This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.
CRC Press Boca Raton New York
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:
Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.
Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. Chinese. to use plants wisely.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. Originally. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. always wanting to find a more active plant. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mithridates. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. experimenting. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. Let it reflect brightly upon us. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. men like Shen Nong. Dioscorides. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. Galen. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. But more than anything. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. As formulators and purveyors. and Avicenna. Theophratus. And then the Babylonian. Initially. Over time. observing. Always wanting to know more. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. sorting.
Inc. vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists.AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. Frank D’Amelio. Sr. He founded BioBotanica. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals.
Special thanks to Professor Dr. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. and assistance in editing the manuscript. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. patience. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility.
............................................................26 3.....1.......................................................................................5 1..................................................................1 1...................................7 Glycosides ..........................................................................................................................3......................1...................8 Volatile Oils.1...............3.................................................................4 Proteins .................................................................11 2...............................................................................................................................................4 4......1....................3..........................................................9 2.............5 1................................................................................................................................................................................2 Macromorphology .........................................8 Gas Chromatography..............................5 Yield to Solvents .................2 4..6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems............................................3 Procedures .......................11 2............39 Percolation ...............................1 1..11 References ..........1 Microscopical Techniques...............................................11 2...43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ...............................................1 1...........................................................................................................................1 Forms 4....................1...............................10 2............1 1......................................CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1..............5 Alkaloids..........9 2.................2 Solubilities ................................................................................................1 Plant Identification ......................1 Botanical Terminology ............................14 3...........................................23 3..........................1........................3.........................................................................................1...................................................3 Tannins.....................6 Carbohydrates............................1..............................................................................26 3......................................................9 Adulteration of Drugs ..............1..1 Constituents of Drugs...................................39 Extraction Terminology...................1 Liquids ............................................42 Fluid Extracts .....30 3............................................................................................................3 Micromorphology...........................................9 Resins and Resin Combinations .............2 1....................1..7 Methods of Identification..............................................................................3.................35 Chapter 4 4...............................1.............................10 2.............6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2..............................25 3....10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ....................13 3................5 Preparations of Extracts .......11 2...............41 Infusions .....3 Physical Constants.................................................................................................5 Infrared Spectroscopy.................1 4...24 3..3....................................40 Decoctions .........................7 Assay Procedures ....4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents....................................28 3.....1...............................................................................................................................1 1...............................................................................................................6 Ash Determination .................................2 1.4 Ultraviolet Light ................2 Some Common Terminology ..............................................................................11 2...............3...........................1.................................................................................................................................................1..............................3 4.....................................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3.........................................................................2 Phenols ..............
......6 Spray Moisturizer ................................6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table.................................................................................................................................... and Standardization.......................................................................51 6.....300 8.............4.............................1.............11 Tinctures ..................................................................233 6...................................45 Extracts Strengths..........................2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products.............................................................................................................7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe .............301 8............................................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table........................................................299 8.........................................10 4..................................269 6..2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy....................................9 4....7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ...1........1 History ...................................................................5 Indian Botanicals.............307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ............................3 Cellulite Gel Base ........225 6...........................................................................................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6..................................... Concentration................................................229 6.......................1 Marine Algae..........................1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo............................................ Properties........4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics ................49 5...1.....................4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil ..............2 Hair Care Botanicals .......283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7........305 Chapter 9 Glossary......................................................................................8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC.................46 Product Strength.......................................................................1....5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+............45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ...............46 Oleoresins ................................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ..............253 6.....................1................289 7...............................................................2 Natural Shampoo..................................................................................................................................................................................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table .........48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5.....................8 4.....................................................................................7 4.......................... Range....298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8......304 8..............304 8..................................6 4...........................303 8..............................................................302 8..........295 References ...................................... Description......................................................................... and Constituents .1 Habitat...247 6.....................1......................................4.........................................
leaves.1. and coumaric acids. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. 1. They are widely distributed in plants. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. etc. and waxes. Recently. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. In the treatment of burns. (3) tannins. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. (8) volatile oils. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. (5) alkaloids. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. (6) carbohydrates. myristyl. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. have astringent action.1. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. 1. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. In plants. spores. TS). They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins. they are stored in seeds. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. palmitic. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. They are generally soluble in water. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. (2) phenols. (4) proteins. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. and usually bitter taste. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. barks. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. In most cases. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. When applied to living tissues.1. fats. hence. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. glycerol. 1. fats.1.1 Phytochemistry 1. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. (7) glycosides. they are also called triglycerides. roots. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. and waxes (lipids).2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. stems. ferulic.
