BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.

CRC Press Boca Raton New York

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:

Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper

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DEDICATION
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.

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BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.

Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

PREFACE
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

When I think of Frank D’Amelio. and Avicenna. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. sorting. Theophratus.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. As formulators and purveyors. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. Originally. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . always wanting to find a more active plant. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. Initially. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. experimenting. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. Always wanting to know more. men like Shen Nong. Mithridates. observing. to use plants wisely. Chinese. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. Let it reflect brightly upon us. Galen. Dioscorides. And then the Babylonian. But more than anything. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. Over time. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster.

He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists. Sr. Frank D’Amelio. Inc.AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry.. He founded BioBotanica. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. patience. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. and assistance in editing the manuscript. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. Special thanks to Professor Dr. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list.

...39 Percolation ........3 Physical Constants.....................................................1..................................................................1 Plant Identification ...........................3..3..................................................9 2.............................................................1 1.....................................................................................................1 1..............................................................................................................3 4.............5 Alkaloids......5 1.........................................................26 3..................2 Phenols ............1.............1..........................3...........................................................................10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ..........................11 2.....................................................................................30 3................................1 Botanical Terminology ......................................25 3...........5 Preparations of Extracts ..................8 Gas Chromatography..........................6 Carbohydrates..2 Some Common Terminology ............................................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3........................................................................................................................................................13 3..............11 References ..............................................................................................................................................................1..................4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents.........26 3.................2 1...........................6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems..........10 2..................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2............................2 1.....................................................7 Methods of Identification....................11 2......................1 Liquids ...................5 Yield to Solvents ..........................................................................................................................................................................................14 3..........................................3..................1 Constituents of Drugs........................................................................................................................................................1 1......................................6 Ash Determination ......................9 2....1.....41 Infusions ............................................9 Adulteration of Drugs ...................................................................................................................................2 4...........................3 Micromorphology.................................................................................................40 Decoctions ....1 Microscopical Techniques.......4 Proteins ..........11 2.....................................3 Tannins...1 4.............................................................................1............................................................1 Forms 4.......................1...................................1..........35 Chapter 4 4.................................9 Resins and Resin Combinations ..2 Solubilities .................10 2..........................................1 1..3 Procedures .....................5 1......23 3....................1.................28 3............8 Volatile Oils..........................................................................7 Assay Procedures ..11 2..............................................................................4 Ultraviolet Light ................................................................................................42 Fluid Extracts .........................................4 4............................................................24 3...................11 2............................1......................................................1 1.................................................3.........1................................................43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 Macromorphology .................................1..................................................................................................................39 Extraction Terminology..................1............3................................................5 Infrared Spectroscopy...............1..........7 Glycosides .CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1......................3..............

..............................................................................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table..............................................................................2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products...................11 Tinctures .........................................................1................................................7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ..............................................................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table ...4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics ....................51 6................2 Natural Shampoo....3 Cellulite Gel Base .......283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7..........................269 6.........................1................................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5...............301 8.298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8..45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ......................233 6.................................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6...................................304 8....46 Oleoresins .............................................6 Spray Moisturizer ......................................................................................... Properties............6 4...........................................229 6.................1........49 5.............300 8.................................................................. Description...........................................................................................5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+........303 8...................................9 4.................................7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe ..........304 8...........2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy............................................................................................................................302 8..225 6..... Range.................1....................1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo....................5 Indian Botanicals.....307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .305 Chapter 9 Glossary.....................1..............................................................................................................................4...................................1 History .....45 Extracts Strengths.......................................1 Habitat......4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil .....................................8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC..................................................................................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ...............1..............................289 7............................247 6..253 6.................... Concentration..............10 4.........................................................................................................................................................295 References ..........................................................46 Product Strength.....................................................1 Marine Algae...... and Constituents ............7 4..........................4........................................................................299 8............................................. and Standardization......6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table...2 Hair Care Botanicals ..........................................................................................8 4....................................

(3) tannins. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. (6) carbohydrates.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability.1. they are stored in seeds. (8) volatile oils. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. they are also called triglycerides. roots. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning.1. fats.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. 1. In most cases. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. (7) glycosides. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. TS). glycerol. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. They are generally soluble in water. They are widely distributed in plants. spores. fats. Recently. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications. In plants. 1. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. and usually bitter taste. leaves. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them.1 Phytochemistry 1. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. (4) proteins.1. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. When applied to living tissues. and waxes. 1. and waxes (lipids). interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. barks. (2) phenols. In the treatment of burns. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. ferulic. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. etc. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. palmitic.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. (5) alkaloids. hence.1. myristyl. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. and coumaric acids. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. have astringent action. stems.

they form water-soluble salts with acids. piperidine.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. isoquinoline. purine. and (3) derived carbohydrates.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. which are the building units. possessing some marked physiological action. gymnosperms. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. phenanthrene. Whole glandular products. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. stems. and cryptogams. and seeds.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. roots. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. Proteins are derived from amino acids. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. serums. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. Being basic in chemical character. and steroidal. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. In fact. leaves. hydrogen. for example: colchicine. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. oil-bearing plant seeds. indole. imidazole. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. tropane. quinoline.1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bark. 1. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. brucine. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. (2) polysaccharides. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. antitoxins. which end in -in. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. (a) monosaccharides. pyridine. (b) obligosaccharides. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. and oxygen. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine.1. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. but mostly in fruits. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. carboline. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Polysaccharides (non-sugars). which is a straight chain of alpha1. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. lactose. it is formed of amylose. D-xylose. Unlike cellulose. c. D-fructose (levulose).4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. trihalose Reducing: maltose. melibiose ii. It contains both B-1. digitalose (these are 2. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. stabilizers. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). and tetrasaccharides i. and apiose. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. or amino sugars. It is a linear polysaccharide. L-galactose. emulsifiers. cymarose. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing).4. Inulin. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. suspending agents.6-linked polyglucan. ii. galactosamine b. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. gums. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. Pentoses: L-arabinose. Therapeutically. mucilages. Monosaccharides. epimarose. a. sarmentose. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). gelling agents. tri-. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. and some microbial polysaccharides. d. amorphous substances. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. cellobiose. Gums are soluble in water. alginates. 2. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. their sulfate esters. b. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. diginose. True sugars a. and Example Rhamnose. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. consisting simply of 1. gentiobiose. galacturonic Glucosamine. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. Glycogen. D-ribose. It is an alpha-1. oleandrose.2)-fructofuranose units. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss.and B-1. 3. They include hemicellulose. turanose. f. transluscent.6-linkages. fucose Digitoxose. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). Cellulose. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. i. e. and thickeners. pectins. iii. g. uronic acids.

or adenosine). digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e. however. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond. 8. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae). strophanthin.g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . regulating. There are also C-glycosides (e.g.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1. The chief families are Pinaceae. occur.1. Occasionally. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. sometimes called O-glycosides. Such glycosides. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species.g.. 11.. as sugar reserves. for example. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae).g. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e. salicin is an analgesic. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. 6. are the most common ones found in nature. arbutin) Alcohol (e. rutin) Anthraquinone (e.. 2. Phenol (e. Lauraceae. Rutaceae.g. sinigrin) Steroid (e. and Asteraceae..7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that. 1.. In the conifers..g. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources.g. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). detoxifying. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. 10. Apiaceae.. digitoxin. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant.g. 3. Myrtaceae. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin.g.g. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). 12.. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. 4. and barbaloin are laxatives. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage.. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues.g. 1. In N-glycosides (e.. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin. sinigrin). They are products of plant metabolism.. Depending on the plant family. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e. crocin and picrocrocin. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. in the liver of fish. and defensive roles.g.g.g. 9. 5. glucosamine. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. cascarosides. Other glycosides do. In S-glycosides (e. Lamiaceae.. the sugar component is called the glycone. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). sennosides. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e.. digitoxin) Saponin (e. 7. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. for example. for example.. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. for example.g. representing about 87 families). daphnin) Flavone (e.1..

parsley.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. These substances. 1. Undoubtedly. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. as a class. horsemint. rosemary. are hard. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. etc. anthelmentics. Ethers: anise. Resins. sandalwood. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. cade. diuretics. In general. rose. They can be used for their therapeutic action. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. wintergreen.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. geranium. sweet orange. 4. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. etc. 7. resulting in less food spoilage. etc. etc. etc. bitter almond. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. chemical. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. In most cases. juniper. In addition. ajowan. 5. however. only in the pericarp. pharmaceuticals. transparent or translucent brittle substances. local stimulants. themselves. only in the bark and leaves. nutmeg. for example. etc. 8. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. tend to resinify on exposure to air. is rich in camphor. chenopodium. dill. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. however. in cinnamon. star anise. 9. However. For example. etc. but in few instances. lemongrass. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. and tobacco. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. confections. fennel. etc. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. in umbelliferous fruits. cajuput. thyme. or parasiticides. lemon. 2. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. Ester volatile oils: lavender. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). 3. local irritants. etc. beverages. clove.1. and in orange. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. cosmetics. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. and odor characteristics. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. cassia bark. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). in the mints. carminatives. neroli. turpentine. 6. mild antiseptics. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. coriander. they are widely used in perfumery. Classification 1. spearmint.

viz. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. Many products (e. acetone. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin).PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. when freshly powdered. and medullary rays cells). When heated in a closed vessel. chloroform.. Chemically. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mastic). in Guaiacum wood. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. but when heated in the air. In this case. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. They are not pure chemical substances.. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. It is noteworthy to mention here that. and glycosidal resins. resins occur in different secretory structures.g. which is called secondary flow.g. as in case of Pinus. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. resin cells (ginger). forming sticky or adhesive fluids. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. 0. resins soften and finally melt. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps).25). Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities. colophony. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film. Laccifer lacca. For example. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products.. On this basis. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. as well as in fixed and volatile oils. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. in rare cases (e. fibers. and resenes. wood parenchyma. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. they occur as tyloses. that is. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. they are of pathological origin. forming solutions which.g. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether.g.. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. and glandular hairs (cannabis). order. with few exceptions (e. and ether. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. Hemiptera. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. shellac). On heating at comparatively low temperatures. but do not contain any nitrogen. esters.9–1. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. resin alcohols. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. resin acids. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. Family Coccidae. gr. in the vessels. on evaporation. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs).. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. without volatilization or decomposition. resenes (neutral inert compounds). resinotannols. they are divided into resin alcohols. carbon bilsulfide).e. In plants.

the mixtures being known as oleoresins. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins.. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. Probably. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. asafoetida). being called glycoresins. cathartics. and Canada balsam. Jalap. and Podophyllum. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. balsam of Copaiba. on the other hand. Balsams. and malva (Malva sylvestris). like most seeds. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. hexoses. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. mouthwashes. carminatives. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. the mixtures being called gum-resins. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. (anywhere soothing is required). Another is flax seed. leaves. and seeds. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. On hydrolysis. Guttiferae). copaiba. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. These are. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. they can be separated from resins rather easily. they can be incorporated into lotions. glucose. antispasmodic. counter irritants. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). for example. In some cases. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. respectively — both contain volatile oil. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ointments. arabinose. in seaweeds. therefore. liquid or semi-liquid substances. etc. shave creams. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. etc. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. viz. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. they form a mixture of pentoses. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. xylose. expectorants. creams. which contains no volatile oil. purgatives. and uronic acids. nonadhesive solutions with water.e.g. roots. flowers. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. or esters of these acids. (e. parasiticides. cough syrups.) In general. resins and related products are used as rubefacients.. that form colloidial. fruits. barks. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. Mucilages are viscous. and anthelmintics.

suction. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. cotton) below. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. ether. acetone. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. by which it is exhausted of potash. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. gauze. also referred to as the spent herb. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. having a bottom outlet. treatment with a solvent. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time.g. or by chemical or physical means. or alcohol and water. As with the raw materials. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum.. etc. the solution commonly known as lye. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. etc. water.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. In pharmacy. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. distillation.. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation).). by traction. 2. expression. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods.

0025 mm. for example. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. Therefore. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. 2. if an object.3 PROCEDURES 2. That is. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. because it is the magnified object. that is compared with the scale. The diameter of fibers. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0.0025 mm = 0. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. always using a definite tube length. botanical laboratory. the width of vessels. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. 0. By its use.3. also known as micrometers. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. the factors for the other objectives can be determined.125 mm. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . both of which are carefully counted. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. as well as identification of commercial starches.C. its true size is 50 0. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. the scale of 1 mm.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. and not the object itself. In the same manner.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer.125 mm = 125 µ. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. Q.001 mm). the height of sclerenchymatous cells. Most of the time. However.

Trease. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples.. 2. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent. oleo-resins. malaccensis. 2. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. Churchill Ltd. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. and Evans. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence. balsams.3. UV light provides very useful information. 90%. 4th ed.3. Pharmacognosy. In this way. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. for example. digitalis and henbane leaves). Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. 1960.3. W.. REFERENCES Wallis.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. J. viscosity. D.. resins. 11th ed. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. London. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation.. 2.3. glycosides. they will give a high total ash value. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. 2.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. especially if they are present in the powdered form.. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky. vitamins.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. Similarly.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Bailliere Tindall.3. A. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. C. calumba. 1978. London. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash. volatile oil. G. and similar substances. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. E.. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. 2. For certain drugs. Some pieces of rhapontic. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. E. optical rotation.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs.g.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. Derris elliptica. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e.3. such as hydrastis. T. viburnum. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. Other drugs. the yield to water of liquorice root.

.

and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. root. canadine. and microscopy. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. leaf. ash content. i. then maceration. etc. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. For example. odor. providing that they were dried properly. If this is not specified.. distillation. seed. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. fruit. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. When ordering a botanical. and other tests like loss on drying. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. and berberine. methanol. There are many forms of extracts available. Many plants have common names and. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. identification can be confusing. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. etc. stem. organic solvents (ethanol. flower. super critical fluid extraction. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. or the entire plant.3 Quality Control 3. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. hexane). Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. lipidic extraction. One should start with botanical terminology. etc.. percolation. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. Fortunately. ask for it by its common name first. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf.e. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. color. As seen in the example. counter current extraction. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. therefore. This starts with the proper solvent system.

2 is that of an angiosperm. 3) is a representative example. while Fig. however. 3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1. 2. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. and hairs (Kamala. viz. to differentiate between mineral powders. primary phloem.. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark).2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. Fig. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. secondary phloem. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. pollen grains. glands. Lupulin. For systematic study. starches. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. Dusting powders: One should be able. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. Cowhage). Quassia Wood. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths.

QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig. 1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. 2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig.

by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. 6). Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. Achillea millefolium L. (Fig. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. red poppy. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. red rose and marigold of petals only. papillosed epidermis of petals. In the great majority of plants. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. elder flowers of petals and stamens. styles. i. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm.. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. the leaf is termed sessile. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. thus forming a fruit. and endocarp. There are. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . S /(E + S).. 4. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form.e. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. (3) the presence of chlorophyll. 5) is an example of the flower. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. for the seeds. argel leaf. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. in addition. micropyle. stigmas). A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). (2) their thinness. the corolla made of petals. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. fibrous layer of anthers. mesocarp. viz. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. two features that are constant. which are a useful identification tool. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. however. Among common drugs. called the pericarp. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. epicarp. Flowers: In a commercial sense. 7. Leaves: Example. if there is no stalk. frequently. 5. the calyx made of sepals. and often a raphe. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. mm. leaves may be recognized. the ovary wall develops to form a case. 6. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly.

QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig. 4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. Colocynth b. Compound Fruits Hops In general. Bael. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. Tamarind. Cardamon ii. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. 8. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. However. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. Orange. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flowers and fruits. Poppy. Simple Fruits i. 5 Achillea millefolium L. Caraway (see Fig. a.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. leaves. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum.

7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. 6 Grains of paradise seed.QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. Aframomum melegueta Rosc.

For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. Fig. olive oil). expression (e. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or are natural secretions (e. For example.g.g. 3. which are usually slender and adventitious. 9. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. and sclerenchyma.. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. stage and eyepiece micrometers.g. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. 8). starch.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. however.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and.. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. agar). or by the trichomes. 10. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. decoction (e. Clearing agents. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. Chiretta herb. 9). and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio.. mountants. namely. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. Therefore. fibers.g.g. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. similarly. opium). beeswax and myrrh). Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. Microscopical techniques. by the stomatal index. branches. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. such as incision (e... vertically. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves.

QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig. 9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8 Fig.

24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. water. chlorophyll. or chlorophyll. and resins. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. fats. lactophenol. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. starch. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. clove oil. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. the presence of coloring matters. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. protein. absorbance values should be used. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. and expands shrunken cells. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. resins. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. Other solvents include methanol. volatile oils. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. and causes swelling of cell walls. alcohol. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. Sometimes. hexane. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. it rapidly dissolves starch. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. and petroleum ether (pet ether). and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. for bleaching. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. carbolic acid. ether. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. 3. chromic/nitric is mandatory. etc. tannins. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds.

UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . unless one has an FTIR.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. If the substance is in a solid state. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. depending on solvent and pH. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). This will give you a transparent disk. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. It can also be used to quantitate. In addition. Then press under anhydrous conditions. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr.

(2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained. sulfuric acid). 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. 3600–2400 (broad). then the filter paper can be eliminated. Valerian. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. 3400–2500 (broad M). (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. 1600. strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e.. as one gains experience. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample..g. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. organic solvents (usually methanol). 1455 (S). The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. 3. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). In addition. odor. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1710 (S) 3500 (M).26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. 1760 (S). Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it.. 3. Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. Precoated absorbents on glass plates.7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing.g. etc. ash content histology. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). Lavender. Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. Chamomile.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. M = medium. and powder microscopy are also performed. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. 1500. VS = very strong. it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). 3400 (M). Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. or plastic sheets are also commercially available. Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. 3400-3100 (variable). 2860 (M).) When development is complete. 2100–1700 (W). 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). Other tests like loss on drying. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. aluminum. and (4) it is inexpensive. S = strong. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts.

antimony chloride UV. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent.5: 8. natural product. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration. hence. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive.

comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. or chromatographic (GLC. pharmaceutical. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. and cosmetic industries. From these spectra. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard.) procedures in order to establish its strength. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. the use of the GC will continue to grow. it will show up by having less soluble solids. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted.. spectrometric. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. If there is a diluent added. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. photodiode array detector. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. However. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. As with the raw materials. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. give excellent fingerprints for identification. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. HPCL. a separation technique. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. such as rice hulls or spent herb. data acquisition. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. together with UV and IR spectra. spent herb). 3. both physical and chemical tests should be performed.g. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. For plant volatiles and essential oils. etc. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. After extraction of the plant material.” However. System control. rice hulls. with expected growth well into the next generation. This system. With library search software. TLC. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. In phytochemistry. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. information-rich electron ionization spectra. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard.

QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. photodiode array detector. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass. Ltd.

Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. in the case of powdered drugs. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). etc. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. for example. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. 2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or Provence senna. the color and general texture are more important. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. African. Hence. Obovate.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. the adulterant can be any kind of material. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. Instrument control. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. nutmeg. or Cochin. 3. such as ergot. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. honey. coffee. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. beeswax. data acquisition. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. for example.

15 cm).5 ml/min. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. or 3% SE-30. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7. 2. 15 psi argon. flow rate. 220–223°C. mobile phase. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. mobile phase. spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. xylose. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray.d. 50°C. flow rate.5 ml/min. luteolin. genistein Calenduladiol. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose.9 mm 30 cm). followed by 0. 25 mm). 1. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. 0. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i. lupanine.2 M Pi buffer pH 7. 3. 2 ml/min. cytisine Anagyrine.5. sparteine. rhamnos Ginsenosides. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10). Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. panaxatriol. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. mobile phase. acetonitrile-water (83:17). 2.2.46. UV 320 nm detection.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6).0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. 5% DC560.0 ml/min.6 50 cm): mobile phase. 190 nm flow rate. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60. panaxadiol. flow rate. 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . detection. 13-OH sparteine. 0. mobile phase.0 ml/min. detection. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). flow rate. 0. acetonitrile-water (83:17). water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. UV 202 nm.4x. UV 202 nm. acetonitrile-water (84:16). UV detection (homogencity test). panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). mobile phase.0 M NaC1 gradient. mobile phase. 1.5 ml/min.9 mm x 30 cm).5 mm i. detection. flow rate. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.d. distilled water. 0.d.1 ml/min.. baptifoline.8 ml/min for 7 min.1) flow rate.0–1. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4./65 cm).5:0. HPLC: Zorbax CN. 1 ml/min. flow rate. mobile phase. CH3CN-H2O (73:27).. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2. detection. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin. then 1.9 mm 30 cm). Rf 0. galactose.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. mobile phase. thermopsine.6 mm i. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). R1.

spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i.0mm i. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. Start w/ 350 ml phase A. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1. UV 340 nm. UV 365 nm.d.7 & 5. Merck(. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. 66 m capacity 350 ml). water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate.. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. flow rate.9. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). hydrastine Rf 0. methanol-water (15% to 95%. mobile phase.. detection. detection. Rf 0. 3. hydrastine Rf 0.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column.d. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). 2 liters phase B and C. flow rate. UV 340 nm. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. UV 330 nm. vanillin in H2SO4. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. 30 cm). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9). isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. phase A: water.05.d. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4). detection UV 365 nm. detection. apigenin. vanillin in H2SO4. flow rate. methanol-water (50:50) flow rate.6 mm.d.. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. mobile phase. 1 ml/min. 2 ml/min. 75°C. increasing 3%/min). mobile phase.5 ml/min. canadine. 6 ml/min. flow rate.5cm). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1).0 ml/min. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. mobile phase. mobile phase. LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). methanol-water (50:50). detection. 2. detection. mobile phase. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1).1 ml/min. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. UV 270 nm. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. canadaline. detection UV 278 nm. 0.9 i. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages).5 ml/min. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase.4 cm i.5-methanol (67:33). mobile phase.d. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2. 4.5 ml/min. berberine. 2 ml/min. 0. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). phase B: ethyl acetate. flow rate. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. detection. 25 cm at 75°C). w/guard. begin rotation. flow rate.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. 25 cm). i. luteoline.5. flow rate. introduce sample.1 M phorphoric acid. detection.

