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BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.
CRC Press Boca Raton New York
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:
Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.
Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. But more than anything. Let it reflect brightly upon us. Galen. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. men like Shen Nong. always wanting to find a more active plant. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. experimenting. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. Over time. Chinese. to use plants wisely. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . As formulators and purveyors. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. Theophratus. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. Always wanting to know more. Dioscorides. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. And then the Babylonian. Originally. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. Mithridates.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. Initially. observing. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. and Avicenna. sorting.
has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry. Sr.. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists.AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. He founded BioBotanica. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. Frank D’Amelio. Inc. vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and assistance in editing the manuscript. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. patience. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. Special thanks to Professor Dr. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals.
........................................................................2 1...............4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents..............................................................................................1 1.....................1 Constituents of Drugs...................................14 3.........................................3..................3 Physical Constants....4 Ultraviolet Light ....................................................................................................5 Yield to Solvents .......................................1...............................5 Infrared Spectroscopy......3.....................................................................................................25 3.........................................1 4..................................................1 1...........1...................................10 2...........................2 Some Common Terminology .5 Alkaloids............................28 3...............8 Gas Chromatography...............................1......................43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..........................................................................................................3.......11 2.....................................................................................40 Decoctions ......26 3...............................3 Procedures ...........3 Micromorphology...........................................................................24 3.................................................................................................1 Plant Identification .........1.............................23 3..................4 4......................1 1..................................................................................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2......................................6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems.......................................................................1....................5 1......................3...7 Glycosides ..............................................................................................................................................................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3....................................................................................................1...................................1 Forms 4............................1..................................11 2.3.....3 Tannins................................................................9 2........................................................7 Assay Procedures ..........................39 Percolation .............................................1 1.....................................................9 2..9 Adulteration of Drugs ..........................1 Botanical Terminology ..............6 Ash Determination ..11 2....2 Solubilities .......................41 Infusions .............................................6 Carbohydrates.......................................................................1 1................1............................................1................................10 2................................................35 Chapter 4 4...2 4...1...........................................11 References ...................3 4...............................................................................................................2 Phenols .......1......1 Microscopical Techniques....39 Extraction Terminology.............................................1 Liquids .......................4 Proteins .....................1.....................26 3.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13 3..................................................................7 Methods of Identification....................................................................11 2.................1.............................11 2.........................5 1.5 Preparations of Extracts ........8 Volatile Oils.......................................................2 1.......................................CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1.......3..............10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups .42 Fluid Extracts ...................................................30 3.............................9 Resins and Resin Combinations .......................................................1................2 Macromorphology ......................3..................................................................
....... and Standardization......269 6.........................4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics .............................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table........................................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table ..........................304 8................ Properties.................49 5.................................................................................................................................................................................304 8............................253 6.............................1.......8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC........................................9 4................................................2 Natural Shampoo..................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5............................................................4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil ........................... Concentration..............1 Habitat.......................................51 6.....................................7 4........................................................................................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ..........6 4...............................................46 Product Strength.............233 6.............................................1..............................................................7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe .........1 Marine Algae........1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo.......5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+..........8 4.....................................................................................11 Tinctures ....................................45 Extracts Strengths....283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7.........................295 References .289 7.....303 8..................................................302 8..........................1.................................................6 Spray Moisturizer ....2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products...............................................................1..................................................1......................................................................300 8.......46 Oleoresins .........2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy...............................................................................................10 4......................................................................................................4..................................................45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ..............298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8....................................................2 Hair Care Botanicals .............................299 8........................................................................... Range.....................................1 History ..........................................1..............6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table........4.........................5 Indian Botanicals..............301 8............307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..........................................................................................................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6.............................. Description..............................................247 6........3 Cellulite Gel Base ...........7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names .....229 6....................... and Constituents ........305 Chapter 9 Glossary.225 6..
proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. 1. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. (2) phenols.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. Recently. hence. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. 1. fats. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1. and coumaric acids. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. and waxes (lipids). leaves. (4) proteins. myristyl. In most cases.1. (5) alkaloids. When applied to living tissues. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. (6) carbohydrates. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. palmitic.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. In plants. spores.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. stems. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. roots. they are stored in seeds. 1. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. They are generally soluble in water. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. etc. (8) volatile oils. (7) glycosides. They are widely distributed in plants. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. TS).1 Phytochemistry 1. barks. fats. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates.1. they are also called triglycerides. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins. and waxes. glycerol. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. and usually bitter taste. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. ferulic. (3) tannins.1. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. have astringent action. In the treatment of burns.
Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. phenanthrene. and steroidal. serums.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. brucine. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. hydrogen.1. indole. and oxygen. (b) obligosaccharides. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. which are the building units. piperidine. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. (2) polysaccharides.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. oil-bearing plant seeds. stems.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. and cryptogams. 1. isoquinoline. purine. pyridine. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. they form water-soluble salts with acids. and seeds. Being basic in chemical character. Whole glandular products. leaves. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. but mostly in fruits. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. gymnosperms. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. In fact. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. (a) monosaccharides. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. imidazole. roots. quinoline. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. carboline. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. antitoxins. bark. and (3) derived carbohydrates. tropane. possessing some marked physiological action. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity.1. which end in -in. Proteins are derived from amino acids. for example: colchicine.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
They are natural plant hydrocolloids. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). ii. melibiose ii. D-ribose. diginose. D-xylose.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. f.6-linked polyglucan. It is a linear polysaccharide. b. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). i. True sugars a.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. emulsifiers. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. amorphous substances. and thickeners. 3.4. They include hemicellulose. gelling agents. epimarose. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses.2)-fructofuranose units. which is a straight chain of alpha1. d. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). and some microbial polysaccharides. c. Monosaccharides. gums. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. or amino sugars. turanose. suspending agents. 2. iii. digitalose (these are 2. galacturonic Glucosamine. Cellulose. transluscent. tri-. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. g. It contains both B-1. cellobiose. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. it is formed of amylose. trihalose Reducing: maltose. their sulfate esters. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. Unlike cellulose. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. fucose Digitoxose. Pentoses: L-arabinose. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. sarmentose. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). e. uronic acids. stabilizers. galactosamine b.and B-1.6-linkages.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). Therapeutically. a. and tetrasaccharides i. pectins. alginates. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. Glycogen. mucilages. D-fructose (levulose). lactose. and Example Rhamnose. cymarose. consisting simply of 1. gentiobiose. L-galactose. and apiose. Gums are soluble in water. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). It is an alpha-1. oleandrose. Inulin.
strophanthin. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. 9. 5. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e... Lauraceae. 6. 12. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone.. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. rutin) Anthraquinone (e. In the conifers. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae).g.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that. 2. for example. Depending on the plant family. There are also C-glycosides (e. 3. regulating. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues.. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). detoxifying. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant. digitoxin. Such glycosides. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides.g. In S-glycosides (e. digitoxin) Saponin (e. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. 4. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond.. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species.. the sugar component is called the glycone. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm.. representing about 87 families). Myrtaceae. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e. for example. for example. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin. Lamiaceae. 1. as sugar reserves. The chief families are Pinaceae. and defensive roles. are the most common ones found in nature.g. or adenosine)..g. for example. and barbaloin are laxatives. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall.g. cascarosides. They are products of plant metabolism. occur.. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. 8. Phenol (e.g. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e. sennosides.g. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants.g.g. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone.. daphnin) Flavone (e. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures. Apiaceae. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). arbutin) Alcohol (e. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1. sinigrin) Steroid (e. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae). crocin and picrocrocin. Occasionally.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis.g. sinigrin).g. 1.g.g. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. glucosamine. Rutaceae.1. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources. Other glycosides do.. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. In N-glycosides (e.. 11.1. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. and Asteraceae. 10..g.. 7.g. in the liver of fish. however. sometimes called O-glycosides. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e.. salicin is an analgesic. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility.
bitter almond. wintergreen. 7. sandalwood. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. carminatives. mild antiseptics. turpentine. etc. rosemary. However. Ester volatile oils: lavender. In most cases. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. etc. dill. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. geranium. resulting in less food spoilage. etc. but in few instances. fennel. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . horsemint. nutmeg. Classification 1. 3. themselves. 9. etc. in cinnamon. lemongrass. chemical. pharmaceuticals. coriander.1. parsley. 4. tend to resinify on exposure to air. cassia bark. in the mints. 6. cosmetics. lemon. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. Ethers: anise. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. is rich in camphor. and tobacco. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. They can be used for their therapeutic action. etc. only in the bark and leaves. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. rose. etc. 1. are hard. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. etc. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. local stimulants. anthelmentics. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. Resins. juniper. thyme. and odor characteristics. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. In addition. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. confections. or parasiticides. for example. In general. 8. they are widely used in perfumery. star anise. however. cade. cajuput. ajowan. sweet orange.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. beverages. diuretics. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. in umbelliferous fruits. as a class. For example. Undoubtedly. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. only in the pericarp. etc. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. spearmint. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). transparent or translucent brittle substances. local irritants. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. 5. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. however. These substances. 2. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. clove. chenopodium. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. neroli. etc. and in orange.
in rare cases (e. For example. in Guaiacum wood. resins soften and finally melt. It is noteworthy to mention here that. as well as in fixed and volatile oils. shellac). they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. esters.. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. resin alcohols. without volatilization or decomposition. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. but when heated in the air. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. forming solutions which. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). forming sticky or adhesive fluids. they are divided into resin alcohols.g. When heated in a closed vessel. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). and glycosidal resins.25). On heating at comparatively low temperatures.g. carbon bilsulfide). and medullary rays cells). They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). 0. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes.9–1. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. which is called secondary flow. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). gr. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids.. they occur as tyloses. and glandular hairs (cannabis). They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. chloroform. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. In this case. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. viz. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. In plants. On this basis. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. they are of pathological origin. Many products (e. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. and resenes. wood parenchyma.. resin cells (ginger). but do not contain any nitrogen. with few exceptions (e.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. resin acids. acetone. that is. They are not pure chemical substances. Family Coccidae. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. when freshly powdered. colophony. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. as in case of Pinus. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products.g. mastic). resinotannols. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. Hemiptera. Laccifer lacca. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. resins occur in different secretory structures. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified..PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. and ether. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue.g. Chemically. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. on evaporation. fibers. resenes (neutral inert compounds). Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. in the vessels.e. order. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film.
Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. respectively — both contain volatile oil. ointments. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. etc. mouthwashes. they form a mixture of pentoses. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. for example. Guttiferae). shave creams. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. nonadhesive solutions with water. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. barks. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. and Canada balsam. These are. Balsams. antispasmodic. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam.e. copaiba. the mixtures being called gum-resins. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). balsam of Copaiba. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae.) In general. they can be incorporated into lotions. and seeds. expectorants. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). fruits. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. Probably. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. On hydrolysis. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. viz.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. cathartics. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. counter irritants.. liquid or semi-liquid substances. they can be separated from resins rather easily. etc. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. being called glycoresins. which contains no volatile oil.g. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. creams. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . parasiticides. and uronic acids. roots. on the other hand. and anthelmintics. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). like most seeds. therefore. flowers. glucose. Jalap. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. In some cases. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. arabinose. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. cough syrups. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. and malva (Malva sylvestris). (e. purgatives. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. xylose. leaves. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids.. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. Mucilages are viscous. in seaweeds. and Podophyllum. carminatives. that form colloidial. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. Another is flax seed. asafoetida). or esters of these acids. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. hexoses. (anywhere soothing is required). Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action.
is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. acetone.. expression.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. As with the raw materials. having a bottom outlet. also referred to as the spent herb.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. or by chemical or physical means. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. treatment with a solvent. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. distillation.. gauze. the solution commonly known as lye. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. etc. cotton) below. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. ether. 2. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or alcohol and water.g. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. by traction.). and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. etc. by which it is exhausted of potash. suction. In pharmacy. water. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part.
one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. That is.3 PROCEDURES 2. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . botanical laboratory. 2.001 mm). examined with the same objective and tube length as above. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale. its true size is 50 0.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. because it is the magnified object. Therefore.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification.125 mm.3.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer. In the same manner. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions. 0. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. always using a definite tube length. the factors for the other objectives can be determined. both of which are carefully counted. as well as identification of commercial starches.C. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. the width of vessels. However. Q. Most of the time.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. if an object. that is compared with the scale. for example.0025 mm = 0. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0.125 mm = 125 µ.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. The diameter of fibers. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. and not the object itself.0025 mm. By its use. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. the scale of 1 mm. also known as micrometers. the height of sclerenchymatous cells.
The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. A. balsams. C. calumba.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity.3. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky. glycosides. G. especially if they are present in the powdered form. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. 2.3. D. oleo-resins.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. such as hydrastis. T.3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Evans. London.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. Trease..2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. and similar substances. 90%. 2. W. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article.. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence.3. for example. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples.. the yield to water of liquorice root. malaccensis. Other drugs. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. Derris elliptica. London. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol. vitamins. 4th ed. However. viscosity.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs.. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. 2. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. Bailliere Tindall. resins.. Pharmacognosy. 1960. J. For certain drugs. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. REFERENCES Wallis. E.g. 1978. they will give a high total ash value. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. 11th ed. Some pieces of rhapontic. Similarly. In this way. volatile oil. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent. 2. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. digitalis and henbane leaves). or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. viburnum.3.. 2. UV light provides very useful information. Churchill Ltd. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. optical rotation. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e. E. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash.3.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2.
Many plants have common names and.e. For example. and berberine. flower. When ordering a botanical. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired.. identification can be confusing.3 Quality Control 3. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. fruit. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. odor. lipidic extraction. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. canadine. percolation. hexane). Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. or the entire plant. etc. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. There are many forms of extracts available. organic solvents (ethanol. If this is not specified. ash content. etc. As seen in the example. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. seed. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. stem. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. etc. leaf. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. distillation. root. methanol. ask for it by its common name first. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. One should start with botanical terminology.. therefore. super critical fluid extraction. Fortunately. then maceration. and other tests like loss on drying. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. color. This starts with the proper solvent system. counter current extraction. i. providing that they were dried properly. and microscopy.
Cowhage). Lupulin. 3) is a representative example. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market..14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. Dusting powders: One should be able. glands. pollen grains. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. 2. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). starches.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. 2 is that of an angiosperm. and hairs (Kamala. 3. to differentiate between mineral powders. 1. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. while Fig. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. secondary phloem. Quassia Wood. primary phloem. however. Fig. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. viz. For systematic study. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration.
1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig.
16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. 2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig.
Leaves: Example. mm. the corolla made of petals. the leaf is termed sessile. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. stigmas). for the seeds. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. (2) their thinness. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. papillosed epidermis of petals. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. frequently. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. S /(E + S).e. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. however. the calyx made of sepals. red rose and marigold of petals only. elder flowers of petals and stamens. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. Among common drugs. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. In the great majority of plants. argel leaf. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. epicarp. 7. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). the ovary wall develops to form a case. There are. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. and often a raphe. leaves may be recognized. i. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . two features that are constant. fibrous layer of anthers. (Fig. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. and endocarp. if there is no stalk. in addition. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. Achillea millefolium L.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes.. viz. 4. thus forming a fruit. mesocarp.. 5. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. 5) is an example of the flower. red poppy. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. (3) the presence of chlorophyll. styles. called the pericarp. which are a useful identification tool. Flowers: In a commercial sense. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. 6). micropyle. 6.
QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig. 4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Bael. a. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. leaves. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. However. Tamarind. 5 Achillea millefolium L. Colocynth b. Cardamon ii. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. 8. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. flowers and fruits. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. Simple Fruits i. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Poppy. Orange. Compound Fruits Hops In general. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. Caraway (see Fig.
6 Grains of paradise seed. Aframomum melegueta Rosc.QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Family: Zingiberacaea Fig.
. however. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. For example. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. fibers. agar). knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. olive oil). by the stomatal index. expression (e.g.. 3. mountants. which are usually slender and adventitious. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. 8). beeswax and myrrh). Clearing agents. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. similarly. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. 9. Microscopical techniques. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Therefore. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. decoction (e. and sclerenchyma. Chiretta herb. or by the trichomes. or are natural secretions (e. opium). the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. such as incision (e. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. 10. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. starch. stage and eyepiece micrometers.g. 9)... vertically. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage.. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals.g.g. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. Fig.g. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. branches. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. namely.
QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig. 9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8 Fig.
Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. hexane. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. 3. chlorophyll. or chlorophyll. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. it rapidly dissolves starch. for bleaching. clove oil. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. resins. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. and expands shrunken cells. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. etc. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. and petroleum ether (pet ether). starch. volatile oils. absorbance values should be used. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. chromic/nitric is mandatory. and causes swelling of cell walls. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. Other solvents include methanol. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. tannins. ether.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. fats. water. carbolic acid. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. protein. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. Sometimes. and resins. alcohol. lactophenol. the presence of coloring matters. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection.
QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. Then press under anhydrous conditions. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. If the substance is in a solid state. depending on solvent and pH. unless one has an FTIR. In addition. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. This will give you a transparent disk. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). It can also be used to quantitate.
or plastic sheets are also commercially available. 2860 (M). 2100–1700 (W). it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. etc. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. 3400 (M).. 3600–2400 (broad). It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). 3. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. and (4) it is inexpensive. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. Valerian. 1600. strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained.) When development is complete. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lavender. then the filter paper can be eliminated. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). S = strong. as one gains experience. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. 3400–2500 (broad M). 3. one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance.7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents.g. In addition. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. sulfuric acid). and powder microscopy are also performed. ash content histology.g. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. odor. Precoated absorbents on glass plates. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. 1455 (S). Chamomile. 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). organic solvents (usually methanol). Other tests like loss on drying. M = medium.. Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. 3400-3100 (variable). VS = very strong. aluminum.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. 1760 (S). 1500..
hence.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. natural product. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes.5: 8. antimony chloride UV. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent.
it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. together with UV and IR spectra. This system. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. data acquisition.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. For plant volatiles and essential oils. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased.g. or chromatographic (GLC. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. HPCL. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. From these spectra. TLC. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. a separation technique. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. such as rice hulls or spent herb. information-rich electron ionization spectra. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized.” However. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software.) procedures in order to establish its strength. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. give excellent fingerprints for identification. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. and cosmetic industries. If there is a diluent added. After extraction of the plant material. photodiode array detector. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. pharmaceutical. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System.. However. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. with expected growth well into the next generation. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . As with the raw materials. With library search software. it will show up by having less soluble solids. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. spent herb). The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). System control. 3. In phytochemistry. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. spectrometric. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. the use of the GC will continue to grow. etc. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. rice hulls. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric.
This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass. photodiode array detector. Ltd.QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System.
powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. the adulterant can be any kind of material. Instrument control. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. the color and general texture are more important. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. etc. such as ergot. 3. Hence. coffee. for example. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. in the case of powdered drugs. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. honey. nutmeg.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. beeswax. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. African. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. or Provence senna. or Cochin. 2. Obovate. data acquisition. for example.
mobile phase.0 M NaC1 gradient. 1. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin. detection.1) flow rate. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.5 ml/min.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. 220–223°C. 5% DC560. 0. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4.9 mm 30 cm). 1. 1. acetonitrile-water (83:17). spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. mobile phase.5 mm i. xylose. mobile phase. 13-OH sparteine. galactose. 1 ml/min. Rf 0. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection.46. mobile phase. panaxadiol. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. 2 ml/min. mobile phase. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7.. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. UV 202 nm. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. 2. 50°C. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). detection.9 mm x 30 cm). mobile phase.0–1.0 ml/min. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 0. mobile phase. panaxatriol.4x. flow rate. 15 psi argon. lupanine. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray.6 mm i.6 50 cm): mobile phase. sparteine. 0. flow rate. then 1. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm. cytisine Anagyrine. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. UV 202 nm. acetonitrile-water (84:16). baptifoline.5 ml/min. rhamnos Ginsenosides. genistein Calenduladiol.0 ml/min.1 ml/min. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids.d. or 3% SE-30. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. 15 cm). flow rate.d. 0. UV detection (homogencity test).5:0. distilled water. thermopsine.2. flow rate.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica.d. detection.5.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2. mobile phase. flow rate.9 mm 30 cm). 3. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i.2 M Pi buffer pH 7. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60.5 ml/min.8 ml/min for 7 min. CH3CN-H2O (73:27). 2. HPLC: Zorbax CN. UV 320 nm detection. 25 mm). acetonitrile-water (83:17). luteolin.. detection. 190 nm flow rate.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. flow rate. followed by 0./65 cm). R1. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10).
HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18.4 cm i. apigenin. hydrastine Rf 0. mobile phase. hydrastine Rf 0. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. UV 340 nm. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. mobile phase. UV 270 nm.d. phase B: ethyl acetate. 1 ml/min. detection. 6 ml/min. UV 340 nm.. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4).5. flow rate. methanol-water (15% to 95%. detection. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase.9 i. flow rate. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. 2. phase A: water. 2 liters phase B and C.5 ml/min. introduce sample. 2 ml/min. flow rate.d. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1.d. detection. Rf 0.5cm). w/guard. vanillin in H2SO4. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. canadaline. Start w/ 350 ml phase A.05. 75°C.9. 0. methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. vanillin in H2SO4.7 & 5. berberine. 66 m capacity 350 ml). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. flow rate.0 ml/min. begin rotation. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5).1 M phorphoric acid. canadine. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate.d. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. 2 ml/min. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2.6 mm. 4.d. UV 330 nm. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. mobile phase. 1. 0.5 ml/min. 3. Merck(. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. i. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. mobile phase.. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i. UV 365 nm. methanol-water (50:50). luteoline. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). flow rate. detection. detection UV 365 nm. increasing 3%/min).1 ml/min. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). mobile phase.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. detection. flow rate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9). 25 cm at 75°C). acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). detection. mobile phase. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). detection UV 278 nm. flow rate.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5.0mm i.5 ml/min. 30 cm). isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85).. 25 cm).5-methanol (67:33). mobile phase. detection. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages).