carboline. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. quinoline. oil-bearing plant seeds. hydrogen. antitoxins. indole. which are the building units. 1. (2) polysaccharides. In fact. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. gymnosperms.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. for example: colchicine.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. Proteins are derived from amino acids. purine. bark. isoquinoline. but mostly in fruits. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. imidazole. (a) monosaccharides.1. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. roots. Being basic in chemical character. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. serums. and seeds. Whole glandular products. leaves. phenanthrene. piperidine. which end in -in. they form water-soluble salts with acids. and oxygen. stems. possessing some marked physiological action. pyridine. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. (b) obligosaccharides. and cryptogams.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. tropane.1. and steroidal. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. and (3) derived carbohydrates. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. brucine. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. uronic acids. fucose Digitoxose. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. melibiose ii. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. and thickeners. cymarose.4. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. Glycogen. cellobiose. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). They include hemicellulose. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. emulsifiers. alginates. 3. and apiose. b. iii. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. amorphous substances. and Example Rhamnose. e. trihalose Reducing: maltose. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. consisting simply of 1. 2. Monosaccharides. their sulfate esters. tri-. a. D-xylose. gums. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss.6-linkages. mucilages. d. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. digitalose (these are 2. and tetrasaccharides i. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. Gums are soluble in water. suspending agents. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. It is a linear polysaccharide. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pentoses: L-arabinose. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. sarmentose.and B-1. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. ii. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). gentiobiose. L-galactose. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. transluscent. g. D-fructose (levulose). It is an alpha-1.6-linked polyglucan. oleandrose. c. galacturonic Glucosamine. stabilizers. diginose. Unlike cellulose. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). pectins.2)-fructofuranose units.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. and some microbial polysaccharides. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. epimarose. turanose.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. galactosamine b. it is formed of amylose. f. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. gelling agents. True sugars a. Therapeutically. It contains both B-1. Cellulose.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). lactose. i. D-ribose. or amino sugars. which is a straight chain of alpha1. Inulin. Polysaccharides (non-sugars).
by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. Apiaceae. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides.g. 1.g.g. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e. for example. the sugar component is called the glycone. and defensive roles. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility..7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that..g. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). 9.g.1. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. crocin and picrocrocin.. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures.g. detoxifying. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). or adenosine).. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. 2. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin. in the liver of fish. Other glycosides do. In N-glycosides (e. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e. sennosides. Phenol (e... Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species. however. Occasionally.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1. 6. Depending on the plant family. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources.. and Asteraceae. 7. Rutaceae.. 4. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e.g.g. There are also C-glycosides (e. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. 3.g.g.g. 11. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. digitoxin) Saponin (e. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. Such glycosides. arbutin) Alcohol (e. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond. sinigrin) Steroid (e. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae).1. for example. daphnin) Flavone (e. In S-glycosides (e. for example.g. Lamiaceae. occur. digitoxin. Myrtaceae. In the conifers. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone.. The chief families are Pinaceae. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. sinigrin). Lauraceae. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. 5. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis.g. 10. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues. They are products of plant metabolism.g. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. salicin is an analgesic. as sugar reserves. representing about 87 families). strophanthin. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone. are the most common ones found in nature. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin)... Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. 8. regulating. and barbaloin are laxatives. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. for example.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. 1.g.. glucosamine. 12. rutin) Anthraquinone (e. cascarosides.. sometimes called O-glycosides..
9. and odor characteristics. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. etc. etc. In addition. Ester volatile oils: lavender. or parasiticides. etc. 3. coriander. and in orange. Resins. and tobacco. fennel. bitter almond. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). chemical. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. mild antiseptics. etc. 8. Classification 1. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. In most cases. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. are hard. In general. They can be used for their therapeutic action. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. cajuput. These substances. nutmeg. beverages. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. Ethers: anise. for example. spearmint. etc. cade. lemon. cassia bark. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. lemongrass. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. however. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. horsemint. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. dill. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. tend to resinify on exposure to air. For example. parsley. juniper. rosemary. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. as a class. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. thyme. geranium. However. wintergreen.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). 4. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. only in the pericarp. themselves. chenopodium. 1. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. 5. anthelmentics. neroli. only in the bark and leaves. star anise. diuretics. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. 6. local irritants. 7. turpentine. Undoubtedly. is rich in camphor. but in few instances. ajowan. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. local stimulants. confections. sweet orange. transparent or translucent brittle substances. cosmetics. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. etc. in cinnamon. clove. etc. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent.1. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. they are widely used in perfumery. however. in the mints. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. resulting in less food spoilage. rose. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. sandalwood. etc. carminatives. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. pharmaceuticals. in umbelliferous fruits. etc. 2.
resin acids.g. resenes (neutral inert compounds). on evaporation. When heated in a closed vessel.. gr. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities. they are of pathological origin. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. without volatilization or decomposition. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects.. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). resins soften and finally melt. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. It is noteworthy to mention here that. forming solutions which.. 0. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. They are not pure chemical substances. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. but do not contain any nitrogen. in rare cases (e. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. For example. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin).g. carbon bilsulfide). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and medullary rays cells). They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. but when heated in the air. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified.g. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured.25). in the vessels. Family Coccidae. shellac). In plants. and resenes. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. that is. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. Many products (e.. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. acetone. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. when freshly powdered. wood parenchyma. in Guaiacum wood.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. mastic). they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. resinotannols.9–1. resin alcohols. colophony. order. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. chloroform.g. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. Chemically. which is called secondary flow. resin cells (ginger).. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). and ether. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. they occur as tyloses. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. as in case of Pinus. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. In this case. they are divided into resin alcohols. Laccifer lacca. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure.e. with few exceptions (e. viz. and glandular hairs (cannabis). Hemiptera. and glycosidal resins. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. fibers. resins occur in different secretory structures. esters. On this basis. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. as well as in fixed and volatile oils. On heating at comparatively low temperatures.
Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. viz. roots. respectively — both contain volatile oil. for example. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. they can be separated from resins rather easily. nonadhesive solutions with water. in seaweeds. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. copaiba. they form a mixture of pentoses. Jalap. ointments.e. counter irritants. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. cough syrups. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. Mucilages are viscous. xylose. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). These are. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae.. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. Balsams. etc. they can be incorporated into lotions.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. being called glycoresins. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. etc. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. Another is flax seed. like most seeds. on the other hand. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. parasiticides. (anywhere soothing is required). The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. creams. that form colloidial. and Podophyllum.) In general. barks. therefore. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). which contains no volatile oil. and anthelmintics. or esters of these acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. antispasmodic. and seeds. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. asafoetida). Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. cathartics. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. Probably. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). purgatives. mouthwashes.g. shave creams. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). leaves. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. arabinose. flowers. and malva (Malva sylvestris). Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. and uronic acids. hexoses. and Canada balsam. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. liquid or semi-liquid substances. Guttiferae). On hydrolysis. expectorants. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. glucose. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. In some cases. carminatives. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. fruits. (e. the mixtures being called gum-resins. balsam of Copaiba.
gauze. by which it is exhausted of potash. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. As with the raw materials. etc. treatment with a solvent. expression. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. water. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation).2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained.. etc. having a bottom outlet. by traction. 2. In pharmacy. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .g. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. distillation. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. or by chemical or physical means.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. the solution commonly known as lye. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum.. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. or alcohol and water. also referred to as the spent herb. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it.). extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. ether. acetone. suction. cotton) below.
Most of the time.3 PROCEDURES 2. That is. the factors for the other objectives can be determined. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. The diameter of fibers. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. 2.0025 mm. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. for example.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. also known as micrometers. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . botanical laboratory.C. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions.125 mm. the width of vessels. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0.125 mm = 125 µ. and not the object itself. always using a definite tube length. the height of sclerenchymatous cells. because it is the magnified object. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale. if an object. both of which are carefully counted.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. its true size is 50 0. then the value of each division of the latter is 0.0025 mm = 0.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. Q. that is compared with the scale. 0. examined with the same objective and tube length as above.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured.001 mm). as well as identification of commercial starches. In the same manner. By its use.3. Therefore. the scale of 1 mm. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. However.
volatile oil. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether.3. 1960. viscosity. such as hydrastis. E. G.3. 11th ed. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome. especially if they are present in the powdered form. Churchill Ltd. malaccensis. resins. vitamins. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples. optical rotation. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. D.3.. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. Other drugs. W.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity. E. UV light provides very useful information. Similarly. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. 2.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. 1978. Some pieces of rhapontic. 2. and similar substances. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. For certain drugs. 2. calumba. the yield to water of liquorice root. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .3. and Evans. London.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. digitalis and henbane leaves). London.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. Bailliere Tindall. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent..BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. they will give a high total ash value. viburnum. In this way. 90%. 2. REFERENCES Wallis.3. Trease. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence. T.. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. 2. Textbook of Pharmacognosy..5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents.. J.3. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter.g. 4th ed. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. balsams. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. C. However. A. Pharmacognosy. glycosides.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e.. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. for example. oleo-resins. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article. Derris elliptica. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash.
and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. providing that they were dried properly. distillation. percolation. lipidic extraction. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. There are many forms of extracts available. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. fruit. and microscopy. flower. root. Fortunately. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. ash content. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. If this is not specified. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard.. stem. then maceration. organic solvents (ethanol. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. odor. counter current extraction. identification can be confusing. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. ask for it by its common name first. Many plants have common names and. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water.e. For example. One should start with botanical terminology. methanol. i. etc. etc..3 Quality Control 3. leaf. therefore. seed. etc. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. This starts with the proper solvent system. color. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . super critical fluid extraction.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. canadine. When ordering a botanical. As seen in the example. or the entire plant. hexane). then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. and other tests like loss on drying. and berberine. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical.
Cowhage). viz. For systematic study. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark).. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. Dusting powders: One should be able. and hairs (Kamala. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). Quassia Wood. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. primary phloem. 2 is that of an angiosperm. starches. 3) is a representative example. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. to differentiate between mineral powders. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. 3. secondary phloem. Lupulin. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. while Fig. pollen grains. however. 2. 1. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. Fig. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. glands. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues.
1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig.
16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. 2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig. 3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which are a useful identification tool. S /(E + S). 6. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. however. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. 4. argel leaf.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. viz. Leaves: Example. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. the corolla made of petals. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. mesocarp. 5) is an example of the flower. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. and often a raphe. for the seeds. 5. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. red rose and marigold of petals only. if there is no stalk. epicarp. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. elder flowers of petals and stamens. styles. leaves may be recognized. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. mm. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. micropyle. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. the ovary wall develops to form a case. the calyx made of sepals. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. (2) their thinness. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. and endocarp. In the great majority of plants. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. thus forming a fruit. (3) the presence of chlorophyll. frequently. called the pericarp. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils.e.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area.. 6). and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. stigmas). papillosed epidermis of petals.. Achillea millefolium L. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. fibrous layer of anthers. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). i. Flowers: In a commercial sense. red poppy. Among common drugs. in addition. two features that are constant. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. (Fig. the leaf is termed sessile. There are. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. 7. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly.
QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig. 4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Poppy. Tamarind. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Simple Fruits i.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. Cardamon ii. Bael. 5 Achillea millefolium L. Caraway (see Fig. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. flowers and fruits. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. leaves. Compound Fruits Hops In general. Orange. a. 8. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. However. Colocynth b. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c.
QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. Aframomum melegueta Rosc. 6 Grains of paradise seed. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
For example. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. 9. Microscopical techniques.g. mountants. agar). Fig. or are natural secretions (e. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks.g. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. decoction (e. beeswax and myrrh). For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. starch. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material..22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. stage and eyepiece micrometers.g. Chiretta herb. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. branches. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio. opium). 8). 9). 3.. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Henna leaf by the absence of starch. Therefore. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. Clearing agents. such as incision (e.. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. however. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. by the stomatal index. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. 10. fibers. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded.. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. expression (e.g. namely. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. or by the trichomes. vertically. similarly.. which are usually slender and adventitious. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and. olive oil). The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. and sclerenchyma.g.
8 Fig.QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig. 9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. and resins. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. alcohol. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. it rapidly dissolves starch. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. clove oil. and expands shrunken cells. starch.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. etc. chlorophyll. or chlorophyll. absorbance values should be used. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. ether. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. Sometimes. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. for bleaching. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. carbolic acid. volatile oils. 3. lactophenol. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. the presence of coloring matters. Other solvents include methanol. fats. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. resins. chromic/nitric is mandatory. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. hexane. water. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . protein. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. and petroleum ether (pet ether). tannins. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. and causes swelling of cell walls.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water.
Then press under anhydrous conditions. It can also be used to quantitate. depending on solvent and pH. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. This will give you a transparent disk. In addition. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. unless one has an FTIR. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. If the substance is in a solid state. UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca.
Lavender. as one gains experience.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. 3600–2400 (broad). 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). organic solvents (usually methanol). odor. aluminum. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. sulfuric acid). ash content histology. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). and powder microscopy are also performed. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). 3400 (M). 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). 3400–2500 (broad M). 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. In addition. 3. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample.) When development is complete. Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water..g. it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. 3. S = strong. then the filter paper can be eliminated. VS = very strong. strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. 2100–1700 (W). 1600. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. M = medium.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. 3400-3100 (variable).7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations.g. 1455 (S). Chamomile. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. and (4) it is inexpensive. Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC.. 2860 (M). 1500. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. Precoated absorbents on glass plates. Other tests like loss on drying. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. 1760 (S). Valerian. TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. etc. or plastic sheets are also commercially available. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time.
natural product.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance.5: 8. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. hence. antimony chloride UV.
3. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. pharmaceutical. For plant volatiles and essential oils. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study.. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. As with the raw materials.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. rice hulls. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. with expected growth well into the next generation. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. If there is a diluent added. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. such as rice hulls or spent herb. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. it will show up by having less soluble solids. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. After extraction of the plant material. a separation technique. In phytochemistry. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food.g. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. This system.” However.) procedures in order to establish its strength. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. or chromatographic (GLC. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. However. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. the use of the GC will continue to grow.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. TLC. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. System control. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. together with UV and IR spectra. spectrometric. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). spent herb). it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. etc. give excellent fingerprints for identification. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. From these spectra. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. HPCL. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. information-rich electron ionization spectra. photodiode array detector. and cosmetic industries. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. With library search software. data acquisition.
Ltd. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. photodiode array detector. and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. Methods used for adulteration include: 1.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. or Cochin. data acquisition. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. nutmeg. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. the color and general texture are more important. in the case of powdered drugs. 3. or Provence senna. beeswax. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. African. 2. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. Instrument control. for example. Hence. coffee.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. the adulterant can be any kind of material. for example. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. Obovate. etc. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. honey. such as ergot.
0. Rf 0. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray.5.0 ml/min. mobile phase. mobile phase. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. 0. 1 ml/min.0–1.1 ml/min. 1. 2.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. cytisine Anagyrine. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm. flow rate. UV 320 nm detection. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). 1. 220–223°C. 5% DC560. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. 13-OH sparteine.4x. followed by 0.d.9 mm 30 cm). 0.2 M Pi buffer pH 7. flow rate.9 mm x 30 cm)./65 cm).6 50 cm): mobile phase. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7. UV 202 nm.8 ml/min for 7 min. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2. galactose. luteolin. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. flow rate. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. E-500 and E-100 (Waters).5 ml/min. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. 0. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4. rhamnos Ginsenosides. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10). mobile phase. or 3% SE-30. lupanine. thermopsine. CH3CN-H2O (73:27). acetonitrile-water (83:17). R1.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica.0 M NaC1 gradient. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i..d.5 mm i. detection. then 1. 190 nm flow rate. HPLC: Zorbax CN.5 ml/min. 15 psi argon. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60.0 ml/min. 3.6 mm i. flow rate. UV detection (homogencity test). flow rate. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. baptifoline. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. UV 202 nm.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). detection. mobile phase.46.d.5:0. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. mobile phase.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. acetonitrile-water (83:17). flow rate. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. mobile phase.1) flow rate. xylose. spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin. genistein Calenduladiol. panaxadiol. 2 ml/min.9 mm 30 cm).5 ml/min. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 25 mm). panaxatriol. distilled water. mobile phase. 2. detection.2. 1. 50°C. mobile phase.. acetonitrile-water (84:16). sparteine. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. 15 cm). detection.
spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. UV 270 nm. mobile phase. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flow rate.. mobile phase.d.9.0 ml/min. apigenin.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5. detection. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). 66 m capacity 350 ml).1 ml/min. berberine.9 i. 30 cm). 2 ml/min. flow rate. Rf 0.d. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. UV 340 nm. mobile phase.4 cm i.d. detection. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH.5 ml/min. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. 25 cm). mobile phase. canadine. detection. detection. methanol-water (50:50) flow rate.d.5cm)..6 mm. detection UV 278 nm. detection.05. hydrastine Rf 0. detection. UV 365 nm.7 & 5. mobile phase. 2.0mm i.5. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9).d. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. 25 cm at 75°C). methanol-water (50:50). TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). vanillin in H2SO4. flow rate. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient).5-methanol (67:33).5 ml/min. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. flow rate. 75°C. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. w/guard. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate.5 ml/min. flow rate. flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. hydrastine Rf 0. detection UV 365 nm.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4). 2 ml/min. luteoline.1 M phorphoric acid. Merck(. 1. methanol-water (15% to 95%.. begin rotation. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages). phase B: ethyl acetate. UV 340 nm. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i. 6 ml/min. detection. increasing 3%/min). 1 ml/min. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). introduce sample. vanillin in H2SO4. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). mobile phase. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2. 0. UV 330 nm. 4. 2 liters phase B and C. canadaline. i. 3. mobile phase. phase A: water. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. 0. Start w/ 350 ml phase A. flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase.
cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6 mm i. UV 280 nm. 25 cm) 2 in series. 0.5 10 cm). detection. UV 230 nm. acetonitrile-water (gradient).0) mm i. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). biochanin-A. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). flow rate.6 mm i. UV 270 nm. 50% H2SO4. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). detection.. water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i.8 ml/min.d. 300 mm).0 ml/min. 1.25m 3 mm). R1. 150 mm). flow rate. flow rate. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. detection. mobile phase.d. detection. caproic acid. temp.3 ml/min. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658). detection.. mobile phase. methanol-water (27:73). mobile phase. UV 313 nm. flow rate. detection.d. 1. mobile phase. mobile phase.. flow rate. flow rate. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. detection. genistein. water. detection. 2.d. mobile phase.5 ml/min.5 ml/min.1. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. 2. mobile phase. 25 cm).d.d. flow rate. helium flow. HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0.QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. 4 ml/ min.5. capric acid Isoflavones. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. 30 cm). mobile phase.9 mm 30cm). mobile phase. mobile phase. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10).. prunitrin Calycosin. 1. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. flow rate. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid.5 ml/min. methanol-water (2. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol. mobile phase. flow rate 0. UV 280 & 546 nm.0 ml/min. UV 280 nm. analysis Column (3.. daidzein. detection. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. photodiode array. 25 mm). formononetin. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min). tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid. mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i.9 mm i. 30 ml/min. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min. detection.1:1). caprylic acid. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin.0 ml/min. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u.
01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. 2.9 mm 30 cm). For example. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i.25 m 4 mm). stone. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. UV 256 & 206 nm. 0.5 ml/min. 4. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. 2 connected in series.1 M phorphoric acid. vitexinine 3. almond shells. mobile phase. detection. mobile phase. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. vitexin. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. UV 254 nm. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. 250 mm. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. coconut shells. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. walnut shells. scented bdillium for myrrh. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. etc. dextrin. mobile phase. detection. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. 8. boiler scale. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. stramonium. senna. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. 5u Chrompack). flow rate. for example. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Substitution of exhausted drugs. valerosidatum. mentha. detection. detection. usually having no relation to the genuine drug. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. 1.d. 7. mobile phase.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53).7 ml/min. detection. for example. flow rate. etc. or hamamelis leaves. acetonitrile-0. detection. detection.d.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4.4 (1:1). GLC: 1. conc. guaiacum wood. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). acetonitrile-0.6mm i. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8). 2. 6. valeranone Vincristine. 5. 30 cm). TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). UV 298 nm. mobile phase.8% methanol in hexane. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. hydrogen flame ionization. Sometimes. acevaltrate.0 ml/min. powdered olive stones. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. flow rate 10 ml/min. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. UV 254 nm. methanol-water (60:40). dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. hazelnut shells. such as lobelia. or lead shot.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates.
or oil). Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests.g. which often cross the fibers and vessels. The powder is usually entirely lignified. palisade cells. especially the diagnostic epidermis. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. Tincture of: Red with oils. pericyclic and phloem fibers. and aleurone grains. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. masks. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1.g. consisting of small-sized elements only.g. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. xylem vessels. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. Frequently also trichomes.. 3. cellulose parenchyma. starch grains. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. Nut shells and fruit stones. 2. resins. Frequently also delicate yellow. gloves. fibrous layer of the anther wall.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. pine and juniper). Also epidermis. however. starch. tracheids. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. sieve tubes. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. 6.. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. which often contains starch in large amounts. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. ordinary cellulose parenchyma.. Microscopical examination. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. cutinized and suberized walls. Mucilage of: Alkanna. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. and crystals of calcium oxalate. fibers. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. palisade tissue. papillose surface of the stigma. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Keep for 6 months. hemicellulose. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. fibers. 5. calcium oxalate crystals. 8. 7. in powder. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma.) Acacia. 9. Frequently also cork. and aleurone grains. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. 10. frequently particles of small seeds. and medullary rays. vessels. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. usually abundant parenchyma. A little vascular tissue. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). stone cells. red. Structures absent: Cork. protective glasses. Dilution better done on the slide. 4. glands. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. wood parenchyma. palisade cells. etc.
0. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water.5 ml D.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. and some mucilages. killed by steam. Add 7. Chlorophyll. To be freshly prepared. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. left for some time. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. starch. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. masks. etc.880). Deteriorates on keeping. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. etc. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. H2O with the aid of heat. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. gloves. gr. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water.I. The reaction is better carried out in the dark. through glass wool. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding.I. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. cellulose. suberin. Benzidine.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. To be freshly prepared. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. ligno. protective glasses. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate).0 g sodium iodide and 2. H2O.I. Store in amber bottle. with continued stirring. filtered. if necessary. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. To be freshly prepared. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc.
yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. filtered. masks. and then diluted to 100 ml with water.g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gives yellow with colchicine. note the coloration and read off from the table. the strong solution will dissolve silk.. 20 g lactic acid. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc.I. in powder. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. dextrose). and 20 ml water.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Set aside until clear.27 g iodine and 0. protective glasses. 1.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water. H2O prior to use. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. Solution A: 34. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals.75 g lead monoxide. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc.64 g copper sulfate and 0. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. 1. gloves.I. Indicator. etc. 40 g glycerin.. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water. on the label. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. e. added to a solution of 2. the corresponding approximate pH. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. 1. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml.g. Dilute: Used for mounting. 1. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use.
Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. 10% alcoholic solution. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). and cutin blue. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. Potash. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). It must be recently prepared. with a dropper or a glass rod. lignin. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. 66. stains lignified walls red. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. and 80% by volume. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%).01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. Caustic: Used for clearing. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. 10. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. and then diluted with equal volume of water. dissolving certain cell contents. 1% solution in water. in small pieces. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. etc. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. gloves. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. Store away from light. suberin. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. 5 ml of glycerin added. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. 0.4% alcoholic solution. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. protective glasses.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. masks. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0.
3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. 5:1.G. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate.01 = 2x 0. P. Properties Usually high in alcohol. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Full strength 1:1.3BG. etc. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. 5x. Same as a solid extract (S. of various dilutions: 1:1.3BG GLY 4. A molasses consistency.E. but the solvent is 1. F. Same as P. 3x. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. etc. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. Same as P. E.1. Contains no alcohol.M. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting. OLEUM N.G. Serial type dilution and succussion. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. 60–90%.P.4 Preparations 4.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices.E.E. 4x. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). An extract in P.E.F. but the solvent is glycerin. AQU P. 1.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength.G. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form.G. 0. H.
Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation).1. having a bottom outlet. the solution commonly known as lye. contained in a suitable vessel. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. by which it is exhausted of potash. etc. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. or. When no more actives remain. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. also referred to as the spent herb. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. If packed too tightly. expression.). gauze. or alcohol and water.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. by traction..g. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. 4. the product will not percolate. cotton) below. water. acetone. ether. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. distillation. etc. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. treatment with a solvent. suction. cover the percolator.. giving a weak extract (see diagram). the menstruum will channel. In pharmacy. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. The packing of the percolator is very important. and macerate for the prescribed time. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. close the lower orifice. if packed too loosely. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. or by chemical or physical means. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. usually 48 hours. the botanical is considered exhausted.
PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C.1. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mix thoroughly. Allow it to cool. These are usually the hard substances. such as twigs. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). placed over it. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. and filter. barks. 4.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. preferably distilled. roots. etc. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water.
Therefore. In order to prepare an infusion. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. it should be placed in a refrigerator.1.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. after preparation of an infusion. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Under refrigeration. Refrigerate or preserve. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. Refrigerate or preserve.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. Moisten the herb in water. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. preferably distilled. cold water should be used. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 4. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria.
PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. which seems to work well.1. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. which is very effective. However. especially in inactivating larvae. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant. bacteria. there is also CO2 sterilization. 4. However. However.
100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. percolation. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example.* 4. and usually precipitate on standing. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures.2). they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. as strengths vary widely. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture. A typical example: 5:1 P. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. berberine. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day. as they contain alcohol. Therefore. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q.. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical.00 per pound). Therefore. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. or a combination thereof. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. and canadine. Usual laboratory method. and evaporation. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. Maceration is another procedure. are weaker. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. No vacuum concentration is used.S. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. However. Additionally.G. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. from either fresh or dry botanicals. check with the manufacturers. At present. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. However.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. and the solids are calculated.1. i.e. Filter. need preservatives. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. Therefore.1.
or distilled water. returning the first portions. preferably kept in a cool area. age. or other specified volatile substance D. 4.I. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. while hydrastine is colorless. The native extract is usually vacuum dried. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders.I. 4. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. which lowers shipping costs. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. respectively.I. to obtain a clear filtrate.I. Add 1000 ml D.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. or oven dried. or distilled water. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. and add enough D. Solution: The volatile oil. need no preservation.I. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes. if necessary. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. filter through wetted filter paper. Separate the excess oil. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. 2. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. and time of year collected. dry solid.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. 2a.1. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. and contain very little water. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. and pass enough D. and preserve or use the clear water portion. easily dispensed. a sufficient quantity. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. or distilled water.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. Then filter the mixture.I. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. spray dried. Their odors and tastes are similar. Avoid excessive heat. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. filtering if necessary. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums).1.
liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. would be too concentrated in many instances. If it was calculated from fresh weight.* 4. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. 4. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. or roots of plants (see above).G.10 Product Strength. depending on the manufacturer.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts.1. However. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. In Europe. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. is always measured on the dry basis. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. a 1:1 extract. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. tinctures. 1997. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. etc. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. in a true strength extract. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. fresh or dried. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color.1. in the United States. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. etc. etc. etc. butylene glycol. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. are often found in the cosmetic literature. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent.3-butylene glycol. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. To avoid confusion. Obviously. glycerin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 10:1. Recently. However. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. therefore. 10:1. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. Concentration. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. 1.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. This is very controversial. in a cosmetic formulation. bark. The starting botanical. etc.). as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. glycerin. The true strength will vary.
Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. canadine. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. and not soluble in most cosmetic products.S. dark in color. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. This would cause the berberine. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. and then on valeric acid. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. which is approximately 20 times less costly). Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. and canadine. and starches to be significantly reduced. fixed and volatile oils. resins. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract. Thus.15 to 0. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract.5% of essential oil. that is. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract.04%). One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. Analytical procedures (TLC. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. GLC. However. which has been standardized on valepotriates. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. standardization can be carried to the extreme. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. However. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract.. berberine. If the dried plants contain 0. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical.0% hydrastine. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. However. the former designation is becoming the standard. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients.5 to 4.
However. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution. oily resinous mass remains. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts. 1997. Therefore. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations.. either fixed or volatile. or 1.5% oil. alcohol. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0. consisting of an oil.8% essential oil. there are usually losses during extraction.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. A thick.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States.g. However. ether.1. followed by evaporation of the solvent. 4.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature.
anxiety. Anti-inflammatory. soothing. tonic. digestive problems. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. in turn. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. wrinkles. aromatic waters. hair growth. revitalizing. scalp stimulant. energy imbalance. This is the essence of aromatherapy. aphrodisiac. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. exhaustion. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. and perfumes. Stimulant. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. Poor memory. thereby reducing stress. antispasmodic. euphoric. soothing. mild stimulant. euphoric. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. digestive problems.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. antidepressant. Stimulates scalp. Carminative. poor memory. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. nervous fatigue. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. Revitalizing. cleanser. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Stimulant. mental strain. affects the adrenals. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. antispasmodic.5 Aromatherapy 5. loneliness. sadness. Skin elasticity. antidepressant. aphrodisiac. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. Moisturizing. This.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. For example. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. 5. Cell regeneration. hair growth. impotence. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. calming anger.
Daniel Company. anxiety. England. Destiny Books. 1976. house sprays. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. VT. Example: to be effective. Saffron. Therefore. C. etc.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. Nervous tension. The Practice of Aromatherapy. mouth ulcers. If the reader has further interest. bath oils. shampoos. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. Ryman. grief. Aging skin. stimulates metabolism. Jean. Aging skin. Rochester. very little is needed. calming. anti depressant. opens psychic centers. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. antidepressant. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. Valnet. cell proliferant. uplifting. moisturizes. inflammations. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. wrinkles. Mood elevating. shock. Walden. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. Essential oils are very concentrated. uplifting during depression. Danielle. Essex. 1984. euphoric.W. amara) Antidepressant. The Aromatherapy Handbook. Fabrice. vaporizers. 1982. Antidepressant. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions.
lanceolate. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. long. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. and fawn-colored externally. about 5 in. slender. and involute at the point. pale-green. subradical. yellow. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. perennial herb.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. spotted near the base. and 3 or 4 in. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. obtuse. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. flowers in April or May. The scape is naked. PROPERTIES. high. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. liliaceous.1 HABITAT. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. droping. The leaves are two. RANGE. which is white internally. The flower is single. DESCRIPTION. with purplish or brownish spots. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
J. 1. subastringent taste. 2. de Gruyter. but unpleasant. and anti-inflammatory.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which is somewhat aromatic. flowering in July and August. agrimonolide. Berlin. interruptedly pinnate. Am. terminating in three undivided stigmas. in hedges and fields and by ditches. racemose spike. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and phlobaphene. anthers oblong-linear. and hematuria. long. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions.1. A. coarsely serrated leaflets. This taste is strongest in the root. The root is long.six. yellow. Ovary obovate. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. silky pubescence. and tapering. filaments flat. The capsule is oblongobovate. fibrous. Hoppe. diuretic. and surmounted with reddish. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. The whole herb and root contains. epistaxis.. Pub. 68. 1946. Soc. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. No further analytical data available. style club-shaped. 1975. and covered with a soft.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small... W. Agrimonia has a bitterish. pyrogallic acid. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. Drogenkunde. nearly smooth beneath. functional bleeding. three-lobed at top.. from to 1 foot long. The leaves are alternate. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. and borne in a dense. mild tonic.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. pyrocatechol. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. antiscrofulous. harsh. producing numerous heads. 8th ed. and three-valved. 2332. with a loose membranous tip. conical. Properties Emollient. Chem. et al. longer than the stamens. It is much branched at the summit. and of reddish-brown color. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. Cavalitto. agrimonol (= agrimonine). hooked bristles. Heinz. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. Its odor is aromatic. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid.
