower. asparagine (1–3%). The powder is green in color.. Blackwort. very hairy. Phytotherapy Res. on wounds. and demulcent. douches.. Capassa F.7%). phenolics. hair rinses. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. a very powerful cell proliferent. anti-inflammatory. I. Knitbone Part Used: Root. and lithospermic acids. cone flower. radical leaves are very large. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Autoreg. 944. shampoos.. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. Mascolo N. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. antihemorrhagic. feebly astringent taste. alkaloids.2–4. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. Most of Europe. salves.

92 0.176 0.7 0.0 5.93 0. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.59 0.59 2.0 100 g 4.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.1 Dry matter 30. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.10 0.037 17.72 1.19 0.99 1.0 1200.19 5.11 25.795 0.456 0.89 0.73 28.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.0 7.7 7.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.8 44. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.7 0.40 0.0 3. Nutrients Calc.2 0.65 0.10 19600 10 6 28 0. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82. energy therms cwt Prod.79 275.208 100.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .30 1.142 0.51 4.8 2.085 0.0 0.29 44.480 0.93 0. Dig.01 24.0 30.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.26 0.78 7.14 8. A equiv.0 15.74 0. for cattle Maint.07 100.111 1.18 2.92 0.47 1.58 5.8 213.84 4.14 49.285 0.624 8.61 0.01 14.0 0.50 1101100.86 49.00 57 34 34 1.20 0.41 0.600 0.05 0.

Healing Comfrey Herb. and has a sweetish. Good when used in burn creams. horny texture..... externally wrinkled.. mucilaginous. cultivated extensively. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin.. *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum.. North Africa.5 cm thick and 30 cm long. woodland... (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia... Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf.. CONE FLOWER. It is almost inodorous. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface. creates astringency. Europe. firm.. Blackwort... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... often more than 2.... reduces inflammation and clotting. feebly astringent taste..86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L... occasionally dark brown in color. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark. and dark color..See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L. branched.. Bruiswort... internally creamy white.... riverbanks.. promotes tissue repair.

rutin). more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. p-cymene. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. flavonoids (quertcetin. The essential oil is used in massage oils. undulate secondary ribs. phenolic acids (caffeic.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. mericarps easily separated. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct.). Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. tannin. eliptical oil ducts. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. chlorogenic. fatty acids. coumaric. frequently with numerous large. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. Properties Has been used in body lotions. toothpaste. geraniol and geranyl acetate. -terpinene. toilet waters and after shaves. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. endocarp of large tabular cells. cremocarp nearly globular. deodorants. each mericarp with five prominent. two or three layers of large. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. straight. camphor. tangentially elongated. limonene. ferulic). etc. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. perfumes. and flavors.

Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. Description Annual. British Columbia. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. floccose. ascending branches. Quebec. For aging skin. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. it is soothing and emollient. scrapes. and various skin complaints. conjunctivitis. about 15 mm high. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . more or less floccose. bracts greenish-yellow. California. heads long-peduncled. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. Virginia. native of Europe. involucres round-ureolate. varying to rose or white.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. with slender. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. blue. stem 3 to 7 dm high. or as a compress for tired eyes. marginal corollas funnelform.

Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. yellow or light brown color.4 to 3 mm in length. maizeric acid. cultivated extensively. cichorin. the upper portion being usually unicellular. segments very slender. and temperate Asia. stigmas bifid. light green. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. saponins. and 0. tannin. the epidermal cells rectangular. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. cyanidin glucoside. CORN SILK Zea mays L. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . vitamin C. Europe. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. Constituents Acetanapthene. the basal trichomes 50. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. arginine. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. minerals. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. Topically very soothing and softening. and from 0.8 m in length. fixed oil. palmitic acid. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. corn silk. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. protocyanin. cnicin. protein. alanine.4 mm in diameter. spherical nucleus. potassium. flavonoids (Maysin). polygalacturonic acids. tocopherols. stigmasterol. frequently unequal.2 to 0. purplish-red. proline. spiral or annular tracheae.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside.

five-lobed. p... tubular yellow flowers. Plant Drug Analysis.. soothing eye compress..M... Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles. Hydrating. wrinkled leaves. minerals.. yellow. 1984. Properties Stimulate circulation... 1.. Both the fruit and seeds are employed... fatty acids.. broad hairy leaves.. Springer-Verlag.. amino acids.. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America. astringent.. *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India.. and E. Zgalinski.......... Wagner. and refreshing.. colds... apricot-like. and coughs. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract. cucurbitacins. dark green fruits. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. H. sunburn. volatile oils.... Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. Blatt. 176.. phytosterol.. quercetin).. Taste. and 3-gentiotrioside. Berlin. For blotchiness of skin. S. with oval.. cooling.. slightly curved... odor..See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L.SEE WATERCRESS Description A short. and spotted with orange at the throat.90 CRESS. enzyme (primeverase). CRESS. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis.. campferol dirhamnoside.. phenolic acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . According to the German Commission Monograph E. sweetish... in face creams. Description This trailing annual has rough stems. The flowers are tubular. flavonoids (gossypetin.. Constituents Vitamins... some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging).. hairy perennial... Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties.. about 1 cm in diameter.. and for chapped skin or sunburn.. and cylindrical. Constituents Saponins.

Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes. Stomata are present in both epidermises. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. where it is a common weed. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long).5 cm wide.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. ending in a spherical secreting cell. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. with a pronounced midrib. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs. yellow-brown and sometimes purple.0 cm long and 0. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. 0.S. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0.5 cm wide. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. Frequent pieces of cut. naturalized in the United States. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur.5 to 1. and for various skin complaints and eczema. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. dark green or brown-green in color. approximating 90°. Foreign Dandelion.

lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. Vitamin B and C. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the root has been used to treat inflammation. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). The white sap has been used to treat warts. and is especially high in potassium. as a diuretic. It is also considered a blood purifier.

brownish concentric rings of sieve. 1.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. becomes tough when slightly moist. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. straight root. whitish bark in which numerous. where it is a common weed. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). flavonoids. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. which toward the upper part. vitamins and minerals. glucoside. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. porous. surrounded by a thick. it tapers but little below. also ca. milky latex exudes. and a layer of cork externally. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith.1% mucilage. which have not been found anywhere else. and sterols. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. with concentric rings as in the root. but often divides into several erect branches. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. much shriveled. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. and wrinkled longitudinally. but a bitter taste. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. and its derivative taraxacoside. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. the section exhibiting a yellow. Description The root consists of a simple. whitish and fleshy within. a narrow cortex. and the eudesmanolides. the latter sometimes remains simple. It has no odor. It attains a length of about 30 cm. which is rather hygroscopic. carotenoids. The dried root is dark brown. The drug. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. naturalized in the United States. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. Constituents See Dandelion leaves.

. slightly analgesic. polyphenols. polysaccharides.. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. bitter. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. triterpenes. ursolic acid) phytosterols. procumbide). Planta Med. hooked. Odor slight. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. M. Description It has a characteristic large. quinones. with some fan-shaped pieces. The plant produces bright red flowers.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. 117. Xylem radiate. flavonoids. taste astringent.5 cm thick.. et al. light grey-brown. 1. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. rheumatism). chlorogenic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Antiphlogistic. 58. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. occasionally with cavities. claw-like fruit.-C. 1992. Lanhers.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. Fracture short. (oleanolic acid. heavily concentric.

Black Susans. Indian head. Scurvy Root. pallida. Black Sampson. (Nutt. E. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. L. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..) Nutt. Moench. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. purpurea. E. Hedgehog Part Used: Root.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. Part Used: Root.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. fracture short. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. bed sores. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. bites. use for snake bite. bark less than 1 mm thick. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. externally grayish-brown. taste sweetish. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. fibrous. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. sieve tissue in radial rows. Odor faint. stings. blood purification. cylindrical. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. or poisonous insects. etc. light brown. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. For example. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. boils. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. When administered orally. slightly annulate in the upper portion. wound healing.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. wounds. aromatic. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. burns. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. ulcers. or purplish-brown. or furrowed. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system.

and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .3 Furthermore. interleukin-1 (IL-1). this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients.ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities. Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. It also increases T-cell proliferation. A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii). Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. TNF-X. and Interferon-B2.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E.8Z. angustifolia).. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. purpurea (0.1%). angustifolia. purpurea)]. isobutylamide of undeca (2E. arabinoga lactan). angustifolia.. including an essential oil.6–2.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e.4Z-diene8. but practically absent in E. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. in vivo. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0. ferulates of tartaric. pyrrolizidine alkaloids.4E. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. In E.7% (except in E. • Polysaccharides. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. purpurea and E.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid.3–1. pallida. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E.g. These include the following: – Caffeic acid.g. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood. albicans pathogens. Present in both E. chlorogenic acid. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E.5 Furthermore.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. – The mono. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus. which is useful for species identification. These include aliphatic amides.10E)-tetraenoic acid).

N. Christiane. Ger Offen De 3.ECHINACEA 99 1. K. B. 1988. Cancer Inst. Arzneim-Forsch. Zawatzky. Klumpp and U. Vet. M. Natl. I. and M. 27(9). Gifford. Roesler. Bauer. 5. Schranner. M. K.H. B. O. 4. H. H. J. 1989. Albrecht..744. Luettig. Wagner.E. Brouillard. 353-364. Puhlmann. and J. H. 3. Steinmueller. 1989. Med. R.. 1991. Holger. 13(1). 27-38. 36(5).. 276-281. Wagner. C. 6. 2787-2794. A. Jurcic.Matthes. J. Wagner. 81(8). Andreas. Intn.-L. Phytochemistry...345. 38(2). 669-675. 1988. Cheminat. Becker. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Wuerdinger.L. Loesch. J. S. J. (Bethesda). Lohmann. Lohmann-Matthes. R. and R.. J. G. 1989 2. Ser. and H. E. Wagner. Immuno Pharmacol. Zenk.

Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. ursolic acid. minerals. and tannins. regularly five-lobed. astragalin. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded.and beta-amyrin). shriveled. sambunigrin). yellow. soreness. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. stamens five. flat or slightly campanulate.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. five-lobed. having three pores and up to 0. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . inflammation. covered with finely punctate markings. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. calyx superior. triterpenes (alpha. joint stiffness etc. rotate. slender anthers oblong. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. filaments. mucilage. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. Description Small. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. tumors. It is said to reduce swellings. volatile oils. sterols. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. south to Florida and Texas. from 2 to 3 mm in width. rutin. taste slightly bitter.023 mm in diameter.

bitter.) strongly lignified wood fibers. roots cylindrical and tapering. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. fracture short and horny. south to North Carolina. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. west to Missouri. and rashes. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. frequently curved or irregularly curled. itching skin. central Europe. and separated by large intercellular spaces. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. Scabwort. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. Odor aromatic. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. and pungent. as a bactericide. naturalized in northeastern North America. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. and catarrh. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. taste acrid. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. asthma. up to 13 cm in length and 1. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. wounds.5 cm in diameter. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L.

inulin. friedelin). germacrene-D-lactose). Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. isolantolactone. sterols. polyacetylene. triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or with many opposite branches.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. long and about in. Also has slight Anodyne properties. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. obtuse bracts which are white. heads numerous. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. The stem is erect and wiry. 2 to 8 in. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. woodland. small. Constituents Tannins. always deeply cut-in teeth. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. broad. resin. Astringent tonic. Hemostatic. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. heaths. taste bitter and aromatic. Description It is an elegant little annual plant. has a bitter and astringent taste. woolly beneath. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. however. green above. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. sessile. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. The leaves are sometimes almost round. odor characteristically aromatic. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. but sometimes tinged with brown. either unbranched in small specimens. 1 ⁄6 to in. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. and phytosterin. their margins. febrifuge. revolute or undulate. Europe. essential oil. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). Description Stems white-woolly. It is odorless. high. and at other times pointed and narrow. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed.

inflammation of the eyelid. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. caffeic acid. including aucubin. luproside. lotions or drops for eye complaints. minerals. Constituents Aucubin. inflamation of the blood vessels. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. and various skin conditions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . geniposide. gallotannins. and a volatile oil. conjunctivitis. catapol. Euphrasia contains glycosides.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. ferulic acid. poultices.

the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. more or less curved. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. strongly lignified fibers. Description Mericarps usually separate. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. conical stylopod. United States. composed of polygonal cells. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. New Jersey. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. brown walls. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil.5 mm in breadth. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. dorsal surface convex. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. making usually six oil ducts in all. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. south to Florida and Texas. yellowish-green to grayish-brown.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. For use in eye washes. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. It is * Formerly CTFA. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3.

*INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. cultivated in India. especially if powdered. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. horny. 2 to 3 mm wide. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . there are methylchavicol. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. the fruits contain a fixed oil. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. -phellandrene. However. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. Pakistan. organic acids. the radicle being accumbent. The odor of Fenugreek. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. is strong and spicy. and Turkey. and 2 mm thick. and flavonoids. including -pinene. yellowish-brown. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. In addition. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. and limonene. In addition. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. Israel. Soaked in water. anisaldehyde. and flattened. they are hard. dark. the taste is disagreeable and oily. the former appearing as a whitish point. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. protein. Nearly in the center of one of the long. translucent endosperm.

mucin. Scrofula plant. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. in woods. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. tumors. aspartic acid. glycine. Square stalk. yamogenin. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. A poultice has been employed for gout. sores. flowering from July to October. neurosis. choline. glutamic acid. and various skin irritations. damp copses. cystine. wounds. Fenugreek contains mucilage. trigonelline. fenugreakin. Constituents Dioscin.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. and banks. hedges. histidine. choline. mucilage. diosgenin. It is also used as a galactagogue. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. swollen glands. trigofoenoside A-G.

sublabiate. The calyx is in five segments. forked. on axillary and terminal. cardio-active glycosides. having a green scale or sterile filament. and slightly margined. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. smooth stem. dark purple. slightly drooping. 2 to 4 ft in height. The flowers are small. or the upper lanceolate. petiolate. which are broadly ovate. lecithin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and knotty root. quadrangular. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. with a leafy. of a deep-green color. and 3 to 7 in. the corolla of a dull green color. ovate. cleansing. hesperetin. opposite branches above. ovoid. veined. whitish. alkaloids and flavonoids. The leaves are opposite. the limb contracted. ovate-oblong. and subglobose. 3 to 4 in. acute. long. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. erect. acutish or broadly cordate at base. obtuse. tuberous. Constituents Saponins. and circulatory stimulant. sharply and unequally serrated. with a livid purple lip. thyrsoid panicles. in length.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. with paniculate. adnate to the upper side. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. rounded. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. anodyne.

but are inodorous when dried. succulent plant. small. astringent. 2 or 3 lines in width. styles 2. and is hairy at the joints. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. quadrangular. Calyx 4-toothed. and bitter taste. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. mucronate. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. corolla rotate and 4-parted. including psoriasis. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. Stinging Nettle. The fruit is large and bristly. and midrib. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. and along banks of rivers. sterols. growing in cultivated grounds. GARLIC Allium sativum L. or eights. and Burdock. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. tannins. and flowering from June to September. verticillate in sixes. and rough on the margins. with hooked prickles. stamens 4 and short. moist thickets. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. numerous and scattered.or 2-flowered. these plants have an unpleasant odor. cleansing. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. in length. In a green state. with an acidulous. tapering to the base. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. Catch-weed. Description Galium aparine is an annual. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. phenolic acids. and astringent. retrorsely prickled stem. fatty acids. the peduncles are axillary and 1. procumbent. with a weak. coumarins. flavonoids. and n-alkanes. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the flowers white. sevens.

taste intensely pungent and persistent. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. promotes leucocytosis. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. Garlic does not lend itself. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. Description Bulb subglobular. B. scale-like leaves. dry leaf. with 8 to 15 bulbils. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . compound. However. about 0. Properties Cosmetically. and E. pimples. C. apex acute. Internally. spasmolytic. antiviral. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. hypotensive and anthelmintic. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. and acne. allicin — dialltrisulfide. (alliin. It has been applied successfully to swellings. and attached to a flattened circular base.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. Garlic is diaphoretic. expectorant. each bulbil covered by whitish. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. and fructans.750 mm in diameter. g-glutamyl). in place of butter. Vitamins A. membranaceous scales. bacteriostatic. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. scordinins. sores. The membranaceous scales. antiseptic. surrounded by whitish. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. cultivated extensively. for obvious reasons. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. membranaceous. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. Constituents Sulfur compounds. base truncate. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. peptides. Italy is a large producer. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. trace minerals. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. the outer surface convex.

anti-inflammatory. The odor is aromatic. sialagogue. It is recommended for loss of appetite.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. that of the root. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. and to 37 mm in diameter. Properties Gentian is an astringent. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. bitter. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. These roots measure up to 8. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. The cambiam zone is dark brown. then strongly bitter. The taste is first sweet. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. polysaccharide. and cholagogue. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . xanthones. but pliable when it is moist. and middle western United States. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. cleansing. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. phenolic acids. sweroside. gastric stimulant. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown.5 dm in length. swertiamarin). volatile oils. Cranesbill. amarogentin. and alkaloids (gentiamine). GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. but are usually shorter.

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Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.

Wild alum

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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome

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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf

Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.

Ginkgo

Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.

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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root

Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.

Ginseng root (american) cultivated

Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its

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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.

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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.

GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves

Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.

Golden rod (Solidago)

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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome

Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.

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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.

GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part

Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near

Gotu kola

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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin

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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.

GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit

Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract

Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.

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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf

Green tea

Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.

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etc..GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . conditioning. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. theophylline). hair rinses. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. which can be used in various sun-care products. shampoos. lotions. theobromine. ferulic). and phenolic acids (caffeic. creams. tannins (catechins. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. gallo catechins).

.

purple-brown to brown in color. with five parts. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. Description The fruits are small berries. leaves. quercetin and glucosides). Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. and frost bite. it has been used as a wash for itching. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. Monogyna (jacq. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. Externally.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. phenolic acids. Cosmetically. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. sores. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. and dimeric procyanidin.C. vitexin glucosides. and central and northern Asia. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) C. Medically. and externally wrinkled. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. catechin. Properties Flowers. fatty acids. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation.

however. fading on the addition of acid. entire. opposite. astringent. Description Leaves greenish-brown. glabrous. small. 51. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. Pharm. deepening with alkalies. tapering at the base. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. in an aqueous solution. shortly petiolate. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. as henna. simple. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. hair rinses.. and decolorized by a special extraction process. brown. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. It will add body and highlights to hair. Arabia. Della Loggia. It can be used in shampoos. Sci. Chamomile. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. often imported in coarse powder. etc. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. 2 to 3 cm long. fruit. triangular pitted seeds. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. et al. decoction orange-brown. It is also said to be cooling. However. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. l. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. 1983. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. 1 to 2 cm wide. 4-napthoquinone). (2-hydroxy. R. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. Persia. Calendula.126 HENNA 1. and conditioners. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. with occasional stems and brown. oblong or broadly lanceolate. It will not impart any color to the hair. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers.. mucronate. India. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. acids destroy its properties. 319.

Honey obtained from heather. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and New Zealand. phenolic acid. Description Honey is a viscid. It becomes partially crystalline. and semi-solid on keeping. owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. California. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. (glucosides of apigenin. fatty acids.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. orange blossom. and tannins. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. Chile. Australia.4-napthoquinone). and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. various parts of Africa. luteolin). HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. translucent. flavonoids.

Bark Bongay. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. tetters. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. The taste is pungent and bitter. hypnotic. and alleviates pain and itching.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. tannins. humulene. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. The individual bracts are thin and papery. and tannins. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. Asia. sores.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. it will reduce swellings. lupulone. wax. will give body to the hair. In combination with Chamomile. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. Hops is a strobulus. ringworm. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin). The odor is aromatic. consisting mainly of humulene. Hops is a sedative. bactericidal. The strobiles measure 5. It contains small quantities of sucrose. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. Useful in treatment of dandruff. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. bitter principles. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. extensively cultivated in eastern United States.brown. xanthahumol). and hair conditioning. face creams. It has been used on crural ulcers. volatile oil. formic acid. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dextrin. the veins are elevated. and discoloration. one margin is flat. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. and pollen grains.

sprains and various sports injuries. chestnut-brown testa. The plant has long. increases circulation. Properties Astringent. compressed. large rough leaves. tendonitis.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. The inner bark has a rough. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. Description A perennial . and hemorrhoids. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. is nearly odorless. bitter taste. bitter taste. Constituents Saponins (aescin. and non-astringent. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. yellowish-white in color. The nut has a slight. peculiar odor. The root has antimicrobial properties. fleshy roots. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. and has an unpleasant. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. in diameter. aesculin). and is tough and fibrous in fracture. fawn-colored. Gaertn et Schert. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. Anti-inflammatory. is subglobular. hand creams. It has been used in cellulitis. The bark is thin. lotions. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers.25–0. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. from 1 to 1 in. quercetin). It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. Properties Cosmetically. The internal portion is starchy. varicose veins. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. and swellings. with a shining. phlebitis. Increases venous tone. iron gives a green precipitate. The aqueous infusion is bitter. The nut. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. and tannin. nearly an inch in diameter. vasoconstrictor. stimulates digestion and circulation. and slimming products. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. when dry.

06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it should be used with caution and low concentrations. causing the skin to blister. high.5 dm. yields 0. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. 2 to 4 cm long. California. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. 5 to 10 mm. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. cones peduncled. thick. acuminate. However.5 dm. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. Alaska. solid. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. and Eurasia. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. 10 to 14 furrowed.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. branched. 1 to 3. Greenland. 2 to 3 mm. South Carolina. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. However. as the fresh juice can be irritating. mostly with sterile spores. thick. branches 3 to 4 angled. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. high. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. rarely with a few branches. greasy skin. after crushing and moistening. sterile stems decumbent to erect. which would validate its use on blemished. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L.

emarginate. very much branched. sometimes elliptical. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . protruding. second whorls. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. palustrine alkaloid. kaempferol. green on each side. phenolic acids. and 1 to 2 ft in height. with the middle obe larger. astringent. usually oblong-linear. erect. and diverging. minerals. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. sunny sites. seldom white. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. the branches are rod-like. spreading. but smaller. entire. healing. lower lip trifid. scarcely shorter than the calyx. The flowers are bluish-purple. silicic acid. with the middle of the corolla erect. punctate. sometimes narrower. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. rather thick. Stamens 4. and 1 ribbed underneath. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. and equistetolic acid. gangrenous ulcers. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. Used for putrid wounds. and borne in racemose. and external bleeding. acute. Its stems are quadrangular. southern Europe. apigenin). flat. or lanceolate. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. acute. The leaves are opposite. spreading. emarginate. It is diuretic. Upper lip of the corolla. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. woody at the base. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. saponin (equisetonin). sessile. Will add strength and sheen to hair. anthers with linear divaricating cells. flat.

and resin. phenolic acids. flavonoid glycosides. Tannin. oleanic acid. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. Constituents Volatile oil. ursolic acid. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . marrubin.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. gum.

radicating at base. The leaves are petiolate. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. square. opposite. curved. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. cordatereniform. North America. * Formerly CTFA. the limb oblique. with a prostrate. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. The flowers are bluish-purple. The calyx is long. with a varegated throat. Europe to Caucasus. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. and glaucous on both sides. volatile oil. the upper being the largest. triterpenoids (ursolic acid).I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. about three together in axillary whorls. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). gray. amino acids. roundish. crenate. phenolic acids. luteolin [cynaroside]. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. marubiin. creeping stem. Also useful in cough preparations. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . forming the appearance of a cross. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. hairy. though often purplish beneath. hairy herb. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. The floral leaves are of the same form. villous. decongesting tonic. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically.

anthelmintic. However. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. control of cellulite. Ivy has been used in face packs. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. Properties Anti-fungal. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. faintly bitter. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. rather fragrant odor. The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. This plant is common all over Europe. sun or shade. aromatic odor. or Ivy gum). and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. molluscicidal. antimutagenic. exudes from the incised bark. Europe. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. Description An evergreen climber. The former possesses a peculiar.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. Scandinavia. and when heated emits a pleasant. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and introduced into North America. It is acrid.

phenolic acids. flavonoids. .IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. hederacoside. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and fatty acids. malic acid. hederacoside C (5%).and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides.

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dull. smooth. stalks. The upper surface is yellowish-green. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. The under surface is yellowish-green. The taste is salty and bitter. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. and the veins are elevated. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. and stems. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval.5 cm. The leaves are compound.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. The odor is slight. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. The blades are asymmetric. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets.

skin creams. and sweat hypersecretion. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. Leaves opposite. It induces salivary. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. benzyl alcohol. jaboric acid. Combines well with Nettles. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. It can be used in shampoos. very sweet-scented flowers. hair rinses. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. jaborino. tincture of Capsicum. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. and farnesol. lotions. calyx linear. isamone. It contains pilocarpine. antiglaucoma agent. colocynth. eugenol.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. isopilocarpine). pilocarpic acid. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. gels. and soaps. volatile oil. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. gastric. Constituents Essential oil. conditioners. more than half as long as the corolla tube. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and lotions to stimulate the follicle. containing benzylacetate. the terminal leaflet larger. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. and mullein as a hair tonic. hair tonics. It increases intestinal motility.

restoring. softening. potassium. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. Nourishing. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. and many trace minerals and micronutrients.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors. see Chapter 7. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Iodine. dissolving.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. skin care products. hair products. each bearing an expanded blade. algin. Description Vesicles large. (For additional information. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. benefits the skin.

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southern India and Sri Lanka. dandruff. creams. and similar skin problems. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The flowers are in branched panicles. tropical habitats in dry soil. analgesic. shampoos. and lotions. wide. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. and antifungal. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. Antimicrobial properties. triterpenoids. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. antioxidant. antipyretic. and alkaloid. Approximately 30 species have been identified.

Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. odor fragrant.) Burman F. Glycyrrhizae Radix. When taken on an empty stomach. skin bleach. Constituents Essential oil.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. and cleansers. flavonoids. It is aromatic and astringent. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. Liquorice Root. giving relief. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. phenolic acids. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. taste aromatic. and Hungary. dilute it with water. bacteriastatic. cleanse the skin. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. Sweet Wood. Properties Healing antiseptic. southern Europe. Russia. skin creams. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. distinctive. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). and close the pores.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis.

Its odor is distinctive. Externally. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. antiphlogistic. Anti-inflammatory. it is yellow and radiate. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. antibacterial. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. it is externally pale yellow. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. including dermatitis. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. longitudinally wrinkled. Properties Good for skin eruptions. eczema. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anti-infectant. antihepatotoxic. its taste is sweetish. pruritus. The upper portion is more or less knotty. sometimes split longitudinally. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. antiviral. Internally. and cysts. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. when deprived of the outer corky layer. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. Internally. somewhat tapering. antiseptic. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter.

Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. glabrolide. bracts Flowers. licuraside. bracts N/S Flowers. Linn Tree. licoricone. licochalcones A and B. neoisoliquiritin. kumatakenin. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. lignin.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. glyzarin. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. Europe. liquiritin. liquiritigenin. licoric acid.). bracts N/S Flowers. 4’. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. rhamnoisoliquiritin.). neoliquiritin. 2 to 20% starch. Basswood. B-amyrin. White Wood. glabrol. glabrone. echinatin. limestone. 4-hydroxychalcone. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. licoisoflavones A and B.7-dihydoxyflavone. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. sterols. isoliquiritin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glycyrol. licoisoflavanone. etc. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. gum wax.). etc. glabronin etc. isoglabrolide. amino acids. amines. glycyrrhetol. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. formononetin. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. On hydrolysis. coumarins.

Emollient.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. For bruises and to reduce swelling. or approach yellow. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaf-like bract. linear. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. which are axillary. odor is agreeable. When fresh. are oblong or lanceolate. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. when dry. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. faint. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. Internally. The petals are five and whitish.

gum. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. cultivated in central and southern Europe. creams. D. J. Coumarins. and perfumes. dark green.5 to 1. high amount of uronic acid. The fruit is a cremocarp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The rhizome and root are aromatic.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. kaempferol). lotions. mucilage. tannins. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. caffeic). volatile oil. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. sterols. Description Lovage has large. naturalized in North America. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage. Smallage. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. Maggi Herb.0% volatile oil. W. and resin are also present.

*INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. The rhizomes are horizontal. and with blackish roots. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. phenolic acids and their sulfates. tannin. quinic acid. adiantoxide. The odor is slight. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. and then into several spreading pinnae. They consist of long. Properties In rinses. slender. Constituents Adiantone. primary forks. blackish. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. astragalin. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pedately branching at the summit. and shining frond bases. first into two recurving. mucilage. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA.

flowers. thick. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. The flower heads have a short. greenish-gray bracts. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. and fruits. Mary-bud.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. mostly ligulate. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. and insect bites. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. Useful in eye preparations. curved peduncle. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. The blade is cordate at the base. Relieves itching. Emollient for sensitive skin. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. and slightly elevated. the veins are palmate. Medicinally used in cough preparations. The individual flowers are yellow. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. niacin. The taste is mucilaginous. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. naturalized in North America. British Columbia to Mexico. The odor is not distinct. hairy. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. the veins are elevated. These flowers are oblanceolate. and phenolic acids. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . protective. The texture is herbaceous. distinct. spasmodic colitis. Holligold. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. blotchiness. Properties Soothing and softening. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT

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The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root

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MELISSA

yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops

Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.

Melissa

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MIMOSA

151

Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.

MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root

Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.

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MISTLETOE

Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb

Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)

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MULLEIN

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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers

Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied

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MYRRH

Mullein (plant)

to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin

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antifungal. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. Myrrh is used in incense. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. carminative. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. The taste is pungent. mildly expectorant. It is said to bring forth the gods. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . engler) The surface is dull. diaphoretic. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. It is said to promote granulation. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. and anti-inflammatory. The fracture is conchoidal. diuretic. Used for halitosis. and acrid. powdery. sore throats. The odor is aromatic. bitter.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. for example. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum.

and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . geraniol. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil.2 to 0.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. camphene.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. and nerol).5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. on bruises and hemorrhoids. cineole. creamy white flowers. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds. Constituents Yields 0. and blue-black berries.

. serotonin). Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .N NASTURTIUM ... and for cutaneous eruptions. See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L..... which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed.. beta-carotene. flowering from June to September... armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. choline. nervous eczema. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll.. and epistaxis malaena. sterols. (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle.. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy. dull-green plant... and isorhamnetin)... and in gardens. common to Europe and the United States. Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant... acetyl choline...... Nettles has been used as an astringent. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic. Urtica urens L. Description This plant is a perennial. formic and citric acids.. amines (histamine. minerals (high amount). herbaceous. growing in waste places.. Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant.. by woodsides.... kaempferol. in hedges.. Stimulates hair growth..

.

a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. a scar or. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. Odor slight. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. the base somewhat contracted. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. rarely. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. the apex pointed. tapering toward each end. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. and the Yukon. up to 1. Texas. thinly membranous. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . above the center.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. taste starchy.O OATS Avena sativa L. Florida. within the groove a narrow. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. two-veined palet or scale.

It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. lignified. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. some of which give rise to unicellular. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. rarely over 25 ft in height. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. highly refringent and truncate. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. these are elongated thick-walled. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. polyphenols. the cells filled with protein. Properties Benefits the skin. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. lignified walls. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. shingles. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. The leaves are opposite. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. bent here and there. avenacin). the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. The drug tastes bitter. straight or slightly curved. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. elliptical stomata up to about 0. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. pointed hairs. Medically. Description The tree is small. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. sleeplessness. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. subsessile. and herpes. partially beaded. entire and coriaceous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. eczema. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. less heavily developed tissue. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative.

M. et al. 2. 513. hypoglycemic. 1991. 57. ligustroside. also hollow. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. antifungal. 1992. 1..ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. 58. ll-demethyl oleuropein. and antimicrobial.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. Planta Med.2 m high... ONION Allium cepa L. Zarzuelo. hypotensive. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. 417.. hypoglycemic. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yellow globe. Gonzalez. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. few of them have been studied experimentally. 7. Planta Med. diuretic. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. up to about 1. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. A. and red globe onions. et al. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe.

162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. Description Leaves. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Flowers. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. introduced to Europe. very sweet-scented. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. 2 to 2 cm long. with bitter rind and sour flesh. Fruit. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. oblong-oval. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. alkyl and alkenylcysteines. 1-propenesulfenic acid. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. fructans. reddish-orange. white. 7 to 8 cm globular. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acute. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides.

Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. somewhat curved. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. more astringent than rose water. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. flavonoids.5%). inner surface whitish. furanocoumarins. var. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. considerable amounts of pectin. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. odor fragrant and aromatic. nobiletin. the sugar component of which. with limonene as main constituent.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. non-bitter flavonoids. tangeretin. with many slight. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations.2 to 0. rutoside. minute pits. It is also given internally. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. and bitter substances. 0. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. aromatic wash. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). fracture hard. conical projections and linear. short. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. taste aromatic and bitter. used for oily skin and acne. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. such as hesperidin. neohesperidose (2-0. Constituents Essential oil (ca. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. sinensis L. taste pungently aromatic. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. citral. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. odor fragrant. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. sinensis Osbeck. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . skin creams for its flavonoids. It is also an aromatic. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. quercetin. naringin. globules of volatile oil. citronellal. bitter and carminative. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. Cultivated in Florida and California. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. and hesperidin. Flavonoids.

1 to 3 cm across vertically. Exerpt from German Commission E. magnesium tartrate. but sometimes up to twice as long.g. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. tannin.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. impetigo. anthocyanidin glycosides. rutin. galacturonic acid. eczema. leafy. tocopherol. but often palmately lobed with a larger. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. stipules variable. antipyretic. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. lance-shaped entire middle lobe.P PANSY Viola tricolor L.. spur short. anti-inflammatory. p-coumaric acid. and carotenoids. very variable in size. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. gaultherin. scoparine. acne. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. mucilage. meadows. flavonoids. Leaves variable. saponins. Properties Used as a healing tonic. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Essential oil. pruritus. Description Flowers mostly tricolored. Petals usually longer than the sepals. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. e. arabinose. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. rheumatism. Monograph 6. violutoside. usually little longer than the calyx appendages.

and minerals. which resembles sinigrin. with large. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). The fruit is a large melon-like. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. long petioled. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). Carpaine. The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. C14H2502N. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. carpinine (an alkaloid). vitamins. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. edible berry up to about 15 lb. Naturalized in southern Florida. shampoos. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. staminate and pistillate flowers. etc.

Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. Veget.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vent. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. and B. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. Odor faint. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. ms = latex tubes. Kr´ = crystal rosettes. (After T. kr = individual crystals. q = group of large fibers. margin dentate to crenate. papyrifora. m = outer lamella.F.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. Regn. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. taste woody and characteristic. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. p = parenchyma. Tabl.2-benzenediol. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels.

diuretic. p-mentha-1. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. fruit. ex A. apiin. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. antirheumatic. Apium petroselinum. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. above-ground herb.) Nym. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. Belgium. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. and Hungary. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. isopimpenillin. Other parts of the plant contain 0.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. psoralen. compound umbels. spasmolytic. and imperatorin. expectorant. stout. taste faintly sweet. aromatic. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. extensively cultivated in California. fruit. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. B-phellandrene (12%). Germany.3. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. and antimicrobial. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hortense. France.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. above-ground herb. (Mill. sativum. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown. apiole (18%). trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. and others. Odor characteristic. green. W. P. Furocoumarins including bergapten. emmenagogue. and starch.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. 8-methoxypsoralen. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin.8-triene (9%). The commissural surface is slightly channeled. The tap root is fusiform.05 to 0. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp.

The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. rosemarinic). The calyx is campanulate. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. and the veins are slightly depressed. The nodes are enlarged. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. The cortex and wood are thin.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. the texture is fibrous. antiseptic. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). Nova Scotia to Minnesota. spasmolytic. and solid or hollow. The under surface is light green. large. broad. carminative. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. its five teeth are subulate. tonic. The apex is acute. The stems are simple or branched. its color varies from light to dark purple.5 cm in length and to 3. as it contains flavonoids. The blade measures up to 7. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. and minerals. and the color varies from green to purple. menthone (10 to 40%). notably viridoflorol. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). The outline is quadrangular. triterpenes. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. south to Florida and Alabama. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. flavonoids (luteolin. hair tonics. menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). the leaves are opposite decussate. and the veins are slightly depressed. menthofuran. hesperidin). and the veins are more prominent. cultivated in Japan and the United States. Properties Stimulant. sitosterols. They measure up to 9. The odor is aromatic. The flowers are arranged in dense.3 cm in width.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. phenolic acids (caffeic. The under surface is light green. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. chlorogenic. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. cineole. four-lobed above. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. naturalized in North America. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. ursolic acid. rutin. interrupted spikes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The corolla is united and tubular below. cholagogue. mildly sedative. The pith is white. The bracts are lanceolate. the internodes are of variable length. The margin is sharply serrate. The fracture is tough and incomplete.

however.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. native of Europe.5 to 3 cm broad. Description Stem spreading. a standardized extract should be used. entire. tannins. and ursolic acid. the lobes obovate. Properties Used as a hemostatic. shining. 1. truncate. in Connecticut. and Georgia. vulnerary sedative. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. trailing. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. hypotensive. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. dark green. corolla blue. 1 to 6 dm long. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. flavonoids. Has also been used to stop external bleeding. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). as well as Europe. Vinca contains vincamine. hypoglycemic. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. Minnesota. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. leaves ovate to oblong. they are different. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. astringent. firm. vasodilator.

Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. and abruptly narrowed into a long. Properties Astringent. Vessels are absent. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . arising from a fibrous root. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. parahydroxybenzoic acid. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. swellings. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. smoothish. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. it has a density varying from about 0. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. tannins. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. malonic acid. cuts. pinnicorretin. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. very small. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. long. pinitol. quinic acid. campesterol. channeled petiole. and insect bites. dihydroquercetin. In a radial surface. and applied to sores. Plantago major L. aromatics. dark band of autumn wood. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. somewhat toothed. It flowers from May to October. and in grass plats. shikimic acid. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. quercetin. The stamens and styles are long. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. raffinose sequoyitol. abietic acid. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. imbricated. and is common in Europe and America. balsamic. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. leaving smooth surfaces. ferulic acid. The medullary rays. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). The flowers are white. which are the medullary rays. five. The leaves are ovate.35 to 0. numerous. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. growing in rich. by the roadsides. the seeds numerous. Constituents Contains oils. in fields. Ripple-grass. n-nonacosane. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. dihydro-beta-sitosterol.to seven-nerved. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. moist places.

Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. and for cell proliferation.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). and palmitic acids). fixed oil (linoleic. and phenolic acids. sterols. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. tannins. apigenin. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. polysaccharides. asperuloside. they both have the same virtues. Constituents Mucilage. catapol. aucubin. essential oils. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. allantoin. apparently. balcalin. for healing. oleic.

F.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro.. 2. Nihon Univ. 4.. V. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . galangin. galagin. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester. antiviral. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. 1. 1987. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. ArnzneimittleForschung. 3. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. 1980. and caffeic acid.2 Constituents Resin. Magro Filboo.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. pinocembrin... 1847. wax. and pinobanksin. 32(1). 1990. Tyler. balsam. Dent. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. et al. pollen. essential oils. Philadelphia. 30(1).E. Hiadon B. de Carvalho Ac. and anti-inflammatory.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial.. Stickley Co. and pinobanksin). Sch. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. fungicidal. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. The New Honest Herbal. G. J.

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with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. channels. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. these species appear to resemble that of Q. taste very acrid and unpleasant. odor slight sternutatory. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. inner surface yellowish-brown. Historically. Description In flat pieces of variable size. Upon microscopic examination. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . coarsely fibrous. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. conical projections or transverse. Bolivia. longitudinally striate.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. Smegmandermos deC. and Peru. fracture uneven. outer surface nearly white. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. finely wrinkled. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. * Formerly CTFA. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. and occasional circular depressions. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips.

or compound quilled. The bark is flat or chip-like. and to 6 mm in diameter. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. tannins. are used. cinchonine. The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. and volatile oils. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. its important alkaloids. Internally. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). partially quilled. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is not distinct. quinine and quinidine. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). a neutral saponin. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10.8 dm in length. quinamine). free acids (quinic acid). overlapping quilled. which is nearly always chip-like. The root. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. The fracture is tough and uneven. shallowly fissured transversely. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. calcium oxalate sugars. cinchonidine. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. quinidine. Ecuador.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. to 7 cm in width. Remineralizing protein. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). quilled. uronic acids. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. gypsogenin.

triangularly compressed. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. It is also used as a suspending agent. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. being coated with mucilage.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. ovoid or oblong. present in the epidermis of the testa. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. with water. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass.

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benzyl alcohol. then slightly bitter. * Formerly CTFA. Medicinally. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. daidzein. biochanin A. petals united into a tube below. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. style slender. phenolic acids. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. shriveled. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. calyx teeth subulate. fatty acids. starch. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. and esters. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. sitosterol. volatile oil. Mildly anti-spasmodic. taste sweetish. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. Constituents Flavonoids. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. Properties Historically. genistein. contains over 40 compounds. and furfural. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. phenolic acids. eugenol. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. including methyl salicylate. tapering. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). purplish and more or less brown from drying. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). volatile oil. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L.

hair rinse. and are then employed in the fresh state. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. etc. inflorescence short-racemose. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. By drying. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. double-serrate. ovate. The numerous veins run from the base toward.15 to 0. armed with bristles or weak prickles. they are smooth and shining above. lotions. erect. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. somewhat smaller. with an entire margin. rounded or cordate at the base. finely tomentose when young. thimble-shaped. Quinoline alkaloids. when fresh. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. fruit red. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. with a short. Maine. those of the floral branches threefoliolate.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. Description Stem biennial. light-colored. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. Rhode Island. and Minnesota. doubtfully indigenous to England. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. emollient. dark violet claw. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. such as hand creams. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Properties Soothing. mainly rhoeadine. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. They have. leaving a space about 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. shortacuminate. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches.