5 ml/min. temp. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector.d.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). mobile phase.d. detection.6 mm i. genistein. flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. UV 280 nm.. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min).d. flow rate. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5..25m 3 mm). flow rate. mobile phase.5 ml/min. 25 cm). methanol-water (27:73). mobile phase. mobile phase. caproic acid.QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. formononetin. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2. acetonitrile-water (gradient).d. detection. flow rate. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. detection.6 mm i. flow rate. R1. mobile phase. flow rate 0. UV 280 & 546 nm. UV 313 nm. flow rate. mobile phase.0 ml/min. mobile phase. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. 25 mm). gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide.5 ml/min. detection. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. UV 270 nm. 300 mm). detection. flow rate. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7.9 mm 30cm). detection.8 ml/min. 1. prunitrin Calycosin. mobile phase. 150 mm). Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin.. daidzein.5 10 cm). 4 ml/ min. capric acid Isoflavones. 2. 25 cm) 2 in series.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). water. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. 30 ml/min. photodiode array.1:1). tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient).9 mm i. biochanin-A. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid. detection.5. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 30 cm).d.. analysis Column (3. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658).0) mm i. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). detection.3 ml/min. 1. detection.1. 0. 50% H2SO4. detection. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. UV 280 nm. mobile phase. 2. flow rate. methanol-water (2.0 ml/min.d. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0.. mobile phase. mobile phase. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid.0 ml/min. mobile phase. 1. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. UV 230 nm. helium flow. caprylic acid.
ethanol-water gradient containing 0. Substitution of exhausted drugs. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3.8% methanol in hexane. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. powdered olive stones. mobile phase. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. for example.5 ml/min. Sometimes. GLC: 1. 5u Chrompack). and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves.d. detection. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8). almond shells. stramonium. valerosidatum. usually having no relation to the genuine drug. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug.1 M phorphoric acid. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). 4. 2. 5. vitexinine 3. detection. coconut shells. such as lobelia. detection. dextrin. acetonitrile-0. mobile phase.9 mm 30 cm). 250 mm. hydrogen flame ionization. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vinca Sesquiterpenes. acetonitrile-0. 7.25 m 4 mm).d. detection. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. peach and apricot kernels for almonds.6mm i. flow rate. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. conc. walnut shells. vitexin. flow rate. mentha. UV 254 nm.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). flow rate 10 ml/min. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint.0 ml/min. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. detection. 2 connected in series. 2. for example. boiler scale. methanol-water (60:40). 30 cm). etc. valeranone Vincristine. or lead shot. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances.4 (1:1). 1. mobile phase. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. hazelnut shells. etc.7 ml/min. 8. acevaltrate. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. 6. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). UV 254 nm. detection. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. mobile phase. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. 0.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. mobile phase. stone. guaiacum wood.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. UV 298 nm. For example. detection. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. senna. UV 256 & 206 nm. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. or hamamelis leaves. scented bdillium for myrrh. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS.
8.g. Tincture of: Red with oils. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. palisade cells. or oil). red. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. Also epidermis. fibrous layer of the anther wall. Structures absent: Cork. and medullary rays. pericyclic and phloem fibers. which often contains starch in large amounts. fibers. calcium oxalate crystals. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. 3. vessels. sieve tubes. papillose surface of the stigma. starch grains. pine and juniper). 6. 2.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. usually abundant parenchyma. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. in powder. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. Nut shells and fruit stones. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. palisade tissue. however. Frequently also cork. etc. which often cross the fibers and vessels. consisting of small-sized elements only. protective glasses. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma.. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains.. stone cells. 10. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. starch. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems.. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. masks. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. A little vascular tissue. gloves. resins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Microscopical examination. wood parenchyma. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. 9. 4. Keep for 6 months. especially the diagnostic epidermis. cellulose parenchyma. hemicellulose. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. and aleurone grains. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. 5. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. tracheids.g. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. Mucilage of: Alkanna. The powder is usually entirely lignified. 7.) Acacia.g. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. Frequently also trichomes. glands. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. and crystals of calcium oxalate. Dilution better done on the slide. Frequently also delicate yellow. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. fibers. frequently particles of small seeds. xylem vessels. cutinized and suberized walls. palisade cells. and aleurone grains.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1.
30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. etc. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. To be freshly prepared. To be freshly prepared. Store in amber bottle. Benzidine. etc.5 ml D. Deteriorates on keeping. The reaction is better carried out in the dark. To be freshly prepared. if necessary. filtered. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. protective glasses.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). Chlorophyll. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. cellulose. and some mucilages. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. suberin.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. through glass wool. Add 7.880). To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water. gloves.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min.I. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. H2O. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. 0. with continued stirring. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching.I. etc. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D.0 g sodium iodide and 2.I. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. starch. left for some time. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. H2O with the aid of heat. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. gr. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. ligno. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. killed by steam. masks.
5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids. H2O prior to use. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals. filtered.I. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. protective glasses. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting.75 g lead monoxide.27 g iodine and 0. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. gives yellow with colchicine. added to a solution of 2. 40 g glycerin. 20 g lactic acid.g. masks. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. dextrose). H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water. Set aside until clear. e. and 20 ml water.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. 1.64 g copper sulfate and 0. etc. and then diluted to 100 ml with water. note the coloration and read off from the table.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. Solution A: 34. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. 1.g. the strong solution will dissolve silk. Dilute: Used for mounting.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water. 1. in powder. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml. gloves. 1.. on the label. Indicator. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. the corresponding approximate pH. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use.I. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water..
dissolving certain cell contents. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. 1% solution in water. Caustic: Used for clearing. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. 5 ml of glycerin added. and 80% by volume. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. masks. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. protective glasses. and cutin blue. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). 10. lignin.4% alcoholic solution. in small pieces.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. 10% alcoholic solution.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. with a dropper or a glass rod. Store away from light. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. Potash. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. It must be recently prepared. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. and then diluted with equal volume of water. Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. suberin. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 0. stains lignified walls red. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. gloves.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. 66.
P.F. 4x.01 = 2x 0. of various dilutions: 1:1.E.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. Contains no alcohol. 5x. 60–90%. Same as a solid extract (S.3BG GLY 4. etc. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing. E. but the solvent is 1.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength.G. AQU P.E.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0. Properties Usually high in alcohol.M. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1. Serial type dilution and succussion. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application.1. H. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices.3BG. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. etc. 0.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. but the solvent is glycerin. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. An extract in P. Same as P. usually contains alcohol (20–60%).G.4 Preparations 4. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Full strength 1:1. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form. F. A molasses consistency. OLEUM N. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting.E. 3x. 5:1.G. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. P.G. 1. Same as P. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract.E. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate.
distillation. by traction. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. the product will not percolate. or. gauze. the solution commonly known as lye. or alcohol and water.). treatment with a solvent. If packed too tightly. if packed too loosely. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. 4. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. cover the percolator. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh.1. contained in a suitable vessel. The packing of the percolator is very important. giving a weak extract (see diagram). This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. the menstruum will channel. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. In pharmacy.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . by which it is exhausted of potash. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. acetone. expression. the botanical is considered exhausted.. When no more actives remain. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical..g. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. ether. or by chemical or physical means. usually 48 hours. cotton) below. etc. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. etc. and macerate for the prescribed time. having a bottom outlet. water. close the lower orifice. suction. also referred to as the spent herb. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation).
3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. 4. and filter. mix thoroughly.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. such as twigs. barks. etc. preferably distilled.1. placed over it. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. These are usually the hard substances. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). Allow it to cool. roots.
Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. preferably distilled. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. In order to prepare an infusion. Under refrigeration. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Therefore. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. cold water should be used. 4. after preparation of an infusion.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. Refrigerate or preserve. Moisten the herb in water.1. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it should be placed in a refrigerator. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Refrigerate or preserve.
I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. bacteria. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. However. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. which is very effective. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. 4. there is also CO2 sterilization. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. especially in inactivating larvae.1.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. which seems to work well. However.
Filter. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. from either fresh or dry botanicals.G. or a combination thereof. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. At present. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. need preservatives. check with the manufacturers. No vacuum concentration is used. However. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water.2).S. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. as strengths vary widely. However. Therefore. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. and usually precipitate on standing. Usual laboratory method. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. However. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. and evaporation. percolation. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. Maceration is another procedure. as they contain alcohol. and the solids are calculated.00 per pound). Additionally. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . are weaker. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. i. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q.1.1. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract.* 4. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength.. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. berberine. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. Therefore. A typical example: 5:1 P. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material.e. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. and canadine. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. Therefore. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid.
They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. which lowers shipping costs. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light.1. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. Avoid excessive heat. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes.I. 2a. The native extract is usually vacuum dried. or oven dried. Separate the excess oil. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. and contain very little water. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. need no preservation. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. to obtain a clear filtrate.I. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size.I. spray dried.I.I. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. 2. Add 1000 ml D. 4. dry solid. respectively. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. age. or other specified volatile substance D. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. filtering if necessary. and add enough D. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. or distilled water. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. and preserve or use the clear water portion. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. while hydrastine is colorless. preferably kept in a cool area.I. Their odors and tastes are similar.1. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. a sufficient quantity. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders. returning the first portions. 4. easily dispensed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. Solution: The volatile oil. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. and time of year collected.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). or distilled water. or distilled water. Then filter the mixture. if necessary. filter through wetted filter paper. and pass enough D.
these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. depending on the manufacturer. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. The true strength will vary. would be too concentrated in many instances. therefore. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. a 1:1 extract.3-butylene glycol. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. Recently. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. 10:1. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. 1. Obviously. in a true strength extract. in a cosmetic formulation.1. or roots of plants (see above). Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. bark. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. 10:1. etc. etc. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. glycerin.). is always measured on the dry basis.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts.10 Product Strength. fresh or dried. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. The starting botanical. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. butylene glycol. To avoid confusion. 4. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. etc. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents.* 4. tinctures. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations.G. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. in the United States.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. 1997.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. etc. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. This is very controversial.1. In Europe. If it was calculated from fresh weight. Concentration. etc. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. glycerin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. are often found in the cosmetic literature. However. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color.
dark in color. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. However. fixed and volatile oils. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0.15 to 0. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. Thus. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. and canadine.. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1.5 to 4. Analytical procedures (TLC. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. that is.0% hydrastine. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical.04%). and starches to be significantly reduced. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract. However. and then on valeric acid. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. canadine. the former designation is becoming the standard. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. which is approximately 20 times less costly). However.5% of essential oil. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. berberine. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. standardization can be carried to the extreme. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. This would cause the berberine. GLC.S. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. which has been standardized on valepotriates. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. resins. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. If the dried plants contain 0. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. and not soluble in most cosmetic products. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7.
However. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts.5% oil.. ether. consisting of an oil. A thick. 4.1. alcohol. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution. Therefore. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations. oily resinous mass remains. followed by evaporation of the solvent. However. or 1.g. either fixed or volatile. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. 1997.8% essential oil. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. there are usually losses during extraction. or other suitable solvent) and filtration.
scalp stimulant. digestive problems. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. aphrodisiac. Revitalizing. thereby reducing stress. tonic.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. aphrodisiac. calming anger. hair growth. digestive problems. euphoric. Carminative. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. antispasmodic. exhaustion. 5. antispasmodic. affects the adrenals. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. This is the essence of aromatherapy. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. revitalizing. This. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. poor memory.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. nervous fatigue. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. in turn. Stimulates scalp. antidepressant. Cell regeneration. cleanser. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. Anti-inflammatory.5 Aromatherapy 5. antidepressant. loneliness. mild stimulant. and perfumes. Poor memory. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. hair growth. anxiety. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. Stimulant. For example. sadness. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . aromatic waters. impotence. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. soothing. wrinkles. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. energy imbalance. euphoric. soothing. Skin elasticity. Moisturizing. mental strain. Stimulant.
uplifting during depression. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. grief. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. Fabrice. wrinkles. Valnet. anti depressant. bath oils. The Practice of Aromatherapy. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. 1982. 1984. antidepressant. Nervous tension. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Aging skin. Daniel Company. Saffron. vaporizers. shock. lotions. 1976.W. Ryman. anxiety. Danielle. If the reader has further interest. inflammations. Rochester. shampoos. moisturizes. calming. Destiny Books. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. The Aromatherapy Handbook. Walden. Example: to be effective. mouth ulcers. Antidepressant. uplifting. cell proliferant. C. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. England. Aging skin. very little is needed. stimulates metabolism. VT. Essential oils are very concentrated. Jean. amara) Antidepressant. opens psychic centers. euphoric. etc. house sprays. Essex.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. Mood elevating. Therefore.
slender. which is white internally.1 HABITAT. RANGE. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. droping. long. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. lanceolate. and fawn-colored externally. The flower is single. with purplish or brownish spots. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. high. obtuse. PROPERTIES. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. perennial herb. and involute at the point. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. about 5 in. The leaves are two. pale-green.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. subradical. and 3 or 4 in. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. DESCRIPTION. liliaceous. flowers in April or May. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The scape is naked. spotted near the base. yellow. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate.
long. hooked bristles.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. producing numerous heads. The whole herb and root contains. et al. and tapering. pyrocatechol. Pub. and three-valved. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles.. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. conical.. harsh. 2. Am.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. J. It is much branched at the summit. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. Heinz. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. diuretic. with a loose membranous tip. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. and borne in a dense. and covered with a soft. The leaves are alternate. Cavalitto. de Gruyter. racemose spike. The root is long. filaments flat. 1975. W. three-lobed at top. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. mild tonic. functional bleeding. Agrimonia has a bitterish. The capsule is oblongobovate. Ovary obovate. and surmounted with reddish. terminating in three undivided stigmas. and hematuria. nearly smooth beneath. 1. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . subastringent taste. silky pubescence. agrimonolide. 1946. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. fibrous. Drogenkunde. 68. Berlin. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. agrimonol (= agrimonine).six. Its odor is aromatic. antiscrofulous. Hoppe. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. pyrogallic acid. which is somewhat aromatic. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. 8th ed. from to 1 foot long. Properties Emollient. and phlobaphene. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. interruptedly pinnate. and anti-inflammatory. epistaxis.1. style club-shaped. yellow. A. 2332. and of reddish-brown color. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. flowering in July and August. No further analytical data available. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. but unpleasant. anthers oblong-linear. longer than the stamens. Chem. Soc. in hedges and fields and by ditches.. coarsely serrated leaflets. This taste is strongest in the root.
choline. and also to help relieve dandruff. glutinous. ursolic acid. 1994. gum. usually abrupt at the tip. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. 29(2). 1964. as do other types of face packs. and polysaccharides. United States. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. et al. Europe. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. 7-0-B-glucoside. this should only be done once a week. catechin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. 190-193. fruiting tops. Peter-Horvath. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. Alder also helps to unclog pores. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. quercitrin. tonic. However.. organic acids. 2. southwest Asia. 10(2). after which a good face cream should be applied... alterative. Med. 1. triterpenes. wavy-serrated. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. glycosides. phytosterin. Patrascu. which are roundish. Rev. Ser. The bark is dark gray and ridged. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. volatile oil. 153-157. apigenin. nicotinic acid. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. eupatorin. and minerals.. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. flavonoids. et al. M. wedge shaped. Constituents Tannins. citric acid and silicic acid. luteolin.. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. V. Dermato-Vernol.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin.
50% (5 grams. Further reading is recommended. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. The odor is strongly aromatic. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. a mild exfoliant in oils. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. creams. and tannin. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. Properties Used in facial steams.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. bath gels. and Barbados Islands. ALOE Aloe vera L. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. lotions. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. The fracture is conchoidal. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. this has not been verified. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. hair rinses.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. calcium and trace minerals. and is employed in skin creams. cuts. and burns. insect bites. etc. oils. etc. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . West Indies. irritated skin. The surface is dull and smooth. sun poisoning. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. which would suggest its use in baths. hair treatments. carotene. The size of the pieces is variable. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. lotions. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. Aloe contains 99. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). etc. boron. The texture is waxy. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. Alfalfa is also high in minerals. chrysophanic acid. saponin. scratches. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. To date. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular.
The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. Constituents Malic acid. It contains malic acid. Macintosh. Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. Rome. glucomanine. Delicious. sugars. and pectin. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. Granny.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides.
Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. wax. long. ⁿ in. and polyps. soft durable wood. Cones oblong. flavonoids. shoddy bark and light. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. having pale. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. and mucilage. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. tannins. Wolf’s Bane. containing thujone. both internally and externally. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. in height. moles. ARNICA Arnica montana L. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant.
kaempferol. the involucre dilated and imbricate. inflamed insect bite. Sesquiterpene lactones. ray flowers yellow. and essential oil. In mouthwashes. pistillate. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and undivided leaves. pectolin arigenin). edema. dark green and pubescent. and the cypsella not beaked. stamens without a tail-like appendage. malic). the receptacle setaceous. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. 5 to 7 mm long. The heads are discoid and homogamous. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. with subspinose. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. lauric.to 12-veined. Has been used for hematomas. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. 7. the pappus plumose and sessile. quercetin. taste bitter and acrid. polyacetylenes. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. Topically. Arnica tincture DAB 10. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. Description This plant is perennial. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. inflammation of the oral mucosa. palmitic. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. finely striate. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. reddish yellow. leaves.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. dark brown. about 1 cm long. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. receptacle slightly convex. xanthophylls. patuletin. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. pinnate. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. fatty acids (fumaric. the scales ovate. northern Mediterranean. isorhamnetin. Odor characteristic and agreeable. the cypsella spindle-shaped. three-toothed. and surface phlebitis. stearic). Note: There can be side effects. sprains. with fleshy bases. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. emarginate and pointed. tubular flowers perfect.
artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. peroxidase. Also employed in jaundice. trace minerals. diuretic. Cosmetically. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective.. cholagogue. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. vitamins. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. bread crumbs. cynadase. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. and hypocholesterolytic. flavonoids. ascorbinase). choleretic. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. sterols. beta-carotene.e. garlic. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. protein. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ascorbic acid. Around the holidays. cynarin. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. oxydase. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. tannin.
It is a stimulating expectorant. sores. These buds are sessile. The margin has projecting points of scales. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. The color is reddish brown. The base is truncate or depressed. The apex is acute. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. and various skin diseases. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. Has been used on blemishes. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. balm buds Part Used: Buds. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. or in threes occasionally. The taste is pungent and bitter. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cuts. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. twigs. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. * Formerly CTFA. resinous substance. The odor is balsamic. Herbalists use it for treating colds. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate.
North America. Description Cylindrical. pith of rhizome small. tannic and gallic acids. 5-0-methylgalangin. chrysin and apigenin. True Bay. izalpinin. Internally used to treat liver disorders. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. has been used for indolent ulcers. usually splitting somewhat on drying. wood yellow. berbamine. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). magnoflorine. sometimes excentric. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. gallstones. populin. fracture hard and tough. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. and showing rings of growth. acetophenone. tinges saliva yellow. pinocembrin. Bactericidal.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. Berberine. rhamnetin. on chewing. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. volatile oil. Grecian Laurel. strongly branched. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. circulatory stimulant. Odor slight. knotty. bark 1 mm in thickness. salicin. and the Middle East. Flavonoids. Properties Astringent.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. bervulcine. oxyacanthine. volatile oil. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. taste distinctive. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. easily separable into layers. color more pronounced upon wetting. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3. externally light yellowish brown. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. Europe. very bitter. jateorrhizine. distinctly radiate. galangin.
BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. due to its high tannin content. summit obtuse. linalool. Treating small areas works best. ursolic acid. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. and detergents.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. perfumes. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. base acute. hydroquinone derivatives. Spr. syringic and p-coumaric acids. alkaloids. spatulate. pale yellow flowers. along with methyl arbutin. margin entire. astringent. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. undersurface yellowish-green. 12 to 30 mm in length. and glossy aromatic foliage. -pinene. shiny black berries. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. petiole about 3 mm in length. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. -terpineol. slightly revolute. tapering. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . finely reticulate. glabrous. covered. and volatile oil. phenolcarboxylic acids. The leaf also contains germacranolides. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. However. texture coriaceous. slightly pubescent. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. and plant acids. odor slight. upper surface dark green. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. soaps. quercetin. taste slightly bitter. hyperoside. Uvaursi is astringent. Northern and Central Europe. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. Constituents 0. -terpineol acetate.3 to 3. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. gallic and ellagic acids. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. Description Leaves obovate. brittle. catechins.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). Asia. lotions. and others. cooled and placed in a baby bottle.
...... *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries... softening. Mirkin. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive.. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry.. only slightly paler beneath.. Description Dwarf shrub... Properties Astringent for eyecare products.... The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L. and Asia.0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels. 20 to 50 cm high.. eruptions. and to replace retina purple. enzymes.. California. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva.... restrains infection. corolla ovoid-lanceolate.. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees.... sores. Properties Restoring... 1854. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter.. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein. about 5 mm long. Europe. sores. scabs. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx.. JAMA. reduces inflammation. dissolving.. boils.. antiseptic. tonic.. 262. and abscesses... Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits.. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW.. minerals. and ulcers. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive. Wyoming.. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees.... 55% carbohydrate.. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins. 4 mm wide. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen. anti-inflammatory.. ovate... reducing visual eye fatigue. leaf-blades thin.. promotes tissue repair.. leaves Habitat and Range Woods. 9.1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins.. Michigan..... 3 to 5 cm long.. This is taken up in a collection vessel.1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. G. 1989. 1 to 2% fat. 1. and other compounds identified in bee pollen. wounds.62 BED STRAW... Whortleberry.. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus. amino acids.. Good for skin ulcers. clears toxins. British Columbia.