70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min. flow rate 0.3 ml/min. mobile phase.6 mm i..8 ml/min. 300 mm). HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). 30 cm). flow rate.5.d.d. mobile phase. UV 313 nm.d. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. detection. 0. detection. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3.QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). flow rate. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5. flow rate. UV 230 nm. methanol-water (2. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2. water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10).1. 2. mobile phase.0) mm i. daidzein. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mobile phase. 1. mobile phase. HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. 1.0 ml/min. helium flow. formononetin. caprylic acid. 25 mm). tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658).6 mm i. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. mobile phase.5 ml/min. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. genistein. mobile phase. caproic acid. flow rate. detection. UV 280 nm. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. photodiode array. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid. flow rate. detection.25m 3 mm). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4.9 mm i. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol.0 ml/min.d. 1.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). 2. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid.0 ml/min. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. biochanin-A. detection. flow rate. water. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min). 25 cm). detection. R1.. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. capric acid Isoflavones. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. UV 280 & 546 nm. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10).5 ml/min.5 ml/min. 25 cm) 2 in series. methanol-water (27:73). mobile phase. mobile phase. flow rate. flow rate.d. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. temp. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). detection. analysis Column (3...9 mm 30cm). mobile phase.1:1). detection. 30 ml/min. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. UV 270 nm. 150 mm). acetonitrile-water (gradient). 4 ml/ min. UV 280 nm. mobile phase.5 10 cm).d. detection. prunitrin Calycosin.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). 50% H2SO4.. detection.

Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. for example. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances. mobile phase. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1).01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. UV 256 & 206 nm. mobile phase.4 (1:1). Vinca Sesquiterpenes. flow rate. 8. For example. valeranone Vincristine. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. scented bdillium for myrrh. mobile phase. 2 connected in series. hydrogen flame ionization. 4. or lead shot. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. etc.5 ml/min.d. UV 298 nm. Sometimes. methanol-water (60:40). Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8). vincamine Vitex Flavonoids.6mm i.1 M phorphoric acid. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. coconut shells. detection.d. 5. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. vitexin. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. almond shells. valerosidatum. 2. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i.9 mm 30 cm). the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. 2. stramonium. or hamamelis leaves. ethanol-water gradient containing 0.8% methanol in hexane. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. detection.25 m 4 mm). HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). such as lobelia. flow rate 10 ml/min. hazelnut shells. detection. acetonitrile-0. dextrin. walnut shells. usually having no relation to the genuine drug.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. 1. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. flow rate. 5u Chrompack). 6. powdered olive stones. detection.7 ml/min. mobile phase. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. UV 254 nm. 30 cm). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). UV 254 nm.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). detection. 7. boiler scale. etc.0 ml/min. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. guaiacum wood. 250 mm. vitexinine 3. detection. stone. senna. acevaltrate. Substitution of exhausted drugs. mobile phase. detection. for example. acetonitrile-0. GLC: 1. 0. conc. mentha.

A little vascular tissue. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. 7. fibers. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. palisade cells. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells.g.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. and aleurone grains. starch grains. tracheids. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. which often contains starch in large amounts. 8.. Frequently also delicate yellow. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present.. resins. pericyclic and phloem fibers. 6. Mucilage of: Alkanna.g. hemicellulose. cellulose parenchyma. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. and crystals of calcium oxalate. in powder. palisade tissue. and medullary rays. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. however. sieve tubes. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. consisting of small-sized elements only. stone cells. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. 4. Keep for 6 months. frequently particles of small seeds. masks. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. 9. red. fibrous layer of the anther wall. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. 10. or oil). Nut shells and fruit stones. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests.g. especially the diagnostic epidermis. The powder is usually entirely lignified. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. and aleurone grains.. starch. cutinized and suberized walls. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. wood parenchyma. Also epidermis. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. Frequently also cork. pine and juniper). Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. Structures absent: Cork. calcium oxalate crystals. palisade cells. Tincture of: Red with oils.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. vessels. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. glands. Dilution better done on the slide. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. usually abundant parenchyma. Frequently also trichomes. 5. papillose surface of the stigma. 2. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. fibers. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. Microscopical examination. gloves. protective glasses. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. 3. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes).) Acacia. which often cross the fibers and vessels. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. xylem vessels.

Corallin Soda: Red with callose . masks. etc.I. if necessary. ligno. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. killed by steam. through glass wool. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. To be freshly prepared. Add 7. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching.880). A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. H2O with the aid of heat. suberin. etc. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. H2O. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. 0. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). Chlorophyll. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose.I.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. protective glasses. filtered.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D.0 g sodium iodide and 2. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. The reaction is better carried out in the dark. Benzidine. Deteriorates on keeping. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. cellulose.5 ml D. etc. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .I. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. gloves. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. and some mucilages. with continued stirring. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. Store in amber bottle.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. left for some time. gr.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. To be freshly prepared. To be freshly prepared. starch. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues.

Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. Indicator. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. the strong solution will dissolve silk. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e.g. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. filtered.64 g copper sulfate and 0.I. 1.. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. 1. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. 1. 40 g glycerin. 1.I. Set aside until clear. in powder.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water. Solution A: 34. e. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. added to a solution of 2. and then diluted to 100 ml with water. on the label.27 g iodine and 0. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water..353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. etc. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use. gives yellow with colchicine. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting. protective glasses. dextrose). note the coloration and read off from the table.g. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml.75 g lead monoxide. the corresponding approximate pH.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. gloves. masks. Dilute: Used for mounting. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 20 g lactic acid. H2O prior to use. and 20 ml water. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc.

Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. in small pieces. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. It must be recently prepared. etc. dissolving certain cell contents. 1% solution in water. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. 10% alcoholic solution. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. Store away from light. suberin. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. Potash.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). masks.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. and then diluted with equal volume of water. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. lignin. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. with a dropper or a glass rod. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. gloves. and 80% by volume.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). 66. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. stains lignified walls red. 0. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. protective glasses. Caustic: Used for clearing.4% alcoholic solution. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. 10. 5 ml of glycerin added. and cutin blue. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages.

Same as P. A molasses consistency. etc. 5:1. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. but the solvent is 1.E. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical.3BG GLY 4.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0.3BG. E.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today. but the solvent is glycerin. Contains no alcohol. etc. An extract in P. P.G. of various dilutions: 1:1. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . OLEUM N. F.G. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. 4x. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. H.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical.01 = 2x 0.1.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1. Serial type dilution and succussion. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. Same as a solid extract (S.G.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. 60–90%. 3x.E. 0. Same as P. Full strength 1:1. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate.4 Preparations 4.F.M. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. AQU P. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application.E. 1.P.G.E. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting. Properties Usually high in alcohol. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing. 5x. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices.

water. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. gauze. expression. also referred to as the spent herb. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e.g. the menstruum will channel. ether. When no more actives remain. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. and macerate for the prescribed time. giving a weak extract (see diagram). When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. In pharmacy. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. the product will not percolate. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. acetone. contained in a suitable vessel. or. the botanical is considered exhausted. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. suction. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. if packed too loosely. the solution commonly known as lye. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum.. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. or alcohol and water. etc. usually 48 hours. treatment with a solvent.). close the lower orifice. having a bottom outlet. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. distillation. If packed too tightly. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. cover the percolator. etc. The packing of the percolator is very important.1. by which it is exhausted of potash. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. 4. by traction. cotton) below. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. or by chemical or physical means..

1. Allow it to cool. placed over it. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. barks. roots. such as twigs.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. etc. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and filter.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. 4. mix thoroughly. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). These are usually the hard substances. preferably distilled.

In order to prepare an infusion. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. it should be placed in a refrigerator.1. 4. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. Moisten the herb in water. preferably distilled. Under refrigeration. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Therefore. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. cold water should be used.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. Refrigerate or preserve. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . If hot water affects the constituents of the product. Refrigerate or preserve. after preparation of an infusion. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter.

PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. However. which is very effective. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. which seems to work well.1. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. However.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. especially in inactivating larvae. there is also CO2 sterilization. However. bacteria. 4. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form.

No vacuum concentration is used. need preservatives. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. and evaporation. Maceration is another procedure. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). However. as they contain alcohol. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. A typical example: 5:1 P. are weaker. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. Therefore. Additionally. and the solids are calculated. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. At present. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths. Usual laboratory method. from either fresh or dry botanicals. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. berberine. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts.1. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. However.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration.1. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. Filter. and canadine.00 per pound). However. check with the manufacturers. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day.2). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . i. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine. percolation.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. Therefore. and usually precipitate on standing. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. Therefore.e. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture.S.. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum.* 4. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. or a combination thereof. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives.G. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. as strengths vary widely. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water.

To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle.1. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors.I. filtering if necessary. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. Separate the excess oil. and time of year collected. age.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. Avoid excessive heat. dry solid. The native extract is usually vacuum dried. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes. if necessary.1. Then filter the mixture. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. 4. respectively.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. easily dispensed. and add enough D. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. spray dried. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. and pass enough D.I. Add 1000 ml D. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. a sufficient quantity. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. or distilled water. need no preservation. or distilled water. Their odors and tastes are similar. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). filter through wetted filter paper. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1. preferably kept in a cool area. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency.I. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. which lowers shipping costs. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts.I. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. 2a. 4.I. Solution: The volatile oil.I. or distilled water. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. and contain very little water. to obtain a clear filtrate. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. returning the first portions. or oven dried. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. while hydrastine is colorless. 2. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. and preserve or use the clear water portion. or other specified volatile substance D.

1997. etc. would be too concentrated in many instances. Obviously.3-butylene glycol. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a 1:1 extract. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. in the United States. To avoid confusion. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). However.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. are often found in the cosmetic literature.1. If it was calculated from fresh weight.* 4. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. butylene glycol. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. 4. 10:1. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. 1. etc.1. 10:1. etc. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. fresh or dried. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. glycerin. or roots of plants (see above). This is very controversial. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. tinctures. is always measured on the dry basis. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. However. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. therefore. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. etc. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. glycerin. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite.10 Product Strength. bark. etc. in a cosmetic formulation. In Europe.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. depending on the manufacturer.). The starting botanical. in a true strength extract. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. Concentration. Recently. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process.G. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. The true strength will vary.

that is. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. and starches to be significantly reduced. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. which is approximately 20 times less costly). Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract.. and then on valeric acid. Thus. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. standardization can be carried to the extreme. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. berberine. However. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. dark in color. and not soluble in most cosmetic products.04%). Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. However.S. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical.5 to 4. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. which has been standardized on valepotriates. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . This would cause the berberine. GLC.8% (actual yields are greater than 0.0% hydrastine. resins. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. canadine. If the dried plants contain 0.5% of essential oil. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. the former designation is becoming the standard.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. However. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract. and canadine. fixed and volatile oils.15 to 0. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. Analytical procedures (TLC.

1.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. alcohol. However. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. oily resinous mass remains. there are usually losses during extraction. either fixed or volatile. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. or 1.8% essential oil.. 4. 1997.g. consisting of an oil. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. A thick.5% oil. However. Therefore. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts. followed by evaporation of the solvent. ether.

hair growth. aromatic waters. wrinkles. sadness. loneliness. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. digestive problems. calming anger. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. hair growth. cleanser. anxiety. antidepressant. Stimulates scalp. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. Anti-inflammatory. Skin elasticity. digestive problems. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5. in turn. mental strain. Revitalizing. This. nervous fatigue. thereby reducing stress. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. Stimulant. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. aphrodisiac. soothing. aphrodisiac. revitalizing. antidepressant. Cell regeneration. soothing. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. antispasmodic. tonic. poor memory. euphoric. energy imbalance. mild stimulant.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. scalp stimulant. impotence. euphoric. antispasmodic. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. and perfumes. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. Poor memory. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. exhaustion. Carminative. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. For example. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. Moisturizing. Stimulant. This is the essence of aromatherapy. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing.5 Aromatherapy 5. affects the adrenals.

Valnet. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. grief. Nervous tension. calming. Mood elevating. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. antidepressant. moisturizes. Aging skin. Daniel Company. Rochester. wrinkles. VT. C. Danielle. euphoric. bath oils. Saffron. Aging skin. Example: to be effective. Destiny Books. etc. England. shampoos. Fabrice. stimulates metabolism. 1976. amara) Antidepressant. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. very little is needed. cell proliferant. shock. Essex. opens psychic centers. vaporizers. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. 1984. Antidepressant. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. uplifting. inflammations. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. Walden.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The Practice of Aromatherapy. Essential oils are very concentrated. If the reader has further interest. mouth ulcers. lotions. Ryman. Therefore. uplifting during depression. Jean. house sprays.W. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. The Aromatherapy Handbook. anxiety. 1982. anti depressant.

the inner ones being bidentate near the base. which is white internally. and 3 or 4 in. with purplish or brownish spots. flowers in April or May. about 5 in. PROPERTIES.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. slender. yellow. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. The scape is naked. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. RANGE. spotted near the base. DESCRIPTION. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . obtuse. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. droping. high.1 HABITAT. subradical. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. long. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. and involute at the point. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. lanceolate. and fawn-colored externally. pale-green. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. liliaceous. The flower is single. perennial herb. The leaves are two.

Ovary obovate. This taste is strongest in the root. 2. hooked bristles. and phlobaphene. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs.six. 2332. but unpleasant. and covered with a soft. Soc. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. and anti-inflammatory. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. 1975. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. and surmounted with reddish. 8th ed. Its odor is aromatic.1. Cavalitto. and three-valved. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. long. yellow. The leaves are alternate. flowering in July and August. fibrous. nearly smooth beneath.. and borne in a dense. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. racemose spike. No further analytical data available. functional bleeding. Heinz. W. Chem. producing numerous heads.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. and hematuria. anthers oblong-linear. from to 1 foot long. The root is long.. Hoppe.. silky pubescence. The capsule is oblongobovate. Agrimonia has a bitterish. 1946.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles.. subastringent taste. in hedges and fields and by ditches. pyrocatechol. harsh. The whole herb and root contains. J. which is somewhat aromatic. Am. with a loose membranous tip. A. Drogenkunde. diuretic. three-lobed at top. agrimonol (= agrimonine). antiscrofulous. style club-shaped. interruptedly pinnate. coarsely serrated leaflets. terminating in three undivided stigmas. Properties Emollient. Pub. agrimonolide. mild tonic. et al. epistaxis. conical. 68.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. longer than the stamens. de Gruyter. pyrogallic acid. and of reddish-brown color. and tapering. It is much branched at the summit. filaments flat. Berlin. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. 1. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils.

and minerals. Rev. gum. et al. Dermato-Vernol. 1964. nicotinic acid. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. and polysaccharides. ursolic acid. as do other types of face packs. eupatorin. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. choline. 190-193. The bark is dark gray and ridged. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. et al. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. organic acids. Med.. M. Constituents Tannins.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. 29(2). 1. triterpenes. wavy-serrated. usually abrupt at the tip. Ser. catechin. Europe. luteolin. 153-157. flavonoids. Peter-Horvath. 1994. Alder also helps to unclog pores. which are roundish. citric acid and silicic acid. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. apigenin. after which a good face cream should be applied. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent.. United States. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. tonic.. and also to help relieve dandruff. glutinous. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. 7-0-B-glucoside. wedge shaped. glycosides. alterative. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. However. southwest Asia. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. fruiting tops. phytosterin. V. this should only be done once a week. volatile oil. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. Patrascu. 2. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. quercitrin. 10(2).

Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. insect bites. hair rinses. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. hair treatments. oils. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. ALOE Aloe vera L. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. Further reading is recommended. creams. and is employed in skin creams. The odor is strongly aromatic. carotene. lotions. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. Aloe contains 99. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. calcium and trace minerals. a mild exfoliant in oils. etc.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. which would suggest its use in baths. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. chrysophanic acid. sun poisoning. and burns. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. etc. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. and tannin. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex.50% (5 grams. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. The surface is dull and smooth. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. Alfalfa is also high in minerals.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. boron. scratches. saponin. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). this has not been verified. The fracture is conchoidal. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. cuts. etc. The size of the pieces is variable. West Indies. Properties Used in facial steams. To date. irritated skin. and Barbados Islands. lotions. The texture is waxy. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. bath gels.

The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. Granny. Rome. sugars. and pectin. Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. Delicious. glucomanine. Constituents Malic acid.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. It contains malic acid. Macintosh.

*INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. tannins. moles. containing thujone. flavonoids. and polyps. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and mucilage. soft durable wood. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. shoddy bark and light. Cones oblong. both internally and externally. long. wax. ⁿ in. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. having pale. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. Wolf’s Bane. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. ARNICA Arnica montana L. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. in height.

root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol.to 12-veined. leaves. with subspinose. Sesquiterpene lactones. taste bitter and acrid. patuletin. three-toothed. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. Topically. xanthophylls. ray flowers yellow. and essential oil. the cypsella spindle-shaped. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. inflammation of the oral mucosa. kaempferol. reddish yellow. 5 to 7 mm long. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. Note: There can be side effects. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. lauric. pinnate. finely striate. Arnica tincture DAB 10. and surface phlebitis. 7. polyacetylenes.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. stearic). dark brown. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. the scales ovate. malic). inflamed insect bite. Description This plant is perennial. about 1 cm long. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. with fleshy bases. edema. Has been used for hematomas. the involucre dilated and imbricate. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. isorhamnetin. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). palmitic. In mouthwashes. sprains. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. tubular flowers perfect. The heads are discoid and homogamous. dark green and pubescent. pectolin arigenin). Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. quercetin. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. fatty acids (fumaric. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. and undivided leaves. pistillate. stamens without a tail-like appendage. the pappus plumose and sessile. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. emarginate and pointed. Odor characteristic and agreeable. receptacle slightly convex. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. northern Mediterranean. and the cypsella not beaked. the receptacle setaceous. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy.

artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. sterols. Around the holidays. vitamins. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. diuretic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . choleretic. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. tannin. and hypocholesterolytic..58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation.e. cholagogue. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. trace minerals. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. cynarin. garlic. cynadase. peroxidase. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. oxydase. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. Also employed in jaundice. protein. beta-carotene. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. flavonoids. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. Cosmetically. ascorbinase). bread crumbs. ascorbic acid.

balm buds Part Used: Buds. The base is truncate or depressed. twigs. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. sores. These buds are sessile. The taste is pungent and bitter. The color is reddish brown. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. It is a stimulating expectorant. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. cuts. Has been used on blemishes. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. * Formerly CTFA. The odor is balsamic. The apex is acute. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. Herbalists use it for treating colds. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. resinous substance. or in threes occasionally. The margin has projecting points of scales. and various skin diseases.

mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. pith of rhizome small. Odor slight. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. volatile oil. tannic and gallic acids. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. populin. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. salicin. color more pronounced upon wetting.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. oxyacanthine. izalpinin. bark 1 mm in thickness. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. rhamnetin. pinocembrin. North America. has been used for indolent ulcers. Properties Astringent. volatile oil. Bactericidal. Grecian Laurel. wood yellow. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . chrysin and apigenin. on chewing. fracture hard and tough. sometimes excentric. easily separable into layers. bervulcine. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). galangin. very bitter. True Bay. Internally used to treat liver disorders. knotty. 5-0-methylgalangin. gallstones. magnoflorine. 3. taste distinctive. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. tinges saliva yellow. usually splitting somewhat on drying.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. jateorrhizine. berbamine. distinctly radiate. and showing rings of growth. Berberine. Europe. Flavonoids. externally light yellowish brown. strongly branched. and the Middle East. circulatory stimulant. Description Cylindrical. acetophenone.

Treating small areas works best. Uvaursi is astringent. brittle.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. tapering. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. The leaf also contains germacranolides. Northern and Central Europe. odor slight. -terpineol. -pinene. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. Spr. -terpineol acetate. base acute. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. upper surface dark green. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. taste slightly bitter. gallic and ellagic acids. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. margin entire. and plant acids. along with methyl arbutin. quercetin. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. hyperoside. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. 12 to 30 mm in length. and others. finely reticulate.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). soaps. and glossy aromatic foliage. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. Description Leaves obovate. slightly pubescent. catechins. slightly revolute. astringent. Asia. texture coriaceous. ursolic acid. spatulate. linalool. pale yellow flowers. hydroquinone derivatives. Constituents 0. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. petiole about 3 mm in length. and detergents. phenolcarboxylic acids. alkaloids. lotions. syringic and p-coumaric acids. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. covered. However.3 to 3. undersurface yellowish-green. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. perfumes. due to its high tannin content. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. and volatile oil. summit obtuse. glabrous. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. shiny black berries.

BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L.... Europe.. minerals.. 1989. 3 to 5 cm long.. 1. softening. Properties Restoring. tonic. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries. corolla ovoid-lanceolate. enzymes..62 BED STRAW. sores.. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. Properties Astringent for eyecare products. British Columbia. 1854. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit...... reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive.. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW... Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein.. This is taken up in a collection vessel. Good for skin ulcers..... sores.... antiseptic..... and Asia. reducing visual eye fatigue. leaf-blades thin.. boils. California. wounds... Whortleberry.. and other compounds identified in bee pollen. 262. 20 to 50 cm high.... leaves Habitat and Range Woods. Wyoming.. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations.. promotes tissue repair.. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx. Michigan.... and abscesses. anti-inflammatory.. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones.. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva..1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and to replace retina purple. G.0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive.. Mirkin.. 9. eruptions. amino acids. 4 mm wide. dissolving. Description Dwarf shrub..1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins..... restrains infection. scabs. clears toxins. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins.. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits. 1 to 2% fat. and ulcers.. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen... about 5 mm long. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees. reduces inflammation. JAMA... only slightly paler beneath. ovate. 55% carbohydrate. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees.