The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. and North American coastal rainforests. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. and inflammations. granoderan A. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. malic acid. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. and C. protein. succinic acid. riboflavin. gallic acid. Miraculous chi. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. ellagic acid. have been isolated. nervousness. hepatitis. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. lactic acid. Ergosterol derivatives. mouth ulcers.). Note: However. insomnia. antioxidant. fragarine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Internally. and beta-carotene. thiamine. China. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. Happy Herb. Constituents Ascorbic acid. B. Auspicious Herb. Ling-Zhi (Chin. minerals. and antibacterial properties. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. consult a qualified physician before using. Japan. it comes in various sizes and shapes. A series of tritepenoids. and chest and heart diseases. Constituents Polysaccharides. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. Dried and whole. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape.

fibrous. which has numerous branches. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. The odor is not characteristic. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. and it tapers into the main root. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. The texture of the cortex is granular. that of the wood. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. and P. very tough and hackly. rough and scaly. of the larger roots.5 cm in diameter at the crown. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. The color is dull reddish-brown.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. of the larger roots. dark reddish-brown. The taste is astringent. of the wood. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed.

which when carefully shaved off. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. the cortex has been removed. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. to give a good appearance. about 5 mm wide. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. immediately within the secondary xylem. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. If the trimming has been very severe. face creams. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. showing that they are leaf traces. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. etc. officinale. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. after-shave lotions.5 mm long. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. parenchymatous matrix. and N-methyltyrosine. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. The smoothed.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. each being filled by a number of fine vertical.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. ratanine). Within the cambium is a ring. in the form of a fine yellow powder. tannins (proanthocyanidines). mouth wash. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. II. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. Dark areas may still be found here and there. In the periphery of the pith. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. barrel-shaped or conical. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. After removing the powder. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. III. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. Constituents Gum. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic.

8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. but in one investigation. A very complex mixture is present.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. This is applied to the hair and left to dry. due to the bitter taste. chrysophanol.and 7-0-glucosides. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. With its high tannin content. the fractured surface. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). and compact.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives.5% calculated as rhein). usually 3 to 5% (Ph. also (+)-catechin 5. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. the mechanism is described under Aloes. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. of which many aglycones have been identified. when chewed. (+)-afzelechin. The predominant aglycone varies. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. aloeemodin. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. and (+)-gallocatechin.Eur. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. it is used as a stomachic. Flavonoids. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. heavy. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. min. rhein. astringent taste. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. It is then rinsed out. and physcion. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. 2. it is very gritty between the teeth. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it is often rhein. In small amounts. In most cases. Barbados. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B.

and procyanidins. Minor constituents are citral. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. French Rose. phenylethyl alcohol. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. pink. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. glycerol.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. l-linalool. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. L. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. gallic acid. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. it can be prepared by using rose oil. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. 5 to 10%. filter. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. free and in combined forms with glucose. odor fragrant and rose-like. however. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. and traces of carvone. One example would be rose water. Tannins. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. taste sweetish. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. slightly bitter. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. approx. catechins. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia.0. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. and astringent.

epicatechin. Constituents Ascorbic acid. and zeaxanthin. invert sugars. sessile. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. rubidium. tannins. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. vanillin. mildly astringent. pectin. lycopene. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. leucoanthocyanins. they are refrigerant. it will add highlights to light hair. capric acid. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. When combined with various other hair preparations. catechin-tannins. low. boron. gallocatechin. sucrose. protein. essential oil. succinic acid. Wild Brier.5 to 3. linoleic acid. malic acid. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. linolenic acid.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. evergreen. Description The fruit of R. alpha-tocopherol. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. rubixanthin. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. opposite. The achenes themselves are hairy. xanthophyll. flavonoids. much branched. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. isoquercitrin.2 cm wide. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions.5 cm in length and up to 2. and slightly diuretic. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. kaempferol-3-glucoside. magnesium. citric acid. coriaceous. Description A bushy.

taste pungently aromatic. diosmin. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. and showing a prominent midrib. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. creams. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. hair conditioners. lotions. stimulant. rosmarinic acid. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. lower surface wooly. Topically. borneol. flavonoids. and bitter. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . odor aromatic. phenolic acids. camphoraceous. The extract can be used in shampoos. tannin. Constituents Essential oil. diaphoretic. protein. etc. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. Properties Tonic. camphor. astringent. glandular-punctate. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. characteristic.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. it is used to increase circulation. The oil is used in fragrances. margin revolute. boron. and triterpenic acids.

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fungistatic. It is antibacterial. Leaves opposite. caryophyllene.5 cm in length. From an underground fibrous root system.6 cm in breadth. flavonoids. taste aromatic and bitter. the reticulations being very small. 1 to 2. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. Properties Cosmetically. Sage Garden Sage. densely pubescent. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. 2 to 10 cm in length. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. to 1 ft high. astringent. carminative. and tannins. texture velvet-like. beta-sitosterol. In early summer. the upper branches bear blue. carnosolic acid. base rounded or subcordate. stimulating. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). lamina elliptical. midrib and veins prominent. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. protein. there arises a grayish. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. linalool. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. antiseptic. ursolic acid. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. uneven or lobed. much branched. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. cineole. camphors. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . salvin. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. apex acute or obtuse. venation pinnate-reticulate. pinene. borneol. saponins. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. petiole up to 4. phenolic acids. thujone. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. Constituents Volatile oil. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. estrogenic compounds. margin crenulate. long petiolate. pubescent stem with branches opposite. and disinfectant (against inflammations).

being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. The taste is slightly bitter. o. the odor strong and fragrant. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. and for the manufacture of boxes. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract.973 to 0. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. wounds. burns. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. astringent. It is also used in perfumery. hemostatic. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. palmately lobed leaves. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. In Yellow Sandal Wood. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands.r. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. pectoral. heavy. hemorrhoids. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. of which it contains over 90%. Asia Minor. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. 0. gr.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. and a stomachic. carvings. North and South America. Black Snakeroot. L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and inflammed skin. and lotions. and similar articles. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. depurative. and dense. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . White Sandal Wood. vulnerary. and erect. or as a perfume. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. but easily split. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. hard. alterative. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%.985. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. –13° to –21°). *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color.and -santalols). Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. the vessels are mostly solitary.

Mucilage. saponin. essential oil. and a bitter principle. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. resin. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids.

from 1. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name.5 cm in diameter. Dark Palmetto. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . externally brownish-black to bluish-black.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid. smooth and somewhat oily. occasionally compressed.

aromatic. apex marked by the scar of the style. it is coarsely striated longitudinally. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar.. and lotions. south to Florida and Texas. lauric acid. ellipsoidal or ovoid.. myristic acid. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside.7 dm in width. were eaten by the Indians.. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids.. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. which measure up to 3 dm in length. et al.... Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. The fracture is very strong.. beta-sitosterol. and stearic acid..See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich. and incomplete. 1983. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. and to 1. or as cut and sawed pieces.. taste sweetish.. 1.. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. aromatic. Pharm.. skin creams. somewhat flattened.. Franc. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity. lipase. when cork patches are present. The odor is distinct. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases. palmitic acid. tough. mannitol. Odor pronounced. inner layer of endocarp smooth. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp.. SEAWEED. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles. Ann.. They are said to be very nutritious. and to 3 mm in thickness.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large.. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp.. arabinose. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown..6 dm in thickness..P. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Properties Sabal berries.. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity. a native of the southern United States. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. to 17 cm in width. reddish-brown seed. enclosing a hard.. sito sterols. ferulic acid. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. 41. and slightly acrid. Constituents Anthranilic acid.. oleic acid. caproic acid. such as anorexia nervosa... to 1.. Tarayre.1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions.. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota.. J.. Ulmus rubra Muhl.. capric acid... 559..

Description Glabrous perennial. and wounds. chemicals that foam when added to water. native from Europe. Soap Wort produces a gentle. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. pentosans. polysaccharides. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. Massachusetts. It can be used to emulsify oil. protein. New Mexico. L-rhamnose. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. petals pink or white. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. Can be used in creams. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). minerals.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. and tannin. hair conditioners. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hexosan. soothing. leaves oval or ovate. 1 to 5. capsule oblong. and tannins. Colorado. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. North Carolina. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. Colorado. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. tannin (minute). calyx tubular. healing. New Brunswick. and Saskatchewan. ulcers. Florida. boils. blades obcordate. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. starch. 3 to 5 ribbed. Nova Scotia. 5 to 8 cm long. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. etc. lotions. starch. and other beverages. d-galacturonic acid. stem 3 to 6 dm high. and beta-carotene. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places.2 cm long.

astringent. Properties Used as a nervine. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. 5 to 10 dm high. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. the outer linear-lanceolate. acute or acuminate. poultices. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. John’s Wort ing. Constituents Essential oil. 4 to 6 cm long. native to Europe. slightly tomentose beneath. glandular-punctate. tonics. with revolute margins. toothed above the middle on one side. capsule ovoid. isofraxidin. bracts canescent. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. choline. flowers cymose. 1 to 3 cm long. and anodyne. conditioners. chlorogenic acid. tannin. emmenagogue. umbelliferone. scopoletin. lower leaves petioled. rutin. and superficial burns. uterine tonic. obtuse. petals obovate. 10 to 12 mm long. Manitoba. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. quebrachitol. Virginia. having antibacterial properties. British Columbia. ST. leaves linear to oblong. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. ray florets about 10. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. bruises. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. California. and scopolin. Medically. guanine. frostbite. leaves.ST. etc. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. and for skin conditions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Used in aromatic baths. and anthelmintic. 2 to 10 mm wide. antiseptic. uric acid. the rest broadly oval. scarious. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. corolla 2 to 2. St. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. heads numerous. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. disk-florets 15 to 20. stimulant. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. caffeic acid. Nova Scotia.5 cm broad. disinfectant. Colorado.

and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. flavonoids. and Virginia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. Manitoba. mannitol. hypericin-like substances.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. protein. hypericin. phenolic acids.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. Newfoundland. tannins. resin sitosterol. hyperoside. John’s Wort St. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. New Mexico. saponin.

Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. seldom over 1. condensed tannins). scape slender.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. fatty acids.5 dm high. and phenolic acids. rhombic-obovate.5 cm long. quercetin). ellagitannins. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. sharply and deeply serrate. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. fruit elongate-ovoid. 5 to 7.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . seldom much exceeding the leaves. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. very rarely leafy-bracteate. mostly acute. very thin. very soon glabrate on both sides.

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It has a stout. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. Also said to be an insect repellant. tannin. The entire leaf is about 6 in. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. fern-like leaves and yellow. 1 to 3 ft high. flat-topped. somewhat reddish. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. and spasmolytic. resin. button-like flowers. The roundish. * Formerly CTFA. carminative. Parsley Fern. are collected at the time of flowering. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. sesquiterpenes. Ginger plant.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. Scented Fern. tanacetin. Bitter buttons. The leaves and flowering tops. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. phenolic acid. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. anthelminitic. erect stem. English Cost. usually smooth. and quercetin. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. and branching near the top. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. button-like. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

insect bites. abrasions. and Australia. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. fruit. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. including treatments for sunburn. while cineole is low (about 2. athlete’s foot. boils. upcurved. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L.5%). terpinene. and the like. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. lanceolate. stings. pimples. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. Description A stiff. lice. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol.0 ml high. thickets. either singly or with other ingredients. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. and dense. capsule. New South Wales. with a broad range of health claims. Over-wintering leaves.5 to 2. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. 0. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. ringworm. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. streamsides. and vaginal infections. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. cuts. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. spongy. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. sore throat. constantly renewable tree. oral infections. scabies. burns. It is found in numerous product forms. abrasions. cymene). conical. sparingly branched biennial. Bark. bronchial congestion. in a flattened rosette. erect.

yellow spines. TX. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). It is said to contain saponins. flavonoids (keampferol. glucosides. Description Leaves spiny. Taste and odor.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. dark green. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. Flowerheads rayless. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. stems. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. Also used in homeopathy. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. American Botanical Councin. rare in Britain. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. and magnesium. Foster. fatty acids. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. Ed. St. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. S. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and tannins. Austin. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). 1. entire or toothed. 1955. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. The root and root stock are short and erect. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. Blessed Milk Thistle. Mary Thistle. quercetin. both orally and also by intravenous injection.. The injection gives better results. taxifolin). purple. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L.

It can be employed in creams. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. corolla yellow. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. subglobose. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. and reddish within. flavonoids. red or yellow. gargles. 0. ellipsoid. leaves two-pinnatifid. aspartic acid. Description Viscid-pubescent. menstrual disorder. somewhat fusiform. and California. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. glycine. and phytosterols. brown or blackish externally. glutamic acid. rinses. Florida. acne.5 to 1. diarrhea. or pear-shaped. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste.5 to 8 cm long. and sore throats. Colorado. antihemorrhagic.5 cm thick. conditioners. much branched. lobed. It can be incorporated into shampoos.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. ascorbic acid. glucose. and from 0. abscisic acid.5 to 10%. etc. 10 to 15 mm broad. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. facial muds. Constituents Proteins. that can be used for hemorrhoids. Texas. Properties Fruit: astringent. hair tonics. mouth rinse. stem 3 to 10 dm high. fruit through cultivation very variable. vitamins.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. from 2. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. to add sheen. sensitive skin. styptic. sore gums. and dentate. lycopene. New York. -hydroxy acids. branching and more or less curved. minerals. cystine. cyclohexanol.

Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. internally. and other tropical countries.. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). China. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Occasionally. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. caffeic. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. quinovic. tormentillin. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. longitudinally wrinkled. bluntly tapering at each end. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. They are hard and heavy. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. Curcuma. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). they bear short knob-like branches. a red pigment. Java. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. Indian Saffron. and break with a short fracture. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo.

2-7% essential oil. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. comprising mainly bisabolane. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. and anti-edemic. it colors the saliva yellow. and antimutagenic. hypotensive.. ukonan A. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. anti-arthritic. monodesmethoxycurcumin. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. curlone. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. antibacterial. ar-turmerone. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. It is also choleretic. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. etc. zingiberene. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. antifungal. is also present. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. guaiane. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). when chewed. but the coloring matter. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant.

Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. and spasmolytic. The taste is sweet. valerosidatum). and disagreeable. cultivated in Germany. alkaloids (valerianine. Cortex is thick. Wood is small. Constituents Essential oil. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. Roots are branched or simple.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. phenolic acids. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. actinidine). and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. pungent. Belgium and England. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. However. central and cylindrical. and valepotriates (valtrate. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. isovaltrate. and to 2 cm in diameter. relaxant. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. It is sedative. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. acevaltrate. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). simple or branched. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. fatty acids. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pith is white or grayish-white. The rhizome is vertical. and to 3 mm in diameter. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. and baldrinal. * Formerly CTFA.

206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

aucubin. ursolic acid. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). Simpler’s Joy. verbenelol. in addition to verbenin. and against sunburns. four-sided stem. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. straight. Wild Hyssop. tannin. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. caffeic acid. Verbena officinalis L.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. diuretic. long. volatile oil. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. anorexic (appetite suppressant). and superficial and limited burns. and Arizona. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . False Verbain. hastatoside. Description This rather rough. finely haired herb has an erect. meadows. 4 to 7 feet high. artemitin. Constituents Iridoids. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. contraceptive. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. verbenalin. gout remedy. Nebraska.