Rattleweed. quinic acid. Bugbane. methyl salicylate. gaultherin. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. BANZ No. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. naturalized in northern North America. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). myrtillin. fatty acids. anthocyanosides. Rattleroot. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. saponins. betulol. 76. Bugwort. Europe. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. psoriasis. BIRCH Betula alba L. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. essential oil. 1. (trace amount) asperuloside. arbutin. Squaw Root. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne.. ursolic acid. 1988. and eczema. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. 4-23-87. German Commission E Monograph. leaves. peonidin glucosides. North Asia. apigenin dimethyl ether. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. New York. White Birch. R. Mabey. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. New Age Herbalist.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . betuloresnic acid. Properties The bark.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. 1. parts of Arctic Siberia. Macmillan.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. ascorbic acid. betuloside. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate.
frequently. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. resins.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. bark thin. or less frequently by fibrous strands. somewhat branched. fracture short. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. dyspepsia. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. externally dark brown.5 cm in thickness. mainly formononetin. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. by deep cup-shaped scars. externally dark brown. and rheumatism. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bark dark brown. Rhizome horizontal. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. particularly depression and hot flushes. and sugar. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. tannins. starch. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. internally. longitudinally wrinkled. taste bitter and acrid. It possesses estrogenic activity. fracture horny. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. each of which shows a radiate structure. fatty acids. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. up to 3 mm thick.
It is an astringent. leaflets 11 to 23. Texas. Constituents Juglone. glabrous above. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. anthelmintic. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). and trace minerals. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). fixed and volatile oils.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. fruit globose. 5 to 8 cm long. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. lanceolate. serrate. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. glabrous. Florida. Massachusetts. tannins. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. rounded or subcordate at the base. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. Description A tree up to 50 m high. and Minnesota. with thick ridges. taper-pointed at the apex. bark. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). 8 to 10 cm long. juglandic acid. and detergent.
as a wash for psoriasis. fucans). Frequently. massage for cellulite. reproductive tissues. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. myxoedema. and bruises. The texture is cartilaginous.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). steryl glucosides. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. The color varies from brown to black. slimming activity. sprains. Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. trace minerals (mainly iodine). Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). The thallus is dichotomously branched. probably due to its iodine content. a prominent midrib. cellutitis. It can be added to hair and skin care products. rheumatism. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. The odor is slight.
.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L.. usually blue. frequently split or in broken pieces.. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe... Bugloss. tannins. rhizomes. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L. Gobo Part Used: Roots. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock.. of variable length. sparingly naturalized in the United States. It is easily grown from seed. flowers... elliptical leaves wrinkled. simple or branched. the lower ones on short petioles. about 2 cm in diameter. rough.. Description An annual robust plant... skin cleansing and lightening. Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage. Borage has a cucumber-like odor. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown.. the crown somewhat annulate. hollow stem. covered with bristly hairs.. Description The root is fusiform. fracture somewhat horny. externally grayish brown. European Burdock.. five pointed corolla. Constituents Vitamin C. leaf. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. longitudinally wrinkled. up to 60 cm high.. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids.. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sessile. on long stalks. and minerals. mainly cultivated for commercial use. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. flowers from June through September.. saponins. the upper leaves. calyx of five sepals.. sometimes white.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF.. mostly in the Eastern States. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage....
Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. taste is mucilaginous. in cases of acne. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . abrasions. It is also used in hair conditioners. shampoos. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. pith-like tissue. fat. inulin. psoriasis. including buxine and buxozine C. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. sterols. and oil. fatty acids. and slightly bitter. eczema. becoming pyroligneous on milling. centrally hollow or containing a white. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. arctinal etc. scaly skin. licorice. acid soils. yellow-green flowers in spring. arctinol. Arctinone. and baths. volatile oils. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. It has been combined with comfrey. cutaneous eruption. gels. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. lignin. Odor slight. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. anorexia nervosa. sweetish. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. cystitis. tannins. and can be used in facial steams. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. lotions. creams. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. North America. fukinanolid. polyalkenes.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. gout. berries with black seeds..
The extract has been used with success. scale-like. mucilage. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. Fruit. chrysophanic acid. Leaves. for the treatment of varicose veins. saponin. dry hills. Properties Increases circulation. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. bushy places. Europe. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. 1 cm. dark green shrub with thick. a globular red berry ca. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. ca. oval rigid. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. ruscoside. Flowers greenish. sudorific. borne on green. inhibits inflammation. diuretic. papery ca. 3 mm across.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. 5 mm. Emmenagogue. 2 cm long. Description A dense. ribbed. rutin.
dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper.. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material. kaempferol. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length. herby odor. isorhamnetin-glucoside. It has a strong. Mombassa....... Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America... luteolin. Description In pieces of varying length. and beta-sitosterol.... healing for sensitive skin. penduletin. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments..5 to 4 cm in diameter... Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA...... and from 5 to 9 angled. See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L.... or Sierra Leone Pepper. Constituents Flavonoids. taste acidulous and mucilaginous. piscidic-acids...... together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present......C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear. CALENDULA. quercitrin.... rutin. Mexican.. from 1.
red. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. yellow. and greenish-red. yellow.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. The seeds are compressed and pointed. and brown. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. or is free from these. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The Mexican variety is deep red. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. The fruits vary greatly in size. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. Capsicum is a berry. The apex is acuminate or acute. The odor is aromatic. the Nyassaland variety is red. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. the African variety is yellowish-brown. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. The taste is pungent and warming. The epicarp is thin and tough. gray.
colocynth. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. rubefacient used for neuralgia. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. is obtained by steam distillation.4%. fatty acids. branched. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. carotene capsanthin. jaborandi. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. lotions. detergents. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. CARROT Daucus carota L. etc. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. and vitamins A and C. daucol. geraniol. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. and others. flavonoids. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. hairy stem. naturalized in North America. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. segmented. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. Sacred Bark. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. and North America.29%). CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. -pinene. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. Chittem Bark. Bitter Bark. Buckthorn. It has a long tap root. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . geranyl acetate. counter-irritant. rheumatic pains. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. Asia. and perfumes up to 0. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. After. creams. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. keeping it smooth and soft. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. antiseptic. Bear Wood. leaves.
Two aloins. Trease. Z.. B and C (see “Rhubarb”).5 to 5 mm thick. and emodin in the free state.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. and Evans. Teil B. B. in Pharmacognosy. London. W. It gives red color with ammonia TS. 12th ed. and chrysophanol. R = H. curved pieces or quills of variable length. Publ. bryophytes. chrysophanol. Bailliere Tindall. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. 4. G. R = OH. R = H. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. 1974. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels.. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. Wagner et al. 1983. C. emodin oxanthrone. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. 3. Teil C. odor distinct. 2. including those of emodin. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. 1. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). they contain both O. Naturforsch. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. 444. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. D = 10 . and D. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. E. aloe-emodin. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. Aloe-emodin. 1974. It is frequently covered with lichen. The bark occurs in flattened. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. Various diathrones. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. In small doses. 1. C. C = 10B.and C-glycosidic linkages. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. See formula. It is much used as a laxative.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. Description The tree is 4. B = 10 R = OH. it acts as stomach ache treatment. 5. 267. 2.
up to 4 mm in diameter.. downy. camphor.... stems quadrangular. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed... Constituents Essential oil. nepetalic acid.. pungent.. calyx hairy. in dense. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . citronellal. nepetol rosemarinic acid.. pointed at the apex. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling. margin deeply crenate.... Description Top... the middle lobe largest. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A.. from 10 to 20 cm long. downy beneath. lower pair shorter. tubular. the larger.. from 2 to 7 cm long. dotted with purple.... bract-like. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties. throat dilated.. carvacol.. corolla whitish. flowers small.. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders... softhairy above.. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect. the lower spreading and three-cleft.CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. petiolate.. nepetalactone. rounded or ear-shaped at the base. Br.. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache... thymol). puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen.. much branched.. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed... ovate or oblong. naturalized in North America. limb bilabiate. nepetariaside. floral leaves small.. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip. (geraniol.. or crushed and broken. taste bitter. the upper lip erect and two-cleft. leaves opposite... methyl-nepetalactone... *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe. and aromatic. interrupted spikes.. crenulate. pale gray-green. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. CENTELLA. Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like.
Patent 5. 4. Wright. wounds. and Mirhom. Phillipson. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. isoamyl caproate (1. venation pinate reticulate. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. 8(7). and sternutatory. Chem. 1973. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. triterpenes. 5.6 to 1 cm broad. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. C. simple. Wu. Y. J. Pharm. caryophyllane-2. Res. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. internodes short. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide.W.98%). 1. 1997. Yang. G. 2. beta-gurjunene.. florilenalin-angelate.1 In Chinese traditional medicine. 39(12). July 26–30. 22 g. The plant also contains diterpenes. and D. 6. asthma. green. the plant has been used to treat colds.23%). 8. 97. 1992. Bull. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex.7. 40(5). 54. Stem 0. 436.804. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1.B. Phytotherapy Res. A. 6. Y. 7. H. F.. H. D’Amelio. Lin. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. and Mirhom. apex acute. T.3 to 0. Y. Cai. Aust. plenolin derivatives. Mutat. Pharm. Abstr. brevilin A. cylindrical.W. Kriby. 1196. florilenslin derivatives.6-beta-oside. 204(2). and amoebiasis..L. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. diarrhea.C. and rheumatism. UIO. Iwakami..I. and C. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. Yang. Y. 1991. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. sessile. skin infections. margin dentate. alternate. longitudinally striated. S. and U. and alpha-humulene. helenalin. 1994. Y. 1988. Bull.85%). the apical cell being elongated filamentous. D’Amelio. U. Microbiol.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. and flavonoids. Lin. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells.206. J.. Sept. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13.B.. green.5%). Chin J. F.C.S. and U. Ebizuka. Y. nasal allergies. myrtenol (5.97%).S..A. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Leaves. 894. S. Sankawa. aromatic.W. Sankawa.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant. Chem. arnicolides.Y. 1998. Lee and J.50%). Y.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic.C. Warhurst. thymol (1.. 1973–1974.5 cm in diameter. Chun. 3.T.D. Compositous glandular hairs are also present. oblong. malaria. 3272. Ebizuka.3 antiprotozoal. Wu.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes. J. W. Campbell. Odor characteristic.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. Pharm. J. Hu.18%). Yang.
Odor pleasant. bisabolene. ray-florets from 10 to 20. and pubescent scales. involucre hemispherical. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. and without a pappus. pistillate. pappus none.to 5-ribbed. New York southward. For further reading. creams. three-toothed and four-veined. apigenins. calendula. chlorogenic acid. Constituents Essential oil. naturalized in the United States. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. or only a slight membraneous crown. perfect. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains.5 cm. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. oblanceolate. borneol. Chamomile contains azulene. usually reflexed. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. disk-florets tubular. hollow receptacles. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. aromatic. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. matricarin. and mullein in shampoo rinses. farnesol. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. taste aromatic and bitter. peduncles light green to brownish-green. see the bibliography at the end of the book. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. chamazulene. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . furfural. healing tonic.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. corolla white. anti-inflammatory. lotions. longitudinally furrowed. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. alpha-bisabolol. It is a carminative. well over one hundred compounds.
Description A resinous. long. Properties Good for softening.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. restoring. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. 3/8 in. Yellow flowers have five petals. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. and stimulating the skin. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. The flowers normally occur in January through May. Also used on skin rashes and infections. It is native to the southwestern United States..D. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid.A. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. Gobonadorra Greasewood. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. The leaves grow in opposite pairs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs.G. Chaparral is a source of N.
and unpeeled.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark.A. The fracture is weak. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. is brownish-black. tannins. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. sedating.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. Properties Soothing. phenolic acids. bitteralmond-like when moistened. 1. p. astringent. and uneven. a powerful antioxidant. However. camphor. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin.). partially peeled. Merck Index. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. 747. 8th ed. The outer surface. it is finely striated and fissured. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Aspartic acid. if unpeeled. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. quercetin). granular and slightly fibrous.G. this has not been thoroughly investigated. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. The odor is aromatic.CHERRY BARK.D. brittle. 5 cm in width. will add body to hair. which can be peeled. gossypetin. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. CHERRY BARK. and 4 mm in thickness. south to Florida and Texas. The taste is astringent and pungent..
with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. small. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. swelling. on slender. carboxylic acids. vulnerary. flowers white. rooting at the nodes. white bird’s eye. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. satin flower. lotions. Properties Antipruritic. high. creeping or ascending. the lower petioled. small capsule. leaves ovate. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. For inflammed eyes. and facial steams. Can be used in creams. gamma-linolenic acid. opposite. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. fatty acids and minerals. axillary stalks and in terminal. stems slender. acute. entire. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. with a line of hairs along one side. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. emollient. fruit a many-seeded. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. annual. baths. psoriasis. leafy cymes. coumarins. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. All Europe. long. 1⁄6 to 1 in.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. the uppermost sessile. Description A weak. saponins. redness of face erysipelas. triterpene gyycosides. rutin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tocopherols. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles.1 mucilage. indolent ulcers.
. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard.. inattentativeness.. June to August. behenic acid.. Duke. spreading. clematine. feather fruit clusters. hedges. stalked leaflets. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L. each with long styles with dense.. antiscrofulous properties.. 2nd ed. petals spreading.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng. thickets. Steven Foster.CLOVES 81 1. Caryophyllum. most of Europe. 1992. Constituents Caffeic acid..... A/B. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters. and inflammation. Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants.. indifference. et Herr... Description A robust. 1996..See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L..... melissic acid.. in lax terminal and axillary clusters. white hairs... Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches. Leung.. sores. and conspicuous. Boca Raton.... New York...... Flowers 2 cm.. each 3 to 10 cm.) Bull... rubefacient.. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. Carophyllus aromaticus L. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands. chlorogenic acid. vitalbiosides.. CINCHONA. said to have antibiotic properties. FL. sterols... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval.... In 1770... mental escape from reality. CRC Press. Fruit with numerous carpels. John Wiley & Sons. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy). J. it is used for dementia. grey... woody. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. densely hairy on both sides. Y.. fragrant. protein. 2.
vitamins. and has carminative properties. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. Williams & Wilkins. crowded. Nepal... hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. carbohydrates. ovary twolocular.5 mm in length. E. taste pungent and aromatic. Sri Lanka. odor strongly aromatic. lipids. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. where it is widely cultivated. style 1. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. J. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. protein.. with numerous ovules. flavonoids. Burma. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. It lowers blood pressure. and somewhat four-angled. antispasmodic. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. which alternate with the calyx teeth. Speedie. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. and incurved. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. Robbers. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. followed by a slight numbness.E. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and others. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. 1. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. stamens numerous. It is native to India. the odor is agreeable and refreshing.K. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. The buds also contain sterols. glandular-punctate petals. afterwards very pungent. dark brown. and Thailand. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. J. and Tyler.
mucilage. river gravels. flavonoids. minerals. ground. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth. screens. glabrous above. faintly herbaceous. 1998. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. 83. All Europe. palmately 5. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. and smoked like tobacco. Personal communication. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. deeply cordate at the base. Chevallier. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. Properties Emollient. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. tussilagone and essential oil. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. tussillagine. banks. The younger leaves densely white. 3. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. Description Petiole long. it is said to help relieve asthma. When the leaves are dried.to 9-nerved. taste mucilaginous. R. carotenoids. Constituents Tannins. terpene alcohols. Kronenthal. bitter. senkirkine.. Odor indistinct. pubescent..COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. A. landslides. blade very brittle. London. slightly wrinkled. 1996.L. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. floccose beneath.
hair rinses.) Comfrey is also an astringent. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva.. B-sitosterol amino cids. alkaloids.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. Description The lower. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers.7%). Phytotherapy Res. and lithospermic acids. Healing Herb. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. It is almost inodorous. Capassa F. 1987. Knitbone Part Used: Root. 944. fractures. very hairy. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. cone flower.. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. I.. Bruiswort. shampoos.2–4. aloe. Autoreg. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. long. up to 10 in. caffeic. salves. Most of Europe. chlorogenic. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. Menghini A. lotions. The powder is green in color. and Fasulo M. watersides. anti-inflammatory. Fillipendula. and demulcent. on wounds. and has a mucilaginous. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). marshes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation.P.. antihemorrhagic. althea. ointments. feebly astringent taste.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. Blackwort. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. radical leaves are very large. douches. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1.. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. Comfrey can be used in creams. phenolics. 1. a very powerful cell proliferent. asparagine (1–3%). Mascolo N.
0 30.84 4.40 0.99 1.59 2.92 0.10 0.11 25. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.65 0.18 2. energy therms cwt Prod.10 19600 10 6 28 0. Nutrients Calc. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.208 100.2 0.111 1.0 5.19 5.19 0.29 44.8 44. for cattle Maint.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.86 49.1 Dry matter 30.285 0.7 7.72 1.93 0.456 0.61 0.59 0.07 100.0 0.93 0.00 57 34 34 1.7 0.92 0.20 0.51 4.05 0.037 17.176 0.30 1. Dig.795 0.8 213.74 0.8 2. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.73 28. A equiv.142 0.50 1101100.79 275.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.01 14.0 3.480 0.01 24.600 0.89 0.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .14 8.0 0.0 15.0 7.0 100 g 4.41 0.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.78 7.26 0. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.0 1200.085 0.14 49.624 8.47 1.7 0.58 5.
reduces inflammation and clotting. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable. and has a sweetish... Europe. creates astringency... externally wrinkled. and dark color.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L. Bruiswort...... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. feebly astringent taste. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface.. North Africa. internally creamy white. firm. CONE FLOWER.... Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped. Blackwort. Healing Comfrey Herb.. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf. horny texture.... branched.. It is almost inodorous. cultivated extensively. Good when used in burn creams.. promotes tissue repair... Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark. *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey.. occasionally dark brown in color.See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L... Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia.... woodland.. often more than 2.5 cm thick and 30 cm long.. mucilaginous.. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland. riverbanks.
straight. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. -terpinene.). two or three layers of large. undulate secondary ribs. tangentially elongated. fatty acids. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. perfumes. and flavors. etc. camphor. limonene. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. cremocarp nearly globular. flavonoids (quertcetin. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. deodorants. The essential oil is used in massage oils. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. coumaric. chlorogenic. toothpaste. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. Properties Has been used in body lotions. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. geraniol and geranyl acetate. eliptical oil ducts. tannin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. mericarps easily separated. rutin). each mericarp with five prominent. ferulic). intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. p-cymene. phenolic acids (caffeic. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. toilet waters and after shaves. endocarp of large tabular cells. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. frequently with numerous large.
Description Annual. marginal corollas funnelform. or as a compress for tired eyes. and various skin complaints. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. Virginia. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. ascending branches. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. it is soothing and emollient. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. stem 3 to 7 dm high. more or less floccose. California. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. conjunctivitis. floccose. bracts greenish-yellow. blue. involucres round-ureolate. For aging skin. scrapes. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . about 15 mm high. heads long-peduncled. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. Quebec. with slender. British Columbia. varying to rose or white. native of Europe.
and 0. palmitic acid. proline. stigmasterol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . purplish-red.4 mm in diameter. alanine.2 to 0. spherical nucleus.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. tocopherols. cyanidin glucoside. flavonoids (Maysin). segments very slender. cichorin. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. fixed oil. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. cultivated extensively. saponins. and temperate Asia. Topically very soothing and softening. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. stigmas bifid. potassium. CORN SILK Zea mays L. the basal trichomes 50.8 m in length. spiral or annular tracheae. the upper portion being usually unicellular. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. maizeric acid. cnicin. minerals. tannin.4 to 3 mm in length. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. vitamin C. the epidermal cells rectangular. arginine. yellow or light brown color. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. corn silk. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. protocyanin. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. polygalacturonic acids. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. Europe. protein. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. light green. frequently unequal. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. Constituents Acetanapthene. and from 0. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders.
. Properties Stimulate circulation. and spotted with orange at the throat.... and refreshing. S. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract. *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India.. Zgalinski. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties.. Constituents Saponins.. tubular yellow flowers. cucurbitacins. Wagner. yellow. wrinkled leaves. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. 1984. quercetin). Springer-Verlag. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America.. sunburn. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging)... minerals... Both the fruit and seeds are employed. and 3-gentiotrioside.... broad hairy leaves. about 1 cm in diameter... with oval.. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles. dark green fruits. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis. five-lobed........ © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. flavonoids (gossypetin.. soothing eye compress..90 CRESS. 1. in face creams. apricot-like.. Blatt. 176.... astringent.. Hydrating. Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. Description This trailing annual has rough stems.. fatty acids. Taste.. Berlin.. and cylindrical.. and E. and coughs. The flowers are tubular. amino acids..SEE WATERCRESS Description A short..... Plant Drug Analysis. sweetish. According to the German Commission Monograph E.See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L. slightly curved.. campferol dirhamnoside.. hairy perennial. enzyme (primeverase).M.. colds. cooling. H. odor. volatile oils. phenolic acids... For blotchiness of skin.. CRESS.... and for chapped skin or sunburn. phytosterol. Constituents Vitamins... p..
the acute lobes are directed toward the base. and for various skin complaints and eczema.5 cm wide. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. dark green or brown-green in color. naturalized in the United States.5 to 1. where it is a common weed. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. 0. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. Stomata are present in both epidermises. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. ending in a spherical secreting cell. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular.S. with a pronounced midrib. yellow-brown and sometimes purple.5 cm wide. approximating 90°. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. Foreign Dandelion. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. Frequent pieces of cut. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle.0 cm long and 0. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long.