1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. naturalized in northern North America. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. betuloresnic acid. myrtillin. leaves. Rattleweed. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. ascorbic acid. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. psoriasis. anthocyanosides. 1. saponins. arbutin. White Birch. quinic acid. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. New York. Mabey. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. methyl salicylate. betuloside. fatty acids. Rattleroot. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. BIRCH Betula alba L. essential oil. R. parts of Arctic Siberia. Europe. 1. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ursolic acid.. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. gaultherin. Properties The bark. Macmillan. Bugbane. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. BANZ No. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. 4-23-87. (trace amount) asperuloside.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. apigenin dimethyl ether. North Asia. betulol. New Age Herbalist. Bugwort. 76. 1988. and eczema. German Commission E Monograph. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. peonidin glucosides. Squaw Root.

resins. taste bitter and acrid. or less frequently by fibrous strands. fatty acids. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. tannins. mainly formononetin. and rheumatism. externally dark brown. internally. bark dark brown. longitudinally wrinkled. particularly depression and hot flushes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol).5 cm in thickness. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. up to 3 mm thick. fracture horny. It possesses estrogenic activity. dyspepsia. fracture short. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. by deep cup-shaped scars. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. somewhat branched. bark thin. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. externally dark brown. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. and sugar. Rhizome horizontal. each of which shows a radiate structure. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. frequently. starch.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea.

with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. Texas. It is an astringent. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. rounded or subcordate at the base. Florida. anthelmintic. leaflets 11 to 23. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). 8 to 10 cm long. serrate. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. fixed and volatile oils. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. with thick ridges. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. and detergent. 5 to 8 cm long. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. and trace minerals. bark. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). taper-pointed at the apex. tannins. glabrous above. glabrous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . juglandic acid. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. Massachusetts. fruit globose. lanceolate. Description A tree up to 50 m high. and Minnesota. Constituents Juglone.

The taste is saline and mucilaginous. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). and bruises. probably due to its iodine content. The color varies from brown to black. fucans). The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. Frequently. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. cellutitis. Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. steryl glucosides. massage for cellulite. rheumatism. as a wash for psoriasis. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. a prominent midrib. It can be added to hair and skin care products. sprains. reproductive tissues. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). The odor is slight. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. slimming activity. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. The thallus is dichotomously branched. The texture is cartilaginous. myxoedema. trace minerals (mainly iodine).

.. mostly in the Eastern States. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . elliptical leaves wrinkled. five pointed corolla.. European Burdock.. rough. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. Constituents Vitamin C.. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L.. mainly cultivated for commercial use. Bugloss.. It is easily grown from seed. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. sparingly naturalized in the United States... frequently split or in broken pieces.... skin cleansing and lightening. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids. simple or branched. Description The root is fusiform. sometimes white. the crown somewhat annulate. calyx of five sepals. tannins. saponins. Gobo Part Used: Roots.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains. leaf. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin. covered with bristly hairs.. longitudinally wrinkled. on long stalks. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores.. externally grayish brown. up to 60 cm high. Borage has a cucumber-like odor. the lower ones on short petioles. Description An annual robust plant. about 2 cm in diameter. of variable length. flowers from June through September. sessile. fracture somewhat horny. rhizomes. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe. hollow stem. and minerals. the upper leaves. flowers...BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF... *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage... usually blue. Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage.. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock..

Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. shampoos. centrally hollow or containing a white. North America. becoming pyroligneous on milling. acid soils. It has been combined with comfrey. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. including buxine and buxozine C. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. berries with black seeds. fatty acids. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. Arctinone. fat. anorexia nervosa. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. pith-like tissue. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. lotions. sweetish. arctinal etc. It is also used in hair conditioners. volatile oils. eczema. creams. gout. lignin. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. yellow-green flowers in spring. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. and slightly bitter. tannins. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. arctinol. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. and can be used in facial steams. licorice.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood.. sterols. fukinanolid. polyalkenes. abrasions. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . inulin. in cases of acne. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. cutaneous eruption. and oil. scaly skin. gels. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. Odor slight. cystitis. taste is mucilaginous. and baths. psoriasis.

inhibits inflammation. saponin. Fruit. dark green shrub with thick. chrysophanic acid. oval rigid. ribbed. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. mucilage. ca. diuretic. Description A dense. 3 mm across. borne on green. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. papery ca. a globular red berry ca. The extract has been used with success. Flowers greenish.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. 2 cm long. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. scale-like. sudorific. Leaves. bushy places. dry hills. 5 mm. rutin. Properties Increases circulation. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. Europe. 1 cm. ruscoside. Emmenagogue. for the treatment of varicose veins.

.

....C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia. Mombassa... luteolin.... piscidic-acids.... at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material.... the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length. taste acidulous and mucilaginous.. Mexican. penduletin. from 1... or Sierra Leone Pepper. quercitrin.. Description In pieces of varying length. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear....... Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America. CALENDULA. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and from 5 to 9 angled. Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length. rutin.. and beta-sitosterol... isorhamnetin-glucoside.... healing for sensitive skin.. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments.. See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L..5 to 4 cm in diameter.. herby odor. Constituents Flavonoids... It has a strong.. dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper.. kaempferol.

Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. The epicarp is thin and tough. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. yellow. the African variety is yellowish-brown. and greenish-red. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The apex is acuminate or acute. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The seeds are compressed and pointed. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. the Nyassaland variety is red. The odor is aromatic. The taste is pungent and warming. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. and brown.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. The fruits vary greatly in size. or is free from these. Capsicum is a berry. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. gray. The Mexican variety is deep red. yellow. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. red. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

naturalized in North America. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. and perfumes up to 0. colocynth. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. fatty acids. daucol. etc. -pinene. geraniol. Buckthorn. CARROT Daucus carota L. Bitter Bark. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. Chittem Bark. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. flavonoids. leaves. and others. Sacred Bark. and North America.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. Bear Wood. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. counter-irritant. creams. hairy stem. jaborandi. rubefacient used for neuralgia. After. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. segmented. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes.29%). Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). is obtained by steam distillation. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. It has a long tap root. rheumatic pains. keeping it smooth and soft. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. geranyl acetate. branched. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . detergents. antiseptic.4%. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. and vitamins A and C. lotions. carotene capsanthin. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. Asia. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction.

1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. See formula. bryophytes. it acts as stomach ache treatment. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. 1. W. Wagner et al. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. 3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5. It is frequently covered with lichen. Teil B. The bark occurs in flattened. 1974. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. Naturforsch. In small doses. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. Two aloins. and Evans. B = 10 R = OH. 1983. G. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives. E. D = 10 . B. 444. B and C (see “Rhubarb”).5 to 5 mm thick. 2.. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. Various diathrones.and C-glycosidic linkages. R = OH. 1974. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. and D. including those of emodin. C = 10B. 267. Z. and chrysophanol. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). aloe-emodin. odor distinct. Publ. they contain both O. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. 2. Description The tree is 4. Bailliere Tindall. Trease. 1. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. curved pieces or quills of variable length. 12th ed. Teil C. 4. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides.. R = H. It is much used as a laxative. C.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. R = H. and emodin in the free state. London. chrysophanol. It gives red color with ammonia TS. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. emodin oxanthrone. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. Aloe-emodin. in Pharmacognosy. C.

pungent.... petiolate. margin deeply crenate. corolla whitish..... Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect..CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L. calyx hairy. rounded or ear-shaped at the base. much branched. limb bilabiate. and aromatic.. the lower spreading and three-cleft. citronellal.. naturalized in North America. taste bitter. up to 4 mm in diameter. bract-like.. leaves opposite. Br. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. stems quadrangular.. softhairy above... nepetalic acid. crenulate. dotted with purple. downy beneath... in dense.......... Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed.. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East.. Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like. from 2 to 7 cm long. the upper lip erect and two-cleft. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling. (geraniol. camphor. tubular. flowers small. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe.. the larger. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache. from 10 to 20 cm long. or crushed and broken..... It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. pale gray-green.. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip.. lower pair shorter. methyl-nepetalactone. downy. ovate or oblong. interrupted spikes. floral leaves small. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties. carvacol. nepetariaside. thymol). throat dilated.. Constituents Essential oil. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A. the middle lobe largest. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed.. pointed at the apex... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. nepetol rosemarinic acid. nepetalactone.. CENTELLA. Description Top.

5. D’Amelio.206. Leaves. Y. Wu.23%).76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant. 6. Y. 6. thymol (1. and U. aromatic.. and sternutatory. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex.7. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. A. 40(5).W. 8. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. and C. Ebizuka.C. J. Abstr. 1994.. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. Bull. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. green..2 The plant also possesses antiallergic. Ebizuka. Hu. Res. Y. Phillipson. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1. F. Y. Mutat.97%). and rheumatism. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. florilenslin derivatives. Campbell.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. sessile. Bull.6-beta-oside.5%). Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns. F. 1988. Sept. diarrhea. and Mirhom. and D. D’Amelio.B.. green.Y. 894.. 54. longitudinally striated. malaria. beta-gurjunene. Wright. Chem. Sankawa. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. Phytotherapy Res. 8(7). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .98%).. UIO.B. H.I.D. 1998.L. J. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. brevilin A. Lin. 204(2). Yang.3 antiprotozoal. 22 g.W. 436. skin infections. 4. simple. Lee and J.. U. plenolin derivatives. Kriby. and Mirhom. H. 97.804. wounds. 1997. internodes short.6 to 1 cm broad. J. 3272.50%). and amoebiasis.A. and alpha-humulene.C. 2.S.85%). and U. Odor characteristic. T. florilenalin-angelate. The plant also contains diterpenes. oblong. Pharm. cylindrical. apex acute. G. 1196. Patent 5. Sankawa. 7. 3. Yang. S. arnicolides. caryophyllane-2. Lin.18%).8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. Warhurst. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. venation pinate reticulate. the apical cell being elongated filamentous. Chin J. Iwakami.C.5 cm in diameter. triterpenes. Wu. W. Y. Pharm. Stem 0. helenalin.1 In Chinese traditional medicine. Y. margin dentate. Chem. 1991. C. Pharm.W. Microbiol. Compositous glandular hairs are also present. isoamyl caproate (1. nasal allergies. J. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. 1973–1974. 1. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. Cai. 1973. Yang.S. Aust. asthma. the plant has been used to treat colds. 39(12). alternate. S. Chun. 1992.T. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells.3 to 0. and flavonoids. myrtenol (5. Y.. July 26–30.

peduncles light green to brownish-green. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. chlorogenic acid. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile.to 5-ribbed. ray-florets from 10 to 20. taste aromatic and bitter. and without a pappus. three-toothed and four-veined. usually reflexed. Constituents Essential oil. For further reading. creams. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . well over one hundred compounds. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. furfural. aromatic. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. chamazulene. oblanceolate. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. bisabolene.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. New York southward. involucre hemispherical. perfect. alpha-bisabolol. apigenins. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. healing tonic. farnesol. see the bibliography at the end of the book. pappus none. Odor pleasant. corolla white. It is a carminative. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. naturalized in the United States. Chamomile contains azulene. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. or only a slight membraneous crown. disk-florets tubular. pistillate. etc. matricarin. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. hollow receptacles. and pubescent scales. lotions. longitudinally furrowed. and mullein in shampoo rinses.5 cm. borneol. anti-inflammatory. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. calendula.

78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. Also used on skin rashes and infections. each consists of two olive-green leaflets.D.G. 3/8 in. The flowers normally occur in January through May. Yellow flowers have five petals. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. and stimulating the skin. Properties Good for softening. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .A. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. long. Gobonadorra Greasewood.. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. Chaparral is a source of N. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall. It is native to the southwestern United States. restoring. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. Description A resinous. The leaves grow in opposite pairs.

The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. phenolic acids.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. and unpeeled. 8th ed.CHERRY BARK. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. However. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. The odor is aromatic. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. camphor. 1.. p. astringent.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. The taste is astringent and pungent. tannins. this has not been thoroughly investigated. a powerful antioxidant. south to Florida and Texas. is brownish-black.). will add body to hair.A. which can be peeled. bitteralmond-like when moistened. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. and uneven.G. quercetin). Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . granular and slightly fibrous. The outer surface. and 4 mm in thickness. Properties Soothing. Constituents Aspartic acid. it is finely striated and fissured. gossypetin. partially peeled. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. CHERRY BARK. The fracture is weak. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. 5 cm in width. Merck Index. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. brittle.D. 747. if unpeeled. sedating.

Can be used in creams. flowers white.1 mucilage. leafy cymes. high. coumarins. rooting at the nodes. creeping or ascending. rutin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fruit a many-seeded. Description A weak. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. For inflammed eyes. axillary stalks and in terminal. leaves ovate. saponins. All Europe. entire. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. opposite. baths. tocopherols. 1⁄6 to 1 in. emollient. the lower petioled. annual. the uppermost sessile. redness of face erysipelas. and facial steams. on slender.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. fatty acids and minerals. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. swelling. psoriasis. with a line of hairs along one side. stems slender. lotions. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. satin flower. indolent ulcers. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. white bird’s eye. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. small capsule. small. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. long. triterpene gyycosides. Properties Antipruritic. vulnerary. carboxylic acids. gamma-linolenic acid. acute.

.. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard... 1992. CRC Press. said to have antibiotic properties...... Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants. each 3 to 10 cm. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. Description A robust...... protein. chlorogenic acid.) Bull. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval.. Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods... rubefacient.. and conspicuous.. Constituents Caffeic acid. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters. Y.. In 1770. CINCHONA..) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng.... June to August.. grey.. most of Europe. sores. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. densely hairy on both sides. Flowers 2 cm. hedges. and inflammation. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches.... behenic acid.. indifference. antiscrofulous properties.. Steven Foster. stalked leaflets. Duke. clematine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . petals spreading. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy). Fruit with numerous carpels. Boca Raton. inattentativeness. Carophyllus aromaticus L. each with long styles with dense.. woody. fragrant.. A/B.See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L... FL.. melissic acid. in lax terminal and axillary clusters.. John Wiley & Sons. sterols.. Caryophyllum. 1996. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands.. et Herr. thickets. New York. white hairs. 2nd ed. feather fruit clusters.. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion.. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L. mental escape from reality.CLOVES 81 1. spreading. it is used for dementia.. Leung. J. 2.. vitalbiosides...

and Tyler. carbohydrates. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. stamens numerous. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. taste pungent and aromatic. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. with numerous ovules. odor strongly aromatic. flavonoids. followed by a slight numbness. Robbers. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. crowded. which alternate with the calyx teeth. Nepal. It lowers blood pressure. ovary twolocular. E.5 mm in length. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Burma. afterwards very pungent. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. and has carminative properties. vitamins. and others. and somewhat four-angled. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. dark brown.K. Speedie. Williams & Wilkins. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation... terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. antispasmodic. where it is widely cultivated. protein. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root. J. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. lipids. and Thailand. 1.E. and incurved. Sri Lanka. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. style 1. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent.. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. The buds also contain sterols. J. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. It is native to India. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. glandular-punctate petals.

palmately 5. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. banks. R. faintly herbaceous. slightly wrinkled. taste mucilaginous. glabrous above.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. The younger leaves densely white. Description Petiole long. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. landslides. terpene alcohols. minerals. ground. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. Chevallier.L. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green.. A. blade very brittle. 1998. 1996. All Europe. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. Personal communication. 3. deeply cordate at the base. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth. tussilagone and essential oil. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. and smoked like tobacco. pubescent. Kronenthal. screens. Odor indistinct. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. carotenoids. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. 83. river gravels. Properties Emollient. floccose beneath. mucilage.. London. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. When the leaves are dried.to 9-nerved. Constituents Tannins. tussillagine. senkirkine. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. it is said to help relieve asthma.. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. bitter.

marshes. Knitbone Part Used: Root. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. ointments. 944. cone flower. and demulcent. watersides. lotions. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity.7%). feebly astringent taste. very hairy. Most of Europe. Autoreg. anti-inflammatory.) Comfrey is also an astringent.2–4. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). on wounds. Phytotherapy Res. B-sitosterol amino cids. 1. Comfrey can be used in creams. a very powerful cell proliferent.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. Healing Herb. 1987. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers.. phenolics. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. Bruiswort. althea. fractures. asparagine (1–3%). Blackwort. Menghini A.. chlorogenic.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. The powder is green in color. hair rinses.. salves.. Capassa F. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. I. Fillipendula. antihemorrhagic. long.. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. and Fasulo M. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). and has a mucilaginous. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. It is almost inodorous. Mascolo N. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. douches. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. up to 10 in. caffeic.P. aloe. and lithospermic acids. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. radical leaves are very large. shampoos. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. Description The lower. alkaloids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

1 Dry matter 30.600 0.7 0.93 0.26 0.59 0.624 8.0 7.18 2.0 1200. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.05 0.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.142 0.84 4.92 0. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.14 49.73 28.93 0.0 15.795 0.8 2. A equiv.111 1.51 4.085 0.0 5.7 7.176 0.8 213.50 1101100.92 0.208 100.19 0.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.19 5.285 0.79 275.7 0.480 0.40 0.0 30.86 49.41 0.74 0.61 0.8 44.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.47 1.10 0.10 19600 10 6 28 0.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.2 0. Dig.0 100 g 4.58 5.72 1.0 0.0 0.00 57 34 34 1.456 0.01 14.20 0.65 0.78 7.07 100.0 3.01 24. for cattle Maint.037 17. energy therms cwt Prod. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.59 2.29 44.89 0.99 1. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig. Nutrients Calc.30 1.11 25.14 8.

.. mucilaginous..... feebly astringent taste.. often more than 2. occasionally dark brown in color. Bruiswort. Europe.. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface.. cultivated extensively. riverbanks. internally creamy white.... reduces inflammation and clotting... and dark color.See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L. branched. promotes tissue repair. and has a sweetish. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin. firm. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable..5 cm thick and 30 cm long. Healing Comfrey Herb.. woodland. It is almost inodorous. Good when used in burn creams. North Africa. creates astringency... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped.... Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L. horny texture. CONE FLOWER. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L..... Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland. *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark..... Blackwort. externally wrinkled.

CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. and flavors. flavonoids (quertcetin. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. cremocarp nearly globular.). more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. fatty acids. -terpinene. mericarps easily separated. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. limonene. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. two or three layers of large. coumaric. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. deodorants. toothpaste. rutin). Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. perfumes. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. phenolic acids (caffeic. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. each mericarp with five prominent. frequently with numerous large. toilet waters and after shaves. endocarp of large tabular cells. straight. tannin. geraniol and geranyl acetate. p-cymene. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. camphor. The essential oil is used in massage oils. undulate secondary ribs. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. eliptical oil ducts. chlorogenic. Properties Has been used in body lotions. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. ferulic). intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. tangentially elongated. etc. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

it is soothing and emollient. and various skin complaints. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. floccose. For aging skin. marginal corollas funnelform. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. with slender. more or less floccose. involucres round-ureolate. Virginia. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. native of Europe. about 15 mm high. conjunctivitis. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. varying to rose or white. Description Annual. or as a compress for tired eyes. bracts greenish-yellow. California. ascending branches. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. heads long-peduncled. blue. scrapes. stem 3 to 7 dm high. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . British Columbia. Quebec.

protein. saponins. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. Topically very soothing and softening. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. purplish-red.4 to 3 mm in length. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. corn silk. alanine. potassium. flavonoids (Maysin). spiral or annular tracheae. yellow or light brown color. vitamin C. and from 0. spherical nucleus. stigmas bifid.4 mm in diameter. cyanidin glucoside. stigmasterol. arginine. the epidermal cells rectangular. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. light green. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and 0. the upper portion being usually unicellular. tannin.8 m in length.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. palmitic acid. and temperate Asia. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. minerals. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. the basal trichomes 50. Constituents Acetanapthene. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. cultivated extensively. polygalacturonic acids. proline. tocopherols. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. fixed oil. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. CORN SILK Zea mays L. cichorin. Europe. frequently unequal. cnicin. maizeric acid. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. segments very slender. protocyanin.2 to 0.

.. broad hairy leaves. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory.. Berlin. cucurbitacins. Plant Drug Analysis.. yellow. minerals. colds. astringent. apricot-like... about 1 cm in diameter. enzyme (primeverase). amino acids...... wrinkled leaves.. For blotchiness of skin. cooling... and cylindrical. volatile oils. p.... with oval..M. Constituents Vitamins.. fatty acids. Taste. sweetish. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis.. soothing eye compress.. tubular yellow flowers. flavonoids (gossypetin.. Both the fruit and seeds are employed.. 176..... slightly curved. odor. quercetin). hairy perennial.. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties..... sunburn. S.. Properties Stimulate circulation. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract. in face creams... Wagner. five-lobed.. CRESS.. 1. Zgalinski... *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India.. Blatt. and 3-gentiotrioside. and spotted with orange at the throat.... Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. H.See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L. and refreshing. Constituents Saponins. and coughs.. dark green fruits.. phenolic acids.90 CRESS. and for chapped skin or sunburn. Description This trailing annual has rough stems. The flowers are tubular... 1984... phytosterol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .SEE WATERCRESS Description A short... Springer-Verlag... campferol dirhamnoside. According to the German Commission Monograph E. Hydrating. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging). and E..

Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. Stomata are present in both epidermises. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long).5 cm wide.0 cm long and 0. 0. and for various skin complaints and eczema.5 cm wide. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. naturalized in the United States. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long.5 to 1. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. Frequent pieces of cut.S. with a pronounced midrib. approximating 90°. ending in a spherical secreting cell. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. where it is a common weed.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. dark green or brown-green in color. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. Foreign Dandelion. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. yellow-brown and sometimes purple.

and is especially high in potassium. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. the root has been used to treat inflammation. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. The white sap has been used to treat warts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as a diuretic. Vitamin B and C. probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). It is also considered a blood purifier.

the section exhibiting a yellow. carotenoids. which is rather hygroscopic. The dried root is dark brown. but often divides into several erect branches. it tapers but little below. 1. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. and wrinkled longitudinally. which have not been found anywhere else. which toward the upper part. with concentric rings as in the root. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. the latter sometimes remains simple. It has no odor. whitish bark in which numerous. vitamins and minerals. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. also ca. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. and the eudesmanolides. It attains a length of about 30 cm. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. flavonoids. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. milky latex exudes.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. becomes tough when slightly moist. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. and sterols. and a layer of cork externally. where it is a common weed. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . From the freshly cut surface a bitter. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. but a bitter taste.1% mucilage. and its derivative taraxacoside. much shriveled. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). brownish concentric rings of sieve. porous. Description The root consists of a simple. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. glucoside. surrounded by a thick. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. straight root. The drug. whitish and fleshy within. a narrow cortex.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. naturalized in the United States.

. heavily concentric. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. taste astringent. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. polyphenols. 1. claw-like fruit.5 cm thick. triterpenes. light grey-brown. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0.-C.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. 1992. 117. Lanhers. rheumatism). Xylem radiate. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. 58. Fracture short. Odor slight. hooked. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The plant produces bright red flowers.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. Planta Med. (oleanolic acid. occasionally with cavities. flavonoids. polysaccharides. procumbide). Antiphlogistic. Description It has a characteristic large. slightly analgesic. et al. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. quinones... M. chlorogenic acid. ursolic acid) phytosterols. bitter. with some fan-shaped pieces.

*INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States.) Nutt.. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. Moench. E. Part Used: Root. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (Nutt. Black Susans.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. Hedgehog Part Used: Root. Indian head. E. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. L. Scurvy Root. Black Sampson. pallida. purpurea.

are directly related to the immune mechanisms. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. taste sweetish. sieve tissue in radial rows. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. or furrowed. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. fibrous. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. wound healing. light brown. use for snake bite. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. slightly annulate in the upper portion. bites. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. fracture short. or poisonous insects. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. blood purification. For example. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. or purplish-brown. etc. wounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ulcers. to form the basis of the wound-healing process.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. externally grayish-brown. bark less than 1 mm thick. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. boils. bed sores. aromatic. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. cylindrical. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. burns. stings. When administered orally. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. Odor faint.

3 Furthermore. this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). TNF-X. Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages.ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities. indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Interferon-B2. It also increases T-cell proliferation. A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii). interleukin-1 (IL-1).

angustifolia). isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. pyrrolizidine alkaloids.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid. in vivo. which is useful for species identification. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea. but practically absent in E. In E. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus.7% (except in E.3–1.6–2.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. ferulates of tartaric. including an essential oil. Present in both E.4Z-diene8. angustifolia. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. • Polysaccharides.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro. isobutylamide of undeca (2E. albicans pathogens. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0. chlorogenic acid..g. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity.10E)-tetraenoic acid). Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. – The mono. pallida. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds.1%). the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood. purpurea (0. These include aliphatic amides. purpurea)].. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan.8Z.5 Furthermore. arabinoga lactan). angustifolia.4E. purpurea and E. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C.g.

. Holger. 36(5). B. Andreas. Lohmann-Matthes. 669-675. R. H. Phytochemistry. 81(8). M. Wagner. Arzneim-Forsch. 276-281. R. Luettig. J.ECHINACEA 99 1.Matthes.L. 27(9). J. Cancer Inst. Christiane. Ser..345. Wuerdinger. K. Puhlmann. Bauer. K. Steinmueller. and M. Loesch. 2787-2794. O. I. and H. 4. 13(1). 3. Schranner. 5. (Bethesda). Zenk. S. 1989 2. Gifford. Zawatzky. 1988. 6. J. H. Wagner. Vet. N. 1991.. 1989. J. 1989. B. Jurcic. Intn. Roesler. and R.744. Wagner. 1988. 27-38. J. C. Ger Offen De 3. G. Wagner.. 353-364. Klumpp and U. Med. Brouillard. H.. Lohmann. and J.E. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Natl. Cheminat. Albrecht. 38(2). A..H.-L. Becker. Immuno Pharmacol. M. E.

sterols. five-lobed. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). filaments. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . having three pores and up to 0. rotate. yellow. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. triterpenes (alpha. flat or slightly campanulate. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. calyx superior. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. stamens five. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. south to Florida and Texas. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes.023 mm in diameter.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. ursolic acid. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. slender anthers oblong. mucilage. joint stiffness etc. shriveled. soreness. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. It is said to reduce swellings. from 2 to 3 mm in width. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. covered with finely punctate markings. Description Small. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. minerals. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. astragalin. taste slightly bitter. sambunigrin).and beta-amyrin). inflammation. regularly five-lobed. tumors. volatile oils. and tannins. rutin.

taste acrid. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. up to 13 cm in length and 1. itching skin. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. and rashes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. west to Missouri.) strongly lignified wood fibers. and separated by large intercellular spaces. naturalized in northeastern North America. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. as a bactericide. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. and pungent. roots cylindrical and tapering. bitter. frequently curved or irregularly curled. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. south to North Carolina. and catarrh. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. asthma. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. central Europe. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles.5 cm in diameter.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. fracture short and horny. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. Odor aromatic. wounds. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. Scabwort.

friedelin). Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. inulin. triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. sterols. polyacetylene. isolantolactone. germacrene-D-lactose).

Description It is an elegant little annual plant. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. has a bitter and astringent taste. 1 ⁄6 to in. but sometimes tinged with brown. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. Also has slight Anodyne properties. always deeply cut-in teeth. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . essential oil. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. odor characteristically aromatic. revolute or undulate. either unbranched in small specimens. obtuse bracts which are white. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. heaths. sessile. broad. however. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. heads numerous. Constituents Tannins. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. It is odorless. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. and at other times pointed and narrow. The leaves are sometimes almost round. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). Hemostatic. The stem is erect and wiry. small. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. 2 to 8 in. Europe. and phytosterin. high.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. febrifuge. taste bitter and aromatic. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. their margins. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. Description Stems white-woolly. woodland. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. or with many opposite branches. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. long and about in. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. Astringent tonic. green above. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. woolly beneath. resin.

lotions or drops for eye complaints. conjunctivitis. inflammation of the eyelid. Euphrasia contains glycosides. inflamation of the blood vessels. geniposide. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. luproside. poultices. and various skin conditions. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. ferulic acid. minerals.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. Constituents Aucubin. including aucubin. gallotannins. caffeic acid. and a volatile oil. catapol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. For use in eye washes. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . conical stylopod. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. It is * Formerly CTFA.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. New Jersey. dorsal surface convex. more or less curved. south to Florida and Texas. United States. making usually six oil ducts in all. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. composed of polygonal cells. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. Description Mericarps usually separate. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. brown walls. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas.5 mm in breadth. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. strongly lignified fibers.

The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. the fruits contain a fixed oil. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. and flattened. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. and Turkey. In addition. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. Nearly in the center of one of the long. the former appearing as a whitish point. anisaldehyde. cultivated in India. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. and 2 mm thick. they are hard. the taste is disagreeable and oily. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. However. organic acids. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. is strong and spicy. yellowish-brown.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. In addition. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. and flavonoids. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. Soaked in water. dark. translucent endosperm. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. protein. 2 to 3 mm wide. horny. there are methylchavicol. the radicle being accumbent. -phellandrene. especially if powdered. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. and limonene. including -pinene. Pakistan. The odor of Fenugreek. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Israel.

in woods. glutamic acid. choline. Fenugreek contains mucilage. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hedges. histidine. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. and banks. sores. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. mucin. swollen glands. tumors. It is also used as a galactagogue. neurosis. Scrofula plant. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. cystine. wounds. Constituents Dioscin. aspartic acid. Square stalk. trigofoenoside A-G. yamogenin. and various skin irritations. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. A poultice has been employed for gout. damp copses. flowering from July to October. mucilage.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. diosgenin. choline. glycine. fenugreakin. trigonelline.

with paniculate. with a leafy. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. and 3 to 7 in. slightly drooping. opposite branches above. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alkaloids and flavonoids. sharply and unequally serrated. with a livid purple lip. cardio-active glycosides. erect. of a deep-green color. veined. Constituents Saponins. hesperetin. and knotty root. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. which are broadly ovate. whitish. 2 to 4 ft in height. sublabiate. The leaves are opposite. The calyx is in five segments. thyrsoid panicles. acute. anodyne. lecithin. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. quadrangular. ovate. cleansing. ovoid. tuberous. dark purple. having a green scale or sterile filament. ovate-oblong. adnate to the upper side. and circulatory stimulant. petiolate.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. the corolla of a dull green color. the limb contracted. 3 to 4 in. on axillary and terminal. The flowers are small. in length. and subglobose. forked. smooth stem. rounded. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. obtuse. long. acutish or broadly cordate at base. and slightly margined. or the upper lanceolate.

fatty acids. and astringent. but are inodorous when dried. cleansing. the flowers white.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. with an acidulous. and along banks of rivers. and midrib. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. flavonoids. growing in cultivated grounds. quadrangular. and rough on the margins.or 2-flowered. tapering to the base. sterols. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). styles 2. small. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. and flowering from June to September. Calyx 4-toothed. Description Galium aparine is an annual. The fruit is large and bristly. in length. or eights. numerous and scattered. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. with hooked prickles. stamens 4 and short. Stinging Nettle. and n-alkanes. procumbent. sevens. and is hairy at the joints. tannins. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. these plants have an unpleasant odor. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. GARLIC Allium sativum L. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. retrorsely prickled stem. succulent plant. phenolic acids. In a green state. mucronate. verticillate in sixes. Catch-weed. 2 or 3 lines in width. astringent. and bitter taste. including psoriasis. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. with a weak. and Burdock. moist thickets. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. the peduncles are axillary and 1. coumarins. corolla rotate and 4-parted.

B. hypotensive and anthelmintic. about 0. in place of butter. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. Description Bulb subglobular. Italy is a large producer. Garlic does not lend itself. the outer surface convex. antiviral. base truncate. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. apex acute. dry leaf. g-glutamyl). but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. Internally. cultivated extensively. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. with 8 to 15 bulbils. scale-like leaves. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. membranaceous. C. spasmolytic. scordinins. pimples. and fructans. Vitamins A. bacteriostatic. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. surrounded by whitish. membranaceous scales. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. The membranaceous scales. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. and E. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. antiseptic. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. However. Constituents Sulfur compounds. compound. and acne.750 mm in diameter. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. each bulbil covered by whitish. trace minerals. and attached to a flattened circular base. for obvious reasons. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. peptides. sores. promotes leucocytosis. (alliin. taste intensely pungent and persistent. expectorant. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. It has been applied successfully to swellings. allicin — dialltrisulfide. Properties Cosmetically. Garlic is diaphoretic. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. 4 to 6 cm in diameter.

swertiamarin). sialagogue. and middle western United States. deeply wrinkled longitudinally.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. Properties Gentian is an astringent. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. These roots measure up to 8. The taste is first sweet. cleansing. and to 37 mm in diameter. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. anti-inflammatory. amarogentin. The cambiam zone is dark brown. and cholagogue. then strongly bitter. polysaccharide. It is recommended for loss of appetite. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. and alkaloids (gentiamine). gastric stimulant. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. xanthones. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. but pliable when it is moist.5 dm in length. Cranesbill. volatile oils. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bitter. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. but are usually shorter. phenolic acids. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. sweroside. that of the root. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. The odor is aromatic.

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Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.

Wild alum

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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome

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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf

Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.

Ginkgo

Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.

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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root

Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.

Ginseng root (american) cultivated

Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its

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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.

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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.

GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves

Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.

Golden rod (Solidago)

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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome

Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.

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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.

GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part

Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near

Gotu kola

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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin

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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.

GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit

Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract

Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.

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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf

Green tea

Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.

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lotions. gallo catechins).. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannins (catechins. ferulic). theobromine. and phenolic acids (caffeic. etc. hair rinses. conditioning. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. shampoos. creams. theophylline). which can be used in various sun-care products.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings.

.

and externally wrinkled. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. sores. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. and dimeric procyanidin. Description The fruits are small berries. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. leaves. Monogyna (jacq.) C. catechin. fatty acids.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. Cosmetically. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. purple-brown to brown in color. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. Externally. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. with five parts. quercetin and glucosides). and central and northern Asia. vitexin glucosides. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. and frost bite. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. phenolic acids.C. Properties Flowers. Medically. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. it has been used as a wash for itching.

Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. India. small. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. 4-napthoquinone). Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. It can be used in shampoos. simple. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. with occasional stems and brown. However. mucronate. It will add body and highlights to hair. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. brown. in an aqueous solution.. 2 to 3 cm long. 1 to 2 cm wide. and conditioners. It will not impart any color to the hair. oblong or broadly lanceolate. as henna. etc. Pharm. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. 51. triangular pitted seeds. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. astringent. tapering at the base. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. and decolorized by a special extraction process. hair rinses. It is also said to be cooling. l.126 HENNA 1. Arabia. 319. however. entire. often imported in coarse powder. decoction orange-brown. Chamomile. Persia. Della Loggia. acids destroy its properties. opposite. glabrous. Sci. R. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. Calendula.. et al. 1983. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. deepening with alkalies. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. shortly petiolate. Description Leaves greenish-brown. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fruit. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. fading on the addition of acid. (2-hydroxy.

flavonoids.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. orange blossom. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. and semi-solid on keeping.4-napthoquinone). Description Honey is a viscid. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. (glucosides of apigenin. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. fatty acids. Chile. California. and New Zealand. various parts of Africa. Australia. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. luteolin). translucent. It becomes partially crystalline. phenolic acid. and tannins. Honey obtained from heather. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste.

and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. The strobiles measure 5. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. tannins. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. formic acid. tetters. sores. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. volatile oil. Useful in treatment of dandruff. lupulone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. will give body to the hair. consisting mainly of humulene. Asia. the veins are elevated. and tannins. and pollen grains. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. bactericidal.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. hypnotic. In combination with Chamomile. humulene. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin). and hair conditioning. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. it will reduce swellings. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. The odor is aromatic. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. and alleviates pain and itching. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. dextrin.brown. face creams. Hops is a strobulus. one margin is flat. The individual bracts are thin and papery. Hops is a sedative. wax. and discoloration. It has been used on crural ulcers. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. Bark Bongay. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. ringworm. It contains small quantities of sucrose. bitter principles. xanthahumol). The taste is pungent and bitter.

and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers.25–0. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. and swellings. nearly an inch in diameter. Description A perennial . in diameter. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. and hemorrhoids. and non-astringent. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. vasoconstrictor. The root has antimicrobial properties. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. It has been used in cellulitis. tendonitis. stimulates digestion and circulation. peculiar odor. The aqueous infusion is bitter. The nut. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. Increases venous tone. iron gives a green precipitate. increases circulation. sprains and various sports injuries. with a shining. Anti-inflammatory. The nut has a slight. Constituents Saponins (aescin. varicose veins. bitter taste. quercetin). Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. large rough leaves. aesculin). hand creams. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. is nearly odorless. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. from 1 to 1 in. phenolic acids. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. bitter taste. fleshy roots. The bark is thin. and has an unpleasant. lotions. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. Properties Cosmetically. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . when dry. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. The internal portion is starchy. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. Gaertn et Schert. is subglobular. and tannin. Properties Astringent. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. yellowish-white in color. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. phlebitis. chestnut-brown testa. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. and is tough and fibrous in fracture.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. and slimming products. compressed. fawn-colored. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. The inner bark has a rough. The plant has long. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth.

Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. However. 1 to 3. cones peduncled. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. rarely with a few branches. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. 5 to 10 mm. greasy skin.5 dm. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. which would validate its use on blemished. South Carolina. thick. sterile stems decumbent to erect. Greenland. Alaska. 10 to 14 furrowed. solid. acuminate. branched. 2 to 4 cm long. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. yields 0. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. mostly with sterile spores. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. high. thick. high. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. causing the skin to blister. 2 to 3 mm.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. California. and Eurasia. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains.5 dm. However. as the fresh juice can be irritating. branches 3 to 4 angled.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . after crushing and moistening.

Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. Will add strength and sheen to hair. emarginate. palustrine alkaloid. sometimes elliptical. Its stems are quadrangular. or lanceolate. and borne in racemose. Used for putrid wounds. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. the branches are rod-like. second whorls. acute. seldom white. sometimes narrower. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. and diverging. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. silicic acid. southern Europe. emarginate. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. spreading. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. acute. and equistetolic acid. anthers with linear divaricating cells. Upper lip of the corolla. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gangrenous ulcers. apigenin). Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. flat. but smaller. sessile.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. minerals. erect. healing. woody at the base. Stamens 4. The leaves are opposite. The flowers are bluish-purple. and external bleeding. spreading. punctate. lower lip trifid. sunny sites. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. entire. phenolic acids. astringent. rather thick. with the middle obe larger. kaempferol. flat. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. very much branched. protruding. green on each side. It is diuretic. and 1 ribbed underneath. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. with the middle of the corolla erect. scarcely shorter than the calyx. usually oblong-linear. and 1 to 2 ft in height. saponin (equisetonin).

flavonoid glycosides. phenolic acids. marrubin. gum. oleanic acid. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. and resin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. Constituents Volatile oil. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. ursolic acid. Tannin.

and glaucous on both sides. gray. opposite. North America. roundish. * Formerly CTFA. the upper being the largest. hairy. volatile oil. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. The calyx is long. radicating at base. The floral leaves are of the same form. though often purplish beneath. The leaves are petiolate. amino acids. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. square. the limb oblique. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). forming the appearance of a cross. creeping stem.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. with a varegated throat. Europe to Caucasus. The flowers are bluish-purple. crenate. luteolin [cynaroside]. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. marubiin. Also useful in cough preparations. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). hairy herb. cordatereniform. curved. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with a prostrate. villous. about three together in axillary whorls. decongesting tonic. phenolic acids. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim].

*INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. and introduced into North America. antimutagenic. sun or shade. This plant is common all over Europe. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. Ivy has been used in face packs. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. or Ivy gum). The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. exudes from the incised bark. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. faintly bitter. The former possesses a peculiar. Scandinavia. rather fragrant odor. Europe. Properties Anti-fungal. Description An evergreen climber. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. aromatic odor. However. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. and when heated emits a pleasant.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. It is acrid. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. anthelmintic. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. molluscicidal. control of cellulite.

IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. phenolic acids. flavonoids. . © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and fatty acids. malic acid. hederacoside.and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides. hederacoside C (5%).

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Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. The odor is slight. The leaves are compound. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. The taste is salty and bitter. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and the veins are elevated. The under surface is yellowish-green. The upper surface is yellowish-green. stalks. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. The blades are asymmetric.5 cm. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. dull. smooth. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. and stems. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay.

Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . eugenol. It induces salivary. It increases intestinal motility. and soaps. isamone. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. skin creams. pilocarpic acid. and mullein as a hair tonic. jaborino. Leaves opposite. gastric. more than half as long as the corolla tube. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. gels. It can be used in shampoos. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. hair rinses. lotions. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. calyx linear. hair tonics.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. It contains pilocarpine. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. containing benzylacetate. the terminal leaflet larger. and sweat hypersecretion. Constituents Essential oil. Combines well with Nettles. conditioners. antiglaucoma agent. volatile oil. and farnesol. isopilocarpine). very sweet-scented flowers. colocynth. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. jaboric acid. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. benzyl alcohol. tincture of Capsicum. and lotions to stimulate the follicle.

Kelp can be used in bath formulae. algin. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors. Constituents Iodine. Description Vesicles large. each bearing an expanded blade. restoring. (For additional information. benefits the skin. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. hair products. skin care products. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. potassium. and many trace minerals and micronutrients. Nourishing.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. see Chapter 7. softening. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dissolving.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA.

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antipyretic. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. and alkaloid. dandruff. triterpenoids. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. and lotions. antioxidant. The flowers are in branched panicles. Approximately 30 species have been identified. tropical habitats in dry soil. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. wide. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. analgesic.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. and similar skin problems. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. southern India and Sri Lanka. shampoos. Antimicrobial properties. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. creams. and antifungal.

numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. bacteriastatic. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. Sweet Wood. southern Europe.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. distinctive. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. Liquorice Root. Glycyrrhizae Radix. dilute it with water. flavonoids. It is aromatic and astringent.) Burman F. skin creams. When taken on an empty stomach. skin bleach. and Hungary. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. Russia. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. giving relief. cleanse the skin. taste aromatic. phenolic acids. odor fragrant. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and close the pores. Constituents Essential oil. and cleansers. Properties Healing antiseptic. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia.

the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. Internally. including dermatitis. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. Properties Good for skin eruptions. antiphlogistic. Its odor is distinctive. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. The upper portion is more or less knotty. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. and cysts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . longitudinally wrinkled. antihepatotoxic. it is yellow and radiate.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. pruritus. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. Anti-inflammatory. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. when deprived of the outer corky layer. antiseptic. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. antibacterial. sometimes split longitudinally. eczema. somewhat tapering. it is externally pale yellow. Externally. its taste is sweetish. antiviral. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. Internally. anti-infectant.