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Properties Tonic restorative. ophthalmia. scrofula. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. and varicose ulcers. depurative. The bark varies from nearly smooth. and edible. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. soft and coarse grained. west to Minnesota and Kansas. The kernel is sweet. irritation of the eyelid. open crown. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. astringent.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. blisters. The leaves are alternate. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. Juglans nigra L. *INCI Name . scabbing pruritus. rheumatism. gout. eczema. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. round-topped. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . deep. disinfectant. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. Used for skin complaints. vermifuge. The wood is light brown. * Formerly CTFA. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. oily. imparipinnate. glandular disturbances. styes. light gray on the branches and on older trunks.

it will strengthen and thicken hair. and Europe. Externally. about 2 mm long. its action being both detergent and healing. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). high in protein. Mexico. sepals oblong. 1. 4. phenylalanine.. arginine. British Columbia. ascorbic acid. cystine. beak about 1 mm long. alanine.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. ellagic acid. gluconasturtiin. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. tyrosine. destroying most of its active principles. Rubbing on scalp. West Indies. aspartic acid. somewhat curved. 3 mm thick. fruiting pedicels divaricate. many trace minerals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). threonine. valine. South America. it looks rather yellowish. about 4 mm long. Rheumatism and nervousness. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. Description Aquatic perennial. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. California. petals white.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). thiamine. spatulate. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. leucine. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. Clark. folacin. leaves pinnate. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. and diastase. amino acids. tannin. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. methionine.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. proline. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. -carotene. A Cure For All Cancers. hyperin. glycine. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. Virginia. glutamic acid. histidine.g. lysine. biotin.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. and kaempferol. caffeic acid. tumors. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. 5. protein. tryptophan. lymphatic or edematous swellings.

WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. Creeping Wheatgrass. sprouts. Dutch Grass. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. Fin’s Grass. Couch Grass. of young grass. Durfa Grass. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. Scutch Grass. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Quake Grass. Durfee Grass. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. Devil’s Grass. Twitch Grass. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. Quitch Grass.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in.

creams. externally pale brown.... amino acids. The flowering heads are produced from July to September.... surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached. and dried.. elongated. lotions....212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. flavonoids. and dermatitis.. insipid. thickets. often compressed. WHITE NETTLES. which are thickened at the joints.See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES.. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States.. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. bent and branched.. afterwards acrid.See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L. and phenolic acids.. 6 to 20 mm thick.. -carotene. Constituents Vitamins. creeping root stock... 1 to 3 ft high. Odorless. and hair conditioners.. Its smooth hollow stems. more or less detached. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous. taste starchy.. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat. thin outer layer. eczema. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled.. are produced from a long. The root stocks. Over 240 compounds have been identified. bearing scattered nodular projections.. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. with numerous small. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist. Description Knotted and woody. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout. fracture short but tough. collected in the spring... cut into small pieces about in. and stem scars on the upper surface. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. fatty acids. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root.. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish. yellowish wood bundles. Colic Root... an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer. long.. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos. are carefully cleaned.... scattered... trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes..

anti-inflammatory. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. it should be standardized for its salicin content. However. as it contains salicin. minerals. dioscin. ascorbic acid. shampoos. in older bark dull. and antipyretic. cortex composed of thin-walled. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. Constituents Steroidal saponins. It can be used in hair conditioners. dioscorin. triandrin. rinses. odor slightly aromatic. antiseptic. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. inner surface. longitudinally striated. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. endodermis distinct. and trace minerals. outer surface in young bark smooth. greenish-brown. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. yellowish-brown to dark brown. taste astringent and slightly bitter. irregularly wrinkled. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. Contains steroid-like substances. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. White Willow. fragilin. antirheumatic. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. diosgenin. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. fracture short fibrous. flavonoids. etc. vimalin). analgesic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). as this could vary among different manufacturers. slightly lignified parenchyma. naturalized sparsely in North America. salicortin. populin. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin.

and leaves Bark. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. tannin. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. Wych-hazel. leaves. Spotted Witch Alder. and polyphenols. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. esters. bark. Striped Alder. and borne on short stalks. forking branches with smooth. Winterbloom. scattering the shining black. long.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. thick. saponins. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. due to its high tannin content. yellow flowers. eastern Canada. flavonoids. when it bursts open. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. It has a crooked stem and long. Constituents Essential oil. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . brown bark. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. Description Witch Hazel. eastern United States. and alcohols.

Sweet Bugleweed. in length. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. Gypsy Herb. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. Water Bugle. Wolf Foot. and stachyerine. Green Archangel. but a disagreeable bitter taste. The whitish flowers. American Water Hoarhound. mint-like odor. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. pointed. and Nebraska. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. and bell-shaped. shady places from Canada to Florida. They are followed by four nutlets. The leaves are about 2 in. Gypsyweed.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. to 2 ft in height. including betonicine. Therefore. Externally. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. tublar. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. slender. Description This herb has long. Missouri. Carpenter’s Herb. are small. Gypsywort. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. Constituents Alkaloids. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . smooth. rather narrow. Paul’s Betony. bitter. erect stem from 6 in. Purple Archangel. which appear from about July to September. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. The plant has a rather pleasant.

monotropein. coumarin. forwardpointing bristles. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. Description A short perennial. anti-arthritic. when dry. pointed leaves edged with tiny. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . in loose clusters. calming. Odor. antiseptic. with slender. tannin. etc. antineuralgic. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. Used in aromatherapy. vermouths. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. anti-inflammatory. unbranched. citric acid. quadrangular. astringent. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. soothing to the nerves. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. with four petal lobes. white. of new-mown hay. Flowers small. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. wines. bitters. and the iridoids asperuloside.

which are from 2 to 5 in. the inner linear with membranous margins. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Absinth. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . are divided into small leaflets. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. Flower heads greenish-yellow. Odor aromatic. -carotene. choleretic. and antipyretic. long. camphene. Madderwort. the florets tubular. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. consist of numerous small. and anthelmintic. chamazulene. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. Mingwort. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. Old Woman. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. It is cultivated in some localities. 2 to 3 mm long. insignificant. tannins. the lower lobe is petiolate. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. used as an external antiseptic. artabsin. Description This shrubby. two to three pinnately divided. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. thujyl alcohol. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. especially in Michigan and Indiana. Also used to clean atonic wounds. taste bitter. yellow heads. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. and the grayish-green leaves. rutin. Constituents Essential oil. p-coumaric acid. drooping. anthelmintic. Bitter stomachic. aromatic. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. isovaleric acid. protein. absinthin. thujone. approximately 100 identified constituents.

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. Carpenter Grass. Old-Man’sPepper. Thousand-leaf...... and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada.... Closely related forms occur in the western states.. pastures.. feathery.... Green Arrow. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic... Gordoloba.. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small..... 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Dog Daisy.. astringent.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L. Nosebleed... Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in.....Y YAM. dark green leaves. Cammock. antipyretic. white flower heads. diuretic... It has a strong odor... high and has many finely divided... Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields. Yarrow Milfoil.. Sanguinary. From June to September..... *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium.. hypotensive. Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing. and is urinary antiseptic... Bloodwort. Soldiers’ Woundwort.. Thousand-Leaf Clover.. It * Formerly CTFA.

phenolic acids. it is also used in hair care preparations. among rubbish heaps. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. achillin). Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. it is stomachic. Broad-leaved Dock Root. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. Broad-leaved Rumex. injuries. camphor. bearing numerous. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. and cholagogue. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. Internally. Curled Dock Root. carminative. flavonoids.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. in cultivated as well as in waste ground. and furrowed stem. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. It has been used for cuts. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and varicose ulcers. and tannin. angular. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. and along roadsides. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. spasmolytic. blue colored chamazulene). YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. long. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. alkaloids (achilleine).

from 6 to 8 in. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. in length. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. yellowish cortex. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. Consumptive’s Weed. sores. swellings. lapathinic acid. they become rusty brown. nepodin. Gum Plant. with few or no rootlets. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. usually from 8 to 12 in. emodin. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. chrysophanic acid. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. while the upper leaves are narrower.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. long. with long stalks. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. only 3 to 6 in. and pale radially split wood. The root is large and fleshy. These are followed by the fruits. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. As the clusters ripen. Bear’s Weed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. short stemmed or stemless. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. and carefully dried. in length. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains.The root. They are washed. et Tor. protein. tapering or spindle shaped. and eruptive diseases. psoriasis. and tannin. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt.

) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. eriodictyol. tannin. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. acetic acid. eriodictyonic acid. The rather showy. dark green. and the Congo. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. essential oil. butyric acid. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. cerotic acid. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. and eriodyctyonine. chrysoeriodictyl. Schum. Constituents Resin. The narrow. Gabon. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K.

at low doses. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent.1 Yohimbine. coarsely filiferous. and protein. minerals. 1. sometimes 2 dm long. tigogenin. pendent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Yucca contains saponins. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. Torr Yucca brevifolia. Description Low. spreading. samogenin. leaves rigid. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. hence its aphrodisiac effect. is sympatholytic. Arizona. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. It is also being used for arthritis internally. oblong or conical-ovoid. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. about 7. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. the most important of which is yohimbine. Personal communication.5 cm long. Soap Yucca Root. concave. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. and Nevada. shagreen roughened. with narrow brown margins. however. saponin. L. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. Constituents Sarsapogenin. sepals and petals lanceolate. Colorado. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. 1998. the major alkaloid. Soap Weed. Texas. smilagenin. pseudo-. fruit large. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. YUCCA Yucca baccata. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. Roezl. allo-. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. It also contains corynanthine.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. elongate. Kansas. Kronenthal. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. fleshy.. R. tannin. and epiallo-yohimbine. style slender.

224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. Oak. See “Folklore” section. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. not essential oil. Hemp. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. However. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. Hops See “Folklore” section. Dark brown contains juglone. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. The botanical extract. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. Henna Used to dye hair red.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. Galls Used to dye the hair black. Lavender See “Folklore” section. The leaves contain buxine. makes an excellent hair rinse. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp.

The tincture is used as a hair restorer. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. Can be used in deodorants. make it soft and shiny. borneol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. and mouthwashes. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. The extract contains thymol. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. it will darken the hair. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. Vitamins A and D. Combined with rosemary. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. and linalol. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. It is antiseptic. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. Lemony fragrance. leaving it silky and glossy. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. Contains a yellow dye. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. The essential oil is used to add sheen. and some protein. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. See Stinging Nettle. and help keep it free of dandruff. See Lichwort. A source of potassium and iodine. It also helps to remineralize. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on.

Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp. It is said that when blended with rosemary. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

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Horsechestnut. Violet. Yarrow. Rosemary. Sandalwood. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Artichoke. Witch Hazel. Tomato. Rosemary. Sandal Wood. Onion. Rhatany. Birch. Calendula. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Orris. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Lavender. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Pineapple. Lemon. Raspberry. Chamomile. Inc. Nasturtium. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Comfrey. Rosemary. Lady’s Mantle. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Artichoke. Rose. Hops. Lemon. Tilia. White Willow. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Bayberry. Garlic. Proanthocyanidins. in various vehicles as water. Cinnamon Agrimony. Bayberry. Lemon. Rosemary. Milk Thistle. Lemon. Slippery Elm. Uva Ursi Quassia. Orange Peel. Sage. Chaparral. oil. Pansy. Vinca Minor. Burdock. Horsechestnut Papaya. powders or extracts. Yarrow. Golden Seal. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Oats. refer to the index). Peppermint. Calendula. either when applied topically or taken internally. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Sage. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Benzoin. Nettles. Papaya. Cardamom Seed. Hops. Quassia. Arnica. Cucumber. Parsley Broom Flowers. Myrrh. Burdock. Wild Indigo.3-butylene glycol. Corn Flower. Oak Bark. Tumeric. Lavender. Myrrh. Southernwood. Myrtle. Ginkgo. Witch Hazel. Bay Laurel. Plantain. Thyme. Thyme. Eucalyptus. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Wild Alum. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. 1. Bladderwrack. Calendula. etc. ethanol. Black Walnut. Tormentil. propylene glycol. Juniper Berries. Lemon Grass. Grapefruit. Asparagus. White Lily. Anise. Balsam Peru. Fenugreek. Myrrh. Rosemary. Comfrey. Soap Root. Arnica Lemon. Soap Bark. Althea. Chamomile. Bistort. Lavender. Thyme. Echinacea. Chamomile. that is. Nettles. White Willow. Hawthorn Angelica. glycerin. Birch.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Bilberry.

Cantharides. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. rinses. Quince Seed. Witch Hazel. Southernwood. Coriander. Butchers Broom Chaparral. dark Hair. Fenugreek. Red Clover. Flax Horsetail Grass. Malva Flowers. Plantain. White Willow Bark. Nettles. Witch Hazel Bark. Sage. Capsicum. Citronella. Calendula Oil. Rosemary. Lemon Peel. Slippery Elm. Comfrey. Comfrey. Oats. Nettles. etc. Pansy. Melilote. Capsicum. Citrus Bioflavonoid. Horseradish. Sage. Red Poppy. Feverfew. Eucalyptus. Bayberry Bark. Echinacea various oils. Chickweed. Dandelion. Calendula. Thyme. Brown Henna Rosemary. Rhatany. Comfrey. Rosemary. Golden Seal. Capsicum Bistort. Hops Chamomile. Lemon Peel. Comfrey. Southernwood. Chaparral. Parsley. Quince. Golden Seal. Elder. Orange Flowers. Golden Seal. Sage Jaborandi. Pine Tar. Oak Bark. Pilewort. Neem. Pansy. Yarrow. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Catnip Bayberry. Orange Peel. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Red Henna. Mullein Flowers. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Fennel. Basil. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Southernwood. Eyebright. Cucumber Chamomile. White Willow Aloe Vera. Rosemary. Jaborandi. to add sheen Hair. Lavender. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Anise Rosemary. Peach Leaf. Camphor. Chamomile. Chamomile. Onion. Primula Flowers. Patchouli. Fenugreek. Quinine. to relieve Nails. Corn Flower Water. Black or Neutral Henna. to add highlights Black Walnut. Chamomile. Flax. Cleavers. Comfrey. Chamomile. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Thyme. Yellow Dock. Lavender. Grapefruit. Quince Seed. Cedar. Centella. Rose. Capsicum. Elder. Thyme. to add highlights Marigold. Yarrow. Sage. Comfrey. Pansy. conditioners. Orris Root. Jaborandi. Broom. Basil. Orange Flowers. Raspberry. Horsechesnut. Comfrey Root. Echinacea. Chamomile. Echinacea. Althea. Rosemary. split ends Scalp. Cowslip. Phytoplenolin®. Capsicum. Cade. Horsetail Grass. Wormwood Chamomile. Wild Alum. Witch Hazel. Nettles. Cucumber. Peppermint Aloe. Alfalfa. dry Hair. Rosemary. Raspberry. Myrrh. Burdock. Elder Flowers. Roseberries. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Figwort. to add highlights Hibiscus. Cucumber.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Rosemary. Quassia. Raspberry. Arnica. Tilia. Olive. Red Clover. various seaweeds. Fenugreek. Marigold Golden Seal. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Seaweed. Garlic. Southernwood. Birch. Horsetail Grass. Cardamon.* Centella. Tea. Oregon Grape. Purple Loosestrife. Sage. Sarsaparilla.