92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. It is also considered a blood purifier. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. Vitamin B and C. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. as a diuretic. The white sap has been used to treat warts. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile. and is especially high in potassium. the root has been used to treat inflammation.
passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. The dried root is dark brown. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. and the eudesmanolides. surrounded by a thick. Description The root consists of a simple. vitamins and minerals. The drug. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). and sterols. and a layer of cork externally. naturalized in the United States. brownish concentric rings of sieve. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1. whitish bark in which numerous. where it is a common weed. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem.1% mucilage. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. also ca. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. it tapers but little below. with concentric rings as in the root. whitish and fleshy within. which is rather hygroscopic. glucoside. the section exhibiting a yellow. a narrow cortex. but often divides into several erect branches. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. carotenoids. flavonoids. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. It attains a length of about 30 cm. which toward the upper part. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. becomes tough when slightly moist. porous. but a bitter taste. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. and its derivative taraxacoside. and wrinkled longitudinally. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. much shriveled. straight root. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. which have not been found anywhere else. milky latex exudes. It has no odor. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. the latter sometimes remains simple.
triterpenes...94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. et al. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. Description It has a characteristic large. Planta Med. heavily concentric. polysaccharides. 1. Antiphlogistic. (oleanolic acid. 117. chlorogenic acid. hooked. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. ursolic acid) phytosterols. with some fan-shaped pieces.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside.5 cm thick. occasionally with cavities. The plant produces bright red flowers. flavonoids. light grey-brown. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Xylem radiate. bitter. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. quinones. polyphenols. 1992. 58. Odor slight. Lanhers.-C.. Fracture short. rheumatism). slightly analgesic. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. taste astringent. claw-like fruit. M. procumbide).
95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Part Used: Root. E. purpurea. Black Susans. (Nutt. E.) Nutt. Scurvy Root. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. Indian head. Moench. pallida. L.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. Black Sampson. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower.. Hedgehog Part Used: Root.
wounds. ulcers. cylindrical. or furrowed. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. bed sores. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. or poisonous insects. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. Odor faint. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. burns. slightly annulate in the upper portion. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. bites. fibrous. externally grayish-brown. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . use for snake bite. etc. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. sieve tissue in radial rows. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. For example. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. When administered orally. bark less than 1 mm thick. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. blood purification. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. aromatic.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. taste sweetish. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. or purplish-brown. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. stings. wound healing. light brown. boils.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. fracture short.
and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . TNF-X. It also increases T-cell proliferation. A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii). interleukin-1 (IL-1).3 Furthermore. this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). and Interferon-B2. indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages.ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities.
Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes.. These include aliphatic amides. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. arabinoga lactan). the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood. albicans pathogens. Present in both E. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds.4Z-diene8. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. but practically absent in E.6–2.3–1.10E)-tetraenoic acid). purpurea and E. • Polysaccharides. ferulates of tartaric. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. including an essential oil. which is useful for species identification. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. In E.. pallida.8Z. in vivo.5 Furthermore. angustifolia. angustifolia.1%).10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e.7% (except in E. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea.g. purpurea)]. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E.g. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. purpurea (0. angustifolia).and dicaffeate of tartaric acid. isobutylamide of undeca (2E.4E. pyrrolizidine alkaloids. – The mono. chlorogenic acid. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0.
G. B. M. 1989 2. Steinmueller.-L. O. Immuno Pharmacol. K. 1989. 38(2). 13(1). Albrecht. Bauer. and H. Med. J. and R. J.L. J. Arzneim-Forsch. R. M. Christiane. 669-675. Wagner. Klumpp and U. Phytochemistry. 3. H. Jurcic. N. A. Cheminat.. 81(8). Schranner. 353-364. Loesch.. Roesler..ECHINACEA 99 1. 276-281.E. Intn. Vet. 27(9). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lohmann.. H. Wuerdinger. Zawatzky. S. Becker. 1989. Luettig.. 4. 2787-2794. Ser. J.. and J. Holger.345. Cancer Inst.744. and M. C. Wagner. E. I. Ger Offen De 3. H. Zenk. Natl.H. K. Andreas. Lohmann-Matthes. Wagner. 1988. R.Matthes. J. B. Puhlmann. 36(5). (Bethesda). 27-38. 1991. 5. Brouillard. Wagner. Gifford. 1988. 6.
sterols. triterpenes (alpha. taste slightly bitter. tumors. covered with finely punctate markings. mucilage. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). stamens five. astragalin. shriveled. five-lobed. and tannins. south to Florida and Texas. inflammation. joint stiffness etc. Description Small. sambunigrin). rotate. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. slender anthers oblong. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. It is said to reduce swellings. regularly five-lobed. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. soreness.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L.023 mm in diameter. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba.and beta-amyrin). yellow. flat or slightly campanulate. calyx superior. having three pores and up to 0. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. rutin. volatile oils. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. filaments. minerals. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. ursolic acid. from 2 to 3 mm in width. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded.
woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. south to North Carolina. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. naturalized in northeastern North America. Odor aromatic.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. and separated by large intercellular spaces. central Europe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. taste acrid. bitter.) strongly lignified wood fibers. and catarrh. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. itching skin. and pungent. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. up to 13 cm in length and 1. Scabwort. frequently curved or irregularly curled. wounds. fracture short and horny. asthma. roots cylindrical and tapering. as a bactericide. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots.5 cm in diameter. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. west to Missouri. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. and rashes. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large.
triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate.102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. germacrene-D-lactose). friedelin). isolantolactone. inulin. sterols. polyacetylene. Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
essential oil. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. obtuse bracts which are white. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. high. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. Description It is an elegant little annual plant. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. either unbranched in small specimens. The leaves are sometimes almost round. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). 1 ⁄6 to in. sessile. febrifuge. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. odor characteristically aromatic. small. Europe. heads numerous. Also has slight Anodyne properties. green above. woolly beneath.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. revolute or undulate. and phytosterin. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. has a bitter and astringent taste. Astringent tonic. or with many opposite branches. long and about in. and at other times pointed and narrow. Description Stems white-woolly. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. Hemostatic. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. 2 to 8 in. woodland. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. taste bitter and aromatic. resin. heaths. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. Constituents Tannins. however. broad. The stem is erect and wiry. It is odorless. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. always deeply cut-in teeth. their margins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but sometimes tinged with brown. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem.
geniposide.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. minerals. poultices. Euphrasia contains glycosides. inflamation of the blood vessels. luproside. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. and various skin conditions. catapol. ferulic acid. Constituents Aucubin. inflammation of the eyelid. lotions or drops for eye complaints. caffeic acid. and a volatile oil. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. gallotannins. conjunctivitis. including aucubin.
105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. composed of polygonal cells. strongly lignified fibers. Description Mericarps usually separate. conical stylopod. brown walls. more or less curved. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. It is * Formerly CTFA. and two oil ducts on the ventral side.5 mm in breadth. south to Florida and Texas. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. United States. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. New Jersey. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. dorsal surface convex. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. For use in eye washes. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. making usually six oil ducts in all. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length.
in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. organic acids. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and flavonoids. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Pakistan. Nearly in the center of one of the long. Israel. they are hard. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. and limonene.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. anisaldehyde. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. yellowish-brown. the former appearing as a whitish point. especially if powdered. However. and 2 mm thick. the radicle being accumbent. translucent endosperm. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. 2 to 3 mm wide. The odor of Fenugreek. and flattened. the taste is disagreeable and oily. is strong and spicy. Soaked in water. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. horny. and Turkey. cultivated in India. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. the fruits contain a fixed oil. In addition. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. dark. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. protein. -phellandrene. In addition. including -pinene. there are methylchavicol.
dating back to the ancient Egyptians. Fenugreek contains mucilage. swollen glands. tumors. trigofoenoside A-G. mucin. A poultice has been employed for gout. fenugreakin. diosgenin. in woods. trigonelline. aspartic acid. and banks. mucilage. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. Constituents Dioscin. neurosis. hedges. damp copses. choline. and various skin irritations. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . histidine. sores. yamogenin. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. choline. Scrofula plant. glycine. flowering from July to October. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. It is also used as a galactagogue. Square stalk. glutamic acid. cystine. wounds.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines.
alkaloids and flavonoids. tuberous. adnate to the upper side. or the upper lanceolate. ovoid. The calyx is in five segments. petiolate. in length. slightly drooping. 2 to 4 ft in height. Constituents Saponins. dark purple. with paniculate. lecithin. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. cleansing. of a deep-green color. The leaves are opposite. The flowers are small. hesperetin. smooth stem. with a livid purple lip. rounded.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. obtuse. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . opposite branches above. thyrsoid panicles. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. and circulatory stimulant. and subglobose. quadrangular. ovate-oblong. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. and slightly margined. forked. and 3 to 7 in. whitish. sharply and unequally serrated. on axillary and terminal. cardio-active glycosides. the corolla of a dull green color. 3 to 4 in. veined. which are broadly ovate. long. erect. anodyne. the limb contracted. with a leafy. acutish or broadly cordate at base. sublabiate. and knotty root. ovate. acute. having a green scale or sterile filament.
coumarins. with a weak. with an acidulous. moist thickets. and Burdock. fatty acids. phenolic acids. stamens 4 and short. with hooked prickles. the peduncles are axillary and 1. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers.or 2-flowered. succulent plant. small. The fruit is large and bristly. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. astringent. cleansing. tapering to the base. retrorsely prickled stem. and astringent. and flowering from June to September. and along banks of rivers. and n-alkanes. but are inodorous when dried. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. and midrib. sevens. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. growing in cultivated grounds. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. GARLIC Allium sativum L. Stinging Nettle. tannins. Catch-weed. flavonoids. or eights. Calyx 4-toothed. in length. these plants have an unpleasant odor. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. and rough on the margins.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. Description Galium aparine is an annual. sterols. numerous and scattered. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. verticillate in sixes. and is hairy at the joints. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). corolla rotate and 4-parted. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. 2 or 3 lines in width. In a green state. mucronate. quadrangular. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. procumbent. the flowers white. and bitter taste. including psoriasis. styles 2.
cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. bacteriostatic. Italy is a large producer. and fructans. expectorant. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. promotes leucocytosis. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. Description Bulb subglobular. (alliin. allicin — dialltrisulfide. C. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. antiviral. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. scale-like leaves. base truncate. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. scordinins. sores. membranaceous. antiseptic. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. trace minerals. surrounded by whitish. However. taste intensely pungent and persistent. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. hypotensive and anthelmintic. in place of butter. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. Internally. spasmolytic. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. the outer surface convex. Constituents Sulfur compounds. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. It has been applied successfully to swellings. g-glutamyl). Properties Cosmetically. and E. pimples. each bulbil covered by whitish. B. dry leaf. compound. peptides. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. and attached to a flattened circular base. The membranaceous scales. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. Garlic is diaphoretic. and acne. with 8 to 15 bulbils. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. membranaceous scales. cultivated extensively. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. for obvious reasons. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. apex acute.750 mm in diameter. about 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vitamins A. Garlic does not lend itself. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily.
The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. The taste is first sweet. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. phenolic acids. Cranesbill. sialagogue. and middle western United States. volatile oils. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. It is recommended for loss of appetite. bitter. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. but are usually shorter. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. anti-inflammatory. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. then strongly bitter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is aromatic. amarogentin. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. gastric stimulant. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. and alkaloids (gentiamine). sweroside. and cholagogue. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. The cambiam zone is dark brown. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. xanthones.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. that of the root. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. polysaccharide. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. but pliable when it is moist.5 dm in length. These roots measure up to 8. cleansing. and to 37 mm in diameter. Properties Gentian is an astringent. swertiamarin).
Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.
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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome
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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.
Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.
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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root
Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.
Ginseng root (american) cultivated
Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its
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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.
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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.
GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves
Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.
Golden rod (Solidago)
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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome
Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.
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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.
GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part
Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near
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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin
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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.
GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit
Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract
Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.
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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.
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etc. and phenolic acids (caffeic. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. lotions. which can be used in various sun-care products. hair rinses.. conditioning. tannins (catechins. ferulic). theobromine.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. gallo catechins). shampoos. creams. theophylline). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. Description The fruits are small berries.) C. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Medically. catechin. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. and dimeric procyanidin. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. purple-brown to brown in color. and externally wrinkled. quercetin and glucosides). vitexin glucosides. and frost bite. Properties Flowers.C. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. Externally. Cosmetically. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. fatty acids. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. it has been used as a wash for itching. Monogyna (jacq. sores. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. with five parts. phenolic acids. and central and northern Asia. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. leaves.
opposite. 319. Description Leaves greenish-brown. It will not impart any color to the hair. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. as henna. tapering at the base. small. with occasional stems and brown. however. mucronate. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. 1983.. glabrous. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. etc. fading on the addition of acid. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L.126 HENNA 1. and decolorized by a special extraction process. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. oblong or broadly lanceolate. acids destroy its properties. Persia. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. l. decoction orange-brown. (2-hydroxy. Sci. astringent. Chamomile. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. It can be used in shampoos.. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. deepening with alkalies. entire. fruit. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. brown. Della Loggia. et al. triangular pitted seeds. However. Pharm. 1 to 2 cm wide. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. often imported in coarse powder. shortly petiolate. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. India. 51. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. Arabia. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. R. hair rinses. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. simple. 2 to 3 cm long. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. in an aqueous solution. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also said to be cooling. 4-napthoquinone). It will add body and highlights to hair. Calendula. and conditioners.
luteolin). the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. It becomes partially crystalline.4-napthoquinone). Australia. orange blossom. various parts of Africa. Description Honey is a viscid. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. fatty acids. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. flavonoids. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. and semi-solid on keeping. Chile. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. (glucosides of apigenin. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. phenolic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and New Zealand. and tannins.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. translucent. California. Honey obtained from heather.
The taste is pungent and bitter. formic acid. The individual bracts are thin and papery. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. bitter principles. Hops is a sedative. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannins. It has been used on crural ulcers. Useful in treatment of dandruff. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. sores. and alleviates pain and itching. humulene. volatile oil. will give body to the hair. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. The odor is aromatic. Bark Bongay. and hair conditioning. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin). ringworm. The strobiles measure 5.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. dextrin. In combination with Chamomile. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. consisting mainly of humulene. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. and pollen grains. Asia. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. lupulone. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. wax.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. hypnotic. face creams.brown. It contains small quantities of sucrose. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). bactericidal. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. the veins are elevated. it will reduce swellings. tetters. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. and tannins. and discoloration. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. Hops is a strobulus. one margin is flat. xanthahumol).
and is tough and fibrous in fracture. The internal portion is starchy. sprains and various sports injuries. and non-astringent. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. Description A perennial . infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. The nut. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. bitter taste. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. bitter taste. nearly an inch in diameter. It has been used in cellulitis. The aqueous infusion is bitter. The plant has long. vasoconstrictor. Anti-inflammatory. increases circulation. compressed.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. and slimming products. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. large rough leaves. iron gives a green precipitate. Increases venous tone. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. The inner bark has a rough. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. Properties Cosmetically. Gaertn et Schert. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. with a shining. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. varicose veins. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. and hemorrhoids. quercetin). and has an unpleasant. phenolic acids. Constituents Saponins (aescin. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. The root has antimicrobial properties. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fawn-colored. when dry. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. tendonitis. and swellings. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. aesculin). peculiar odor. lotions. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. in diameter.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. The bark is thin. chestnut-brown testa. and tannin. yellowish-white in color. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. is nearly odorless. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum.25–0. from 1 to 1 in. The nut has a slight. is subglobular. stimulates digestion and circulation. Properties Astringent. phlebitis. hand creams. fleshy roots.
teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. branched. 2 to 4 cm long. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. Greenland. sterile stems decumbent to erect.5 dm. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cones peduncled. However. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. rarely with a few branches. 1 to 3. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. 2 to 3 mm. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. However. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. yields 0. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. mostly with sterile spores. thick. acuminate. California. South Carolina. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. which would validate its use on blemished. branches 3 to 4 angled. after crushing and moistening. solid. greasy skin. as the fresh juice can be irritating.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. high. causing the skin to blister.5 dm. Alaska. 10 to 14 furrowed. high. 3 to 5 mm in diameter.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. and Eurasia. 5 to 10 mm. thick.
seldom white. saponin (equisetonin). the branches are rod-like. The flowers are bluish-purple. and equistetolic acid. acute. green on each side. kaempferol. and 1 ribbed underneath. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. Used for putrid wounds. lower lip trifid. protruding. spreading. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. flat. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. and external bleeding. woody at the base. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. phenolic acids. and borne in racemose. or lanceolate. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. It is diuretic. flat. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. emarginate. apigenin). scarcely shorter than the calyx. and 1 to 2 ft in height. Will add strength and sheen to hair. second whorls. Upper lip of the corolla. punctate. sometimes narrower. astringent.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. with the middle obe larger. healing. with the middle of the corolla erect. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. minerals. gangrenous ulcers. spreading. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The leaves are opposite. but smaller. emarginate. entire. silicic acid. anthers with linear divaricating cells. sunny sites. Stamens 4. and diverging. southern Europe. usually oblong-linear. erect. palustrine alkaloid. sessile. rather thick. acute. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. very much branched. Its stems are quadrangular. sometimes elliptical.
Tannin. gum. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. phenolic acids. oleanic acid. flavonoid glycosides. and resin. ursolic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . marrubin. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. Constituents Volatile oil.
the limb oblique. opposite. creeping stem. and glaucous on both sides. marubiin. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. luteolin [cynaroside]. cordatereniform. square. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. Also useful in cough preparations. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). * Formerly CTFA. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. though often purplish beneath. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. hairy herb. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. crenate. volatile oil. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. the upper being the largest. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. about three together in axillary whorls. forming the appearance of a cross. North America. with a prostrate. hairy. The leaves are petiolate. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). curved. radicating at base. decongesting tonic. The calyx is long. The flowers are bluish-purple. with a varegated throat. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. villous. phenolic acids. Europe to Caucasus. roundish. amino acids. gray. The floral leaves are of the same form.
Properties Anti-fungal.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. Scandinavia. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. It is acrid. However. The former possesses a peculiar. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. and when heated emits a pleasant. This plant is common all over Europe. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. aromatic odor. and introduced into North America. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. molluscicidal. Ivy has been used in face packs. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. anthelmintic. Europe. Description An evergreen climber. exudes from the incised bark. rather fragrant odor. or Ivy gum). *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. antimutagenic. faintly bitter. sun or shade. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. control of cellulite. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States.
malic acid. . flavonoids. and fatty acids.IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides.and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hederacoside. phenolic acids. hederacoside C (5%).
The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. smooth. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. dull. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated.5 cm. and the veins are elevated. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. The blades are asymmetric. stalks. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and stems. The odor is slight. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. The taste is salty and bitter.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. The under surface is yellowish-green. The upper surface is yellowish-green. The leaves are compound. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay.
containing benzylacetate. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. tincture of Capsicum. It contains pilocarpine. It induces salivary. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and soaps. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. antiglaucoma agent. gastric. Constituents Essential oil. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. colocynth. isamone. jaboric acid. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. the terminal leaflet larger. It can be used in shampoos. eugenol. It increases intestinal motility. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. isopilocarpine). conditioners. gels. very sweet-scented flowers. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. jaborino. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. and mullein as a hair tonic. and sweat hypersecretion. Combines well with Nettles. and farnesol. lotions. Leaves opposite. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. hair tonics. more than half as long as the corolla tube. volatile oil. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. skin creams. pilocarpic acid. benzyl alcohol.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. hair rinses. calyx linear. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes.
algin. benefits the skin. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. Constituents Iodine. (For additional information. softening. potassium. dissolving.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. skin care products. and many trace minerals and micronutrients. Nourishing. see Chapter 7. hair products. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors. each bearing an expanded blade. Description Vesicles large. restoring.
L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. dandruff. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. antioxidant. wide. antipyretic. and alkaloid. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Said to normalize overactive oil glands. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. southern India and Sri Lanka. Antimicrobial properties. and antifungal. analgesic. and similar skin problems. triterpenoids. Approximately 30 species have been identified. The flowers are in branched panicles. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. tropical habitats in dry soil. shampoos. creams. and lotions.
odor fragrant.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. flavonoids. taste aromatic. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. and cleansers. distinctive. cleanse the skin. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. southern Europe. skin bleach.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. bacteriastatic.) Burman F. phenolic acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . When taken on an empty stomach. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. giving relief. It is aromatic and astringent. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. and close the pores. Glycyrrhizae Radix. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. Constituents Essential oil. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. Liquorice Root. skin creams. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. and Hungary. dilute it with water. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. Sweet Wood. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). Russia. Properties Healing antiseptic.
it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . eczema. including dermatitis. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. antiseptic. it is externally pale yellow. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. sometimes split longitudinally. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. Internally. somewhat tapering. and cysts. its taste is sweetish. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. Internally. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. Anti-inflammatory. antiphlogistic. pruritus. antihepatotoxic. Externally. Properties Good for skin eruptions. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. The upper portion is more or less knotty. longitudinally wrinkled. antiviral. Its odor is distinctive. anti-infectant. it is yellow and radiate. antibacterial. when deprived of the outer corky layer.
glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid.). 4’. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. glabronin etc. formononetin. limestone. glabrolide. lignin. echinatin. glycyrol. licuraside. isoliquiritin. kumatakenin. rhamnoisoliquiritin. B-amyrin. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. licoisoflavanone. licoisoflavones A and B. On hydrolysis. Linn Tree. bracts Flowers. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. sterols. licochalcones A and B.). 2 to 20% starch.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%.). bracts N/S Flowers. liquiritigenin. glabrol. coumarins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Basswood. etc. amines. 4-hydroxychalcone. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). glycyrrhetol. amino acids. liquiritin. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. neoisoliquiritin. licoric acid. isoglabrolide.7-dihydoxyflavone. White Wood. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. Europe. bracts N/S Flowers. glabrone. etc. gum wax. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. neoliquiritin. glyzarin. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. licoricone.
odor is agreeable. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. when dry. For bruises and to reduce swelling. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . linear. or approach yellow. Internally. faint. Emollient. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. When fresh. The petals are five and whitish. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. are oblong or lanceolate. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. leaf-like bract. which are axillary. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating).
phenolic acid (chlorogenic.0% volatile oil. high amount of uronic acid. volatile oil.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. creams. naturalized in North America. sterols. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. The fruit is a cremocarp. Description Lovage has large. W. cultivated in central and southern Europe. dark green. D. Coumarins. gum. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. The rhizome and root are aromatic. kaempferol).5 to 1. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage. Smallage. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions. tannins. and perfumes. Maggi Herb. mucilage. and resin are also present. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. caffeic). J. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps.
each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. slender. They consist of long. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. tannin. quinic acid. astragalin. and then into several spreading pinnae. Constituents Adiantone. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. pedately branching at the summit. Properties In rinses. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. The rhizomes are horizontal. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. blackish. primary forks.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. phenolic acids and their sulfates. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. and with blackish roots. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is slight. first into two recurving. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. mucilage. and shining frond bases. adiantoxide. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns.