3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). bracts N/S Flowers. kumatakenin. etc. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. glycyrrhetol. echinatin. 4’. gum wax. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. White Wood.).). bracts Flowers. glabrolide.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. licuraside. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. Europe. glabrone. licoisoflavanone. amines. liquiritin. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. limestone. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. etc. licoricone. B-amyrin. isoglabrolide. licoric acid. 4-hydroxychalcone. 2 to 20% starch. bracts N/S Flowers.). glyzarin. coumarins. glycyrol. rhamnoisoliquiritin. Basswood. Linn Tree. licoisoflavones A and B. licochalcones A and B. sterols.7-dihydoxyflavone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. formononetin. neoisoliquiritin. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. glabronin etc. On hydrolysis. glabrol. liquiritigenin. amino acids. isoliquiritin. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. lignin. neoliquiritin.

when dry. are oblong or lanceolate. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. For bruises and to reduce swelling. or approach yellow. odor is agreeable. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating).LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. Internally. linear. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. When fresh. leaf-like bract. which are axillary. The petals are five and whitish. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. Emollient. faint.

The fruit is a cremocarp.5 to 1.0% volatile oil. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. and perfumes. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. dark green. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. D. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. volatile oil. Description Lovage has large. gum. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. creams. W. J. The rhizome and root are aromatic. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. Coumarins. naturalized in North America. lotions. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. Maggi Herb. and resin are also present. mucilage. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. sterols. tannins. kaempferol). caffeic). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . high amount of uronic acid. cultivated in central and southern Europe. Smallage.

Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. primary forks. blackish. adiantoxide. quinic acid. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. The rhizomes are horizontal. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. pedately branching at the summit. Constituents Adiantone. and then into several spreading pinnae. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. phenolic acids and their sulfates. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. first into two recurving.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. mucilage. astragalin. tannin. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the surface is glaucous and very smooth. Properties In rinses. They consist of long. slender. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. The odor is slight. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. and with blackish roots. and shining frond bases.

The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. thick. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. The texture is herbaceous. naturalized in North America. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. The odor is not distinct. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. mostly ligulate. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. Useful in eye preparations. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. Mary-bud. niacin. British Columbia to Mexico. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. hairy. These flowers are oblanceolate. The flower heads have a short. greenish-gray bracts. flowers. Properties Soothing and softening. Medicinally used in cough preparations. curved peduncle. Holligold. the veins are palmate. protective. and phenolic acids. The taste is mucilaginous. distinct. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. and fruits. blotchiness. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. The individual flowers are yellow. spasmodic colitis. The blade is cordate at the base. Relieves itching. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. and slightly elevated. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. and insect bites. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. the veins are elevated. Emollient for sensitive skin. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT

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The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root

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MELISSA

yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops

Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.

Melissa

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MIMOSA

151

Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.

MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root

Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.

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MISTLETOE

Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb

Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)

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MULLEIN

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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers

Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied

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MYRRH

Mullein (plant)

to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin

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bitter. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. It is said to bring forth the gods. The fracture is conchoidal. and anti-inflammatory. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. antifungal. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. for example. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. and acrid. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. engler) The surface is dull. carminative. diuretic. mildly expectorant. The odor is aromatic. The taste is pungent. sore throats. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. Used for halitosis. Myrrh is used in incense. diaphoretic. powdery. It is said to promote granulation. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians.

5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. geraniol.2 to 0. cineole.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. creamy white flowers.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange. on bruises and hemorrhoids. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and blue-black berries. Constituents Yields 0. camphene. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds. and nerol).

As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy. flowering from June to September. serotonin)... Nettles has been used as an astringent.. minerals (high amount). Stimulates hair growth.. amines (histamine... acetyl choline. See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L........ Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. kaempferol... and in gardens. nervous eczema. herbaceous. growing in waste places. beta-carotene... sterols.. and isorhamnetin). choline. which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed..N NASTURTIUM . Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant. formic and citric acids. and epistaxis malaena. in hedges.... by woodsides... Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant. Description This plant is a perennial. and for cutaneous eruptions... Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll. common to Europe and the United States.... Urtica urens L.. dull-green plant. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic. (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle.

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at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. and the Yukon. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. tapering toward each end.O OATS Avena sativa L. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. two-veined palet or scale. taste starchy. Florida. the base somewhat contracted. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. up to 1. thinly membranous. Odor slight. Texas. the apex pointed. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. a scar or. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. within the groove a narrow.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. above the center. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. rarely. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat).

polyphenols. highly refringent and truncate. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. eczema. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. entire and coriaceous.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. and herpes. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. avenacin). leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. elliptical stomata up to about 0. Medically. lignified walls. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. sleeplessness. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. Description The tree is small. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. Properties Benefits the skin. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. rarely over 25 ft in height. pointed hairs. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. these are elongated thick-walled. shingles. partially beaded. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. straight or slightly curved. bent here and there. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. the cells filled with protein. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. subsessile. lignified. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. The drug tastes bitter. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. some of which give rise to unicellular. The leaves are opposite. less heavily developed tissue. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells.

ligustroside. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. few of them have been studied experimentally. 58. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. hypoglycemic. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf.2 m high. antifungal. and antimicrobial. ll-demethyl oleuropein.. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. 2. ONION Allium cepa L. 57. et al. also hollow.. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. yellow globe. hypoglycemic. hypotensive. et al. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. Gonzalez.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. and red globe onions. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem).. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. 1. Planta Med. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. 1992. M. up to about 1.. diuretic. Zarzuelo. A. 417. Planta Med. 7. 1991. 513. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides.

oblong-oval. introduced to Europe. acute. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with bitter rind and sour flesh. 2 to 2 cm long. 7 to 8 cm globular. Flowers. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. fructans. very sweet-scented. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. Description Leaves. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. alkyl and alkenylcysteines. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. reddish-orange. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. white. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Fruit. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. 1-propenesulfenic acid.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment.

somewhat curved. nobiletin. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. minute pits. Constituents Essential oil (ca. taste aromatic and bitter. more astringent than rose water. inner surface whitish. neohesperidose (2-0. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. considerable amounts of pectin. flavonoids. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. short. non-bitter flavonoids. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. and bitter substances. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. It is also given internally. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. var. used for oily skin and acne.2 to 0. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. tangeretin. with limonene as main constituent. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. fracture hard. conical projections and linear. 0.5%). It is often used as a flavor enhancer. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). with many slight. rutoside. aromatic wash. the sugar component of which. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. Cultivated widely in the subtropics.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. such as hesperidin. odor fragrant and aromatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. furanocoumarins.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose.

Cultivated in Florida and California. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. skin creams for its flavonoids. quercetin. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. sinensis L. taste pungently aromatic. citronellal. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. odor fragrant. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. bitter and carminative. citral. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. sinensis Osbeck. and hesperidin.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. globules of volatile oil. naringin. Flavonoids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also an aromatic.

and carotenoids. antipyretic. saponins. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. tocopherol. anthocyanidin glycosides. violutoside.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. acne. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. Properties Used as a healing tonic. but sometimes up to twice as long. magnesium tartrate. stipules variable. Leaves variable. gaultherin.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. scoparine. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. tannin. meadows. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants.. very variable in size. e. but often palmately lobed with a larger. leafy. flavonoids. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. rutin. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . galacturonic acid. p-coumaric acid. anti-inflammatory. Petals usually longer than the sepals.g. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. arabinose. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. mucilage. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. Monograph 6. pruritus. rheumatism. Exerpt from German Commission E. impetigo. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. eczema. spur short. Description Flowers mostly tricolored. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. Constituents Essential oil.

carpinine (an alkaloid). staminate and pistillate flowers. shampoos. with large. C14H2502N. long petioled. The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. which resembles sinigrin. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). vitamins. Carpaine. etc. edible berry up to about 15 lb. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. Naturalized in southern Florida. The fruit is a large melon-like. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. and minerals.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft.

Tabl. taste woody and characteristic. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. kr = individual crystals. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels. Vent.2-benzenediol.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. and B. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. ms = latex tubes. Kr´ = crystal rosettes. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. p = parenchyma. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. margin dentate to crenate. Veget. (After T. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins.F. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . papyrifora. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. Regn. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. q = group of large fibers. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. Odor faint.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. m = outer lamella.

Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. The tap root is fusiform. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. W. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . diuretic. spasmolytic. Furocoumarins including bergapten.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. extensively cultivated in California. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. above-ground herb. hortense. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. apiin. emmenagogue. sativum. above-ground herb. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. compound umbels. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. and antimicrobial. and starch. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs.3.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). Germany. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. apiole (18%). Apium petroselinum. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. fruit. expectorant. B-phellandrene (12%). aromatic. ex A. psoralen.05 to 0. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. taste faintly sweet. and imperatorin. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. p-mentha-1. Other parts of the plant contain 0. Belgium. isopimpenillin. P. green. and Hungary. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. France. antirheumatic. 8-methoxypsoralen. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. stout. (Mill.) Nym.8-triene (9%). and others. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. Odor characteristic. fruit. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown.

chlorogenic. mildly sedative. The odor is aromatic. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. The pith is white. spasmolytic. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). notably viridoflorol. cineole. antiseptic. The stems are simple or branched. The fracture is tough and incomplete. The under surface is light green. menthofuran. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. south to Florida and Alabama. and the veins are slightly depressed. The flowers are arranged in dense. The under surface is light green. cultivated in Japan and the United States. triterpenes. and the veins are slightly depressed. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. The cortex and wood are thin. large. hesperidin). the texture is fibrous. rosemarinic). The corolla is united and tubular below. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. flavonoids (luteolin. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. phenolic acids (caffeic. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. The nodes are enlarged. They measure up to 9. its color varies from light to dark purple.5 cm in length and to 3. and minerals. and solid or hollow. its five teeth are subulate. broad. the internodes are of variable length. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). as it contains flavonoids. The outline is quadrangular. tonic. The calyx is campanulate. sitosterols. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. hair tonics. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Stimulant. four-lobed above. The blade measures up to 7.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. The apex is acute. The bracts are lanceolate. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. and the veins are more prominent. menthone (10 to 40%).5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. rutin. the leaves are opposite decussate. carminative. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The margin is sharply serrate. and the color varies from green to purple. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. ursolic acid. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). cholagogue. interrupted spikes. naturalized in North America. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole.3 cm in width.

the lobes obovate. 1 to 6 dm long. trailing. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. corolla blue. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. and ursolic acid. entire. Vinca contains vincamine. 1. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. however. as well as Europe. leaves ovate to oblong. Description Stem spreading. Properties Used as a hemostatic. Minnesota. in Connecticut. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . native of Europe.5 to 3 cm broad. vulnerary sedative. hypoglycemic. dark green. truncate. vasodilator. hypotensive. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. flavonoids. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. astringent.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. tannins. firm. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). shining. a standardized extract should be used. they are different. and Georgia. Has also been used to stop external bleeding.

pinitol. The leaves are ovate. channeled petiole. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. ferulic acid. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. the seeds numerous. It flowers from May to October. pinnicorretin. it has a density varying from about 0. growing in rich. numerous. quinic acid. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. in fields. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. cuts. leaving smooth surfaces. shikimic acid. n-nonacosane. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as a poultice to bring boils to a head. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. parahydroxybenzoic acid. Plantago major L. very small. and is common in Europe and America. dark band of autumn wood. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. swellings. arising from a fibrous root. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. five. somewhat toothed.35 to 0.to seven-nerved. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. balsamic. moist places. by the roadsides. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. abietic acid. which are the medullary rays.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. and applied to sores. Ripple-grass. campesterol. dihydroquercetin.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. The stamens and styles are long. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. The flowers are white. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. Constituents Contains oils. and abruptly narrowed into a long. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. malonic acid. tannins. The medullary rays. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. long. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. and insect bites. raffinose sequoyitol. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. and in grass plats. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. imbricated. aromatics. smoothish. Vessels are absent. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. Properties Astringent. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. In a radial surface. quercetin.

apparently. Constituents Mucilage. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and phenolic acids. and for cell proliferation. asperuloside. oleic. fixed oil (linoleic. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. sterols. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. and palmitic acids). tannins. apigenin. catapol. essential oils.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. they both have the same virtues. allantoin. polysaccharides. balcalin. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). for healing. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. aucubin. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants.

PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. 1847. Sch. balsam. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. pinocembrin. 32(1). Hiadon B. galangin.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. Philadelphia. Magro Filboo. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections.2 Constituents Resin. and anti-inflammatory. V. 30(1). 1987. pollen. galagin. wax. and pinobanksin...2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids.E. 1990. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. Stickley Co. J. G. 2. 1. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. et al. 4.. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .F. and pinobanksin). de Carvalho Ac. ArnzneimittleForschung. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. 1980. Dent. essential oils.. 3. fungicidal. Tyler. The New Honest Herbal. and caffeic acid. Nihon Univ. antiviral.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro.

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Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. Historically.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. taste very acrid and unpleasant. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. coarsely fibrous. channels. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. conical projections or transverse. * Formerly CTFA. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. inner surface yellowish-brown. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . longitudinally striate. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. Description In flat pieces of variable size. and Peru. finely wrinkled. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. fracture uneven. Bolivia. Smegmandermos deC. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. odor slight sternutatory. outer surface nearly white. Upon microscopic examination. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . these species appear to resemble that of Q. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. and occasional circular depressions. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile.

shallowly fissured transversely. The odor is not distinct. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). overlapping quilled. partially quilled. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. cinchonidine. The fracture is tough and uneven.8 dm in length. its important alkaloids. The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. Remineralizing protein. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. quilled. and volatile oils. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. calcium oxalate sugars. and to 6 mm in diameter. free acids (quinic acid). Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. gypsogenin. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . quinamine). Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). which is nearly always chip-like. uronic acids. Internally. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. Ecuador. a neutral saponin. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. quinine and quinidine. cinchonine.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. The bark is flat or chip-like. are used. tannins. The root. quinidine. to 7 cm in width. or compound quilled. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America.

internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. triangularly compressed. present in the epidermis of the testa. ovoid or oblong. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with water. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. being coated with mucilage. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. It is also used as a suspending agent. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin.

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Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). benzyl alcohol. style slender. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. volatile oil. tapering. eugenol. fatty acids. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. volatile oil. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. * Formerly CTFA. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. biochanin A. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . purplish and more or less brown from drying. contains over 40 compounds.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. then slightly bitter. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. daidzein. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. phenolic acids. shriveled. including methyl salicylate. petals united into a tube below. sitosterol. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. Mildly anti-spasmodic. and esters. and furfural. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. Properties Historically. genistein. taste sweetish. calyx teeth subulate. Medicinally. phenolic acids. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. starch. Constituents Flavonoids. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides.

Quinoline alkaloids. Properties Soothing. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Description Stem biennial. armed with bristles or weak prickles. doubtfully indigenous to England. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. light-colored. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. when fresh. By drying. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. somewhat smaller. Maine. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. dark violet claw. erect.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. and Minnesota. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. hair rinse. They have. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. inflorescence short-racemose. with a short. with an entire margin. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. rounded or cordate at the base. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). thimble-shaped. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. emollient. The numerous veins run from the base toward.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. shortacuminate. etc. mainly rhoeadine. they are smooth and shining above. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. finely tomentose when young. those of the floral branches threefoliolate.15 to 0. double-serrate. Rhode Island. fruit red. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. ovate. leaving a space about 0. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. and are then employed in the fresh state. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. such as hand creams. lotions.

and beta-carotene. B. succinic acid. and North American coastal rainforests. and C. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. have been isolated. Constituents Polysaccharides. it comes in various sizes and shapes. Japan.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. fragarine. gallic acid. Auspicious Herb. insomnia. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. Dried and whole. malic acid. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. granoderan A. thiamine. nervousness. Ergosterol derivatives. mouth ulcers. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. China. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ling-Zhi (Chin. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. minerals. A series of tritepenoids. lactic acid. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. and antibacterial properties. Happy Herb. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. and inflammations. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. and chest and heart diseases. Internally. hepatitis. Miraculous chi. Note: However.). Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. Constituents Ascorbic acid. consult a qualified physician before using. riboflavin. protein. ellagic acid. antioxidant.

Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . of the wood. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. of the larger roots.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. rough and scaly. The crown bears numerous short stem bases.5 cm in diameter at the crown. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. The color is dull reddish-brown. and it tapers into the main root. of the larger roots. dark reddish-brown. which has numerous branches. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. very tough and hackly. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. The odor is not characteristic. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. that of the wood. The taste is astringent. fibrous. The texture of the cortex is granular. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. and P. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth.

*INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. The smoothed. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. After removing the powder.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. face creams. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. Dark areas may still be found here and there. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. officinale. which when carefully shaved off. tannins (proanthocyanidines). Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point.5 mm long. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. after-shave lotions. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. about 5 mm wide. Within the cambium is a ring. ratanine). II.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. the cortex has been removed. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. In the periphery of the pith. and N-methyltyrosine. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. III. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. showing that they are leaf traces. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. parenchymatous matrix. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. etc. barrel-shaped or conical. in the form of a fine yellow powder. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. mouth wash. to give a good appearance. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. If the trimming has been very severe. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. immediately within the secondary xylem. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . each being filled by a number of fine vertical. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. Constituents Gum. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping.

astringent taste. The predominant aglycone varies.Eur. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. it is very gritty between the teeth. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. it breaks with an uneven short fracture.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). it is used as a stomachic. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. heavy. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. In most cases. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. This is applied to the hair and left to dry. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. the mechanism is described under Aloes.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. It is then rinsed out. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin).184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. of which many aglycones have been identified. chrysophanol. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. and compact. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. In small amounts. aloeemodin. also (+)-catechin 5. it is often rhein. due to the bitter taste. Flavonoids. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). and physcion.5% calculated as rhein). a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. but in one investigation. With its high tannin content. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. the fractured surface. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. (+)-afzelechin. 2. Barbados. A very complex mixture is present. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. min. and (+)-gallocatechin. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. rhein. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. when chewed.and 7-0-glucosides. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo.

taste sweetish. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. odor fragrant and rose-like. and traces of carvone.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. glycerol. and procyanidins. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. it can be prepared by using rose oil. phenylethyl alcohol. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. slightly bitter. catechins. French Rose. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. free and in combined forms with glucose. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. pink. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. l-linalool. gallic acid. approx. and astringent. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. One example would be rose water.0. Minor constituents are citral. however. filter. Tannins. 5 to 10%. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. L.

rubidium. protein. succinic acid. alpha-tocopherol. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. boron. Description A bushy.2 cm wide. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. opposite. magnesium.5 to 3. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic.5 cm in length and up to 2. linolenic acid. essential oil. capric acid. When combined with various other hair preparations. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. pectin. it will add highlights to light hair. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. flavonoids. low. Constituents Ascorbic acid. Wild Brier. sucrose. epicatechin. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. sessile. Description The fruit of R. isoquercitrin. linoleic acid. vanillin. lycopene. evergreen. tannins. mildly astringent. kaempferol-3-glucoside. coriaceous. catechin-tannins. they are refrigerant. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. malic acid. xanthophyll. and zeaxanthin. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. citric acid. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. leucoanthocyanins. and slightly diuretic. invert sugars. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. much branched. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. The achenes themselves are hairy. gallocatechin. rubixanthin.

margin revolute. it is used to increase circulation. hair conditioners. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. camphor. Topically. camphoraceous. boron.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. characteristic. tannin. taste pungently aromatic. rosmarinic acid. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. stimulant. odor aromatic. lotions. Constituents Essential oil. Properties Tonic. and triterpenic acids. glandular-punctate. diosmin. The extract can be used in shampoos. astringent. flavonoids. The oil is used in fragrances. etc. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. protein. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. phenolic acids. diaphoretic. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. and bitter. creams. borneol. and showing a prominent midrib. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lower surface wooly.

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long petiolate. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. estrogenic compounds. Sage Garden Sage. to 1 ft high. and disinfectant (against inflammations). pinene. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. 1 to 2. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. much branched. margin crenulate. borneol. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. astringent. apex acute or obtuse. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. protein. the reticulations being very small. Constituents Volatile oil. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. there arises a grayish. From an underground fibrous root system. petiole up to 4. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. salvin. ursolic acid. densely pubescent. texture velvet-like. and tannins. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids. uneven or lobed. 2 to 10 cm in length. It is antibacterial. venation pinnate-reticulate. linalool. Leaves opposite. antiseptic. stimulating. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). thujone. camphors. beta-sitosterol. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. base rounded or subcordate. the upper branches bear blue. saponins. fungistatic. carminative. pubescent stem with branches opposite. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties.6 cm in breadth. cineole. In early summer. midrib and veins prominent. caryophyllene. flavonoids. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib.5 cm in length. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. taste aromatic and bitter. carnosolic acid. lamina elliptical.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. Properties Cosmetically. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups.

astringent. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. North and South America.985. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. and dense. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. and for the manufacture of boxes. In Yellow Sandal Wood. the odor strong and fragrant. The taste is slightly bitter. –13° to –21°). L. palmately lobed leaves. hard. of which it contains over 90%. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. carvings. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . o. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . depurative.and -santalols). White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. gr. hemorrhoids. but easily split. 0. heavy. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. and a stomachic. hemostatic. Asia Minor. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. wounds. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. vulnerary. and lotions.973 to 0. Black Snakeroot. the vessels are mostly solitary. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. and similar articles. burns. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. alterative.r. and inflammed skin. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. or as a perfume. It is also used in perfumery. and erect. pectoral. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. White Sandal Wood. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood.

and a bitter principle. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. essential oil. Mucilage. resin. saponin.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. smooth and somewhat oily. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. occasionally compressed. from 1.5 cm in diameter. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid. Dark Palmetto. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

. Ann.. beta-sitosterol. 559. and to 1.6 dm in thickness. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large.. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled. Constituents Anthranilic acid. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota. et al. J. reddish-brown seed.. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. 1983. were eaten by the Indians. They are said to be very nutritious. caproic acid... They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside.. taste sweetish. enclosing a hard. when cork patches are present. 41.. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. south to Florida and Texas.. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity.. capric acid. arabinose.. such as anorexia nervosa. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar.. and lotions... skin creams. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles.. which measure up to 3 dm in length. mannitol. somewhat flattened. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. Franc. SEAWEED. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids..7 dm in width. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity.. Pharm... Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. The odor is distinct.. inner layer of endocarp smooth. it is coarsely striated longitudinally.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich. apex marked by the scar of the style. myristic acid.. and to 3 mm in thickness. and slightly acrid. Ulmus rubra Muhl. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp. to 1. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases. palmitic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. lauric acid.. The fracture is very strong... to 17 cm in width. and stearic acid... oleic acid.. and incomplete. ferulic acid. Properties Sabal berries. aromatic. ellipsoidal or ovoid. Odor pronounced.. aromatic.... These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. 1. a native of the southern United States. Tarayre..P. lipase. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown. or as cut and sawed pieces.. tough.1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions. sito sterols.

*INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Description Glabrous perennial. hexosan. healing. stem 3 to 6 dm high. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. starch. North Carolina. Colorado. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides).2 cm long. Colorado. L-rhamnose. protein. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and other beverages. and tannin. and beta-carotene. and wounds. Can be used in creams. petals pink or white. Florida. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. ulcers. native from Europe. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. pentosans. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. calyx tubular. 5 to 8 cm long. etc. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. hair conditioners. minerals. and tannins. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. and Saskatchewan. chemicals that foam when added to water. New Mexico. 3 to 5 ribbed. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. Massachusetts. tannin (minute). Nova Scotia. It can be used to emulsify oil. polysaccharides.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. leaves oval or ovate. lotions. New Brunswick. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. boils. soothing. Soap Wort produces a gentle. blades obcordate. d-galacturonic acid. 1 to 5. starch. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. capsule oblong.

Properties Used as a nervine. disk-florets 15 to 20. Manitoba. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. native to Europe. frostbite. etc. Colorado. slightly tomentose beneath. having antibacterial properties. stimulant. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L.ST. toothed above the middle on one side. John’s Wort ing. emmenagogue. leaves. Virginia. chlorogenic acid. choline. astringent. disinfectant. and anthelmintic. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. sepals 3 to 4 mm long.5 cm broad. California. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. and superficial burns. antiseptic. St. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. lower leaves petioled. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the outer linear-lanceolate. umbelliferone. and for skin conditions. 10 to 12 mm long. guanine. 4 to 6 cm long. obtuse. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. scarious. uric acid. caffeic acid. Used in aromatic baths. ST. uterine tonic. the rest broadly oval. tonics. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. Medically. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. 5 to 10 dm high. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. bruises. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. poultices. 1 to 3 cm long. Constituents Essential oil. leaves linear to oblong. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. British Columbia. with revolute margins. and scopolin. rutin. ray florets about 10. tannin. scopoletin. conditioners. Nova Scotia. flowers cymose. acute or acuminate. 2 to 10 mm wide. and anodyne. heads numerous. glandular-punctate. corolla 2 to 2. bracts canescent. capsule ovoid. isofraxidin. petals obovate. quebrachitol.

resin sitosterol. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. hypericin-like substances. Manitoba. John’s Wort St. New Mexico. hyperoside. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. tannins. phenolic acids. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. flavonoids. and Virginia. hypericin. saponin. Newfoundland. mannitol. protein. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

seldom over 1.5 cm long. very soon glabrate on both sides. quercetin). scape slender. rhombic-obovate. 5 to 7. and phenolic acids. seldom much exceeding the leaves.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. very thin. mostly acute. sharply and deeply serrate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams.5 dm high.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. fruit elongate-ovoid. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. fatty acids. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. condensed tannins). flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. very rarely leafy-bracteate. ellagitannins.

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It has a stout. and quercetin. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. usually smooth. Scented Fern. resin. are collected at the time of flowering. The roundish. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. 1 to 3 ft high. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. tanacetin. anthelminitic. Also said to be an insect repellant. Bitter buttons. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. sesquiterpenes. * Formerly CTFA. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. button-like. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. Ginger plant. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. flat-topped. tannin. English Cost. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. somewhat reddish. Parsley Fern. and branching near the top. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. phenolic acid. button-like flowers. fern-like leaves and yellow. erect stem. and spasmolytic. The leaves and flowering tops. The entire leaf is about 6 in. carminative.

thickets. and the like. and vaginal infections. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .0 ml high. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. either singly or with other ingredients. spongy. athlete’s foot. Bark. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. New South Wales. bronchial congestion. sore throat. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. conical. capsule. lice. streamsides. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. abrasions. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. insect bites. cymene). punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. burns. sparingly branched biennial. while cineole is low (about 2. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. and dense.5%). pimples. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. stings. fruit. ringworm. It is found in numerous product forms. and Australia.5 to 2. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. terpinene. oral infections. erect. with a broad range of health claims. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. constantly renewable tree. upcurved. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. 0. Description A stiff. cuts. in a flattened rosette. Over-wintering leaves. abrasions. boils. including treatments for sunburn. scabies. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. lanceolate. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L.

solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. flavonoids (keampferol. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. The root and root stock are short and erect. rare in Britain. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). 1955.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. and magnesium. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. The injection gives better results. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. Mary Thistle. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. stems. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. 1. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fatty acids. and tannins. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. S. quercetin. Also used in homeopathy. Austin.. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. glucosides. Ed. It is said to contain saponins.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. TX. Taste and odor. dark green. Flowerheads rayless. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. taxifolin). both orally and also by intravenous injection. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. entire or toothed. Blessed Milk Thistle. purple. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. American Botanical Councin. St. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. Description Leaves spiny. Foster. yellow spines. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water.

and reddish within. aspartic acid. and dentate. and sore throats. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. conditioners. Description Viscid-pubescent. New York. brown or blackish externally. ascorbic acid. lotions. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. stem 3 to 10 dm high. leaves two-pinnatifid. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. gargles. glutamic acid. Constituents Proteins. subglobose. Texas.5 to 1. 0. to add sheen. glycine. vitamins. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. that can be used for hemorrhoids. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L. styptic. Florida. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. facial muds.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. diarrhea. minerals. somewhat fusiform. cystine. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red.5 to 10%. menstrual disorder. etc.5 cm thick. ellipsoid. branching and more or less curved. and California. sore gums. and from 0. Properties Fruit: astringent. glucose. fruit through cultivation very variable. corolla yellow. mouth rinse. It can be employed in creams. from 2. 10 to 15 mm broad. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. abscisic acid. Colorado. or pear-shaped. cyclohexanol. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 to 8 cm long. It can be incorporated into shampoos. sensitive skin. flavonoids. antihemorrhagic. acne. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. red or yellow. lobed. much branched. lycopene. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. rinses. -hydroxy acids. hair tonics. and phytosterols.

China. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces.. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). and other tropical countries. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. They are hard and heavy. bluntly tapering at each end. caffeic. quinovic. Occasionally. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. tormentillin. Indian Saffron. and break with a short fracture. Java. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Curcuma. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. internally. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. longitudinally wrinkled. a red pigment. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. they bear short knob-like branches. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val.

anti-arthritic. antibacterial. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. etc. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. when chewed. ar-turmerone. 2-7% essential oil. It is also choleretic. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. and antimutagenic. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. is also present. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. curlone. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. it colors the saliva yellow. comprising mainly bisabolane. zingiberene. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). and anti-edemic. ukonan A. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane).. monodesmethoxycurcumin.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. hypotensive. guaiane. but the coloring matter. antifungal.

cultivated in Germany. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. The taste is sweet. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. Wood is small. Belgium and England. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. Constituents Essential oil. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. alkaloids (valerianine. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). phenolic acids. and valepotriates (valtrate. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. actinidine). Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. It is sedative. and spasmolytic. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. fatty acids. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. simple or branched. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. and to 2 cm in diameter. and disagreeable. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. Roots are branched or simple. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. * Formerly CTFA. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. isovaltrate. central and cylindrical. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. acevaltrate. valerosidatum). and baldrinal. The rhizome is vertical. pungent. Pith is white or grayish-white. and to 3 mm in diameter. Cortex is thick. relaxant. However. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally.

206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Constituents Iridoids. 4 to 7 feet high. Simpler’s Joy. in addition to verbenin. artemitin. Nebraska. finely haired herb has an erect. aucubin. straight. caffeic acid. volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. tannin. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. verbenelol. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. Description This rather rough. hastatoside. and superficial and limited burns. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. Wild Hyssop. gout remedy. ursolic acid.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). long. and against sunburns. contraceptive. anorexic (appetite suppressant). False Verbain. four-sided stem. meadows. and Arizona. diuretic. verbenalin. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. Verbena officinalis L.

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Used for skin complaints. ophthalmia. disinfectant. Juglans nigra L. Properties Tonic restorative. The kernel is sweet. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. rheumatism. west to Minnesota and Kansas. styes. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. astringent. and varicose ulcers. and edible. depurative. irritation of the eyelid.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. *INCI Name . blisters. gout. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. deep. glandular disturbances. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. soft and coarse grained. eczema. The bark varies from nearly smooth. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The leaves are alternate. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. scabbing pruritus. imparipinnate. open crown. scrofula. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. The wood is light brown. vermifuge. oily. * Formerly CTFA. round-topped.

Description Aquatic perennial. amino acids. high in protein. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). 1. tumors. threonine. tyrosine. leaves pinnate.g. -carotene.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. Rubbing on scalp.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. tryptophan. biotin. glycine. about 2 mm long. many trace minerals. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. South America. ascorbic acid. valine. British Columbia. it will strengthen and thicken hair. Externally. petals white. sepals oblong. Rheumatism and nervousness. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. ellagic acid. 3 mm thick. Mexico. proline. aspartic acid.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. phenylalanine. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. and diastase. it looks rather yellowish. Virginia. arginine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . protein. destroying most of its active principles. lysine. fruiting pedicels divaricate. leucine. and kaempferol. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. West Indies. caffeic acid. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. spatulate. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. tannin. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. 4. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). and Europe. Clark. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. cystine. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. glutamic acid. hyperin. its action being both detergent and healing. about 4 mm long. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. thiamine.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). folacin. California. gluconasturtiin.. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. lymphatic or edematous swellings. alanine. histidine. A Cure For All Cancers. somewhat curved. 5. methionine. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. beak about 1 mm long.

Dutch Grass. Couch Grass. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. Devil’s Grass. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. Durfee Grass. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sprouts. Creeping Wheatgrass.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. Fin’s Grass. Durfa Grass. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. of young grass. Quake Grass. Twitch Grass. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. Scutch Grass. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. Quitch Grass. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South.

the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish.. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yellowish wood bundles.. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. insipid.....212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. and dried.... are produced from a long.. elongated.. eczema. and stem scars on the upper surface. and hair conditioners. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos.. amino acids.. externally pale brown. taste starchy. more or less detached.See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous. often compressed. Odorless. flavonoids.. WHITE NETTLES. 1 to 3 ft high. fatty acids. are carefully cleaned. Constituents Vitamins. collected in the spring. with numerous small. long.. Colic Root. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. lotions.. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. Its smooth hollow stems. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout.. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root. thin outer layer. creams.. Over 240 compounds have been identified. The root stocks. Description Knotted and woody. 6 to 20 mm thick. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. and phenolic acids. bearing scattered nodular projections. creeping root stock... surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached. thickets... and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat. cut into small pieces about in. and dermatitis.See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L. The flowering heads are produced from July to September. bent and branched.. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma. -carotene. afterwards acrid. fracture short but tough. scattered. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist... trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes... which are thickened at the joints.......

as it contains salicin. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. ascorbic acid. fragilin. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. longitudinally striated. naturalized sparsely in North America. triandrin. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. shampoos. fracture short fibrous. slightly lignified parenchyma. and antipyretic. diosgenin. etc. It can be used in hair conditioners. populin. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). vimalin). in older bark dull. greenish-brown. flavonoids. it should be standardized for its salicin content. as this could vary among different manufacturers. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. dioscin. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. inner surface. cortex composed of thin-walled. However. minerals.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. antirheumatic. outer surface in young bark smooth. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. and trace minerals. analgesic. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. irregularly wrinkled. White Willow. taste astringent and slightly bitter. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. anti-inflammatory. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. salicortin. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. endodermis distinct. Contains steroid-like substances. antiseptic. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. rinses. Constituents Steroidal saponins. odor slightly aromatic. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. dioscorin. yellowish-brown to dark brown.

eastern United States. when it bursts open. It has a crooked stem and long. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. flavonoids. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. Winterbloom. brown bark. and leaves Bark. esters. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. thick. yellow flowers. saponins. and borne on short stalks. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. scattering the shining black. Description Witch Hazel. Striped Alder. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. Constituents Essential oil. due to its high tannin content. Wych-hazel. Spotted Witch Alder. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. and alcohols. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. eastern Canada. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. leaves. forking branches with smooth. long. tannin. and polyphenols. bark.

smooth. Carpenter’s Herb. shady places from Canada to Florida. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. rather narrow. Green Archangel. and stachyerine. The plant has a rather pleasant. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. slender. Gypsywort. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. to 2 ft in height. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. They are followed by four nutlets. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . in length. Description This herb has long. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. The whitish flowers. Missouri. which appear from about July to September. Purple Archangel. pointed. Sweet Bugleweed. Wolf Foot. Therefore. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. Constituents Alkaloids. tublar. Externally. erect stem from 6 in. Paul’s Betony. mint-like odor. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. including betonicine. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. are small. American Water Hoarhound. and Nebraska. but a disagreeable bitter taste. The leaves are about 2 in. Gypsyweed. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. Water Bugle. bitter. Gypsy Herb.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. and bell-shaped.

pointed leaves edged with tiny. astringent. coumarin. Flowers small. Odor. of new-mown hay. unbranched. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. forwardpointing bristles. etc. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. antiseptic. and the iridoids asperuloside. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. vermouths. bitters. with four petal lobes. monotropein.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. quadrangular. anti-inflammatory. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. with slender. wines. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannin. when dry. antineuralgic. calming. white. citric acid. in loose clusters. anti-arthritic. Description A short perennial. soothing to the nerves. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. Used in aromatherapy.

for the production of the volatile oil it contains. p-coumaric acid. approximately 100 identified constituents.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. especially in Michigan and Indiana. Absinth. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. taste bitter. protein. and antipyretic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the inner linear with membranous margins. thujone. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. absinthin. the florets tubular. Description This shrubby. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. two to three pinnately divided. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. chamazulene. tannins. anthelmintic. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. artabsin. drooping. aromatic. Mingwort. used as an external antiseptic. insignificant. 2 to 3 mm long. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. -carotene. are divided into small leaflets. Bitter stomachic. It is cultivated in some localities. long. the lower lobe is petiolate. yellow heads. which are from 2 to 5 in. Madderwort. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. Odor aromatic. consist of numerous small. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. camphene. thujyl alcohol. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. choleretic. Flower heads greenish-yellow. Old Woman. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. Also used to clean atonic wounds. rutin. isovaleric acid. and the grayish-green leaves. and anthelmintic. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. Constituents Essential oil.

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Carpenter Grass. Soldiers’ Woundwort... Green Arrow.. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small..... 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic.... astringent. Dog Daisy... From June to September.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L. diuretic. antipyretic.. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields. dark green leaves. *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium.... It has a strong odor.. Old-Man’sPepper...... Thousand-Leaf Clover. high and has many finely divided. Yarrow Milfoil. Closely related forms occur in the western states.. Sanguinary... and is urinary antiseptic... Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing.. hypotensive... feathery. Thousand-leaf. Nosebleed... Bloodwort..... Cammock..... Gordoloba.. white flower heads..Y YAM... Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in. pastures. It * Formerly CTFA..

sesquiterpenes (achillicin. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. it is also used in hair care preparations. long. and tannin. Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. bearing numerous. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. it is stomachic. and furrowed stem. among rubbish heaps. in cultivated as well as in waste ground. and cholagogue. blue colored chamazulene). It has been used for cuts. flavonoids. and varicose ulcers. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. Internally. and along roadsides. Curled Dock Root. Broad-leaved Dock Root. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. phenolic acids. alkaloids (achilleine). angular. spasmolytic.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. achillin). camphor. carminative. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. Broad-leaved Rumex. injuries.

The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. and tannin. with few or no rootlets. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yellowish cortex. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. sores. As the clusters ripen. only 3 to 6 in. and pale radially split wood. Gum Plant. nepodin. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. from 6 to 8 in. while the upper leaves are narrower. usually from 8 to 12 in. They are washed. in length. and carefully dried. swellings. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm.The root. et Tor. long. short stemmed or stemless. and eruptive diseases. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. Bear’s Weed. Consumptive’s Weed. protein. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. lapathinic acid. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. psoriasis. chrysophanic acid. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. in length. emodin.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. they become rusty brown. tapering or spindle shaped. with long stalks. These are followed by the fruits. The root is large and fleshy.

and eriodyctyonine. eriodictyol. eriodictyonic acid. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. acetic acid. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. Schum. dark green.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. essential oil. and the Congo. Constituents Resin. butyric acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . chrysoeriodictyl. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. cerotic acid. The rather showy. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. Gabon. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. tannin. The narrow.

tannin. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. minerals. fleshy. YUCCA Yucca baccata. spreading.1 Yohimbine. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. oblong or conical-ovoid. pendent. Colorado. shagreen roughened. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. style slender. Texas. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. elongate. It is also being used for arthritis internally. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. is sympatholytic. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. Description Low. leaves rigid. however. Soap Weed. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. and protein.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. Kronenthal. Constituents Sarsapogenin. Personal communication. fruit large. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. concave. the major alkaloid. at low doses. Torr Yucca brevifolia. tigogenin. Roezl. allo-. 1. with narrow brown margins. coarsely filiferous. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. R. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. and epiallo-yohimbine. sepals and petals lanceolate. pseudo-. about 7. Properties Yucca contains saponins. Arizona. Soap Yucca Root. and Nevada. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains.. L. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. sometimes 2 dm long. Kansas. It also contains corynanthine. saponin. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet.5 cm long. the most important of which is yohimbine. samogenin. hence its aphrodisiac effect. 1998. smilagenin.

224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. Henna Used to dye hair red. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. makes an excellent hair rinse. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Lavender See “Folklore” section. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. Hemp. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. not essential oil. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. The leaves contain buxine.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. The botanical extract. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. However. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. Hops See “Folklore” section. Oak. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Galls Used to dye the hair black. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. See “Folklore” section.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. Dark brown contains juglone. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles.

Contains a yellow dye. Can be used in deodorants. make it soft and shiny. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. and help keep it free of dandruff. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. it will darken the hair. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. borneol. It is antiseptic. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. Combined with rosemary. Vitamins A and D. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . See Stinging Nettle. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. The essential oil is used to add sheen. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. It also helps to remineralize. and some protein. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. leaving it silky and glossy. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. Lemony fragrance. and mouthwashes. and linalol. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. See Lichwort. A source of potassium and iodine. The extract contains thymol. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer.

It is said that when blended with rosemary.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp.

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White Willow. Myrrh. Echinacea. Vinca Minor. Papaya. Corn Flower. Plantain. Black Walnut. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Onion. Nasturtium. glycerin. Bayberry. Violet. Burdock. Eucalyptus. Nettles. Birch. Chamomile. etc. oil. Witch Hazel. Calendula. Myrrh. Asparagus. Golden Seal. Artichoke. Pineapple. Cinnamon Agrimony. Benzoin. Calendula. propylene glycol. Hops. Lemon. Nettles. Lavender. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Myrrh. either when applied topically or taken internally. Bladderwrack. Yarrow. Orange Peel. Balsam Peru. Lemon. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Rosemary. Burdock. Rosemary. Bilberry. Fenugreek. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Orris. Tormentil. Peppermint. Hawthorn Angelica. Sandal Wood. Rose. Artichoke. White Lily. Thyme. Sage. Wild Alum. Myrtle. Thyme. Comfrey. Tilia. Anise. Wild Indigo. Tomato. Yarrow. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Chamomile. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Inc. Tumeric. refer to the index). Horsechestnut Papaya.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Oak Bark. White Willow. Soap Root. Rhatany. Pansy. in various vehicles as water. Sage. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Slippery Elm. powders or extracts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Calendula. Cucumber. Sandalwood.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Raspberry. Uva Ursi Quassia. Grapefruit. Lemon. Lavender. Southernwood. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Lavender.3-butylene glycol. Chamomile. Oats. Lady’s Mantle. Garlic. Hops. Bay Laurel. Juniper Berries. Thyme. Bistort. Arnica Lemon. Arnica. Cardamom Seed. Lemon. Birch. 1. Parsley Broom Flowers. Althea. Soap Bark. Milk Thistle. Witch Hazel. Rosemary. Bayberry. Rosemary. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. ethanol. Horsechestnut. Comfrey. Quassia. Proanthocyanidins. that is. Lemon Grass. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Ginkgo. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Rosemary. Chaparral.