Mullein. Witch Hazel. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Apples. Slippery Elm. Jaborandi. Oats. Elecampane Skin. Plantain. Witch Hazel. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Capsicum. Comfrey. Calendula. Lemon. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Hawthorn Berries. Bayberry. Nettles. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Lavender. Calendula. Seaweeds. Dandelion. Rose. Plantain. Seaweed. Grapefruit. Uva ursi Wild Alum. Passion Flowers. Birch. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Arnica. John’s Wort.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Centella. Witch Hazel. Echinacea. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Cleavers. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Golden Seal. Bayberry. Althea Root. Thuja. Valerian. Calendula.) Aloe Vera. St. Elder Flowers. dry Botanical Cantharides. Dandelion. Comfrey. Meillot. Chamomile. Wormwood. Chickweed. Lavender.206 for Centipeda. Lemon Grass. John’s Wort. Dulse. Orange Peel. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Sage. Fennel. St. Oils. Althea Root. Licorice. Cucumber. Slippery Elm bark. Pine. Comfrey. Peach. Tilia. Blue Flag. Cucumber. St. Colts Foot. Red Poppy. Garlic. Arnica. Chamomile. Evening Primrose. Ginseng Caraway. Comfrey. Capsicum.804. Corn Flower. Horsechestnut. Pansy. Horsetail grass. Parsley. Comfrey. White Pond Lily. Wild Alum Althea. Apple. Aloe Vera. Red Clover. Yarrow. Quince. Slippery Elm. Violets. Lemon. Lemons. 1998. Echinacea. St. Poke Root. Licorice Cleavers. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Capsicum. John’s Wort. John’s Wort. Fennel. Primula Flowers. Yarrow flowers. Chamomile. however.Yarrow. Croton. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Capsicum.Vinegar. Hawthorn. Cinchona. Bistort. Sept. Citrus bioflavonoids. Tilia. Orange Flowers.

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and fleshy. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. internally used to blacken hair. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. and tonifies the heart.5 to 2 cm in diameter. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. Internally. and eyebrows. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. etc. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. Vitamin A.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. The flowers are polygamous. beard. The nuts are spherical. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. nicotine. yellowish-white. Ginger. nourishes the blood. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets.) STEUD. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. Licorice root. Common botanicals such as Lotus. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. can be found in the main section. The powder is used on abscess. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. The female flowers are white and ligulate. The seeds are also spherical. elliptical shaped. It grows in fields and ditches. Constituents Saponin.5 to 5 cm wide. wounds. 1. sores. wedeloclactone. short stiff hairs. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. etc. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. rough. 8 stamens. it strengthens the spleen. tannin. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. elongated. aril white. yellowish brown. which are coriaceous.

tartaric acid. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412. choline.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema. vaginal itches. protein. Vitamins A and B.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose. fats. sucrose. antiparasitic. pruritus. etc. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. ringworm. yeast infections. adenine.70.

It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. ostol (C15H16O3). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. sugars. palmate leaves. imperatorin. columbianadin (C19H20O5). improves circulation in the skin. asthma. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. and has red. alloimperatorin. weak pulse. amino acids. used as an aphrodisiac. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. insomnia. L-camphene. choline. astragalin-glucose. Constituents Saponins.) Bge. a glucoside C20 H20 011. folic acid. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. any citrus and turnips. berry-like fruits. dihydrooroseiol. cnidiankin. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. bornyl isovalerate. When using Ginseng internally. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. lack of appetite. Astragalin. dyspepsia. edultin. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. hypertension. heart palpitations. diabetes. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. ginsenosides. It is also said to promote blood production. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. It is an astringent. isopimpinellin. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. moisturize. xanthotoxol. cnidiadin. Betaine. deficiency of energy. avoid black tea. B-sitosterol. isoborneol). it could nourish. dilates the blood vessels. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. columbianetin (C14H14O4). Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. and arabinose. It is reported to be a cardio tonic.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. amino acids.

saponins (ginsenosides). trichokaurin. sugar fatty oil. Constituents Triterpenes. The root has antipyretic. protein. antibacterial. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. To list all would take several pages.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. trichosanic acid. and antifungal properties. These are a few of the constituents. tricosanthin. resin. essential oil. (C18H30O2).

helps to promote circulation. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. this herb can be used safely in large doses. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. According to Chinese tradition. and is analgesic. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is said to heal without leaving scars. Constituents Saponins. both internally and externally. Internally. dissolves clots. it has been used in coughing of blood. nosebleeds. reduces swelling. blood in the stool. Rb2-Rb. traumatic injuries. ginsenosides. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. and Re.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall.

Cones oblong. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. Vitamin A. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. glucose. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. xylose. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. long. rhamnose. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. essential oil. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. Constituents Flavonoids. tannin. and arabinose. anti-inflammatory. L-typhasterol. fructose. glucose. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. stearic acid. and a slightly bitter taste. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. palmitic acid. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). II. sitosterol. 1/3 in. It has almost no odor.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. U. ziyuglycoside I. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis.V. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets.

Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. the base tapers into a winged petiole. having pale. which has hairs on both surfaces. in height. The basal leaves are clustered.-fenchone. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. astringent. shoddy bark and light. tannin. and is said to have antibacterial. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. flavonoids. Vitamin C. reddish-purple. Constituents Thujone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . obovate-lanceolate shaped. becoming smaller on top. fenchone. caryophyllene. 15 to 30 cm long. The flowers are tubular. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage.5 to 1 m high. resin. 5 to 8 cm wide. and antipyretic. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. and pinnatipartite. pinene. anthelmintic. L. and antiviral properties. It is a hemostatic. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. and hermaphroditic. soft durable wood.

It is used in traumatic injuries. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. and 2 to 6 cm wide. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. hemostatic. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. 2 to 3 cm long. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. stigmasterol. and antibacterial. -amyrin. Constituents Glucose.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. B-amyrin. The tuber is thick and fleshy. and in abscesses. antifungal. starch. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped.F. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. essential oil. Their base runs into a long sheath. It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. antibacterial. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. anti-inflammatory. 15 to 30 cm long. skin infections. and promotes the healing of the flesh. The perianth is in 6 segments. reduces swelling. its apex acute and the labellum abovate.

conjunctivitis. and antiviral. The dark green. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. tannin. humulene. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. capillarisin. It has been used in ringworm. caryophyllene. which alternate with the calyx teeth. fat. wax. stamens numerous. essential oil. antiparasitic. palmitic acid. analgesic. with numerous ovules. See “Botanical” section for further description. B-caryophyllene. Antibacterial.5 mm in length. and incurved. chlorogenic acid. oleic acid. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. antibacterial. erythrodiol. cold sores. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. arachidic acid. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. caffeic acid. Constituents Scoparone. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. Constituents D-borneol. and nasal mucositis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. ipterocopal. stearic acid. dryobalanone. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. crowded. style 1.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. linoleic acid. esculetin. montanic acid. ovary 2-locular. hydroxydammarone II. odor strongly aromatic. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. boils. taste pungent and aromatic. glandular-punctate petals. and somewhat 4-angled. followed by a slight numbness. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. One tree can yield as much as pound. asiatic acid. acetyl eugenol). having antipyretic properties. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. dark brown. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. oval. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. sores. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk.

yellowish-white. and other skin ailments. flavonoids. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. The stem is erect with many branches. and 1 to 2 cm wide.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. The pods are cylindrical. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. pruritus. constricted between the seeds. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The corolla is papilionaceous. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. imparipinnately divided. The leaves are alternate. The stamens are 10 and free. 3 to 4 cm long. sores. It is used for vaginal infections. Excellent remedy for sores. The raceme is terminal. which are globose and black. 10 to 20 cm long. and allergic reactions. Constituents Alkaloids. itchy skin.

and red eyes. magnoflorine. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). Constituents Aesculin. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. coptisine. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. ferulic acid. jatrorrhizine. obakulactone. aching. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. aesculetin. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. Constituents Berberine. It is applied externally to swollen. columbamine. fraxin. palmatine. tannin. used as an eye wash for sore. red. and swollen eyes. fraxetin. Antiinflammatory. obakunone.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic.

their margins sparsely serrate.5 cm wide. and 0. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 to 1. The calyx is bilabiate. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. The leaves are opposite. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. ovate shaped. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. 1 to 3 cm long. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. Its stem is erect.

Constituents Portulal. 5 yellow petals. Its stem is cylindrical.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. antiphlogistic. 8 to 12 stamens. beta-cyanin. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. gamma-linolenic acid. and intestines. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. and often purplish in color. The Chinese. snake bites. Constituents GLA. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally.5 cm wide. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. It is used to reduce swelling. decumbent or slanting upward. The flower has 2 sepals. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. fleshy. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. stomach. It is also a good source for GLA. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. and English consume this plant in salads. gamma-linolenic acid. Italians. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA.3 cm long. abscesses. betanin. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs.. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic.5 to 1. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1 to 1. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. betanidini. French. boils.

246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.4.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.

90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6. 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3.248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0.

84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6. 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8.

84082-80-4 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-52-2.250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7.

JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1. 84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1. 84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.

hairy tip acute. ellipticoblong. starch. sharp recurved spines. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. and gray with thick testa. sporalidin. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. campesterol group. Leaflets about 10 pairs. and protein in kernel. chalcones. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. oil. tannin. globular. shiny. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. ovate or oblong and inflated. nonvolatile terpenoid oil.BENDUC NUT 253 6. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. Essential. Flowers yellow. Description It is an erect herb. Several species grow in the United States. and Sri Lanka. glabrous slightly compressed. Description Main leaf axis has stout. Fruit small subglobular. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. Burma. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). isopsoralidin. Kal-karanj Nuts. hairs few. circular. Constituents Furanocoumarins. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. Leaves petiolate. firm. pitted black. and saponin in the seed coat. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. perianth covered withspines. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. covered with numerous black dots. and flavones. corylifolean. Seeds are hard. simple. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. alkaloids. Flowers are dense. roots.

with winged petiole. basal are large. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. However. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. borne on convex flower heads. and for infectious diseases. Constituents Oil. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. and skin diseases. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. Leaves opposite. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). Few layers of cork cells are present. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. sterols. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. sessile. upper leaves smaller. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. bluish-purple. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. margin toothed. The endodermis is indistinct. arresting hemorrhage. oblong. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. Leaves membranaceous. Flowers about 2 cm long. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. flower head white. phytosterol. and citrulline. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. arginine. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. starch. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . aspartic acid. and sulfurcontaining peptides. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. reducing sugar. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. lanceolate. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. Seeds also contain protein.

mucronate. arranged densely on the branchlets. terpene alcohols. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. slightly recurved. with small shallow conical depressions at either end.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. Feathery. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. The oil and root contains camphene. Description A medium tree. apex subacute. phyllanthe emblic. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. entire. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. slightly broader than long. Flowers are small. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. greenish-yellow. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . linear oblong or elliptic. Leaves simple. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. The fruit is subglobular. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions.but white internally. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. In old samples. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. stipulate. unisexual. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations.

Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. apigenin. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . subcoriaceous. insecticidal. Flowers small. opposite. flowers. exserted. The leaves yield ursolic acid. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. antipyretic. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. antispermatogenic. elliptic-oblong. antispasmodic. taste bitter. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. pod woody. decyladehyde. odorant. testa light-red. antihepatotoxic.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. margin serrate. Each flower consists of. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. ovate compressed. A. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. sacred basil Leaves. smooth and shining. 2 to 4 inches long. pubescent calyx. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. antiviral. antifungal. style 2-lobed. and carvarol. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. cotyledons very oily. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. such as antistress. camphor. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. Sri Lanka. antiulcer. tulsi. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. bitter. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean.& Bpinene. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. hairy along the veins. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. in terminal raceme-like panicle. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. antidiabetic. Leaves are simple. antibacterial. Leaves pinnate. apex thick and blunt. antihistaminic. point decurved. seeds. filament slender. corolla 2-lipped. and luteolin. CNS-depressant. krishna tulsi. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. very short.

pengaglabrone. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. where it is woody. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. Emarginatus. The oil is used to treat scabies. When dry. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. . leaves. the size of large a pea. yellow within. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. pectin. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the inner membranaceous. the berries are the color of a raisin. with a peculiar pungency. and butyric acid. Radicle at the base of the seed. kaemferol. thick. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. each berry is the size of a cherry. (S. glucose. firm and fleshy. the outer very thick and hard. S. singly. herpes. tough. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. and as an anthelmintic. and translucent. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. pointing to lower and inner angle. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. The bark contains alkaloids. the skin is shriveled. smooth. Constituents Saponins. then bitter. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. rheumatism. spirally incurvate. Properties The seeds. except at the scar. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. pongamin. pongamol. sitosterol. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. cotyledons unequal. the testa is double. and other cutaneous diseases.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. The seed is black. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. the pulp translucent. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. The root bark is rustybrown externally.

Leaves heart shaped. deobstruent. round violet colored and seeds light black. scaly. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. Root consists of short stock. inflammations. and tonic. freckles. fruit long. It also has anodyne properties. and xanthine.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. The taste is sweetish at first. Description A climbing plant. and discoloration of skin. garancin. gum. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. alterative. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. leucoderma. Constituents Roots contain resins. then acrid and bitter. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. flowers small yellow in color. alizarin. and sugar. coloring matter. skin diseases such as ulcers. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. Properties The roots are astringent.