The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. Relieves itching. the veins are palmate. The individual flowers are yellow. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. Holligold. Emollient for sensitive skin.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. Mary-bud. flowers. These flowers are oblanceolate. greenish-gray bracts. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. and insect bites. mostly ligulate. naturalized in North America. The blade is cordate at the base. and fruits. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. Properties Soothing and softening. The taste is mucilaginous. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. thick. hairy. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. protective. and phenolic acids. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. The odor is not distinct. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. distinct. niacin. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. curved peduncle. spasmodic colitis. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. Medicinally used in cough preparations. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. British Columbia to Mexico. The texture is herbaceous. blotchiness. Useful in eye preparations. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. the veins are elevated. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. and slightly elevated. The flower heads have a short. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.
MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root
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yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops
Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.
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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.
MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root
Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.
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Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb
Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)
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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers
Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied
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to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin
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sore throats. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. carminative. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. and acrid. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. and anti-inflammatory. It is said to bring forth the gods.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. antifungal. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. diaphoretic. Used for halitosis. It is said to promote granulation. powdery. Myrrh is used in incense. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. diuretic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is aromatic. engler) The surface is dull. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. for example. The fracture is conchoidal. mildly expectorant. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. The taste is pungent. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. bitter.
camphene.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. and nerol). and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. cineole. and blue-black berries.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. geraniol. creamy white flowers. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. Constituents Yields 0. on bruises and hemorrhoids. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 to 0. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil.
.. in hedges. Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant....... Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll. Urtica urens L.... common to Europe and the United States. See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L. (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle. acetyl choline. Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . choline.... formic and citric acids. and epistaxis malaena. nervous eczema. and for cutaneous eruptions. by woodsides. minerals (high amount)... flowering from June to September. growing in waste places.. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic.N NASTURTIUM . dull-green plant. kaempferol. Description This plant is a perennial. amines (histamine. Stimulates hair growth. beta-carotene... Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant.. and isorhamnetin). herbaceous... Nettles has been used as an astringent.. serotonin)..... and in gardens. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy..... which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. sterols.
at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. Odor slight. Florida. tapering toward each end. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. up to 1. Texas. within the groove a narrow. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . taste starchy. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. a scar or. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. two-veined palet or scale. above the center. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. rarely. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. the apex pointed. the base somewhat contracted. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. and the Yukon.O OATS Avena sativa L. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. thinly membranous. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA.
highly refringent and truncate. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. Medically. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. lignified. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. less heavily developed tissue. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. and herpes. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. rarely over 25 ft in height. lignified walls. polyphenols. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. sleeplessness. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. the cells filled with protein. The drug tastes bitter. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. entire and coriaceous. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. these are elongated thick-walled. some of which give rise to unicellular.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. subsessile. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. eczema. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. Description The tree is small. shingles. The leaves are opposite. bent here and there. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. partially beaded. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. Properties Benefits the skin. pointed hairs. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. elliptical stomata up to about 0. straight or slightly curved. avenacin).
yellow globe. Gonzalez.. antifungal. 1992. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. diuretic.. up to about 1.2 m high. ll-demethyl oleuropein. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. 1. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g).11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. few of them have been studied experimentally. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. and red globe onions. ligustroside. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. Planta Med. Planta Med. et al. 7. hypotensive. et al. A..ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. and antimicrobial. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). 513. 1991. hypoglycemic. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 417. 2.. ONION Allium cepa L. also hollow. Zarzuelo. 58. 57. hypoglycemic. M. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides.
oblong-oval. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. Description Leaves. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. 1-propenesulfenic acid. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. reddish-orange. white. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. acute. Flowers. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. 7 to 8 cm globular. with bitter rind and sour flesh. introduced to Europe. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). Fruit. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. fructans. 2 to 2 cm long. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. very sweet-scented. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. alkyl and alkenylcysteines.
short. 0. with limonene as main constituent. taste aromatic and bitter. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. nobiletin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Essential oil (ca. neohesperidose (2-0. the sugar component of which. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. flavonoids. more astringent than rose water.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. var. used for oily skin and acne. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. aromatic wash. somewhat curved. conical projections and linear. furanocoumarins. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). tangeretin. considerable amounts of pectin. fracture hard. inner surface whitish. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. odor fragrant and aromatic. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. minute pits. such as hesperidin. and bitter substances.2 to 0. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. non-bitter flavonoids. rutoside. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. It is also given internally. with many slight.5%). skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin.
naringin. skin creams for its flavonoids. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. quercetin. and hesperidin. sinensis L. It is also an aromatic. odor fragrant. sinensis Osbeck. Flavonoids. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. taste pungently aromatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . citronellal. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. globules of volatile oil. citral.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. Cultivated in Florida and California. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. bitter and carminative.
p-coumaric acid. mucilage. anti-inflammatory.. Properties Used as a healing tonic. Constituents Essential oil. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. antipyretic. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. but sometimes up to twice as long. scoparine. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. and carotenoids. flavonoids. violutoside.P PANSY Viola tricolor L.g. eczema. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. acne. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. Leaves variable. meadows. Description Flowers mostly tricolored. magnesium tartrate. very variable in size. tannin. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. saponins. galacturonic acid. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. but often palmately lobed with a larger. stipules variable. tocopherol. rutin.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . impetigo. pruritus. leafy. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. Monograph 6. anthocyanidin glycosides. e. spur short. rheumatism. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. Exerpt from German Commission E. arabinose. gaultherin. Petals usually longer than the sepals.
with large. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. carpinine (an alkaloid). shampoos.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. edible berry up to about 15 lb. Naturalized in southern Florida. which resembles sinigrin. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. Carpaine. staminate and pistillate flowers. The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. long petioled. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. and minerals. The fruit is a large melon-like. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. etc. vitamins. C14H2502N.
Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. (After T. p = parenchyma. Veget. Vent. q = group of large fibers. Tabl. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. ms = latex tubes. The roots are brown longitudinally striated.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3.F.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. m = outer lamella. taste woody and characteristic. Regn. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. Kr´ = crystal rosettes. margin dentate to crenate. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. papyrifora. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. and B.2-benzenediol. Odor faint. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. kr = individual crystals. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels.
Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. and starch.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. and others. isopimpenillin.) Nym. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The tap root is fusiform. diuretic. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. B-phellandrene (12%). France. fruit. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. hortense. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root.3. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. expectorant. Belgium. and imperatorin. aromatic. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. (Mill.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. antirheumatic. emmenagogue.8-triene (9%). fruit. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. and antimicrobial. and Hungary. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. stout. apiin.05 to 0. above-ground herb. Apium petroselinum. green. taste faintly sweet. Furocoumarins including bergapten. W. Germany. spasmolytic. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown. apiole (18%). compound umbels. sativum. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. Other parts of the plant contain 0. ex A. psoralen. above-ground herb. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. extensively cultivated in California. Odor characteristic. 8-methoxypsoralen. P. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. p-mentha-1.
naturalized in North America. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The nodes are enlarged. and solid or hollow. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). The under surface is light green. The pith is white. rosemarinic). carminative. cultivated in Japan and the United States. broad. The flowers are arranged in dense. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). the internodes are of variable length. The corolla is united and tubular below. four-lobed above. They measure up to 9. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners.3 cm in width.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. The fracture is tough and incomplete. ursolic acid. mildly sedative. hair tonics. spasmolytic. The apex is acute. and minerals. hesperidin). The stems are simple or branched. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. chlorogenic. Properties Stimulant. The cortex and wood are thin. and the veins are slightly depressed. cholagogue. its five teeth are subulate. The under surface is light green. menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). The margin is sharply serrate. phenolic acids (caffeic. antiseptic. and the veins are more prominent. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. the leaves are opposite decussate. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. The blade measures up to 7. large. The bracts are lanceolate. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. The outline is quadrangular. its color varies from light to dark purple. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. cineole. The odor is aromatic. rutin. the texture is fibrous. menthone (10 to 40%). The calyx is campanulate. sitosterols.5 cm in length and to 3. south to Florida and Alabama. triterpenes. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. interrupted spikes. and the color varies from green to purple. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. menthofuran. as it contains flavonoids. flavonoids (luteolin. tonic. and the veins are slightly depressed. notably viridoflorol.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . shining.5 to 3 cm broad. they are different. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. native of Europe. firm. vasodilator. 1. Properties Used as a hemostatic. the lobes obovate. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. corolla blue. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. Vinca contains vincamine.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. Has also been used to stop external bleeding. in Connecticut. leaves ovate to oblong. and ursolic acid. 1 to 6 dm long. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). as well as Europe. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. entire. tannins. hypotensive. vulnerary sedative. truncate. a standardized extract should be used. trailing. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. and Georgia. hypoglycemic. dark green. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. Minnesota. astringent. however. flavonoids. Description Stem spreading.
the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. smoothish. and abruptly narrowed into a long. Ripple-grass. in fields. and in grass plats. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. The stamens and styles are long. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. dark band of autumn wood. quinic acid. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. abietic acid. Plantago major L. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. aromatics. by the roadsides. The medullary rays. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. numerous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. channeled petiole. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. the seeds numerous. leaving smooth surfaces. pinitol. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. long. and is common in Europe and America. imbricated. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. dihydroquercetin.to seven-nerved. which are the medullary rays. raffinose sequoyitol. Vessels are absent. cuts. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. somewhat toothed. ferulic acid. n-nonacosane. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. quercetin. The flowers are white. parahydroxybenzoic acid. and applied to sores. balsamic. malonic acid. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. shikimic acid. Properties Astringent. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. pinnicorretin. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. In a radial surface. five. dihydroconiferyl alcohol.35 to 0. It flowers from May to October. it has a density varying from about 0. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. moist places. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. Constituents Contains oils. growing in rich. The leaves are ovate. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins).8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. very small. swellings. arising from a fibrous root. tannins. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. campesterol. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. and insect bites. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid.
they both have the same virtues. and palmitic acids). asperuloside. tannins. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. fixed oil (linoleic. allantoin. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). for healing. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and phenolic acids. and for cell proliferation. aucubin. Constituents Mucilage. apparently. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. essential oils. balcalin. oleic. apigenin. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. sterols. polysaccharides.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. catapol.
essential oils.E. and anti-inflammatory. The New Honest Herbal. and pinobanksin).2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. pinocembrin.. balsam. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. galagin. galangin. 1987. Hiadon B. 1990. wax. 3. J.. antiviral. et al. Philadelphia. Nihon Univ. Stickley Co. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin.. 1847.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets.. pollen. de Carvalho Ac. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. Magro Filboo. Tyler. ArnzneimittleForschung.. 32(1). and pinobanksin. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro.2 Constituents Resin. 1980. 30(1). G. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester. 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 4.F. V. and caffeic acid. Sch. fungicidal. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. Dent.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. 2.
these species appear to resemble that of Q. inner surface yellowish-brown. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. coarsely fibrous. finely wrinkled. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. and Peru. taste very acrid and unpleasant. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. * Formerly CTFA. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. Description In flat pieces of variable size. Upon microscopic examination. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. fracture uneven. outer surface nearly white. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . channels. conical projections or transverse. Bolivia. odor slight sternutatory.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. Historically. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. and occasional circular depressions. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. Smegmandermos deC. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . longitudinally striate.
quillaic acid (C19H30O10). Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. and volatile oils. overlapping quilled. quinidine. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). Remineralizing protein. gypsogenin. a neutral saponin. The root. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). quinamine). The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. calcium oxalate sugars. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or compound quilled. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. quinine and quinidine. its important alkaloids. cinchonine. Internally. The odor is not distinct. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. are used. The fracture is tough and uneven. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. tannins. The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. to 7 cm in width. partially quilled. cinchonidine. shallowly fissured transversely. Ecuador. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. The bark is flat or chip-like.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins.8 dm in length. which is nearly always chip-like. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. and to 6 mm in diameter. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. uronic acids. free acids (quinic acid). Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. quilled.
the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. present in the epidermis of the testa. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. being coated with mucilage. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. with water. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. It is also used as a suspending agent. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. triangularly compressed. ovoid or oblong. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings.
salicylic and p-coumaric acids. benzyl alcohol. genistein. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. and furfural. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. Mildly anti-spasmodic.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. and esters. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. volatile oil. fatty acids. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. biochanin A. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Flavonoids. starch. petals united into a tube below. contains over 40 compounds. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. taste sweetish. daidzein. Medicinally. purplish and more or less brown from drying. tapering. phenolic acids. style slender. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. Properties Historically. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. calyx teeth subulate. phenolic acids. sitosterol. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. volatile oil. eugenol. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. including methyl salicylate. shriveled. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. then slightly bitter. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. * Formerly CTFA.
terminal leaflet broadly ovate.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. etc. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. They have. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. with an entire margin. light-colored. with a short. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. Description Stem biennial. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. Quinoline alkaloids. and are then employed in the fresh state. double-serrate.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. finely tomentose when young. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. By drying. hair rinse. such as hand creams. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. thimble-shaped. they are smooth and shining above. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. emollient. rounded or cordate at the base. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. fruit red. armed with bristles or weak prickles. leaving a space about 0. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. inflorescence short-racemose.15 to 0. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. erect. Maine. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. doubtfully indigenous to England. ovate. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). Properties Soothing. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. lotions. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. The numerous veins run from the base toward. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. and Minnesota. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. shortacuminate. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. when fresh. Rhode Island. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. somewhat smaller. dark violet claw. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mainly rhoeadine.
China.). B. Happy Herb. minerals. and antibacterial properties. antioxidant. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. consult a qualified physician before using. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. Ergosterol derivatives. lactic acid. hepatitis. Ling-Zhi (Chin. protein. fragarine. Miraculous chi. thiamine. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. A series of tritepenoids. granoderan A. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. riboflavin. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. Constituents Polysaccharides. and North American coastal rainforests. have been isolated. Dried and whole. Auspicious Herb. and inflammations. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. and beta-carotene. mouth ulcers. and chest and heart diseases. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. it comes in various sizes and shapes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. nervousness. Japan. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. malic acid. ellagic acid. Constituents Ascorbic acid. gallic acid. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. Note: However. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. and C. succinic acid. insomnia. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. Internally.
dark reddish-brown. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed.5 cm in diameter at the crown. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. of the wood. The texture of the cortex is granular. The taste is astringent. that of the wood. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. The odor is not characteristic. of the larger roots. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . very tough and hackly. which has numerous branches. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. of the larger roots. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. and it tapers into the main root. and P. The color is dull reddish-brown. rough and scaly. fibrous. The crown bears numerous short stem bases.
which when carefully shaved off. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. II. the cortex has been removed. after-shave lotions. Dark areas may still be found here and there. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. etc.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. ratanine). appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. Within the cambium is a ring. parenchymatous matrix. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 mm long. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. III. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. After removing the powder. and N-methyltyrosine. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. If the trimming has been very severe. barrel-shaped or conical. showing that they are leaf traces. The smoothed. mouth wash. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. immediately within the secondary xylem. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. In the periphery of the pith. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. Constituents Gum. about 5 mm wide. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. tannins (proanthocyanidines). Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. officinale. in the form of a fine yellow powder. face creams. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. to give a good appearance.
In most cases. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. due to the bitter taste. min. and compact. Flavonoids. Barbados. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. but in one investigation. and physcion. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. astringent taste. the fractured surface.Eur.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. the mechanism is described under Aloes. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith.5% calculated as rhein). A very complex mixture is present. usually 3 to 5% (Ph.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. and (+)-gallocatechin. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. This is applied to the hair and left to dry. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. it is used as a stomachic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . chrysophanol. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. it is very gritty between the teeth. also (+)-catechin 5. of which many aglycones have been identified. The predominant aglycone varies.and 7-0-glucosides. heavy. 2.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. when chewed. rhein. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). It is then rinsed out. aloeemodin. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. (+)-afzelechin. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. it is often rhein. In small amounts. With its high tannin content.
and traces of carvone. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. pink.0. filter. catechins. taste sweetish. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. gallic acid. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. l-linalool. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. it can be prepared by using rose oil. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. L. One example would be rose water. glycerol. Minor constituents are citral. approx. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. free and in combined forms with glucose. 5 to 10%. Tannins. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. odor fragrant and rose-like. however. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. and astringent. French Rose. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. and procyanidins. phenylethyl alcohol. slightly bitter. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . much branched. When combined with various other hair preparations.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. low. malic acid. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. Constituents Ascorbic acid. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. capric acid. Wild Brier. sucrose. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain.2 cm wide. kaempferol-3-glucoside. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. Description The fruit of R. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. evergreen. pectin. leucoanthocyanins. invert sugars. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. epicatechin. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. they are refrigerant.5 cm in length and up to 2. protein. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface.5 to 3. gallocatechin. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. boron. linoleic acid. alpha-tocopherol. linolenic acid. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. The achenes themselves are hairy. isoquercitrin. tannins. magnesium. and zeaxanthin. flavonoids. sessile. rubidium. Description A bushy. succinic acid. mildly astringent. rubixanthin. vanillin. citric acid. essential oil. it will add highlights to light hair. xanthophyll. coriaceous. and slightly diuretic. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. catechin-tannins. opposite. lycopene.
borneol. glandular-punctate. and bitter. camphor. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions. The extract can be used in shampoos. protein. tannin. margin revolute. taste pungently aromatic. diosmin. characteristic. boron. stimulant. astringent. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. flavonoids. camphoraceous. etc. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. Constituents Essential oil. Properties Tonic. odor aromatic. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. The oil is used in fragrances. hair conditioners. creams. diaphoretic. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. it is used to increase circulation. Topically. rosmarinic acid. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. and showing a prominent midrib. phenolic acids. lower surface wooly. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. and triterpenic acids.
borneol. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. carnosolic acid. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. salvin. there arises a grayish. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . odor strongly aromatic on crushing. saponins. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. petiole up to 4. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. pubescent stem with branches opposite.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. Constituents Volatile oil. and tannins. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. Sage Garden Sage. densely pubescent. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. pinene. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. and disinfectant (against inflammations). beta-sitosterol. long petiolate. base rounded or subcordate. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. caryophyllene. the upper branches bear blue. protein. lamina elliptical. much branched. camphors. flavonoids. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. venation pinnate-reticulate. stimulating. midrib and veins prominent.6 cm in breadth. phenolic acids. linalool. In early summer. thujone. margin crenulate. estrogenic compounds. to 1 ft high. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). Properties Cosmetically. texture velvet-like. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. astringent. taste aromatic and bitter. fungistatic. apex acute or obtuse. cineole. 2 to 10 cm in length. From an underground fibrous root system. ursolic acid. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. uneven or lobed. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. 1 to 2. carminative. Leaves opposite. It is antibacterial.5 cm in length. the reticulations being very small. antiseptic. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage.
and -santalols). slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. and lotions. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. It is also used in perfumery. Asia Minor. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. Black Snakeroot. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. North and South America. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. palmately lobed leaves. hard. but easily split. –13° to –21°). depurative. o. hemorrhoids. vulnerary. burns.985. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. pectoral. and similar articles. of which it contains over 90%. carvings. gr. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. hemostatic. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. alterative. White Sandal Wood. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract.r. and a stomachic. the vessels are mostly solitary. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. and inflammed skin. and for the manufacture of boxes. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. the odor strong and fragrant. and erect. L. and dense. astringent. heavy. or as a perfume. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. In Yellow Sandal Wood.973 to 0. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. The taste is slightly bitter. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . 0. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. wounds. It is said to be anti-inflammatory.
Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. saponin. and a bitter principle. resin. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Mucilage. essential oil.
192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid.5 cm in diameter. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. Dark Palmetto. smooth and somewhat oily.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. occasionally compressed. from 1. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
ferulic acid. were eaten by the Indians. oleic acid. it is coarsely striated longitudinally. and lotions. mannitol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and to 3 mm in thickness.. palmitic acid. Ann.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. 559.. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers.6 dm in thickness. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. Properties Sabal berries.. such as anorexia nervosa..... or as cut and sawed pieces. and to 1. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. myristic acid... beta-sitosterol. inner layer of endocarp smooth.. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. arabinose. Franc. 41.1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions. The odor is distinct. skin creams. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp. sito sterols. aromatic. tough. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids. and slightly acrid.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity.. a native of the southern United States... They are said to be very nutritious. 1... beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity.. reddish-brown seed. 1983.. apex marked by the scar of the style. Tarayre.7 dm in width. and incomplete. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled. Constituents Anthranilic acid. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside.. J.. SEAWEED... These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. ellipsoidal or ovoid. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous.. capric acid. enclosing a hard. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. Pharm... The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. which measure up to 3 dm in length.. to 1... aromatic.. Ulmus rubra Muhl. when cork patches are present. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown.. taste sweetish. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases.. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota.. lauric acid.P. lipase. caproic acid... and stearic acid. et al. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar. Odor pronounced. to 17 cm in width.. The fracture is very strong. somewhat flattened. south to Florida and Texas.
Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). Can be used in creams. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. and tannin. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. It can be used to emulsify oil. hair conditioners. pentosans. lotions. blades obcordate. boils. and Saskatchewan. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. New Mexico.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. and other beverages. Colorado. Soap Wort produces a gentle. calyx tubular. petals pink or white. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin.2 cm long. native from Europe. d-galacturonic acid. ulcers. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. Nova Scotia. Colorado. protein. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. healing. minerals. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. starch. 5 to 8 cm long. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. soothing. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. tannin (minute). Florida. chemicals that foam when added to water. stem 3 to 6 dm high. 3 to 5 ribbed. L-rhamnose. leaves oval or ovate. New Brunswick. and beta-carotene. starch. polysaccharides. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. North Carolina. and wounds. 1 to 5. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Massachusetts. and tannins. Description Glabrous perennial. capsule oblong. hexosan.
caffeic acid. flowers cymose. chlorogenic acid. British Columbia. Medically. California. 2 to 10 mm wide. disinfectant. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. 4 to 6 cm long. Nova Scotia. choline. glandular-punctate. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. guanine. native to Europe. uterine tonic. the rest broadly oval. leaves linear to oblong. Used in aromatic baths. bruises. Constituents Essential oil. rutin. tonics.ST. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. antiseptic. and anthelmintic. emmenagogue. obtuse. slightly tomentose beneath. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. ray florets about 10. Properties Used as a nervine. stimulant. with revolute margins. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. and anodyne. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. disk-florets 15 to 20. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. and scopolin. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. heads numerous. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. John’s Wort ing. petals obovate. capsule ovoid. conditioners. umbelliferone. scarious. frostbite. tannin. and superficial burns. St. Colorado. Virginia. 5 to 10 dm high.5 cm broad. lower leaves petioled. quebrachitol. isofraxidin. the outer linear-lanceolate. corolla 2 to 2. bracts canescent. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. astringent. toothed above the middle on one side. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and for skin conditions. ST. etc. uric acid. poultices. leaves. Manitoba. 10 to 12 mm long. acute or acuminate. having antibacterial properties. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. 1 to 3 cm long. scopoletin.
Manitoba. saponin. flavonoids. resin sitosterol. hyperoside.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. Newfoundland. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. John’s Wort St. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. protein. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mannitol. and Virginia. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. hypericin-like substances.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. New Mexico. phenolic acids. hypericin. tannins.
STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. seldom over 1. quercetin). ellagitannins. and phenolic acids. very rarely leafy-bracteate. seldom much exceeding the leaves. scape slender. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. sharply and deeply serrate. fatty acids.5 cm long. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. mostly acute. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. very soon glabrate on both sides. 5 to 7. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rhombic-obovate. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. fruit elongate-ovoid. very thin.5 dm high. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. condensed tannins).
erect stem. Also said to be an insect repellant. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . * Formerly CTFA. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. Bitter buttons. tannin. are collected at the time of flowering. Parsley Fern. Scented Fern. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. The leaves and flowering tops. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. carminative. button-like flowers. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. English Cost. It has a stout. and spasmolytic. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. Ginger plant. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. anthelminitic. The entire leaf is about 6 in.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. somewhat reddish. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. resin. phenolic acid. sesquiterpenes. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. 1 to 3 ft high. flat-topped. usually smooth. tanacetin. fern-like leaves and yellow. and quercetin. The roundish. and branching near the top. button-like.
oral infections. 0. stings. capsule.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. Bark. terpinene. insect bites. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. abrasions.5 to 2. sore throat. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. with a broad range of health claims. burns. and vaginal infections. It is found in numerous product forms. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. conical.0 ml high. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. scabies. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. spongy. in a flattened rosette. either singly or with other ingredients. lice. and dense.5%). It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. while cineole is low (about 2. New South Wales. pimples. bronchial congestion. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. streamsides. thickets. erect. cymene). stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. including treatments for sunburn. abrasions. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. athlete’s foot. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. sparingly branched biennial. ringworm. lanceolate. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. constantly renewable tree. upcurved. Description A stiff. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. cuts. fruit. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. boils. Over-wintering leaves. and the like. and Australia. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor.
St. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L.. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. It is said to contain saponins. and tannins. flavonoids (keampferol. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. TX. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. Ed. Austin. entire or toothed. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. 1955. S.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. 1. rare in Britain. glucosides.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. taxifolin). stems. Flowerheads rayless. quercetin. Description Leaves spiny. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. fatty acids. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. and magnesium. The injection gives better results. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. Blessed Milk Thistle. Foster. yellow spines. Mary Thistle. The root and root stock are short and erect. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. dark green. American Botanical Councin. both orally and also by intravenous injection. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. Taste and odor. Also used in homeopathy. purple.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin).
to add sheen. stem 3 to 10 dm high. New York. etc. sensitive skin. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. branching and more or less curved. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin.5 cm thick. Description Viscid-pubescent. cyclohexanol. glucose. facial muds. much branched. that can be used for hemorrhoids.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. gargles. aspartic acid. and phytosterols. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. and California. sore gums. glutamic acid. rinses.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. abscisic acid. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. flavonoids. fruit through cultivation very variable.5 to 1. vitamins. -hydroxy acids. 10 to 15 mm broad. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. and from 0. somewhat fusiform. brown or blackish externally. Florida. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 to 8 cm long. and sore throats. glycine. diarrhea. antihemorrhagic. corolla yellow. styptic. ellipsoid. menstrual disorder. ascorbic acid. It can be incorporated into shampoos. minerals. Colorado. from 2. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. red or yellow. 0. or pear-shaped. lobed. Properties Fruit: astringent. lotions. lycopene. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. conditioners. Texas. and reddish within.5 to 10%. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. leaves two-pinnatifid. Constituents Proteins. mouth rinse. and dentate. cystine. hair tonics. acne. It can be employed in creams. subglobose.
and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. they bear short knob-like branches. internally. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. China. tormentillin. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. bluntly tapering at each end. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. They are hard and heavy. longitudinally wrinkled. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. Curcuma. and other tropical countries. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. Java.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). Occasionally. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . quinovic. a red pigment. Indian Saffron. Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. and break with a short fracture. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency.. caffeic.
Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). curlone. ar-turmerone. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. and antimutagenic. 2-7% essential oil. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). comprising mainly bisabolane. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . previously restricted to certain scattered cells. is also present. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized.. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. anti-arthritic. when chewed. zingiberene. it colors the saliva yellow. hypotensive. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. guaiane. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. It is also choleretic. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. monodesmethoxycurcumin. but the coloring matter. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. ukonan A. and anti-edemic. antifungal. etc. antibacterial.
cultivated in Germany. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. alkaloids (valerianine. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. Constituents Essential oil. and valepotriates (valtrate. and baldrinal. phenolic acids. The taste is sweet. pungent. It is sedative. and disagreeable. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. valerosidatum). and to 2 cm in diameter. Roots are branched or simple. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. simple or branched. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. Pith is white or grayish-white. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. and spasmolytic. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. Cortex is thick. * Formerly CTFA. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. relaxant. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . actinidine). The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. Belgium and England. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. and to 3 mm in diameter. However. The rhizome is vertical. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. isovaltrate. central and cylindrical. Wood is small. fatty acids. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. acevaltrate.
206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
in addition to verbenin. Nebraska. aucubin. four-sided stem. hastatoside. verbenalin. anorexic (appetite suppressant). Wild Hyssop. diuretic. Simpler’s Joy. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. verbenelol. Description This rather rough. straight. and Arizona. 4 to 7 feet high. tannin.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. False Verbain. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. ursolic acid. caffeic acid. Verbena officinalis L. Constituents Iridoids. and against sunburns. finely haired herb has an erect. volatile oil. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. artemitin. meadows. and superficial and limited burns. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). long. gout remedy. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. contraceptive. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped.
rheumatism. gout. vermifuge. *INCI Name . imparipinnate. scabbing pruritus. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. soft and coarse grained. and varicose ulcers. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The kernel is sweet. oily. ophthalmia. Properties Tonic restorative. The leaves are alternate. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. depurative. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. round-topped. west to Minnesota and Kansas. blisters. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. disinfectant. styes. open crown. The wood is light brown. Juglans nigra L. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. The bark varies from nearly smooth. * Formerly CTFA.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. astringent. glandular disturbances. and edible. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. scrofula. irritation of the eyelid. deep. Used for skin complaints. eczema. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad.
g. glutamic acid. Externally. 4. cystine. folacin. valine. destroying most of its active principles. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. gluconasturtiin. high in protein. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). lymphatic or edematous swellings. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. phenylalanine. 5. glycine. Rubbing on scalp. biotin. beak about 1 mm long. 3 mm thick. protein. tryptophan. histidine. ascorbic acid. tumors. and kaempferol. lysine. ellagic acid. A Cure For All Cancers. arginine. about 4 mm long. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets.. methionine. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. Description Aquatic perennial. -carotene. aspartic acid. it looks rather yellowish. British Columbia. caffeic acid. California. alanine. West Indies. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. Clark. Rheumatism and nervousness. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. proline. Virginia. leucine. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . many trace minerals. 1. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia.-Trihydroxynaphthalene).1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. amino acids. and diastase. spatulate. sepals oblong. hyperin. South America.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. thiamine. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. its action being both detergent and healing. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. fruiting pedicels divaricate. about 2 mm long. somewhat curved. leaves pinnate.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. petals white. threonine. Mexico. tyrosine. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). it will strengthen and thicken hair. and Europe. tannin.
but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. Durfa Grass. Durfee Grass. Fin’s Grass. Quitch Grass. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. Creeping Wheatgrass. Couch Grass. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. Dutch Grass. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. Twitch Grass. of young grass. sprouts. Quake Grass. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Devil’s Grass.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. Scutch Grass. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds.
the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish. -carotene... thin outer layer. are produced from a long.. externally pale brown. often compressed. Constituents Vitamins. 1 to 3 ft high.. bent and branched. and phenolic acids.. more or less detached.. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root. long. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout.. fatty acids. Odorless.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma. thickets. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous.. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached..... It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States. The root stocks. collected in the spring... yellowish wood bundles...... WHITE NETTLES.. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. amino acids.. Colic Root.212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse.. taste starchy. and hair conditioners... Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled. creeping root stock. elongated.. flavonoids.. afterwards acrid. are carefully cleaned. scattered. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. and dried.See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES.. fracture short but tough. with numerous small. lotions. Its smooth hollow stems. bearing scattered nodular projections. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes. 6 to 20 mm thick. which are thickened at the joints. insipid... The flowering heads are produced from July to September. and dermatitis.. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos. eczema.See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L.. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer... cut into small pieces about in. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas. Over 240 compounds have been identified. creams. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat. Description Knotted and woody. and stem scars on the upper surface.
analgesic. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. naturalized sparsely in North America. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. slightly lignified parenchyma. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. fracture short fibrous. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. and antipyretic. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. flavonoids. ascorbic acid. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. vimalin). as it contains salicin. triandrin. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. salicortin. longitudinally striated. it should be standardized for its salicin content. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. dioscin.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. odor slightly aromatic. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. endodermis distinct. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. populin. minerals. Contains steroid-like substances. rinses. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. fragilin. dioscorin. anti-inflammatory. cortex composed of thin-walled. etc. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. However. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. diosgenin. inner surface. yellowish-brown to dark brown. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. and trace minerals. greenish-brown. Constituents Steroidal saponins. White Willow. as this could vary among different manufacturers. antiseptic. in older bark dull. It can be used in hair conditioners. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. irregularly wrinkled. antirheumatic. taste astringent and slightly bitter. outer surface in young bark smooth. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . shampoos.
Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. bark. scattering the shining black. and polyphenols. Striped Alder. esters. thick. brown bark. eastern Canada. and alcohols. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. long. and leaves Bark. leaves. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. Winterbloom. and borne on short stalks. eastern United States. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. Constituents Essential oil. Spotted Witch Alder. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. Description Witch Hazel. saponins. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. flavonoids. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. It has a crooked stem and long. due to its high tannin content. when it bursts open. Wych-hazel. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. forking branches with smooth. yellow flowers. tannin.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L.
Gypsy Herb. and stachyerine. bitter. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. pointed. and bell-shaped. Description This herb has long. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. Constituents Alkaloids. Wolf Foot. to 2 ft in height. Gypsyweed. shady places from Canada to Florida. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. tublar. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. mint-like odor. are small. Sweet Bugleweed. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. Externally. Purple Archangel. Green Archangel. Water Bugle. including betonicine. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. Gypsywort. They are followed by four nutlets. Missouri. which appear from about July to September. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. Carpenter’s Herb. slender. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. The plant has a rather pleasant. Therefore. erect stem from 6 in. smooth. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. but a disagreeable bitter taste. The whitish flowers.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. in length. Paul’s Betony. and Nebraska. The leaves are about 2 in. rather narrow. American Water Hoarhound.
anti-inflammatory. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. and the iridoids asperuloside. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. citric acid. Flowers small. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. anti-arthritic. of new-mown hay. white. in loose clusters. astringent. Odor. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. pointed leaves edged with tiny. unbranched. antineuralgic. when dry. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. monotropein. tannin. Used in aromatherapy. antiseptic. with slender. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. forwardpointing bristles. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with four petal lobes. vermouths. etc. calming. bitters. soothing to the nerves. quadrangular. wines. coumarin. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. Description A short perennial.
drooping. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. 2 to 3 mm long. approximately 100 identified constituents. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. -carotene. Old Woman. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. the lower lobe is petiolate. the inner linear with membranous margins. consist of numerous small. choleretic. anthelmintic. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. the florets tubular. insignificant. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. aromatic. Mingwort. isovaleric acid.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. Flower heads greenish-yellow. and the grayish-green leaves. Madderwort. camphene. are divided into small leaflets. rutin. thujyl alcohol. Also used to clean atonic wounds. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . two to three pinnately divided. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. Odor aromatic. especially in Michigan and Indiana. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. yellow heads. long. It is cultivated in some localities. Constituents Essential oil. artabsin. p-coumaric acid. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. chamazulene. taste bitter. which are from 2 to 5 in. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. and antipyretic. absinthin. Bitter stomachic. Description This shrubby. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. protein. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. used as an external antiseptic. tannins. thujone. Absinth. and anthelmintic.
Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in. From June to September.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small..... It has a strong odor.. Old-Man’sPepper..... pastures. feathery.. Dog Daisy..... Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing. *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium. dark green leaves. white flower heads..... Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields.... antipyretic... 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ...... hypotensive. diuretic. Closely related forms occur in the western states.. Thousand-Leaf Clover..Y YAM.. Sanguinary....... It * Formerly CTFA. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic.. Cammock.. Nosebleed... Green Arrow. and is urinary antiseptic. Carpenter Grass. Thousand-leaf. Gordoloba. Soldiers’ Woundwort. astringent. high and has many finely divided... and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada. Yarrow Milfoil.. Bloodwort..
Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. blue colored chamazulene). Curled Dock Root. angular. and furrowed stem. long. phenolic acids. and tannin. Broad-leaved Rumex. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. carminative. Broad-leaved Dock Root. and cholagogue. and along roadsides. bearing numerous. spasmolytic. it is stomachic. Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. It has been used for cuts. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it is also used in hair care preparations. alkaloids (achilleine). injuries. achillin). attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. camphor. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. Internally. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. flavonoids. and varicose ulcers. among rubbish heaps. in cultivated as well as in waste ground.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing.
Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. protein. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. usually from 8 to 12 in. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. short stemmed or stemless. As the clusters ripen.The root.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. and eruptive diseases. Bear’s Weed. and carefully dried. lapathinic acid. with few or no rootlets. et Tor. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. from 6 to 8 in. while the upper leaves are narrower. Gum Plant. and tannin. psoriasis. emodin. long. only 3 to 6 in. yellowish cortex. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. They are washed. chrysophanic acid. The root is large and fleshy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sores. with long stalks. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. in length. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. swellings. in length. These are followed by the fruits. they become rusty brown. Consumptive’s Weed. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. and pale radially split wood. tapering or spindle shaped. nepodin.
tannin. essential oil. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. acetic acid.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. Constituents Resin. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. and eriodyctyonine. Gabon. eriodictyonic acid. dark green. eriodictyol. and the Congo. chrysoeriodictyl. The rather showy. cerotic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. Schum.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. butyric acid. The narrow. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance.
Personal communication. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. and epiallo-yohimbine. spreading. R. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. smilagenin. Arizona. 1998. fleshy. shagreen roughened. Soap Yucca Root. sepals and petals lanceolate. YUCCA Yucca baccata. tigogenin. It also contains corynanthine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . minerals. allo-. Texas. leaves rigid. Description Low. with narrow brown margins.5 cm long. Constituents Sarsapogenin. oblong or conical-ovoid. Roezl. L. hence its aphrodisiac effect. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. tannin.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. however. Kansas. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. elongate. at low doses. about 7. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. coarsely filiferous. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. sometimes 2 dm long.. and protein. pseudo-. style slender. fruit large. the most important of which is yohimbine. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. It is also being used for arthritis internally. concave. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. Colorado. samogenin. is sympatholytic. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. the major alkaloid. saponin. Properties Yucca contains saponins. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. Kronenthal. pendent. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. Torr Yucca brevifolia. and Nevada. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. Soap Weed.1 Yohimbine. 1.
224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. It also makes a valuable hair dressing.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. See “Folklore” section. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Henna Used to dye hair red. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. Hemp. Dark brown contains juglone. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. not essential oil. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. The botanical extract. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. The leaves contain buxine. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. Galls Used to dye the hair black. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lavender See “Folklore” section. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. Oak. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. However. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. makes an excellent hair rinse. Hops See “Folklore” section. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip.
Combined with rosemary. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. and mouthwashes. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. See Lichwort. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. The essential oil is used to add sheen. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. See Stinging Nettle. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. Can be used in deodorants. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. A source of potassium and iodine. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. The extract contains thymol. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. Contains a yellow dye. It is antiseptic. and linalol. and help keep it free of dandruff. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. make it soft and shiny. It also helps to remineralize. Vitamins A and D. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. leaving it silky and glossy. borneol. Lemony fragrance. it will darken the hair. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. and some protein. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing.
Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. It is said that when blended with rosemary.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp.
Horsechestnut Papaya. Chamomile. Chamomile. Lady’s Mantle. Hops. Chaparral. oil. Witch Hazel. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Soap Bark. Bistort. Bay Laurel. Violet. Orris. Sage. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. Cucumber. Vinca Minor. Bladderwrack. Wild Indigo. Arnica. Rhatany. Asparagus. Artichoke. Bilberry. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Parsley Broom Flowers. Wild Alum. White Willow. Calendula. Lemon. in various vehicles as water. Quassia. Rosemary. Lemon. Soap Root. Southernwood. Tormentil. Burdock. Sandal Wood. Lavender. White Lily. Lemon. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rosemary. Milk Thistle. Slippery Elm. Uva Ursi Quassia. Myrrh. Thyme. powders or extracts. Fenugreek. Comfrey. that is. Comfrey. Inc. Tumeric. Oak Bark. Calendula. Artichoke. Nettles. Orange Peel. White Willow. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. ethanol. Tomato. Sage. Yarrow. Pansy. Birch. Raspberry.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. refer to the index). Bioflavonoids Echinacea. propylene glycol. Lavender. Arnica Lemon. Papaya. Onion. Plantain. glycerin. Rosemary. Horsechestnut. Proanthocyanidins. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Myrtle. Garlic. Lemon Grass. Cinnamon Agrimony. Bayberry. Anise. Althea. etc. Oats. Calendula. Thyme. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Bayberry. Rosemary. Myrrh. Burdock. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Peppermint. Golden Seal. Rose. Tilia. Hawthorn Angelica. Balsam Peru. Echinacea. Black Walnut. Juniper Berries. Benzoin. Nettles. Ginkgo.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Thyme. Nasturtium. Corn Flower. Chamomile.3-butylene glycol. Witch Hazel. Myrrh. Eucalyptus. Grapefruit. either when applied topically or taken internally. Rosemary. Sandalwood. Birch. 1. Yarrow. Pineapple. Hops. Lemon. Cardamom Seed. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Lavender.