Alfalfa. Cowslip. Witch Hazel Bark. Comfrey. Phytoplenolin®. Oats. Citronella. dry Hair. Comfrey. Sage. Cedar. Quince Seed. Plantain. Oak Bark. Cleavers. Echinacea. Burdock. Pansy. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Echinacea various oils. Malva Flowers. Pilewort. Nettles. Elder Flowers. Southernwood. Marigold Golden Seal. Quinine. Parsley. Melilote. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Rhatany. Jaborandi. Neem. to add highlights Hibiscus. Jaborandi. Corn Flower Water. Seaweed. White Willow Aloe Vera. split ends Scalp. Comfrey. Thyme. Camphor. Chamomile. Pansy. to add sheen Hair. rinses. Golden Seal. Rosemary. Orange Flowers. Feverfew. Slippery Elm. Eyebright. White Willow Bark. Horsetail Grass. Capsicum Bistort. Golden Seal. Oregon Grape. Fennel. Calendula. Chickweed. Chamomile. Nettles. Purple Loosestrife. Orange Peel. Onion. Sage. Roseberries. Quince Seed.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. dark Hair. Comfrey. to add highlights Black Walnut. Red Clover. Arnica. Horsechesnut. Capsicum. various seaweeds. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Broom. Patchouli. Lavender. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Rosemary. Mullein Flowers. to add highlights Marigold. Wild Alum. Orris Root. Tilia. Cucumber. Sage. Althea. Pansy. Rosemary. Grapefruit. Comfrey. Peppermint Aloe. Hops Chamomile. Red Henna. Cucumber. Echinacea. Citrus Bioflavonoid. Fenugreek. Yarrow. Figwort. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Elder. Quince. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Dandelion. etc. Tea. Raspberry. Lemon Peel. Sarsaparilla. to relieve Nails. Rosemary. Raspberry. Catnip Bayberry. Cucumber Chamomile. Chamomile. Bayberry Bark. Comfrey. Capsicum. Rosemary. Black or Neutral Henna. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. conditioners. Lavender. Rose. Capsicum. Fenugreek. Red Poppy. Quassia. Olive. Cantharides. Myrrh. Centella. Brown Henna Rosemary. Lemon Peel. Thyme. Southernwood. Golden Seal. Anise Rosemary. Witch Hazel. Cade. Witch Hazel. Sage. Nettles. Wormwood Chamomile. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rosemary. Garlic. Comfrey Root. Red Clover. Primula Flowers. Chamomile. Cardamon. Peach Leaf. Calendula Oil. Yarrow. Birch. Southernwood. Basil. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Thyme. Pine Tar. Plantain Horsetail Grass.* Centella. Capsicum. Raspberry. Eucalyptus. Flax. Elder. Horseradish. Sage Jaborandi. Orange Flowers. Chamomile. Basil. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Flax Horsetail Grass. Southernwood. Coriander. Horsetail Grass. Fenugreek. Yellow Dock. Chaparral.

Witch Hazel. Yarrow. Fennel. Lavender. Pine. St.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Arnica. Capsicum. Hawthorn Berries. dry Botanical Cantharides. Meillot.) Aloe Vera. Comfrey. Thuja. Calendula. Althea Root. Cleavers. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Pansy. Lemons. Capsicum. Poke Root. Seaweed. Comfrey. Lemon. Centella. Red Poppy. Yarrow flowers. Elder Flowers.Yarrow. Bayberry. Cinchona. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Echinacea. Hawthorn. Comfrey. Mullein. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Oats. Witch Hazel. Dandelion. Calendula. Capsicum. Citrus bioflavonoids. Passion Flowers. Wild Alum Althea. Ginseng Caraway.Vinegar. Wormwood. Bayberry. Seaweeds. John’s Wort. Horsechestnut. Elecampane Skin. Violets. White Pond Lily. Rose. Tilia. Uva ursi Wild Alum. however. Apples. Birch. Golden Seal. Witch Hazel.804. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Licorice Cleavers. Comfrey. Oils. Colts Foot. Chamomile. Slippery Elm. Sage. Lavender. Croton. Slippery Elm. Dulse. Plantain. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Cucumber. Valerian. Slippery Elm bark. St. Nettles. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Echinacea. Lemon. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Blue Flag. Aloe Vera. Primula Flowers. Comfrey. Chamomile. Orange Flowers. Grapefruit. Parsley. Jaborandi. Sept. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Dandelion. Evening Primrose. St. Red Clover. Orange Peel. Licorice. 1998. Horsetail grass. Apple. Fennel. John’s Wort.206 for Centipeda. John’s Wort. Arnica. Althea Root. Bistort. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. John’s Wort. Calendula. Garlic. Chamomile. Corn Flower. Capsicum. Plantain. Quince. Chickweed. St. Peach. Lemon Grass. Cucumber. Tilia.

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which are coriaceous. rough. Licorice root. Ginger. The powder is used on abscess. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. elliptical shaped. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. The seeds are also spherical. wedeloclactone.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. sores. beard. short stiff hairs. Common botanicals such as Lotus.) STEUD. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. Constituents Saponin. The flowers are polygamous. aril white. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. nourishes the blood. yellowish brown. yellowish-white. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. 8 stamens. The female flowers are white and ligulate. internally used to blacken hair. and eyebrows.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. Internally. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. nicotine. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. and tonifies the heart. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. It grows in fields and ditches. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. etc. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. elongated. Vitamin A. The nuts are spherical. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. etc. 1. wounds. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. it strengthens the spleen. and fleshy. tannin.5 to 2 cm in diameter. can be found in the main section.5 to 5 cm wide. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes.

ringworm.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vitamins A and B. sucrose. yeast infections. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412. antiparasitic. etc. pruritus. vaginal itches.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema. tartaric acid. protein. choline. fats.70. adenine.

insomnia. amino acids. Constituents Saponins. heart palpitations. and has red. Betaine. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. B-sitosterol. moisturize. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Bge. astragalin-glucose. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. imperatorin. deficiency of energy. bornyl isovalerate. cnidiadin. amino acids. avoid black tea. columbianadin (C19H20O5). sugars. diabetes. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. palmate leaves. a glucoside C20 H20 011. lack of appetite. isoborneol). it could nourish. columbianetin (C14H14O4). ginsenosides. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. alloimperatorin. edultin. and arabinose. dyspepsia. improves circulation in the skin. cnidiankin. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. berry-like fruits. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. any citrus and turnips. weak pulse. L-camphene. Astragalin.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. dilates the blood vessels. used as an aphrodisiac. It is also said to promote blood production. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. isopimpinellin. etc. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. xanthotoxol. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. dihydrooroseiol. It is an astringent. When using Ginseng internally. folic acid. hypertension. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. ostol (C15H16O3). The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. asthma. choline.

trichokaurin. To list all would take several pages. (C18H30O2).236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. trichosanic acid. Constituents Triterpenes. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and antifungal properties. sugar fatty oil. protein. antibacterial. These are a few of the constituents. essential oil. tricosanthin. resin. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. saponins (ginsenosides). SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. The root has antipyretic.

blood in the stool. and is analgesic. According to Chinese tradition. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. Rb2-Rb. It is said to heal without leaving scars. both internally and externally. helps to promote circulation. traumatic injuries. nosebleeds.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. ginsenosides. this herb can be used safely in large doses. reduces swelling. and Re. dissolves clots. Internally. it has been used in coughing of blood. etc. Constituents Saponins.

essential oil. Constituents Flavonoids. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. rhamnose. 1/3 in. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. U. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. stearic acid. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. sitosterol. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. palmitic acid. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. ziyuglycoside I. fructose. and a slightly bitter taste. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. long. and arabinose. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. anti-inflammatory. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). glucose. Cones oblong.V. Vitamin A. II. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. xylose. glucose. It has almost no odor. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannin. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. L-typhasterol. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and antiviral properties. Its stem is erect and white cottonly.5 to 1 m high. caryophyllene. pinene. having pale. L. Constituents Thujone.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. resin. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. which has hairs on both surfaces. and pinnatipartite. becoming smaller on top. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. and hermaphroditic. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. flavonoids. obovate-lanceolate shaped. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. shoddy bark and light. 5 to 8 cm wide. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. in height. and is said to have antibacterial. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. The flowers are tubular. fenchone. anthelmintic. and antipyretic. soft durable wood. 15 to 30 cm long. tannin. astringent. Vitamin C. reddish-purple.-fenchone. It is a hemostatic. The basal leaves are clustered. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. the base tapers into a winged petiole.

Constituents Glucose. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. stigmasterol. B-amyrin. skin infections. reduces swelling. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . -amyrin. and the flowers are rose-violet in color.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. and promotes the healing of the flesh. antibacterial. essential oil. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. It is used in traumatic injuries. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. The tuber is thick and fleshy. It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. anti-inflammatory. The perianth is in 6 segments. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. 2 to 3 cm long. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. and antibacterial. and in abscesses. starch. and 2 to 6 cm wide. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. antifungal. 15 to 30 cm long. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. Their base runs into a long sheath. hemostatic.F.

wax. Constituents D-borneol. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . caffeic acid. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. antibacterial. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. stamens numerous. It has been used in ringworm. followed by a slight numbness. with numerous ovules. One tree can yield as much as pound. taste pungent and aromatic. having antipyretic properties. oval. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. cold sores. ipterocopal. tannin. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. boils. dark brown. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. style 1. which alternate with the calyx teeth. asiatic acid. stearic acid. ovary 2-locular. oleic acid. etc.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. chlorogenic acid. erythrodiol. arachidic acid. The dark green. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree.5 mm in length. hydroxydammarone II. essential oil. and incurved. conjunctivitis. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. acetyl eugenol). and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. odor strongly aromatic. montanic acid. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. linoleic acid. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. palmitic acid. Antibacterial. analgesic. caryophyllene. See “Botanical” section for further description. esculetin. sores. glandular-punctate petals. and somewhat 4-angled. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. and nasal mucositis. capillarisin. Constituents Scoparone. B-caryophyllene. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. and antiviral. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. dryobalanone. crowded. fat. humulene. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. antiparasitic.

Excellent remedy for sores. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. pruritus. itchy skin. flavonoids. which are globose and black. 10 to 20 cm long. and 1 to 2 cm wide. and other skin ailments. The pods are cylindrical. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. yellowish-white. and allergic reactions. The leaves are alternate. The corolla is papilionaceous. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . imparipinnately divided. The stamens are 10 and free. constricted between the seeds. The stem is erect with many branches.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. The raceme is terminal. It is used for vaginal infections. Constituents Alkaloids. sores. 3 to 4 cm long. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent.

fraxin. aesculetin. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. and red eyes. Antiinflammatory. tannin. fraxetin. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. jatrorrhizine. and swollen eyes. used as an eye wash for sore. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. red. It is applied externally to swollen. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. Constituents Berberine. obakunone. magnoflorine. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. Constituents Aesculin. ferulic acid. coptisine. columbamine. aching. obakulactone. palmatine.

Its stem is erect.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. The calyx is bilabiate. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 cm wide. ovate shaped. The leaves are opposite.5 to 1. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. 1 to 3 cm long. their margins sparsely serrate. and 0. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes.

. It is also a good source for GLA. beta-cyanin. stomach. gamma-linolenic acid. boils. snake bites. Constituents GLA. Its stem is cylindrical. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. abscesses. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate.3 cm long. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA. and intestines. and English consume this plant in salads. antiphlogistic. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. The Chinese. gamma-linolenic acid.5 to 1. The flower has 2 sepals. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. decumbent or slanting upward. fleshy.5 cm wide. 8 to 12 stamens. betanin. It is used to reduce swelling. betanidini. French. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. 5 yellow petals.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. 1 to 1. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. Italians. Constituents Portulal. and often purplish in color. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb.

246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.4.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3.248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7.

84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4.

84082-80-4 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2.

84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1.

84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1. 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.

and Sri Lanka. roots. and flavones. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. ovate or oblong and inflated. and protein in kernel. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. hairs few. Seeds are hard. globular. Leaflets about 10 pairs. glabrous slightly compressed. Description It is an erect herb. and gray with thick testa. alkaloids. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. pitted black. Kal-karanj Nuts. Fruit small subglobular. firm. sharp recurved spines. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). nonvolatile terpenoid oil. tannin. isopsoralidin. hairy tip acute. Essential. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. simple. etc. perianth covered withspines.BENDUC NUT 253 6. covered with numerous black dots. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. corylifolean. Leaves petiolate. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. ellipticoblong. starch. chalcones. Flowers yellow. Description Main leaf axis has stout. circular. and saponin in the seed coat. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. Burma. Several species grow in the United States. Flowers are dense. shiny. campesterol group. oil. Constituents Furanocoumarins. corolla yellow or bluish-purple.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. sporalidin.

However. and citrulline. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. bluish-purple. The endodermis is indistinct. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. and skin diseases. sterols. and sulfurcontaining peptides. reducing sugar. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. Leaves opposite. basal are large. arginine. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. Seeds also contain protein. starch. with winged petiole. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. oblong. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. upper leaves smaller. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. Constituents Oil. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. Flowers about 2 cm long. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). phytosterol. Few layers of cork cells are present. and for infectious diseases. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. arresting hemorrhage. margin toothed. flower head white. borne on convex flower heads. Leaves membranaceous. lanceolate. sessile. aspartic acid.

Feathery. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. terpene alcohols. The fruit is subglobular. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. greenish-yellow. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. slightly broader than long. phyllanthe emblic. Description A medium tree. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. In old samples. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. entire. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. apex subacute. stipulate.but white internally. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. The oil and root contains camphene. linear oblong or elliptic. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. slightly recurved. mucronate. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. unisexual. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. Leaves simple. arranged densely on the branchlets. Flowers are small. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow.

ovate compressed. in terminal raceme-like panicle. cotyledons very oily. flowers. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A. antispasmodic. Sri Lanka. antipyretic. bitter. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. antihistaminic. and luteolin. CNS-depressant. antiulcer. very short. antidiabetic. antiviral. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. seeds. decyladehyde. smooth and shining. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. insecticidal. and carvarol. The leaves yield ursolic acid. taste bitter. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. Flowers small. sacred basil Leaves. 2 to 4 inches long. Each flower consists of. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. antibacterial. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. corolla 2-lipped.& Bpinene. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. Leaves are simple. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. exserted. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. testa light-red. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. elliptic-oblong. antispermatogenic. filament slender. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. hairy along the veins. krishna tulsi. point decurved. margin serrate. apex thick and blunt. odorant. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. pod woody. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. style 2-lobed. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. opposite. such as antistress. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. pubescent calyx. apigenin.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. Leaves pinnate. antihepatotoxic. subcoriaceous. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. tulsi. antifungal. camphor. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb.

and other cutaneous diseases. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. The oil is used to treat scabies. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. pongamol. The root bark is rustybrown externally. pectin. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. and translucent. cotyledons unequal. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. pongamin. glucose. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. the inner membranaceous. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. and butyric acid. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. firm and fleshy. leaves. Constituents Saponins. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. Properties The seeds. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. the outer very thick and hard. (S. pengaglabrone. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. singly. S. then bitter. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. with a peculiar pungency. the skin is shriveled. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. Radicle at the base of the seed. spirally incurvate. smooth. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. the pulp translucent. When dry. thick. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. pointing to lower and inner angle. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. The seed is black. where it is woody. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. the size of large a pea. the testa is double. sitosterol. tough. rheumatism. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yellow within. each berry is the size of a cherry.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. The bark contains alkaloids. and as an anthelmintic. except at the scar. . and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. herpes. the berries are the color of a raisin. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. Emarginatus. kaemferol.

scaly. and sugar. inflammations. Root consists of short stock. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. gum. fruit long. Description A climbing plant. It also has anodyne properties. and tonic. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. garancin. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. skin diseases such as ulcers. Leaves heart shaped.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. and discoloration of skin. Properties The roots are astringent. then acrid and bitter. and xanthine. flowers small yellow in color. The taste is sweetish at first. round violet colored and seeds light black. freckles. alterative. Constituents Roots contain resins. deobstruent. alizarin. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leucoderma. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. coloring matter.

and combined with Henna. sugar. Pods broadly oblong. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. is used to dye the hair black. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. resin. Corolla 5-lobed. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. which also contains sesquiterpenes. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. Himalaya (11. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. slightly curved. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Tracheids and few fibers. dark brown. starch. It is a good substitute for valerian. and bitter extractive matter. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. and Nepal. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. Description An herbaceous plant. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). Leaves usually in pairs sessile. nardol. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. oblong or ovate. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna.000 to 15. and flatulence. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. Roots contain valeranone. Epidermal hairs are few. Flowers in racemes. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. and contain obvate. valeranal. nardostechone.5% essential oil. B-sitosterol. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. Rhizomes long. nervous headache.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. seeds. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. calarenol. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. n-hexaconsanol. Bhutan. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. mainly in palpitation of heart. Senna is also a safe purgative. valves papery smooth.

260

KAVACH

Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume

Synonyms: Parts Used:

Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.

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NEEM

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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.

Neem (leaves)

Neem (whole plant)

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262

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.

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RED SANDAL

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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Southern India.

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264

SIKEKAI

Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed

Synonyms: Parts Used:

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WHITE LEADWORT

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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.

WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.

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The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. petiolate and alternate. tapering. brittle. globose. 3. Somnifera. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. The dried root is of uniform appearance. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. branching perennial.3-biplumbagin. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. brain lag. white internally. It is in flower all year long. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. loss of muscular energy. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. fracture short. and droserone. somniferinine. zeylinone. Licorice powder. greenish or yellow flowers. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. Iso-zeylinone. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. ovate hair-like branches. plump. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. Isolation of nicotine. smooth. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. smooth. grayish or hoary. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. For improving sight. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. rheumatism. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. somniferine. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. Leaves simple. and appetite stimulant. loss of memory. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. Constituents It contains alkaloids. and spermatorrhoea. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. gastric stimulant. The root is seldom branched. and starchy. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. withanine. It bears small. erect. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. a mixture of W. withananine. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. It is also cultivated. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. elliptinone. senile debility. as in enlarged glands.

the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. and cuscohygrine. pseudotropine.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. In addition to alkaloids. choline. Roots also contain tropine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

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These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6.6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. Black Ash. U. Bitter Orange Peel.S. White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba.

black Cohosh. blue Cohosh. pale Cinchona. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. pale Cinchona. calisaya Cinchona. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. yellow Cinchona. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion. U. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S. American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara.

Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum. U. S.S.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula.

Black Indian Hemp. White Indian Hemp. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. American Hellebore. U. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. S. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. Canadian Hemp. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. S. Black Hellebore.

276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier. S. Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. U. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Green Osier.

278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica. U. Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. U. S. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber. U. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.

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Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L.F.) Juglans nigra L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. Ruscus aculeatus L. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Cynara scolymus L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Fucus vesiculosus L. Optuntia. Alnus glutinosa L. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. Aloe vera L. Capsicum annum/frutescens L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Betula alba L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L.

Sanguisorba officinalis L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. Cucumis sativus L. Sambucus nigra L. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. Symphytum officinale L. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . purpurea. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Inula helenium L. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Gentiana lutea L. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Larrea divaricata Cav. Br. Scrophularia nodosa L. Symphytum officinale L.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. & Aschers. Centaurea cyanus L. Allium sativum L. spp. Zea mays L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. See Coleus Galium aparine L. Geranium maculatum L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L.

Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Melissa officinalis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Solidago Virgaurea L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Althaea officinalis L. et. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Mac Fad. Ocimum sanctum linn. Justicia Adhatoda. Hydrastis canadensis L. Camellia sinensis L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Centella asiatica L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Amoracia rusticana. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Citrus paradis. Hedera helix L. Limm Malva sylvestris L.) Burman F. Schert Equisetum arvense L. Pongamia glabra P.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Gaertn. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Calendula officinalis L. Aesculus hippocastanum L.

Rubus idaeus L.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Tabl. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .L. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. and B. Trifolium pratense L. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Vinca minor L. Lythrum salicaria L. Nasturtium officinale R. Pinus silvestris L. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Regn. Rheum rhabarbarum L. Commiphora molmol. Olea europoea L. & P. papyrifora. Papaver rhoeas L. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. ssp. Mentha piperita L. Engler Myrtus communis L. Carica papaya L. Veget. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Vent. Allium cepa L.

Juglans regia L. Betonica officinalis L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Juglans nigra L. Artemisia abrotanum L.) Tanacetum vulgare L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Salix alba L.) Acacia Concinna. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Salvia officinalis L.

Gentiana lutea L. Schum. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Artemisia absinthium L. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Rumex crispus L. Yucca brevifolia.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Torr.) Perre Yucca baccata.

It is said that life started in the seas. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism.7 Marine Natural Products 7. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. 5. sauces. e 8. and have even been used to put a head on beer. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. 3. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. Xanthophyta. body rubs. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. 2. ice cream. and sometimes in seawater. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. sea grasses. high in carotenoids. 6. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. Cryptophyta — Contain green. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. Xanthophylls. bath. as well as vitamins. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. They are also used as thickeners in jams. and sterols. phytoplanktons. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. 9. etc. blue. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. 4. and vitamin content. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . including: 1. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. cosmetics. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. Approximately 85% of water is seawater.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. Seawater. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. etc). 10. and red pigments. mud baths. However. 7. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. The sea holds an endless source of life. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. mineral. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. weeds. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals.

and cosmetic fields. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. and lycine). For example. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. prunes. B12. proteins. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. lipids. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. proline. steroids). Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. and polysaccharides. anthelmintics. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. emulsion stabilizer. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. and herbicides. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. cranberry. For plating microorganisms. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. anticoagulants. First. cardiac substances. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. and vitamins. fucose polymers. and ice cream as a thickening agent. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. and C. mainly from some gelidium species. acetylenes. and other fruits. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. glycine. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. and imparts slip. pears.. second. pharmaceutical. growth substances. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it is resistant to microorganisms and. furanoterpenes. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. Therefore. diterpenes. sulfur compounds. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. prostaglandins. Kelp is also the main source for algin. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. polyphenols. emulsions. for example. B2. marshmallows. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. such as ursolic acid derivates. carotenoids.g.

it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). including iodine. protein. Mn. shampoos. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. palmitic. antioxidant. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. B3. iron. C. and ointments. and mannitol. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. F. both in vivo and in vitro. potassium. L. Cr. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. Na. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. P. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. magnesium. K. Laminaria longicruris (L. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. sodium. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sargassum contains fructose. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. iodine. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). Algin. which is a polysaccharide. I. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. B3. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. A). antimicrobial agent. mannitol. phosphorus. and antiglaucomic. in combination with Vitamin E. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. Ca).MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. and zinc. salads. it has a high content of potassium. B12. and glutamic acid. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. lotions. In addition. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. broadspectrum. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. B 2. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. particularly fluoride. B. phosphorus. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. a synergestic effect was exhibited. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. Fe. oleic. B6. However. galactose. B12. calcium. potassium. and lauric acids). Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. minerals (Zn. B6. and carbohydrates. Co. fat. creams. etc. myristic. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. and iodide ions. B. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. Mg. bromide. There are traces of chloride. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory.