It is a good substitute for valerian. and combined with Henna. and flatulence. sugar. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. mainly in palpitation of heart. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. valves papery smooth. B-sitosterol.000 to 15. Flowers in racemes. seeds. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. Epidermal hairs are few. Rhizomes long. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. Roots contain valeranone. starch. Corolla 5-lobed. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . nervous headache. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. slightly curved. Pods broadly oblong. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. and bitter extractive matter. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. Description An herbaceous plant. nardostechone. oblong or ovate. is used to dye the hair black. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. Bhutan. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). dark brown. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. resin. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. which also contains sesquiterpenes. Tracheids and few fibers. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. and contain obvate. calarenol.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. Senna is also a safe purgative. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. and Nepal. n-hexaconsanol. valeranal. nardol. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. These layers occurs in the outer cortex.5% essential oil. Himalaya (11. Leaves usually in pairs sessile.

260

KAVACH

Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume

Synonyms: Parts Used:

Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.

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NEEM

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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.

Neem (leaves)

Neem (whole plant)

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262

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.

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RED SANDAL

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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Southern India.

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264

SIKEKAI

Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed

Synonyms: Parts Used:

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WHITE LEADWORT

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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.

WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.

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WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. It bears small. Licorice powder. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. withanine. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. petiolate and alternate. erect. brain lag. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. ovate hair-like branches. gastric stimulant. elliptinone. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. smooth. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. and appetite stimulant. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. It is in flower all year long. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. tapering. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. a mixture of W. Iso-zeylinone. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. Isolation of nicotine. as in enlarged glands. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. Somnifera. zeylinone. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. and spermatorrhoea. smooth. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. rheumatism. globose. withananine. The root is seldom branched. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. grayish or hoary. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. For improving sight. plump. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. senile debility. loss of memory. fracture short. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. branching perennial. greenish or yellow flowers. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. somniferine. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. Leaves simple.3-biplumbagin. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. loss of muscular energy. It is also cultivated. 3. somniferinine. white internally. brittle. and starchy. The dried root is of uniform appearance. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. and droserone. Constituents It contains alkaloids.

choline. pseudotropine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. and cuscohygrine. In addition to alkaloids.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. Roots also contain tropine.

.

These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference.

270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. U. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Black Ash. White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. Bitter Orange Peel.S.

U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.

sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. calisaya Cinchona. pale Cinchona. blue Cohosh. black Cohosh. yellow Cinchona. pale Cinchona. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona.

S. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion. American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara.

Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula. S. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum.S. U.

American Hellebore. U. Black Indian Hemp. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. Black Hellebore. U. S. White Indian Hemp. S. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. Canadian Hemp. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Green Osier. Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. S. U. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier.

278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

U.280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica. Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.

U. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. S.S. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

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Alnus glutinosa L. Cynara scolymus L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan.) Juglans nigra L. Optuntia. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L.F. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Aloe vera L. Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Betula alba L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Ruscus aculeatus L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Fucus vesiculosus L. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L.

Symphytum officinale L. Cucumis sativus L. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Larrea divaricata Cav. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Br. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Gentiana lutea L. Scrophularia nodosa L. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. Geranium maculatum L. purpurea. Allium sativum L.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Centaurea cyanus L. Inula helenium L. Sambucus nigra L. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. & Aschers. spp. See Coleus Galium aparine L. Zea mays L. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Symphytum officinale L. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. Sanguisorba officinalis L.

Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Calendula officinalis L. Melissa officinalis L. Pongamia glabra P. Ocimum sanctum linn. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Citrus paradis. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Limm Malva sylvestris L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) Burman F. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Justicia Adhatoda. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Gaertn.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Centella asiatica L. Amoracia rusticana. Camellia sinensis L. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Althaea officinalis L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Solidago Virgaurea L. Schert Equisetum arvense L. et. Hydrastis canadensis L. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Mac Fad. Hedera helix L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L.

Tabl. Papaver rhoeas L. & P. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Lythrum salicaria L. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Regn. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Commiphora molmol. ssp. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. Vent. Pinus silvestris L. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Rubus idaeus L. and B. Olea europoea L. Veget. Trifolium pratense L. Allium cepa L. papyrifora.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mentha piperita L. Vinca minor L. Carica papaya L. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Rheum rhabarbarum L. Nasturtium officinale R.L. Engler Myrtus communis L.

INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St.) Acacia Concinna. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Betonica officinalis L. Artemisia abrotanum L. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Juglans nigra L. Salvia officinalis L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. Juglans regia L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Salix alba L.) Tanacetum vulgare L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L.

Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Artemisia absinthium L.) Perre Yucca baccata. Schum. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L. Torr. Yucca brevifolia. Gentiana lutea L.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Rumex crispus L.

Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. bath. sauces. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. and have even been used to put a head on beer. as well as vitamins. phytoplanktons. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. high in carotenoids. It is said that life started in the seas. e 8. 2. sea grasses. 9. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. and sometimes in seawater. 4. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. etc. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. They are also used as thickeners in jams. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. Xanthophyta. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. However. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. 5. Seawater. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. ice cream. mineral. blue.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. and sterols. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. etc).7 Marine Natural Products 7. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. and vitamin content. The sea holds an endless source of life. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. and red pigments. Cryptophyta — Contain green. 6. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. mud baths. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. Xanthophylls. body rubs. 3. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Approximately 85% of water is seawater. weeds. including: 1. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. 10. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. cosmetics. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. 7. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals.

anthelmintics. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. glycine. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. proteins. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. diterpenes.. growth substances. prunes. and imparts slip. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. carotenoids. For example. pharmaceutical. and cosmetic fields. and polysaccharides. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. second. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. anticoagulants. such as ursolic acid derivates. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. prostaglandins. and ice cream as a thickening agent. Kelp is also the main source for algin. and herbicides. sulfur compounds. furanoterpenes. pears. and other fruits. polyphenols. fucose polymers.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. marshmallows. and vitamins. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. steroids). First. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .g. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. Therefore. B12. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. cranberry. mainly from some gelidium species. For plating microorganisms. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. proline. and lycine). • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. for example. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. acetylenes. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. B2. it is resistant to microorganisms and. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. and C. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. emulsion stabilizer. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. emulsions. cardiac substances. lipids.

which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. potassium. B12. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. including iodine. phosphorus. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. and zinc. and iodide ions. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. antimicrobial agent. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. B12. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. Co. Sargassum contains fructose. both in vivo and in vitro. Na. etc. shampoos. particularly fluoride. lotions. bromide. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. potassium. in combination with Vitamin E. mannitol. B3. B. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. minerals (Zn. galactose. Fe. B 2. B. C. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. Mg. Algin. sodium. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a synergestic effect was exhibited. calcium. and ointments. F. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. salads. L. B6. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. In addition. P. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. B3. it has a high content of potassium. protein. I. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). and lauric acids). Laminaria longicruris (L. Mn. There are traces of chloride. oleic. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. Cr. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. Ca). creams. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. and mannitol. palmitic. iron. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. and carbohydrates. B6. However. fat. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. which is a polysaccharide. antioxidant. phosphorus. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. A). and antiglaucomic. iodine. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. myristic. broadspectrum. and glutamic acid. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. K. magnesium.

which means it is a self-sufficient.000). or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols. F. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. the Pacific. and as a massage for cellulite. phlorotannins. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. Eisenia contains a complex polymer. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation.500 IU/100 g 180.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. Halidrys siliquosa L.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. sterols as free fucosterol.1%). It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55. sulfonate. sulfated.3. polar lipids. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. Echinus esculentus L. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. single-cell. and the Baltic Sea. alginic acid. containing all the essential amino acids. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. rheumatism. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year.02 to 0.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity. mainly iodine (0.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a well-known anti-inflammatory.8 mg/100 g 1.6 Fucus contains trace minerals. It is a single-cell protein. Lyngb. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus. fucans. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. polysaccharides. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L.

09 w/w% 3.8 mg 1. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.46 w/w% 1.6 mg less than 1 IU 23. The Emerald Food. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.70 w/w/% 2.9 mcg 15.8 mg 1. Moreover.2% 55. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron.08 mg Potter.80 w/w% 0.26 w/w% 2. Chlorella.469 mg 613 mg 1..6 mcg 0.63 w/w% 5. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation. It is found in both brackish and fresh water.45 w/w% 2. In a controlled study.29 w/w% 3.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin.64 w/w% 1.06 w/w% 0.5 mg 4.7 mg 125.8 mg 1. Spirulina Spirulina.500 IU/100g 180. Tests performed by the U. B..93 w/w% 3. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.1% 0.9 mcg 191.40 w/w% 4.S. called the Chlorella Growth Factor.3 mg 26.08 w/w% 0. et al. pp.59 w/w% 3. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder. Dr.0% 20.20 w/w% 2.8% 18. 14-15.5% 11.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).2% 4.A. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81.38 w/w% 3.78 w/w% 6. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6% 60.64 w/w/% 5. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.29 w/w% 2.

L. Zn. B6. Cr. B2. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. as it is high in plant protein. lipids (4 to 7%). at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca. G. carotenoids. and minerals (5 to 10%). Na. Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. B3..294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. Ge. Biotin. Spirulina.A.L.40) B1. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. vitamins. P. K. B12 Folacin. Mg. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). minerals. Fe. Mn. etc. Cu.A.

and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . Significant compounds. were isolated from marine organisms. pressure. plant. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity.8 The results obtained are quite promising. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. and marine organisms. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. Oahu.9 2.10 3. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. barbamide. sponges. microcolin C. and imidazole disulfides. the search is only beginning. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. as a soothing demulcent. such as those of elevated salinity. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. cyanophyta. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas. and ascidians. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. but no chemical study has been reported. bactericidal. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored.11 4. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. including phaeophyta. penazetidines. anticancer. the Bacteria. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. or temperature. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer.12 5. having distinct anti-cancer properties.13 6. soft corals. are common in marine environments. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). 7. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. Thus. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. melemeleones. which although poorly known. Unfortunately. bacteristatic. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. such as the curacins. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. the following being some examples: 1. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. and chlorophyta. anti-inflammatory. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. kalkitoxin. antillatoxin. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. Related unicellular microorganisms. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals.

actinomycetes.. Cyanovirin-N. the eudistomins. including corals and sponges. and the theonellapeptolides.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .18 11. antimicrobial. and true symbionts from sponges. which display a variety of pharmacological activities. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina.17 10. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. and gorgonians. which produce anti-tumor compounds.16 9. A series of B-carboline derivatives. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria.15 8. tunicates. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp.19 12. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia. the swinholides. fungi. a unique anti-viral protein. including potent antiviral. and cytotoxic activities.

potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. Cyclomarin A.25 18. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Diamirone B. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges). A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. Several new classes of compounds. and anti-tumor promoting properties. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa. makaluvone.28 21.32 25. latrunculin B and swinholide A. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. including makaluvamines A. cytotoxic natural products. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges.37 30.24 17.33 26. phorboxazole A and B. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . D. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. New antimycotics.21 14. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins.30 23. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina.36 29. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.22 15. Many novel. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus.38 31. B.35 28.39 32. and F.23 16.34 27. Isolation of Dysidiolide. Okoadene and Mailidene. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic.26 19. were isolated from the marine sponge. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. Isolation of Microcolin C.29 22. Phorbas sp. immunopotentiating. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. a novel. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. C.31 24.27 20. discorhabdin A. E.

..... Beverly A..A.... Chikarmane. 24.... Mabeau. ibid P 151. Carte’.R.A. D. 4.. 36... M. Forenza..T.D.. O’Keefe. 9.J. 10.. Schumacher. Allen.. T. Franklin. Gerard. O’Sullivan.. C.J. Ind. Shangxiao. ibid P 28. Erim. and Kelly... Fucus Vesiculosus L. S. and Leahy. Carney..S... B. Lassota. ibid P 145. 35.M. Green. J. ibid O 38. and Hamann. H. Janda.A.B.. Plubrukarn. A.G. J.F. 29. 180. 1993. J. J. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. ibid O 26. 2. Dunbar. N. B. 33. S..298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. M.J..T. 29.... O 50. E.. and Molinski. R. Blunt.. R. Baker. 304-313. Hargraves. Boyd. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae. L. B.. M. 32. B. Beutler. W. ibid S 9. M. and Rodriguez. Bewicke.G.A. and Hung. ibid P 25.. and Bair.. 15. G. 5. P.H. El-Sayed. P....A.Y. Santa Cruz (UCSC). R. ibid P 26. B. P. Ph. and Thompson... 1258. Westley. 63. et al. J. July 27-31. and Crews.. J. 64..M. J. 37.. ibid O 10. Gulakowski... M..J. 14.. B. Wilkins.. Mokinski. C. D. Freyer..T.. Gulakowski.. Harrison.W.-R. Mendola. Acta Pharm. K. Natural Prod. D.C. S.. R.. 26. 25. 1983. A. M.. Ferrante. Brzezinski. Heath. 401-414.A. Lawry... Slate. Gush. and Wang. and Crews. K. Andersen. Papers presented at the 37th Annu. R. Fernandes.J. Haughey. and Kelly-Borges. J. A.. G... UCSC. Phytochemistry.. 20. 1985. Haygood. 21. ibid P 150. S..R. Dhyana. J. D. T. 1977. R.K.. J.. J. Potter. M. S. Blunt.K. Screening of biological activity. P.. and Scheuer. Schmitz. M.C. Fulton.A. J. J.. ibid S 22. and Munro. Major. Pharmaceut. and Bauer. L. D.E.. McCombs. Gerwick.. P. 40... and Walter... 39.J. Rea. Meeting.. J. 1990. Davidson. J. Barrows. 30. 14-15. L. Castor. J. ibid P 149. B. Lill. Goins. and Joseleau.. El Sayed.H. M.... M. W.M.. Sheehan... W.S. M. L.. J... I. M. S. ibid P 155. ibid O 11. K. Hamel.A. Bringano. 7. B. 18. J. de Silva.J. Yoo. and Scheuer. D.. L. and Francis. Magni. M.... R.. Searle. McKee. R.A. Zheng. J.. 13. J. Sci. P. H. P. ibid P 19. S 8. Hong.P. F. Xie.. Shoemaker. G.E. P. L. J.. ibid P 31. B. D.. 1975. 38. H.. Mendola.. ibid P 154.. N. Jayatilake.J.. S.. C. 1996.. McMahon. W.. Pettit. and Gould.. L. Pomponi. Al.J.. G. Perry. Lloyd..S. ibid O 7. Lidgren. and Hamann. Y.F. 27. C. S. 19.J. D. T. Chem. Kerr.A. Chlorella. Dumdei. J. Kloareg.. G. pp. 1996. Solimabi. ibid P 30. Harrigan. D. Suecica. Ragan.A. Duh. 17. Haden. A. J. C. July 27-31... 34. T.. Javor... W. ibid S 14..P. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy. Gerwick.P.J. Linton. B..E. R..R. M. 31. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. Venables. and Afzelius.E.. and Munro.A. G. S. Ogren. R. 6. 478-488. L. Gustafson. 28. and Yavor.. 6.A. ibid P 141. and Harrigan. Chan.. K. Copp. T. ibid P 9. J.. J. 2441-2446.. P. Wright. Can. T. and Cardellina. B. J.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ibid O 49. 20(6). H.. K. Cardellina. and Boyd.. Maranda.. M. ibid P 36. J. Lam. T. ibid O 36.F.. 12.. J. S. L. Clark. Rodriguez...K. 22. Brielmann.W..A.P. and Gerwick. Gunasekera. Smith.. Mar.. S. Abstr. Janus. R. ibid O 25.-Y. S. McInnes. ibid S 23.. and Baker. Yoshida. L... 11. D. 3. The Emerald Food. P.. McCarthy. 23. P... O’Keefe.G.H. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae.. Sci. K.. 16.W.-P. Andrew. Hemling. I. Nakao.. and Russel G. ibid S 15. ibid P 156. Andersson. and Ireland. D. ibid P 27.-D. G. 56(4).. Bohlin...R.. Hook.. and Kerr. H. B... K. Crews. McMahon. Coleman. Zhang. M. L. 8. Varoglu.