Cedar. Comfrey. Phytoplenolin®. Primula Flowers. Eyebright. Orange Flowers. Rhatany. Red Poppy. Fenugreek. Nettles. Red Clover. etc. Black or Neutral Henna. Jaborandi. Lemon Peel. Slippery Elm. Horseradish. Purple Loosestrife. Onion. to add highlights Black Walnut. Cantharides. White Willow Aloe Vera. Thyme. Burdock. Red Henna. Sage. Birch. Raspberry. Chamomile. Chickweed. Quince. Yarrow. split ends Scalp. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Tea. Rosemary. Sage. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .* Centella. Centella. Orange Flowers. Southernwood. Pansy. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Golden Seal. Mullein Flowers. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Flax. Raspberry. dry Hair. Marigold Golden Seal. Red Clover. conditioners. Raspberry. Chamomile. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Echinacea. Oak Bark. Capsicum. Quinine. Patchouli. Quince Seed. Oregon Grape. Sage. Capsicum. Cowslip. Fenugreek. Thyme. Wild Alum. to relieve Nails. Calendula. Comfrey. Cucumber. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Lavender. Seaweed. Rosemary. to add highlights Marigold. Southernwood. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Horsetail Grass. Comfrey. to add sheen Hair. Capsicum. Yarrow. Oats. Rosemary. Citrus Bioflavonoid. White Willow Bark. Coriander. Hops Chamomile. Pine Tar. Witch Hazel. Calendula Oil. Catnip Bayberry. Nettles. rinses. Elder. Fennel. to add highlights Hibiscus. Cucumber Chamomile. Chamomile. Pansy. Chaparral. Broom. Lavender. Parsley. Feverfew. Rose. Comfrey. Elder. Neem. Thyme. Plantain. Quassia. Nettles. Witch Hazel. Comfrey Root. Fenugreek. Camphor. Southernwood. Citronella. Anise Rosemary. Garlic. Jaborandi. Quince Seed. Olive. Bayberry Bark. Orris Root. various seaweeds. Cleavers. Yellow Dock. Brown Henna Rosemary. Roseberries. Rosemary. Alfalfa. Sarsaparilla. Grapefruit. Comfrey. Chamomile. Golden Seal. Sage. Malva Flowers. Echinacea. Elder Flowers. Lemon Peel.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Capsicum Bistort. Rosemary. Melilote. Althea. Dandelion. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Rosemary. Peach Leaf. Comfrey. Arnica. Sage Jaborandi. Wormwood Chamomile. Southernwood. dark Hair. Flax Horsetail Grass. Cade. Capsicum. Figwort. Horsechesnut. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Tilia. Basil. Horsetail Grass. Witch Hazel Bark. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Orange Peel. Basil. Cucumber. Chamomile. Cardamon. Pilewort. Echinacea various oils. Eucalyptus. Peppermint Aloe. Corn Flower Water. Pansy. Myrrh. Golden Seal.
Horsechestnut. Witch Hazel. Calendula. Capsicum. Red Clover. Cleavers. Echinacea. St. St. Yarrow flowers. however. Evening Primrose. Lemons. Horsetail grass. Passion Flowers. Quince. St. Pine. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Capsicum. Capsicum. Pansy. Nettles.206 for Centipeda. Poke Root. Calendula. Cinchona.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Lemon. Violets. Uva ursi Wild Alum. Plantain. John’s Wort. Elder Flowers. Plantain. Primula Flowers. Meillot.804. Orange Flowers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dandelion. Centella. Blue Flag. Witch Hazel. White Pond Lily. Orange Peel. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Tilia. Dandelion. Bistort. Yarrow. Parsley. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Grapefruit. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Bayberry. Birch. Bayberry. Croton. Tilia. Hawthorn. Sage. Witch Hazel. Comfrey. Chamomile. Chickweed. Comfrey. Wild Alum Althea. Garlic. Arnica. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Arnica. Hawthorn Berries. Comfrey. Rose. Licorice. Cucumber. Comfrey. Red Poppy. Mullein. John’s Wort. Slippery Elm bark. 1998. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Slippery Elm. Slippery Elm. Corn Flower. Althea Root. Cucumber. Lemon Grass. Lemon. Echinacea. Lavender.Vinegar. Valerian. Citrus bioflavonoids. Elecampane Skin. Fennel. St. Sept. dry Botanical Cantharides. Seaweed. Comfrey. Dulse. Fennel. Lavender.) Aloe Vera. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Chamomile. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Aloe Vera.Yarrow. Seaweeds. Capsicum. Apple. John’s Wort. Apples. Licorice Cleavers. Oils. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. John’s Wort. Althea Root. Thuja. Ginseng Caraway. Chamomile. Peach. Golden Seal. Wormwood. Colts Foot. Oats. Calendula. Jaborandi.
Licorice root. Internally. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. The female flowers are white and ligulate. elliptical shaped. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. can be found in the main section. 1. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. beard. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. The flowers are polygamous. yellowish-white. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. nourishes the blood. internally used to blacken hair. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. elongated. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. The powder is used on abscess.5 to 5 cm wide. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. The nuts are spherical. tannin. and eyebrows.) STEUD. short stiff hairs. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. and fleshy. wounds. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. sores. Common botanicals such as Lotus. The seeds are also spherical. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. and tonifies the heart.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. yellowish brown. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. rough. etc.5 to 2 cm in diameter. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. wedeloclactone. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. it strengthens the spleen. etc. Ginger. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. 8 stamens. which are coriaceous. It grows in fields and ditches. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. nicotine. Vitamin A. aril white. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. Constituents Saponin.
adenine. vaginal itches. pruritus. yeast infections. sucrose. fats. ringworm. tartaric acid. antiparasitic. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . protein. etc. choline. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema.70. Vitamins A and B.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412.
amino acids. xanthotoxol. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. avoid black tea. weak pulse. Astragalin. edultin. amino acids. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. asthma. used as an aphrodisiac. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. etc. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. any citrus and turnips. dihydrooroseiol.) Bge. dilates the blood vessels. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. Betaine. bornyl isovalerate. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. cnidiankin. a glucoside C20 H20 011. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. Constituents Saponins. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. sugars. it could nourish. insomnia.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. ginsenosides. astragalin-glucose. B-sitosterol. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. berry-like fruits. and has red. alloimperatorin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . isopimpinellin. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. ostol (C15H16O3). L-camphene. cnidiadin. dyspepsia. It is an astringent. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. imperatorin. moisturize. heart palpitations. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. columbianadin (C19H20O5). palmate leaves. deficiency of energy. diabetes. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. folic acid. choline. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. It is also said to promote blood production. and arabinose. isoborneol). hypertension. improves circulation in the skin. lack of appetite. When using Ginseng internally. columbianetin (C14H14O4).
trichosanic acid. tricosanthin. To list all would take several pages. Constituents Triterpenes. protein. SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. (C18H30O2). saponins (ginsenosides). sugar fatty oil.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. and antifungal properties. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These are a few of the constituents. trichokaurin. antibacterial. The root has antipyretic. essential oil. resin. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used.
traumatic injuries. According to Chinese tradition. ginsenosides. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. helps to promote circulation. and is analgesic.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. Internally. and Re. It is said to heal without leaving scars. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. nosebleeds. it has been used in coughing of blood. blood in the stool. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . reduces swelling. etc. Rb2-Rb. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. both internally and externally. dissolves clots. Constituents Saponins. this herb can be used safely in large doses.
glucose. essential oil. rhamnose. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. tannin. 1/3 in. L-typhasterol. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. stearic acid. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. palmitic acid. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. fructose. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. II. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. ziyuglycoside I. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. glucose. and arabinose. anti-inflammatory. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. and a slightly bitter taste. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7.V. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). long. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. Vitamin A. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. Constituents Flavonoids. U. xylose. Cones oblong. sitosterol. It has almost no odor. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. It is also said to be anti-bacterial.
shoddy bark and light. 15 to 30 cm long. obovate-lanceolate shaped. pinene.5 to 1 m high. resin. The basal leaves are clustered. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. It is a hemostatic. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. 5 to 8 cm wide. and is said to have antibacterial. Constituents Thujone. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. flavonoids. becoming smaller on top. and antiviral properties. L. and antipyretic. which has hairs on both surfaces. the base tapers into a winged petiole.-fenchone. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. caryophyllene. having pale. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anthelmintic. tannin. and hermaphroditic. soft durable wood. The flowers are tubular.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. fenchone. reddish-purple. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. Vitamin C. astringent. in height. and pinnatipartite.
The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. and in abscesses.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. 2 to 3 cm long. skin infections. Their base runs into a long sheath. reduces swelling. and 2 to 6 cm wide. The perianth is in 6 segments. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. starch. essential oil. antibacterial. and promotes the healing of the flesh. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). hemostatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 15 to 30 cm long. It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. Constituents Glucose. stigmasterol. The tuber is thick and fleshy. It is used in traumatic injuries. antifungal. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. -amyrin. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface.F. anti-inflammatory. and antibacterial. B-amyrin. and the flowers are rose-violet in color.
having antipyretic properties. acetyl eugenol). sores. erythrodiol. dark brown. It has been used in ringworm. and antiviral. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. antiparasitic. One tree can yield as much as pound. esculetin. and incurved. stamens numerous. Constituents D-borneol. fat. antibacterial. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. Constituents Scoparone. crowded. wax. taste pungent and aromatic. See “Botanical” section for further description.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. essential oil. stearic acid. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. B-caryophyllene. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. and somewhat 4-angled. hydroxydammarone II. humulene. ipterocopal. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. and nasal mucositis. caffeic acid. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. odor strongly aromatic. style 1. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. palmitic acid. chlorogenic acid. oleic acid. with numerous ovules. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. analgesic. Antibacterial. capillarisin. which alternate with the calyx teeth. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length.5 mm in length. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. caryophyllene. conjunctivitis. asiatic acid. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. ovary 2-locular. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. glandular-punctate petals. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. dryobalanone. tannin. boils. etc. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. The dark green. cold sores. linoleic acid. oval. followed by a slight numbness. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. montanic acid. arachidic acid.
which are globose and black. flavonoids. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. The corolla is papilionaceous. The pods are cylindrical. The stem is erect with many branches. and other skin ailments.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. constricted between the seeds. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. The stamens are 10 and free. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. and 1 to 2 cm wide. Constituents Alkaloids. It is used for vaginal infections. 10 to 20 cm long. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. The leaves are alternate. sores. yellowish-white. Excellent remedy for sores. itchy skin. and allergic reactions. imparipinnately divided. The raceme is terminal. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3 to 4 cm long. pruritus.
red. and red eyes. It is applied externally to swollen. obakulactone. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. aching. obakunone. Antiinflammatory. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. ferulic acid. Constituents Berberine. used as an eye wash for sore. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. aesculetin. fraxin. magnoflorine. jatrorrhizine. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. columbamine. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). and swollen eyes. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . coptisine. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. tannin.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. palmatine. fraxetin. Constituents Aesculin.
5 to 1. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. 1 to 3 cm long. The leaves are opposite. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. and 0. ovate shaped. Its stem is erect. their margins sparsely serrate.5 cm wide. The calyx is bilabiate.
The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. Its stem is cylindrical. gamma-linolenic acid. betanidini. 1 to 1. 5 yellow petals.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color.5 to 1. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. 8 to 12 stamens. decumbent or slanting upward. The Chinese. and English consume this plant in salads. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. Constituents GLA. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. beta-cyanin.. abscesses. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. and intestines. Constituents Portulal. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. fleshy. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. antiphlogistic. The flower has 2 sepals. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. boils. betanin. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stomach. It is also a good source for GLA. and often purplish in color. gamma-linolenic acid. French.5 cm wide. Italians. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma.3 cm long. It is used to reduce swelling. snake bites.
246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
4.1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.
90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3. 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6.
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6. 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8.
Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4.
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1. 84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1.
Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. alkaloids. and protein in kernel. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . shiny. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. Constituents Furanocoumarins. Leaves petiolate. firm. sharp recurved spines. simple. Description Main leaf axis has stout. oil. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. Essential. hairy tip acute. and saponin in the seed coat. isopsoralidin. sporalidin. ovate or oblong and inflated. Flowers are dense. covered with numerous black dots. corylifolean. pitted black. glabrous slightly compressed. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. chalcones. campesterol group. Description It is an erect herb. Leaflets about 10 pairs. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). Flowers yellow. Kal-karanj Nuts. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. and Sri Lanka. etc.BENDUC NUT 253 6. tannin. and gray with thick testa. perianth covered withspines. and flavones. Fruit small subglobular. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. circular. Seeds are hard. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. Burma. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. globular. hairs few. roots. starch. ellipticoblong. Several species grow in the United States. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut.
borne on convex flower heads. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. oblong. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. and citrulline. reducing sugar. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). bluish-purple. basal are large. and sulfurcontaining peptides. aspartic acid. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lanceolate. sessile. Few layers of cork cells are present. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. The endodermis is indistinct. margin toothed. phytosterol. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. However. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. flower head white. upper leaves smaller. and for infectious diseases. arresting hemorrhage. Constituents Oil. Flowers about 2 cm long. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. Leaves membranaceous. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. arginine. starch. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. sterols. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. and skin diseases. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. with winged petiole. Seeds also contain protein. Leaves opposite. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis.
Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. terpene alcohols. Leaves simple. Description A medium tree. apex subacute. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations.but white internally. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. The fruit is subglobular. Feathery. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. mucronate. greenish-yellow. arranged densely on the branchlets. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. The oil and root contains camphene. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. slightly broader than long. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. In old samples. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. unisexual. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. stipulate. Flowers are small. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. phyllanthe emblic. slightly recurved. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . linear oblong or elliptic. entire.
Flowers small. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. antispasmodic.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. antipyretic. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. Sri Lanka. antispermatogenic. antidiabetic. taste bitter. tulsi. camphor. antihistaminic. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. ovate compressed. smooth and shining. such as antistress. 2 to 4 inches long. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. corolla 2-lipped. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. opposite. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . exserted. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. testa light-red. A. sacred basil Leaves. flowers. Leaves are simple. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. and luteolin. odorant. style 2-lobed. in terminal raceme-like panicle. antibacterial. Each flower consists of.& Bpinene. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. krishna tulsi. very short. antifungal. elliptic-oblong. seeds. hairy along the veins. apex thick and blunt. antihepatotoxic. antiulcer. cotyledons very oily. CNS-depressant. antiviral. bitter. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. decyladehyde. pubescent calyx. filament slender. margin serrate. apigenin. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. point decurved. subcoriaceous. Leaves pinnate. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. The leaves yield ursolic acid. insecticidal. and carvarol. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. pod woody.
Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. except at the scar. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. Emarginatus. . smooth. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. When dry. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. where it is woody. with a peculiar pungency. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. then bitter. the pulp translucent. glucose. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. pointing to lower and inner angle. pectin. The root bark is rustybrown externally. spirally incurvate. Radicle at the base of the seed. tough. the size of large a pea. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . kaemferol. the testa is double. and as an anthelmintic. the inner membranaceous. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. Properties The seeds.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. The bark contains alkaloids. firm and fleshy. pongamin. cotyledons unequal. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. the berries are the color of a raisin. the skin is shriveled. pengaglabrone. the outer very thick and hard. and butyric acid. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. and other cutaneous diseases. thick. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. pongamol. leaves. sitosterol. each berry is the size of a cherry. singly. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. herpes. rheumatism. Constituents Saponins. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. and translucent. yellow within. The oil is used to treat scabies. S. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. (S. The seed is black.
inflammations. and sugar. gum. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. Leaves heart shaped. scaly. and tonic. deobstruent. flowers small yellow in color. skin diseases such as ulcers. leucoderma. then acrid and bitter. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. garancin. Description A climbing plant. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. alterative. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . freckles. coloring matter. and xanthine. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. and discoloration of skin. alizarin. round violet colored and seeds light black.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. Constituents Roots contain resins. It also has anodyne properties. fruit long. The taste is sweetish at first. Root consists of short stock. Properties The roots are astringent.
Epidermal hairs are few. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. seeds. Leaves usually in pairs sessile. Senna is also a safe purgative. Description An herbaceous plant. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). slightly curved. and combined with Henna. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. nardostechone. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. n-hexaconsanol. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. Flowers in racemes. Tracheids and few fibers. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Himalaya (11. and contain obvate. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. is used to dye the hair black.5% essential oil. resin. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. dark brown. Bhutan. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. It is a good substitute for valerian. Rhizomes long. calarenol. mainly in palpitation of heart.000 to 15. Pods broadly oblong. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. and Nepal. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. and flatulence. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. valeranal. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. nardol. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. Roots contain valeranone. valves papery smooth.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. sugar. Corolla 5-lobed. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. starch. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. nervous headache. oblong or ovate. and bitter extractive matter. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. B-sitosterol. which also contains sesquiterpenes.
Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume
Synonyms: Parts Used:
Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.
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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.
Neem (whole plant)
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PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.
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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Southern India.
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Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed
Synonyms: Parts Used:
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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.
WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.
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gastric stimulant. Iso-zeylinone. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. a mixture of W. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. elliptinone. globose. petiolate and alternate. It is in flower all year long. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. ovate hair-like branches. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. brittle. Licorice powder.3-biplumbagin. as in enlarged glands. Somnifera. Constituents It contains alkaloids. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. Isolation of nicotine. For improving sight. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. tapering. and spermatorrhoea. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. rheumatism. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. loss of memory. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Leaves simple. and starchy. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. It bears small. The dried root is of uniform appearance. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. It is also cultivated. plump. erect. somniferinine. brain lag.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. loss of muscular energy. zeylinone. withanine. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. and droserone. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. greenish or yellow flowers. white internally. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. and appetite stimulant. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. withananine. smooth. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. senile debility. 3. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. fracture short. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. grayish or hoary. smooth. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. somniferine. branching perennial. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. The root is seldom branched.
and cuscohygrine. choline.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. pseudotropine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In addition to alkaloids. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. Roots also contain tropine. Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids.
6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938.
White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Black Ash. Bitter Orange Peel. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. U.270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum.S.
S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba. U. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
calisaya Cinchona. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. pale Cinchona. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. blue Cohosh. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. yellow Cinchona. pale Cinchona. black Cohosh. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh.
Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara.S. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion.
U. U. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum.S. S.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula.
Black Indian Hemp. Black Hellebore. White Indian Hemp. S. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. U. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. Canadian Hemp. S. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. American Hellebore.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp.
276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Green Osier.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. S. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.
278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
S. U.280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica. Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. U. S.S. U. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
F. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. Aloe vera L. Fucus vesiculosus L. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. Betula alba L. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L. Optuntia. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Ruscus aculeatus L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L.) Juglans nigra L. Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. Alnus glutinosa L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Cynara scolymus L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Capsicum annum/frutescens L.
Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Zea mays L. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Inula helenium L. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Allium sativum L. Symphytum officinale L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Symphytum officinale L. Scrophularia nodosa L. Sambucus nigra L. purpurea. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. Geranium maculatum L. Br. & Aschers. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. See Coleus Galium aparine L. Gentiana lutea L. Cucumis sativus L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Centaurea cyanus L. Larrea divaricata Cav. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. spp.
INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Gaertn. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Limm Malva sylvestris L. Hydrastis canadensis L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Amoracia rusticana. Althaea officinalis L. Hedera helix L. Calendula officinalis L. et. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Citrus paradis. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Melissa officinalis L. Solidago Virgaurea L. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L.) Burman F. Schert Equisetum arvense L. Justicia Adhatoda. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Camellia sinensis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mac Fad. Ocimum sanctum linn. Pongamia glabra P. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Centella asiatica L.
Regn. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. papyrifora. ssp. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Trifolium pratense L. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Nasturtium officinale R. Olea europoea L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. & P. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold.L. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Rubus idaeus L. Vinca minor L. Vent. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Mentha piperita L.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Lythrum salicaria L. Tabl. Rheum rhabarbarum L. Pinus silvestris L. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Commiphora molmol. Veget. Papaver rhoeas L. and B. Carica papaya L. Allium cepa L. Engler Myrtus communis L.
John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Juglans regia L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Salvia officinalis L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G.) Tanacetum vulgare L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L.) Acacia Concinna.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. Salix alba L. Betonica officinalis L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Juglans nigra L. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L. Artemisia abrotanum L.
Artemisia absinthium L.) Perre Yucca baccata. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Yucca brevifolia. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L. Gentiana lutea L. Schum. Rumex crispus L. Torr.
The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. It is said that life started in the seas. including: 1. The sea holds an endless source of life. 10. ice cream. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. mineral. and red pigments. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. sea grasses. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. etc. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. and vitamin content. Cryptophyta — Contain green. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. mud baths. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. e 8. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. blue. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. Seawater. 9. Xanthophylls. etc). Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. 4. 2. 3. However. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. 5. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. sauces. body rubs. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. and have even been used to put a head on beer. Xanthophyta. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. as well as vitamins. cosmetics. and sterols. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . They are also used as thickeners in jams. 6. phytoplanktons. high in carotenoids. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds.7 Marine Natural Products 7. 7. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. bath. weeds. and sometimes in seawater.
anthelmintics. and lycine). cranberry. First. pears. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. Kelp is also the main source for algin. cardiac substances. and herbicides. emulsions. such as ursolic acid derivates. diterpenes. and vitamins.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. pharmaceutical. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. fucose polymers. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. B12. furanoterpenes. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. acetylenes. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. prunes. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. growth substances. anticoagulants. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. and C. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. and cosmetic fields. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. sulfur compounds. mainly from some gelidium species. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. emulsion stabilizer. prostaglandins. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. glycine.g. marshmallows. lipids. proline. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. carotenoids. and other fruits. and ice cream as a thickening agent.. B2. for example. polyphenols. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. Therefore. For plating microorganisms. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. it is resistant to microorganisms and. steroids). Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. and imparts slip. and polysaccharides. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. proteins. For example. second. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex.
In addition.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. shampoos. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. B. L. and zinc. antimicrobial agent. Fe. Sargassum contains fructose. B3. galactose. Laminaria longicruris (L. F. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. including iodine. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. and mannitol. calcium. palmitic. iron. Co. phosphorus. Cr. magnesium. potassium. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. both in vivo and in vitro. which is a polysaccharide. Mg. Algin. P. etc. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. There are traces of chloride. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. B. Mn. a synergestic effect was exhibited. fat. B3. B 2. and ointments. and antiglaucomic. iodine. particularly fluoride. and iodide ions. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. B12. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . broadspectrum. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. C. it has a high content of potassium. However. B6. minerals (Zn. in combination with Vitamin E. and carbohydrates. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. protein. antioxidant. creams. myristic. mannitol. phosphorus. and glutamic acid. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. Na. and lauric acids). I. A). K. Ca). which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. salads. lotions. bromide. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. sodium. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. B6. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. B12. oleic. potassium. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium.