9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a well-known anti-inflammatory. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic.000). rheumatism. sulfonate. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O. phlorotannins. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols.02 to 0. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C.1%). Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. It is a single-cell protein. sterols as free fucosterol. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. and the Baltic Sea.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. the Pacific. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity. polysaccharides. and as a massage for cellulite. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme.6 Fucus contains trace minerals. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. Lyngb. alginic acid. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. F. polar lipids. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. Eisenia contains a complex polymer. which means it is a self-sufficient. single-cell. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. sulfated.500 IU/100 g 180. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids. Echinus esculentus L. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine.8 mg/100 g 1. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. mainly iodine (0. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L.3. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. Halidrys siliquosa L. containing all the essential amino acids. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. fucans. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues).

80 w/w% 0.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder..8 mg 1.7 mg 125. called the Chlorella Growth Factor. pp.8% 18.06 w/w% 0.9 mcg 191. Moreover. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation. Tests performed by the U. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).38 w/w% 3. The Emerald Food.6% 60. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chlorella. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron. Spirulina Spirulina. It is found in both brackish and fresh water.59 w/w% 3. et al.64 w/w/% 5.500 IU/100g 180.08 mg Potter. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.46 w/w% 1.9 mcg 15..MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3.1% 0. 14-15.5 mg 4. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.70 w/w/% 2.6 mcg 0.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.45 w/w% 2. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.0% 20.26 w/w% 2.5% 11.63 w/w% 5.29 w/w% 3.93 w/w% 3. B. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation.2% 4.20 w/w% 2.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0. In a controlled study.8 mg 1.29 w/w% 2.3 mg 26.8 mg 1.09 w/w% 3. Dr.S.A.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.2% 55.64 w/w% 1. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.08 w/w% 0. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.78 w/w% 6. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin.469 mg 613 mg 1.40 w/w% 4.

Cr.L. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). Cu. Biotin. K. carotenoids. at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . minerals. B6. Ge. and minerals (5 to 10%).294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). Mn.40) B1. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca.. Zn. vitamins. Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. Na.A. etc. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. B2. Fe. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0.L. G. P. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. Mg. as it is high in plant protein. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. Spirulina. B3. lipids (4 to 7%). B12 Folacin.A.

pressure. the Bacteria. including phaeophyta. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. Significant compounds. penazetidines. which although poorly known. such as those of elevated salinity. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. bactericidal. are common in marine environments. having distinct anti-cancer properties. plant. 7. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. Oahu. and ascidians. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. and marine organisms. and chlorophyta. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. the search is only beginning. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea.11 4. bacteristatic. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. as a soothing demulcent.8 The results obtained are quite promising. Related unicellular microorganisms. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. the following being some examples: 1. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. melemeleones. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . were isolated from marine organisms. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. sponges.9 2. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. and imidazole disulfides.12 5.13 6. microcolin C. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. cyanophyta. anti-inflammatory. such as the curacins.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. Unfortunately. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. Thus. but no chemical study has been reported.10 3. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. or temperature. barbamide. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. soft corals. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. anticancer. kalkitoxin. antillatoxin. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms).

An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum. antimicrobial.. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. actinomycetes. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum.15 8. including potent antiviral.19 12. including corals and sponges. tunicates. the eudistomins. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins.16 9. which display a variety of pharmacological activities. and cytotoxic activities. fungi. a unique anti-viral protein. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the swinholides.17 10. and true symbionts from sponges.18 11. and the theonellapeptolides. A series of B-carboline derivatives.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria. which produce anti-tumor compounds. and gorgonians. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. Cyanovirin-N. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media.

and anti-tumor promoting properties.30 23. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. New antimycotics. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. Isolation of Dysidiolide. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp.37 30. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp.22 15. including makaluvamines A. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. makaluvone. Isolation of Microcolin C.27 20. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp.34 27. phorboxazole A and B. D.36 29. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.28 21. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. E. were isolated from the marine sponge. cytotoxic natural products.29 22. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle. B.31 24.26 19. Okoadene and Mailidene. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds.25 18. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor.38 31. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus.23 16. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges). They have shown remarkable antineoplastic. discorhabdin A. a novel. Phorbas sp. immunopotentiating.39 32. C. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins. Diamirone B. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. Several new classes of compounds. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. Cyclomarin A.21 14.35 28.32 25. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents. and F.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin.33 26. Many novel.24 17. latrunculin B and swinholide A.

. S.K.. and Molinski. Dunbar. 2.. Heath... 25.H. and Munro. Schumacher. ibid O 49...C. S.. ibid P 141. J. B.-D. J. Fucus Vesiculosus L.. Shoemaker. A...J.. and Cardellina. J. C. pp. L. C. B. Lassota.. J.T.-R. L. M. R. G. and Bair. and Thompson. Kerr. ibid P 26. 14-15. P. Gerard. 32.. Al. 1985. M.J. B. 13.. Gulakowski. 17. 8.. Acta Pharm. L. 19.J. 22. Duh. Lam.J.S. Sci. 9... 38. 29. 63. R. Chan.. 6. 12.. W. Mabeau. W.. UCSC. 20(6). O’Keefe. Yoo. I. Ind... Mendola. Papers presented at the 37th Annu. J. M.. and Scheuer. and Afzelius. L. Chlorella.. D. ibid P 145. J. S. ibid O 10. and Munro. Blunt. M. Dhyana. D. Gulakowski... Freyer. Westley... B. Brzezinski. N. and Scheuer. Gerwick.A. ibid S 14. 1975. P. S. Mendola.. 10. B.A. 1258. ibid S 23. ibid P 31. L. 29. Crews.. M. Perry. S.A. Can. J. 23.K. Kloareg. 2441-2446. S. Lill. L. Bringano. and Bauer..R. C.. P. D. D.G.A. G. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California.Y. Janda.A.E. H.K.A. Hong. ibid P 154.. ibid P 25.E..J. P. H.P..J. M. J. Ogren. July 27-31.. Venables. 26. 27.. O’Sullivan. Harrigan.. 180. B... Janus. and Yavor.... and Harrigan. El-Sayed. Gush. Andersson. Bewicke. 40. J. Zhang. T.. 39. Davidson. L. M.. D. O 50. L...W.. Plubrukarn.A. T. ibid P 36. M... J..-Y. 18. J. K. The Emerald Food. Xie..R..... 15. J.A. 16.. Lidgren.. K. Bohlin. D. Studies of Swedish marine organisms..-P.. ibid S 9. M. ibid O 38. C. McInnes. J. Cardellina. et al.. Potter.. Gerwick.. Abstr. 24. K.T. Blunt. Smith... Hemling. and Kelly. and Baker. D. N. and Kelly-Borges. Slate. R. 35.. R.E. F. Pharmaceut. Gunasekera. Pettit.D. Beverly A. 20.. Wright.. Haygood.... S. S.P. 56(4). R. J.B. H. R.. J.S. J. T. Brielmann. M....M. Meeting. Forenza. Zheng. J. 30. Maranda. 37. A...J. and Gerwick. and Ireland. 31.. Chikarmane.. ibid S 22. July 27-31. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy. and Joseleau. D.. and Gould. J. ibid P 150.R. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae.A. 478-488. ibid P 30. H. 33. 14.A.. Fernandes. R.. P. El Sayed...A.S... ibid O 36. P. J. Chem. I. Harrison. J. L. Pomponi. Searle.. 36.. Allen. G.. W. S.. and Walter.. P.G. ibid S 15. D.M. B.. M.. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae.. 1990. Erim. Green. 1996. J.. Carney. ibid O 26. McCarthy.. Hamel.. P. Castor. Copp.. J. Lloyd. 401-414.. B. Andrew. J. O’Keefe.. W. B.P. C. Shangxiao. B. ibid P 9.. J. ibid P 155. and Russel G. ibid O 25.. M. A. Ph. L... Mar. Varoglu. ibid O 7. Ragan..J. T. and Rodriguez. Goins. Carte’. M. P. J. D. K. Rea.. H.P. McMahon. ibid P 149. 11.E. 21. Jayatilake... R. McMahon.F. de Silva. Solimabi. E. R. Baker. Yoshida. ibid P 19.. Andersen. 6... 28. McKee. S. Coleman. ibid O 11. P. and Leahy. Fulton... W. Haden.J. M. Gustafson. 34. K.. Dumdei. Schmitz. Nakao..M. McCombs. B.. 304-313. 1996..R. T.. Y. G. Haughey. S 8.. Ferrante. Franklin. J. Screening of biological activity. T. 3. Hook.C. Javor...A. Major.G. 1993. Sheehan. Hargraves... Barrows. Sci.. Wilkins.W.. 1977.. Santa Cruz (UCSC).. J.H. Suecica. ibid P 156.. and Wang. K. 64. A. K. and Hung. ibid P 28... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .J. Mokinski. Phytochemistry.. R. Beutler. 4. M..298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1... 1983.F. D. Boyd. ibid P 27. T.. B. Lawry.J. and Boyd.A.W. S. and Hamann. L. S. 7.A.. Magni. G. and Kerr. P.T. and Hamann. and Crews. and Francis. Rodriguez.F. M. ibid P 151. Natural Prod. Clark. R.H.. J. 5. G.. Linton... G.. and Crews..

.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq. Adjust pH to 5. 8. 2. Henkel. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous./Lipo Chemicals. Adjust pH to 9.00 0.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47.60 21. Therefore.2 (±0.s. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.10 0.5 (±0. PROCEDURE: 1. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous.00 10. 5. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. 207 19th Avenue. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products. Patterson. Inc.10 q.2) with Sequence 5. Rohm & Haas.s.10 0. In main kettle. 3. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. either alone or in combination with other products. NJ 07504. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature.00 q. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes.10 0. 5.00 6.00 10. 4.

10 q. 5.10 0.00 1. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous.00 0. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.00 20. 3. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.s. combine Sequence 1 ingredients. Adjust pH to 5.00 10. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq.00 0.00 6. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Amerchol.5 (±0.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. 2. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.s. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. Henkel. In main kettle.10 q.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient. high-foaming. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31.2 (±0. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. Procedure: 1. 6. 7. Adjust pH to 9.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural.10 0. 4. Inc. Lipo Chemicals.10 0. 10.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.50 15.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Rohm & Haas. Inc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq. at room temperature. 6. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.

Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. Inc. 6.50 3.(Induchem). Goodrich Co.F.95 0.00 0. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals. Inc. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .45 0.10 5. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed. Aqualon.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22. In main kettle at room temperature. 2. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine.10 0.50 1. 3. Procedure: 1.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65.FORMULATIONS 301 8. 5. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed.10 0. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform. 4.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens.00 1. B.

Inc.10 0. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0.54 5. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 q.00 5.00 10.10 0. 2. add Sequence 3 to correct shade. Procedure: 1. Inc.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals. In main kettle.10 0.10 0.00 0. Cool to 30°C. At 25°C.96 63. 3.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.s. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . At 30°C.

10 0. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C . Procedure: 1. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86.FORMULATIONS 303 8. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. Haarmann & Reimer Corp.10 0. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals.10 0. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved. 2. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.00 4.10 0. Fanning Corp.50 0. BASF. Inc. Cool to 25°C.02 0. Givaudan Corp.10 0.00 2. Inc.05 6.28 0.50 0. In main kettle. 3. Begin cooling.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base.10 0.

05 0.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant.00 0. Spl Phosphoric acid. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals. 4. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940. Inc.70 2. 8.75 0. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.82 0.10 0.10 0. 2. 10% sol’n Supplier B. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92. F.25 0.80 0. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Procedure: In main kettle.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. Cool to 60°C.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31. 3.88 45.10 g. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel.00 5. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .30 0. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous.00 0. Inc.s.05 20. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform.00 0.

00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine.00 2.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .00 5. 99% Hypan SA100H 25. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25.05 1 2 Triethanolamine.F. Guardian Chemicals. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp.00 0. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5. B.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible.20 0.10 0.70 1. Inc. Lipo Chemicals. 3. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.30 0. Lipo (Kingston). Goodrich.FORMULATIONS 305 8. Procedure: 1. 2. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem).

.

Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. indehiscent. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). as ferns. one-celled. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). the fecundating material from an antheridium. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. with firm pericarp. Achaenium. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Acicular: Needle-shaped. containing the pollen. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . one-seeded fruit. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. like the leaves of pines. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. or Akene: A dry. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. or flower-arrangement. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering.

the hilum and the chalaza being together. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. Capitate: With globose head. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue.. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Bacca: A berry. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Appendages: Superadded parts. meristematic cells. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. as bi-foliate.g. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues.. Axillary: Growing in an axil. with two leaves. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. Calcarate: Spurred. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. Castor seed). carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Carina: The keel. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. cinnamic). Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. Nutmeg). Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy.g. Cardamon).. Blisters: See Vesicants. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. carrying the ovary. rare in present times). Bristles: Sharp. Atropous: With erect ovule. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Bulb: An underground discoid stem..g. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. stiff hairs. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. Apetalous: Without petals. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. Capsule: A dry. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil.g. a pulpy. Bi-: Signifying double. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body.

thick. with the dry pericarp united with the testa.g. usually distinct. Cespitose: Tufted. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. one-celled.. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. Cortex: The bark. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Umbelliferous fruits). Caudale: Having a hairy style. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. Cilia: Marginal hairs. outer layer. Corm: A solid. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. upright rhizome. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Convolute: Rolled up. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . indehiscent fruit. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. tuber-like. Coriaceous: Leathery. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. Clavate: Club-shaped. Cohesion: Attachment. one-seeded. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. Connate: where two parts. Cathartic: A purgative. Contorted: Twisted. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Costa: The midrib. Also a name given to a short. Caulis: The stem. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. from which they hang when ripe. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Caudex: The axis. become joined.

dividing into irregular branches. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. two long and two short. producing intellectual confusion. downward throughout the length. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Deflexed: Bent. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Didynamous: With four stamens. Didymous: In pairs. Deliquescent: Dissolving. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Definite: Constant. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. Determinate: Definite. Discoid: With convex face. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. etc. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Dichotomous: Forked. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Decompound: Many times compound. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Deciduous: Falling off. lymphatic. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. or tending to fall. Deltoid: Triangular. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Crispate: Curled. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons.

Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. nearly parallel. wood. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. Fibrils: Root-hairs. Epigynous: Adnate to. Etiolated: Blanched. Fastigate: Pointing upward. the ovary. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. wood. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. and bark. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Escharotics: See Caustics. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Epidermis: The true skin. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. without. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches.. or borne on. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. the outermost layer. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Exogenous: Having bark. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. purgation). Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Echinate: Prickly. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. E: Signifies deprived of. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine.g. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Extrorse: Turned outward. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. and pith distinct. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Episperm: The coat of seed. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat.

Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Fid: Cleft. more swollen on one side than on the other. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Furcate: Forked. as bifid. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Glabrous: Smooth. etc. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Flexuose: Wavy. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Flocculose: Woolly. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture.g. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Filiform: Thread-like. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. algae. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. Globose: Roundish. Fimbriated: Fringed. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. as in the cypress and juniper.. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. devoid of hairs. the point of attachment. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. orange). Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. as petals and leaves.

Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. Inarticulate: Not jointed. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. or appearing to have.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. i. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. either by mechanical or chemical action. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Incanescent: Hoary. Lacuna: A space between cells. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. Jointed: Having. squirrels. Lamina: A leaf-blade. like shingles. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Laxative: A mild purgative. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Labellum: (Lip). Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. joints or nodes. Lateral: Attached to the side. Keel: See Carina. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Inferior: Growing below another. Lacinate: Fringed. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. Inflexed: Bent inward. the lower petal of an orchid. Innate: Adhering to apex. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). Involute: Rolled inward. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels.e. layer. Imbricated: Overlapped. inflammation.. cats. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Internode: Interval between nodes. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. i.e. on the receptacle. etc. and irritation. two or three times longer than broad. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). dogs. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. as innate anther. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. Causing watery evacuations. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. rabbits.

Multifid: Many-cleft. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. leaves. Ligulate: Strap-like. with hard tubercles. but with lipclosed (flower). Lobate: Divided into lobes. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. and roots. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. found at the ends of young stems. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Locusta: The spike of grasses. Linear: Narrow. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. Monopetalous: Having petals united. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Monogynous: Having one carpel. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. Muricate: Rough. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. with parallel sides. Monospermous: One-seeded. style. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). with upper lobes largest. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. Masked: Labiate. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Monandrous: Having one stamen. Medulla: The pith of exogens. often caused by fungus infection. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. or stigma. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon.

Obtuse: Blunt. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. one-celled fruit. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. with lobes nearly free. Pedatipartite: Pedate. with lateral divisions again subdivided. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. the wings. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Oblique: Unequal sided. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. rounded. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. as ergot. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . thick runner. death. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Partite: Divided nearly to base. having tufts of leaves at extremity. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). indehiscent.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. Parasitic: Growing upon. apex broad (leaf). in large doses. Node: Point where the leaf develops. as in the pea-flower. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. and nourished by. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. another plant. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. Orbicular: Circular. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Pedatifid: Pedate. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. and the keel. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Nut: A hard. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. Offset: A short. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Obsolete: Suppressed. Pedate: Palmate.

usually of family Leguminosae. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. female. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. with petiole attached at or near the center. Peltate: Shield-shaped. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Pentandrous: Having five stamens. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Pod: A general name given to dry. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Pendulous: Hanging down. Petals: The corolla leaves. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. dehiscent fruits. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. squash. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. Pubsecent: Downy. resembling a mouth. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. and perfect flowers on the same plant. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. melon. Polygamous: With male. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Petaloid: Resembling petals. indehiscent. two or more celled. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. Pilose: Hairy. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Personate: Masked. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. and the like. Pome: An inferior. pointed cells. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. few-seeded. fleshy fruit. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland.

its function being to support the flower organs. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). creeping. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. one. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. winged. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). Recurved: Bent backward. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Scarious: Thin. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. Setae: Stiff. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. indehiscent. bristly hairs. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. Radical: Springing from roots. Retrorse: Directed backward.or two-celled fruit. Revolute: Rolled backward. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Reclinate: Bent downward.. rooting and budding at nodes. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. with deep notch in middle (leaves). Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. dry. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. and shriveled. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. and producing pustules. Runcinate: Jagged margin. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). Saccate: Sac-like. Sheath: See Ocrea.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. etc. prostrate stem. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. bearing leaves and rootlets. Ringent: Labiate. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . such as glands. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Runner: A slender. with reflexed margins (estivation). Retuse: Obtuse. Reduplicate: Valvate. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). with wide lips (corolla).

leafless. bearing the stigma. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. with short hairs. Subulate: Awl-shaped. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Stamens: Male organs of flowers.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ternate: Arranged in threes. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Stipitate: Stalked. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Testa: The external integument of the seed. may be modified leaf or stem. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Spine: A pointed modified branch. Squamose: Scaly. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Tomentose: Pubescent. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. in pairs. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. spiral branch. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Suture: A line of junction. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Sporangium: A spore-case. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Tendril: A thread-like. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. dehiscing from below upward. and one short pair. falsely two-celled pod. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long.

Utricle: A superior. 1895.GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Lucius E. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). Uncinate: Hooked. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Valvate: United only by the margins. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. 529-536. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Zones: Concentric bands. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. few-seeded fruit. Versatile: Freely swinging. one-celled. Volute: Rolled up. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Verticel: A whorl. pp. Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Sayre. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Toxic: Poisonous. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Trichomes: Hairs. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Vexillum: The standard..

FL 1992. Duke.. A. British Herbal Medicine Association. New York. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. American Pharmaceutical Association. 1932. 3. Nakanishi et al. 17. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities.K. New Jersey. 1992. 1930. U. E. Wagner and S. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. New York.. Ltd. Tyler. 20. The Essential Oils. Blakiston’s Son & Co. FL. Grieve. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The National Formulary XVIII. New York. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. P. 1995. Lavoisier. I and II. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. Vol. 19. & A. J. 1992. Bournemouth. Boca Raton.. Foter. Potter & Clarke. MO. Boca Raton. 1. U. Louis. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.. 10. 1993. I and II.C. 4th ed.. 7. Washington.W. Vol. 1997. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co.. Plant Drug Analysis.C. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. 23. J. Vol. CRC Press. 9. 1936. 1990. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Tyler. 21. Robert E.K. J.. D. 15. The Merck Index. 13th ed. 1989. Ltd. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 1975.. Paris. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. 4. London. Mack Publishing. IL.E.. Pharmacognosy.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1. A Modern Herbal. 12th ed. 4th ed. 13.. T.E. 7th ed.. Ehrhart & Karl. FL. H. Chicago. Herbs of Choice. 12. 1902. Rockville. 5. Natural Products Chemistry. Biddles. The Honest Herbal. SpringerVerlag. Churchill Ltd. R. New York. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. Academic Press. British Herbal Compendum. 1974.. 22. 1–7. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. Bladt. M. Biddles. 1996. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis.. Berlin.. A. Notes on Parmacognosy. London.. G. Youngken. 2nd ed.E. Vol. Bruneton.. NY. John Wiley & Sons. MD..A. Duke. 14.. Stuttgart. Bailliere Tindall.. Y. Guenther. Krieger Publishing. 16. 3rd ed. K. Inc. Ltd.. Tease and Evans. Bisset. MIS Publication. Wall. H. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. O. 1994. Aug. 1983. Huntington. St. 24. Leung and S. Boca Raton. V. Merck Research Laboratories. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Haworth Press.K. 1996. Wren. 1995. Philadelphia. Wallis. 11. U. CRC Press. 1994. 6. 8.A. 18. Dover Publications. PA. 1971. N. 1996.. Haworth Press. 1960. CRC Press. J. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. 2nd ed. Merck & Co. 1964. 2. V.

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