10 0. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.s.2 (±0.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq. Therefore..00 0.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. 3. 5.10 0.10 0. either alone or in combination with other products.2) with Sequence 5. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. NJ 07504. Henkel.00 6. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products.00 10. Inc. 2.10 q. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes.5 (±0. Rohm & Haas. PROCEDURE: 1. 207 19th Avenue. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.s. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. 8.60 21. Adjust pH to 5. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature. Adjust pH to 9. 4./Lipo Chemicals.00 q. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. 5. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc. Patterson. In main kettle. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous.00 10.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47.

6.00 20. Amerchol.00 6. at room temperature.10 0. Inc.s. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.5 (±0.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. Henkel. Rohm & Haas. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31. high-foaming. combine Sequence 1 ingredients.2 (±0. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. Adjust pH to 9. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. 6.00 10.50 15.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq. 10. In main kettle. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. Adjust pH to 5. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . being sure polymer is completely dispersed.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient. 5. 3.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. 2.10 q.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.00 1. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Lipo Chemicals.s. 7.10 q.10 0.10 0. 4. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. Procedure: 1.00 0. Inc.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.00 0. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.

99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals.10 5. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform. Procedure: 1. 5. B. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch.10 0.45 0. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine.00 1.50 1. 3. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. Inc. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65. Aqualon. 2. In main kettle at room temperature.(Induchem). switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens. 6.FORMULATIONS 301 8. Inc. 4. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq.10 0. Goodrich Co.F.50 3.00 0.95 0.

10 0. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved.00 0. Inc.00 10. 3.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15. Procedure: 1.96 63. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0.10 q. Cool to 30°C. add Sequence 3 to correct shade. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C.00 5.s. At 30°C.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals. In main kettle. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. Inc. At 25°C. 2.10 0.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.54 5.10 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 0.

Haarmann & Reimer Corp. Inc.10 0.00 2. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals.10 0.10 0.50 0.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base.10 0.02 0. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 0. 3. 2. Begin cooling.05 6. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved.28 0. Inc. Cool to 25°C. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.00 4. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C .FORMULATIONS 303 8. Fanning Corp. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 0.50 0. Procedure: 1. Givaudan Corp. BASF.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No. In main kettle.

2. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. F.10 0.88 45.80 0.10 0.75 0.00 0.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.70 2.82 0.s. Inc.25 0. 10% sol’n Supplier B. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel. Inc. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31. 8.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.30 0. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940.05 0.00 5.00 0. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext. Cool to 60°C. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.05 20. Spl Phosphoric acid.00 0. Procedure: In main kettle.10 g. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals. 4. 3.

10 0.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin.70 1. B. Inc.FORMULATIONS 305 8. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25. Lipo Chemicals. Lipo (Kingston).00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem). Guardian Chemicals. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C.00 0. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.00 5. Goodrich.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp.20 0.05 1 2 Triethanolamine. 99% Hypan SA100H 25.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35. Procedure: 1.30 0.F. 3.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0. 2.00 2.

.

the fecundating material from an antheridium. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. one-seeded fruit. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. as ferns. or Akene: A dry. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. indehiscent. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. like the leaves of pines. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. one-celled. Achaenium. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . containing the pollen. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. Acicular: Needle-shaped. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. with firm pericarp. or flower-arrangement. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes.

Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. stiff hairs. Atropous: With erect ovule. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. rare in present times). Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. the hilum and the chalaza being together. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. Appendages: Superadded parts. Capsule: A dry. Castor seed). Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases.g. Bi-: Signifying double. cinnamic). Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Apetalous: Without petals. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Axillary: Growing in an axil. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Calcarate: Spurred. Bristles: Sharp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. Bulb: An underground discoid stem. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Capitate: With globose head... Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e.g. as bi-foliate. with two leaves. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. Nutmeg). Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. carrying the ovary. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root.g.. Cardamon).g. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. Carina: The keel. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. a pulpy.. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. meristematic cells. Bacca: A berry. Blisters: See Vesicants. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e.

Comose: Having hairs at the summit. one-celled. Convolute: Rolled up. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Coriaceous: Leathery. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Umbelliferous fruits). Clavate: Club-shaped. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. Corm: A solid. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Caudale: Having a hairy style. Caudex: The axis. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. usually distinct. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. tuber-like. Caulis: The stem. outer layer. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. Cilia: Marginal hairs. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. indehiscent fruit. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. one-seeded. Costa: The midrib. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Connate: where two parts. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. thick. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus.. Cathartic: A purgative. Cespitose: Tufted. Cohesion: Attachment. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state.g. upright rhizome. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Also a name given to a short. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. Cortex: The bark. from which they hang when ripe. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. become joined. Contorted: Twisted.

Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Didynamous: With four stamens. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Definite: Constant. Deltoid: Triangular. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. Deliquescent: Dissolving. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. etc. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Discoid: With convex face. or tending to fall. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. lymphatic. producing intellectual confusion. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. Diandrous: Having two stamens. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dividing into irregular branches. Decompound: Many times compound. two long and two short. Didymous: In pairs. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Crispate: Curled. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Deciduous: Falling off. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. downward throughout the length. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Deflexed: Bent. Dichotomous: Forked. Determinate: Definite.

Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. without. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. or borne on. E: Signifies deprived of. wood. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. the outermost layer. Epigynous: Adnate to. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. Extrorse: Turned outward. the ovary. purgation). Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting.g.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Etiolated: Blanched. wood. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Fastigate: Pointing upward. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Fibrils: Root-hairs. Epidermis: The true skin. and pith distinct. Echinate: Prickly. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. Exogenous: Having bark.. and bark. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. Escharotics: See Caustics. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. nearly parallel. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Episperm: The coat of seed.

Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. as bifid. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. as petals and leaves. devoid of hairs. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Fimbriated: Fringed. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Glabrous: Smooth. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Fid: Cleft. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. as in the cypress and juniper. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. orange). etc. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Flocculose: Woolly. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Globose: Roundish.g. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses.. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. the point of attachment. Flexuose: Wavy. more swollen on one side than on the other. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. having both stamens and pistil (flower). algae. Filiform: Thread-like. Furcate: Forked. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Herbs: Plants having annual stems.

Laxative: A mild purgative. Inferior: Growing below another. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. and irritation. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. Lacuna: A space between cells. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. dogs. inflammation. layer. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Inarticulate: Not jointed. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns.. either by mechanical or chemical action. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. Lacinate: Fringed. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. rabbits. Incanescent: Hoary. etc. squirrels. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens).. i. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped.e. i. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. as innate anther. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. joints or nodes.e. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Keel: See Carina. or appearing to have. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. Causing watery evacuations. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. the lower petal of an orchid. Jointed: Having. like shingles. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. cats. on the receptacle. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. Internode: Interval between nodes. Involute: Rolled inward. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Imbricated: Overlapped.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. Inflexed: Bent inward. Labellum: (Lip). Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. Lateral: Attached to the side. two or three times longer than broad. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. Innate: Adhering to apex. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens).

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. Monogynous: Having one carpel. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. or stigma. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Locusta: The spike of grasses. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. with upper lobes largest. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Monandrous: Having one stamen. Multifid: Many-cleft. with parallel sides. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). Monosepalous: Having sepals united. style. Lobate: Divided into lobes. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. with hard tubercles. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. but with lipclosed (flower). Medulla: The pith of exogens. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. often caused by fungus infection. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Monopetalous: Having petals united. Masked: Labiate. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. found at the ends of young stems. Linear: Narrow. Muricate: Rough. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). and roots. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. leaves. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Monospermous: One-seeded. Ligulate: Strap-like. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures.

with lobes nearly free. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Pedatifid: Pedate. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. indehiscent. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Orbicular: Circular. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Pedatipartite: Pedate. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. Oblique: Unequal sided. and nourished by. another plant. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. apex broad (leaf). Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. Obtuse: Blunt. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. the wings. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. having tufts of leaves at extremity. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. Pedate: Palmate. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . thick runner. with lateral divisions again subdivided. death. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. as in the pea-flower. in large doses. Parasitic: Growing upon. one-celled fruit.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. rounded. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Offset: A short. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Obsolete: Suppressed. as ergot. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. and the keel. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. Nut: A hard.

Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). with petiole attached at or near the center. Pentandrous: Having five stamens. Personate: Masked. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. usually of family Leguminosae. fleshy fruit. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. dehiscent fruits. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. resembling a mouth. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Polygamous: With male. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. squash. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. pointed cells. Pod: A general name given to dry. Pendulous: Hanging down. indehiscent. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Pilose: Hairy. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. two or more celled. Pome: An inferior. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. female. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. and the like. Petaloid: Resembling petals. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. melon. and perfect flowers on the same plant. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Pubsecent: Downy. Peltate: Shield-shaped. Petals: The corolla leaves. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. few-seeded. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib.

Reduplicate: Valvate. Recurved: Bent backward. Retuse: Obtuse. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. bristly hairs. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). creeping. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. dry. with reflexed margins (estivation). Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. with deep notch in middle (leaves). Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Setae: Stiff. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Runcinate: Jagged margin. Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . indehiscent. Retrorse: Directed backward. etc. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. Ringent: Labiate. and producing pustules.. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). winged.or two-celled fruit. Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. Reclinate: Bent downward. Sheath: See Ocrea. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. and shriveled. Revolute: Rolled backward. Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. rooting and budding at nodes. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. prostrate stem. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. such as glands. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). Reniform: Kidney-shaped. with wide lips (corolla). Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). one. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. its function being to support the flower organs. Runner: A slender. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Saccate: Sac-like. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Scarious: Thin.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. bearing leaves and rootlets. Radical: Springing from roots.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Suture: A line of junction. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. Subulate: Awl-shaped.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. leafless. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. spiral branch. dehiscing from below upward. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. in pairs. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. may be modified leaf or stem. bearing the stigma. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Sporangium: A spore-case. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Stipitate: Stalked. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Ternate: Arranged in threes. with short hairs. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Tendril: A thread-like. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Tomentose: Pubescent. and one short pair. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). falsely two-celled pod. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Spine: A pointed modified branch. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Squamose: Scaly. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams.

Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Uncinate: Hooked. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Volute: Rolled up. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. 529-536. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves).GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Trichomes: Hairs. Valvate: United only by the margins. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. one-celled. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Zones: Concentric bands. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Versatile: Freely swinging. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Utricle: A superior.. pp. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. few-seeded fruit. Verticel: A whorl. 1895. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. Vexillum: The standard. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Lucius E. Toxic: Poisonous. Sayre. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy.

Youngken. 10. Vol. Washington.. U. Ltd. J. 1.. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. NY. 1996. Guenther. 11. 9. U. IL. 1971. Boca Raton. R. G. Plant Drug Analysis. 2nd ed. Biddles. 23. Duke. M. Bournemouth. Krieger Publishing. 5.K. New York. 1995. Boca Raton. British Herbal Medicine Association. Chicago. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. 3rd ed. 1–7...A.A. 4. 1992. New York. Tease and Evans. 1997. Biddles. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. 1992. 1996.. Pharmacognosy. Robert E..E. St. 1964. V. Stuttgart.. Foter. Y. 7th ed. Wall.. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. Aug. 1932. MIS Publication. Merck & Co. MO. 13... British Herbal Compendum. Haworth Press. 1930. Notes on Parmacognosy. Bladt. Bruneton.C. Wallis. 1995. 1993. 12th ed. FL. K. 4th ed. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. American Pharmaceutical Association. Dover Publications.. 1994. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . N. The Essential Oils. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. T. Grieve. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 1983.E.K. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. 3. Academic Press. Leung and S. FL 1992.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1. 1936. 13th ed. Berlin. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. 1902. Churchill Ltd. V. The Honest Herbal. E. Louis. J. J. P. SpringerVerlag. 7. John Wiley & Sons. Nakanishi et al.. The National Formulary XVIII. 14. Bailliere Tindall. 22. Rockville.. U. 18.. 6.E. H. 12. 1960. The Merck Index. J. Natural Products Chemistry. Medpharm Scientific Publishers.. 1990. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. Vol. MD. 1989. D. Ehrhart & Karl. Paris. 21. 1975. Huntington. Bisset. Boca Raton. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. A. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Ltd. Vol. 19. & A. London. 20. New York. Tyler. FL.. I and II. Duke. A.W. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. Haworth Press.. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. 4th ed. 17. CRC Press. PA. 1996. 1994. CRC Press.. Wagner and S. New York. A Modern Herbal. Tyler. Ltd. New Jersey. Vol. Inc. 24. Philadelphia.K.. 16. Mack Publishing. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. Merck Research Laboratories. 2.. 2nd ed.. O. Wren. I and II. Lavoisier. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. London.C. Blakiston’s Son & Co. Herbs of Choice. CRC Press. 15. 8. H. 1974. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Potter & Clarke.

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