Echinus esculentus L. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic. rheumatism. a well-known anti-inflammatory. which means it is a self-sufficient. alginic acid. fucans. It is a single-cell protein. sulfated. Lyngb. Chlorella contains over 60% protein.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. mainly iodine (0. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. the Pacific. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues).3. and the Baltic Sea. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Halidrys siliquosa L. polar lipids. sterols as free fucosterol.1%). Eisenia contains a complex polymer. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. containing all the essential amino acids. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O.02 to 0.6 Fucus contains trace minerals.000).8 mg/100 g 1. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity.500 IU/100 g 180. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. single-cell. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. and as a massage for cellulite.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). sulfonate. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols. F. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. phlorotannins.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. polysaccharides.
8% 18.2% 55.06 w/w% 0.0% 20.40 w/w% 4.3 mg 26.46 w/w% 1. In a controlled study.469 mg 613 mg 1.08 mg Potter. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).26 w/w% 2. 14-15.2% 4. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation.S.70 w/w/% 2. The Emerald Food. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation.93 w/w% 3. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.38 w/w% 3.1% 0. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.09 w/w% 3. pp.64 w/w% 1. Spirulina Spirulina.80 w/w% 0.8 mg 1.500 IU/100g 180.6 mcg 0. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll.45 w/w% 2. et al. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3. B.78 w/w% 6.9 mcg 191.63 w/w% 5.9 mcg 15.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.5% 11.29 w/w% 3. Moreover..08 w/w% 0. Chlorella.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.A. It is found in both brackish and fresh water.29 w/w% 2. Dr.20 w/w% 2.5 mg 4. called the Chlorella Growth Factor.64 w/w/% 5.8 mg 1.59 w/w% 3. Tests performed by the U.6% 60..7 mg 125.8 mg 1. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.
294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). K. Biotin. Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0.A. etc. Cr. Spirulina. carotenoids. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. B12 Folacin. Na. B3. Ge. B2.40) B1..L.A. as it is high in plant protein. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca. P. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. Fe. Zn. Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. lipids (4 to 7%). minerals. G. and minerals (5 to 10%). Mn. vitamins. Mg. Cu. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. B6.L. at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Related unicellular microorganisms. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. Thus. 7. and ascidians. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. or temperature.13 6. but no chemical study has been reported. barbamide. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. and chlorophyta. including phaeophyta. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. bacteristatic. the following being some examples: 1. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. microcolin C. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which although poorly known. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. bactericidal.11 4. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. Oahu. were isolated from marine organisms.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. plant. the search is only beginning. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. Significant compounds. having distinct anti-cancer properties. the Bacteria. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. sponges. such as the curacins. are common in marine environments. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. as a soothing demulcent. penazetidines.10 3.8 The results obtained are quite promising. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas. antillatoxin.9 2. melemeleones. soft corals. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada.12 5. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. and marine organisms. pressure. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. Unfortunately. anti-inflammatory. such as those of elevated salinity. kalkitoxin. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. cyanophyta. anticancer. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. and imidazole disulfides.
and the theonellapeptolides. Cyanovirin-N. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria. actinomycetes.19 12.16 9. and gorgonians.15 8. and true symbionts from sponges. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. which display a variety of pharmacological activities.. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media.18 11. the eudistomins. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. fungi. A series of B-carboline derivatives. the swinholides. antimicrobial.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. a unique anti-viral protein. tunicates. which produce anti-tumor compounds. and cytotoxic activities. including potent antiviral. including corals and sponges.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia.17 10. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins.
have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. E. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa.30 23.29 22. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. Several new classes of compounds. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp.34 27. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle. Isolation of Microcolin C.24 17. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins. Many novel. Okoadene and Mailidene. Isolation of Dysidiolide. and F. Phorbas sp. cytotoxic natural products. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines.38 31. B. immunopotentiating. including makaluvamines A. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii. discorhabdin A. latrunculin B and swinholide A.21 14. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges). were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents. phorboxazole A and B.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .25 18.33 26.39 32. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina.31 24. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum.23 16. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line.35 28. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Diamirone B. D.36 29.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13.26 19. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp.37 30. were isolated from the marine sponge. a novel. makaluvone. C. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. New antimycotics. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic. Cyclomarin A. and anti-tumor promoting properties.22 15.27 20. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp.28 21. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges.32 25.
.. Rodriguez. 7. ibid P 155. I. G. Mar. 36. J. 26. Blunt. and Walter. P. R. J. Can.T.. Davidson.. D.J. McKee. ibid P 27. ibid P 151.D.A. and Boyd. M. Pharmaceut. L. 23.A. B.K. Boyd. R.W. N...E. R. Slate....A. D. ibid S 15.A.R.E. D. S.. G.R.. ibid P 149. 5. ibid O 10.. J. M.. ibid P 36. J. J...-D. Meeting. K. K. B. W. L. Carney.. and Crews. D. D.. S. Rea. Gunasekera.. Beverly A.. Mabeau.C. Ragan. D.A. 1996. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Chikarmane..A... and Munro.. ibid P 26.. K. Andrew. and Bauer.. H.. Lill. and Hung. Gulakowski. Cardellina. Green.J. A. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae.. M. Ph. L. 1977.. Santa Cruz (UCSC)..-P... et al. Harrison. 39.. C. Mendola. Solimabi.. J. T. ibid O 25. Lam. and Kerr. and Joseleau. 6. O’Keefe. N.. and Thompson. T..A. 22. 33. ibid P 150.B. J. Hook.. S.C. and Scheuer. 17. Papers presented at the 37th Annu. R. H. Sci. 401-414. Crews.A.. 37. 21.. and Afzelius. and Harrigan.. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. S 8.. ibid S 9. M.. Chlorella.E.. J.M. B.. 14-15. L. Schumacher.. July 27-31.A. Allen. S... K..A.. 19.-Y. Sheehan.. July 27-31. ibid O 49. L. 12. 8. J. 35. W. Lassota. M.. T. Suecica. 18.. Schmitz.. Abstr. Wilkins. M. and Ireland.. J. Lidgren. T.G. S. 13. ibid O 7.. P.. Screening of biological activity.. and Hamann. M. A.. Fulton. and Scheuer.. 27. Clark. and Russel G. Smith.. ibid O 38.. pp. Shoemaker.. Natural Prod. Mendola. 63. ibid P 28. Copp. 34.H. Fucus Vesiculosus L.S. 56(4).. Major. Kloareg. Pomponi. R.P. Barrows.. and Yavor.. W. O’Sullivan.. and Munro. R. J. and Kelly. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae.H.. Erim. Shangxiao.R. Hemling. Potter.P. L.. C. D.S. 30. 16... Y. El Sayed.J.. Perry... ibid P 156. Bringano. ibid P 25. Yoshida.F.F.. T. J. 32. J... Westley.. Franklin. L.. P. 10. C. 24. K. O’Keefe.. J. R.P.. 9. D.. Acta Pharm. McInnes. M..-R. L. 478-488.. Zheng.. L... 2441-2446. A. ibid P 141. 1996. S. Hargraves.. 14.. Chan.T. and Gerwick.. ibid S 23.J. 180... ibid P 9. G. Plubrukarn. Haden.. 11. and Rodriguez. Kerr.. Janus. Lawry. L.G.. S.. R...J. G. B. Gerard. J. and Molinski. M. ibid P 154. G. G.. 1993... Gulakowski. and Gould. Zhang. Carte’. ibid O 36. Castor. A. F. and Crews.. ibid O 11.F.. W..A. 25... Hamel. J. B.. B. 1985. Bohlin. Duh.W. 2. D... Goins.K. 6. I. 3. Coleman. R. Forenza. S.J.J. Nakao. Dhyana. S.. Heath. O 50. P.G. B. Searle. 1983. S. Maranda. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. Brzezinski. The Emerald Food.M. T. Lloyd. J. L. P.J. P.. K. 64. and Wang. Janda. D.E. and Baker. 40. M. Andersen. ibid P 19.. J..Y.. M. 29. ibid S 22. P.. H.. Baker..A.R. B. 29.. B.. P. 20. J... 304-313.. Varoglu. Dumdei. and Cardellina.. Ind. Ferrante. Gustafson. and Francis. Chem. Andersson.. McCarthy. Hong. R. Wright. C. M..A. Gerwick. Beutler. Dunbar. Al. Brielmann. and Kelly-Borges. and Bair... Haygood. ibid P 145..... 4. J. Harrigan. S.J. Sci. 1990. T. Javor. ibid O 26.. R. Pettit. ibid P 30. B. Xie. McMahon. 38.. Gush. J. de Silva. H. Ogren. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy. J. D. Haughey.W.A. J. J.P. 1258. Yoo.J. McCombs. Linton. Gerwick.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. M. J. P. H.S.. 20(6). P. 15. Magni. 1975. G. E.. C. and Leahy.. J.K. Mokinski... S. Venables. M. M. P. Phytochemistry.. 28. J.J. ibid S 14. UCSC. W... McMahon. K. Jayatilake. M. Fernandes.. Freyer... ibid P 31. B.T. Bewicke. 31. B. Blunt.H. El-Sayed. J. and Hamann.M.
. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.00 0. 5. Therefore. PROCEDURE: 1.5 (±0.10 0.00 q.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .00 10. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.2) with Sequence 5.60 21. Rohm & Haas. 207 19th Avenue. Adjust pH to 5.10 0. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature.s. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes. Adjust pH to 9. 8. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc. Henkel.s. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used.2 (±0. 4. either alone or in combination with other products. 2. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products./Lipo Chemicals.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.00 10.00 6. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC.10 0. In main kettle. 5. 3. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. NJ 07504. Inc. Patterson. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous.10 q.
3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Procedure: 1.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.s.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural. 10.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.10 q. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.10 q.00 10. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. high-foaming. Adjust pH to 9.00 6. Inc.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq.10 0.2 (±0.10 0. 3.50 15.00 20. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31.00 0.5 (±0. Henkel. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 4.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. In main kettle. Adjust pH to 5. 6. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Inc. 5. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. 7. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.10 0. Rohm & Haas. combine Sequence 1 ingredients.s.00 0. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. at room temperature. Lipo Chemicals.00 1. 6. 2. Amerchol.
Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform. 2.F.00 0. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine. Procedure: 1.50 1.10 0.95 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In main kettle at room temperature.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. 3. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed.45 0. Goodrich Co. 4. 6. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals.00 1. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch.10 0.FORMULATIONS 301 8. 5. Inc. Aqualon.(Induchem).00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform.10 5.50 3.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65. B. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens. Inc.
combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. Procedure: 1. At 30°C. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .s.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals.54 5. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.96 63. Inc. add Sequence 3 to correct shade.10 0. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.10 q. Cool to 30°C. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C.10 0.00 10. In main kettle. 3.00 5.00 0. 2. At 25°C. Inc.10 0.10 0.
60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved.10 0. 3.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No.10 0.FORMULATIONS 303 8.10 0.10 0. BASF. In main kettle. Givaudan Corp.28 0. Cool to 25°C.50 0.02 0.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base. Begin cooling. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Procedure: 1.05 6. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C .10 0. Haarmann & Reimer Corp. Inc. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2. Inc.10 0.00 2.50 0. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.00 4. Fanning Corp.
Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.10 0. 10% sol’n Supplier B.00 0.25 0.10 g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92. 8. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4. Inc.10 0.88 45.00 0.s. 4.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31.05 0. Spl Phosphoric acid.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.70 2.80 0. 3. Cool to 60°C.05 20. F. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940. Inc. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized.82 0.30 0.00 0. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext.75 0. 2. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel. Procedure: In main kettle.00 5.
99% Hypan SA100H 25. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C.FORMULATIONS 305 8.00 0. B.00 5.10 0. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine. 2. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp.70 1. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem). Goodrich. Lipo Chemicals.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5.20 0. Guardian Chemicals. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible.F. Procedure: 1.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0.05 1 2 Triethanolamine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity. 3.00 2. Inc.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin. Lipo (Kingston).30 0.
answering to the pollen of phaenogams. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . one-celled. like the leaves of pines. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. with firm pericarp. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. or flower-arrangement. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Alveolate: Honey-combed. or Akene: A dry. Acicular: Needle-shaped. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. as ferns. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. containing the pollen. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). the fecundating material from an antheridium. indehiscent. Achaenium. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). one-seeded fruit. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age.
the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Axillary: Growing in an axil. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary. with two leaves. Bulb: An underground discoid stem. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Blisters: See Vesicants. the hilum and the chalaza being together. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Cardamon). Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. meristematic cells.. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Bi-: Signifying double. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. as bi-foliate.g. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. stiff hairs. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. Atropous: With erect ovule. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. Appendages: Superadded parts.g. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Bracteate: Possessing bracts.g. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. cinnamic). Nutmeg).. Castor seed). Calcarate: Spurred. rare in present times)..g. Bacca: A berry. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. Carina: The keel.. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Capitate: With globose head. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Capsule: A dry. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. Apetalous: Without petals. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. Bristles: Sharp. a pulpy. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. carrying the ovary.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy.
. Coriaceous: Leathery. from which they hang when ripe. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Cortex: The bark. thick. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. indehiscent fruit. Cespitose: Tufted. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. Caudex: The axis. upright rhizome. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. outer layer. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Cohesion: Attachment. Convolute: Rolled up. usually distinct. Cilia: Marginal hairs. Clavate: Club-shaped. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Costa: The midrib. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. one-celled. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. become joined. Umbelliferous fruits). Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. Cathartic: A purgative. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Corm: A solid. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. one-seeded. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. tuber-like. Caudale: Having a hairy style. Connate: where two parts. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. Contorted: Twisted. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Also a name given to a short. Caulis: The stem. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior.g. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Cordate: Heart-shaped.
Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. etc. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Deliquescent: Dissolving. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Didymous: In pairs. Decompound: Many times compound. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. or tending to fall. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Didynamous: With four stamens. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Deciduous: Falling off. Crispate: Curled. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. two long and two short. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. producing intellectual confusion. downward throughout the length. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. not exceeding 20 (stamens).310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Determinate: Definite. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. dividing into irregular branches. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Deltoid: Triangular. Deflexed: Bent. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. lymphatic. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Dichotomous: Forked. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Discoid: With convex face. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Definite: Constant. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately.
Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Fibrils: Root-hairs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Entire: Without marginal divisions. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. wood. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. nearly parallel. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Echinate: Prickly. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. Episperm: The coat of seed.g. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. E: Signifies deprived of. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. Etiolated: Blanched. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. the ovary. or borne on. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. and bark. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. purgation). wood. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting.. Epidermis: The true skin. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Exogenous: Having bark. Distichous: In two opposite rows. the outermost layer. Epigynous: Adnate to. Extrorse: Turned outward. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Escharotics: See Caustics. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. without. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. and pith distinct. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. Farinaceous: Resembling flour.
312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. Fid: Cleft. as in the cypress and juniper. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Furcate: Forked. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Flexuose: Wavy. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules.g. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Fimbriated: Fringed. the point of attachment. etc. Flocculose: Woolly.. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. algae. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. as petals and leaves. Glabrous: Smooth. as bifid. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. orange). Globose: Roundish. more swollen on one side than on the other. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. Filiform: Thread-like. devoid of hairs. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. having both stamens and pistil (flower).
Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits).GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Jointed: Having. Inferior: Growing below another. joints or nodes. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. etc.e. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. Incanescent: Hoary. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. rabbits. squirrels. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. layer. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves.. Causing watery evacuations. the lower petal of an orchid. inflammation. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Imbricated: Overlapped. or appearing to have. Laxative: A mild purgative. Inflexed: Bent inward. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. Keel: See Carina. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Internode: Interval between nodes. Inarticulate: Not jointed. Innate: Adhering to apex. i. Labellum: (Lip)..e. dogs. Lacinate: Fringed. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. cats. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. on the receptacle. i. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. Lacuna: A space between cells. like shingles. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. Lateral: Attached to the side. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. as innate anther. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. two or three times longer than broad. and irritation. Involute: Rolled inward. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. either by mechanical or chemical action. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth.
Masked: Labiate. leaves. Monogynous: Having one carpel. with upper lobes largest. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. Locusta: The spike of grasses. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary).314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Ligulate: Strap-like. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). found at the ends of young stems. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. Monospermous: One-seeded. style. and roots. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. often caused by fungus infection. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Monopetalous: Having petals united. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Multifid: Many-cleft. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Muricate: Rough. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Medulla: The pith of exogens. or stigma. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with hard tubercles. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Monandrous: Having one stamen. Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. but with lipclosed (flower). Lobate: Divided into lobes. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Linear: Narrow. with parallel sides.
Octandrous: Having eight stamens. rounded. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Pedatifid: Pedate. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). in large doses. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Pedate: Palmate. Nut: A hard. one-celled fruit. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. thick runner. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Oblique: Unequal sided. Obsolete: Suppressed. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. with lobes nearly free. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. having tufts of leaves at extremity. the wings. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. apex broad (leaf). Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Obtuse: Blunt.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Parasitic: Growing upon. Orbicular: Circular. indehiscent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. death. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Pedatipartite: Pedate. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Offset: A short. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. as ergot. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. and the keel. with lateral divisions again subdivided. as in the pea-flower. another plant. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. and nourished by.
Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. female. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . few-seeded. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). two or more celled. Pome: An inferior.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Petals: The corolla leaves. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Petaloid: Resembling petals. Pentandrous: Having five stamens. resembling a mouth. Pod: A general name given to dry. Pendulous: Hanging down. and the like. Personate: Masked. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. pointed cells. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Pubsecent: Downy. fleshy fruit. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. usually of family Leguminosae. squash. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. indehiscent. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. dehiscent fruits. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. melon. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. with petiole attached at or near the center. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Peltate: Shield-shaped. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. and perfect flowers on the same plant. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Polygamous: With male. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Pilose: Hairy. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. Pinnate: Resembling a feather.
Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Sheath: See Ocrea. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. with deep notch in middle (leaves). with reflexed margins (estivation). Sclariform: Barred or striated. Reduplicate: Valvate. winged. Runner: A slender. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. Retuse: Obtuse. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Recurved: Bent backward. Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. Scarious: Thin. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Setae: Stiff. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Radical: Springing from roots. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. prostrate stem. its function being to support the flower organs. Saccate: Sac-like. etc. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). and producing pustules. dry. Retrorse: Directed backward. with wide lips (corolla). Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. creeping. and shriveled. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. Reclinate: Bent downward. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . indehiscent. Ringent: Labiate. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). bristly hairs.. such as glands. Runcinate: Jagged margin. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Revolute: Rolled backward. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. bearing leaves and rootlets. one. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. rooting and budding at nodes. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak.or two-celled fruit.
Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. Squamose: Scaly. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Ternate: Arranged in threes. Tendril: A thread-like. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Soboles: Slender rhizomes. Sporangium: A spore-case. Subulate: Awl-shaped. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). spiral branch. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. dehiscing from below upward. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. may be modified leaf or stem. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. with short hairs. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Suture: A line of junction. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. falsely two-celled pod. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner).318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). Spine: A pointed modified branch. leafless. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. bearing the stigma. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. in pairs. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Tomentose: Pubescent. Stipitate: Stalked. and one short pair.
one-celled. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Trichomes: Hairs. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root..GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Lucius E. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Volute: Rolled up. pp. Sayre. Uncinate: Hooked. Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). 1895. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. Versatile: Freely swinging. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Vexillum: The standard. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. Utricle: A superior. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Zones: Concentric bands. 529-536. few-seeded fruit. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Toxic: Poisonous. Verticel: A whorl. Valvate: United only by the margins. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla.
Bruneton.. I and II.A. 2. Inc. 1996. 1902. Grieve. J. Foter. 8. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. E. Bladt. Boca Raton.. Vol. The Merck Index.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1... 1994. MO. FL. 1964. NY. 3rd ed. Biddles. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Paris.E. 1983. V. N. Herbs of Choice. 1992.. Wagner and S. 20. A. Tease and Evans. 16. Natural Products Chemistry. Vol. 4th ed. Philadelphia. Robert E. Nakanishi et al. 1971. 24. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. 1993.. Biddles. London. 1995. 1936. Haworth Press. Potter & Clarke. Ltd. Tyler. FL. 18. Ltd. 15. I and II. Wall.. Boca Raton. 1.C. 2nd ed. MD. Chicago. St. 1992. 1974.. Wallis. 23. Bournemouth.E. New York. CRC Press. Haworth Press.. 1997. FL 1992. 12th ed. 2nd ed. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. Mack Publishing. British Herbal Compendum. SpringerVerlag. 12. 17. Bailliere Tindall. 1932.. Washington. Bisset. Boca Raton. The Essential Oils. V. Ltd. 10. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations.. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 5. H.. & A. Guenther. Huntington.. British Herbal Medicine Association. The Honest Herbal. Aug.E. American Pharmaceutical Association. New York. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. Notes on Parmacognosy. 11. Blakiston’s Son & Co. J.. MIS Publication. 6. New Jersey. G. Churchill Ltd. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. 3. Duke. Academic Press. 9. K. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. 7th ed. 14. Louis. New York. T.A. 1930. 1–7. A. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. 1996. 7. Y. PA. Wren. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. Lavoisier. Vol. 1996. 21. U. Berlin.K. 1975. Plant Drug Analysis. 13th ed. British Herbal Medicine Assoication.. 1960. D. Ehrhart & Karl. Pharmacognosy.C. IL. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. Dover Publications. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. 1995. 4th ed. J. CRC Press. 1990.W. J. A Modern Herbal. R. 1989.K. U. Stuttgart. CRC Press. Duke.. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. Krieger Publishing. The National Formulary XVIII. John Wiley & Sons. U. 19. P.K. O. London. 1994. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rockville. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Tyler. Merck Research Laboratories. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. Vol... 4. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Merck & Co. Leung and S. H. M. 22.. Youngken... 13. New York.
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