choline. 1. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. Ser. However.. organic acids. Dermato-Vernol. after which a good face cream should be applied. quercitrin. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. southwest Asia. this should only be done once a week. 1994. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . triterpenes. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. wavy-serrated. et al. 10(2). ursolic acid. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. apigenin. 29(2). M. glutinous. Europe.. nicotinic acid. Constituents Tannins. Rev. Patrascu. Alder also helps to unclog pores.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. usually abrupt at the tip. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder.. citric acid and silicic acid. V. and polysaccharides. glycosides.. The bark is dark gray and ridged. catechin. volatile oil. 7-0-B-glucoside. flavonoids. alterative. fruiting tops. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. gum. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark.. Med. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. 153-157. et al. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. 190-193. 2. eupatorin. as do other types of face packs. and minerals. phytosterin. tonic. 1964. and also to help relieve dandruff. luteolin. United States. Peter-Horvath. wedge shaped. which are roundish.
etc. creams. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. hair treatments. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. etc. and burns. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. West Indies. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. bath gels. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. The fracture is conchoidal. Further reading is recommended.50% (5 grams. The texture is waxy.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. To date. The surface is dull and smooth. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. lotions. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oils. lotions. ALOE Aloe vera L. carotene. which would suggest its use in baths. chrysophanic acid. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. a mild exfoliant in oils. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. hair rinses. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. saponin. etc. and tannin. and Barbados Islands. insect bites. scratches. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. The size of the pieces is variable. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. The odor is strongly aromatic. cuts. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. irritated skin. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. this has not been verified. boron. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. Properties Used in facial steams. sun poisoning. Aloe contains 99. and is employed in skin creams. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. calcium and trace minerals. Alfalfa is also high in minerals.
Granny. Delicious. Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). Macintosh. and pectin. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glucomanine. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. Constituents Malic acid. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. Rome. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. sugars. It contains malic acid.
Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. wax. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. both internally and externally. and mucilage. shoddy bark and light. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. containing thujone.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. tannins. soft durable wood. ARNICA Arnica montana L. in height. Cones oblong. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. flavonoids. and polyps. moles. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. long. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. having pale. ⁿ in. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. Wolf’s Bane.
Topically. pinnate. Description This plant is perennial. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. and essential oil. polyacetylenes. leaves. fatty acids (fumaric. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. northern Mediterranean. reddish yellow. and surface phlebitis. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . malic). 5 to 7 mm long. Odor characteristic and agreeable. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. In mouthwashes. the pappus plumose and sessile. stamens without a tail-like appendage. Sesquiterpene lactones. dark green and pubescent. ray flowers yellow. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. pectolin arigenin). dark brown. sprains. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. pistillate. patuletin. The heads are discoid and homogamous. three-toothed. the cypsella spindle-shaped. xanthophylls. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. and the cypsella not beaked. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks).to 12-veined.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. stearic). emarginate and pointed. and undivided leaves. quercetin. Has been used for hematomas. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. inflammation of the oral mucosa. the involucre dilated and imbricate. with fleshy bases. about 1 cm long. kaempferol. palmitic. edema. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. taste bitter and acrid. tubular flowers perfect. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. isorhamnetin. Note: There can be side effects. receptacle slightly convex. Arnica tincture DAB 10. lauric. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. inflamed insect bite. with subspinose. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. the receptacle setaceous. the scales ovate. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. 7. finely striate.
Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. Cosmetically. Also employed in jaundice. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cynarin. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. and hypocholesterolytic. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. flavonoids. cholagogue. peroxidase. ascorbinase).58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. garlic. trace minerals. beta-carotene. tannin. cynadase. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. bread crumbs. sterols. protein.e. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active.. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. choleretic. vitamins. diuretic. Around the holidays. oxydase. ascorbic acid.
It is a stimulating expectorant. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. resinous substance. These buds are sessile.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. cuts. The apex is acute. The odor is balsamic. Has been used on blemishes. twigs. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. The base is truncate or depressed. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. The margin has projecting points of scales. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. balm buds Part Used: Buds. or in threes occasionally. The color is reddish brown. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. Herbalists use it for treating colds. The taste is pungent and bitter. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and various skin diseases. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. * Formerly CTFA. sores.
volatile oil. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. populin. 3. North America. easily separable into layers. tinges saliva yellow. jateorrhizine. knotty. Properties Astringent. True Bay. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. gallstones. galangin. circulatory stimulant. fracture hard and tough. has been used for indolent ulcers. pinocembrin. bervulcine. Description Cylindrical. color more pronounced upon wetting. magnoflorine. taste distinctive. tannic and gallic acids. acetophenone. wood yellow. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. very bitter. externally light yellowish brown. strongly branched. salicin. and the Middle East. oxyacanthine. Flavonoids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bark 1 mm in thickness. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. 5-0-methylgalangin.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. chrysin and apigenin. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. on chewing. sometimes excentric. Grecian Laurel. Odor slight. distinctly radiate. usually splitting somewhat on drying. Internally used to treat liver disorders. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. Europe. and showing rings of growth.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. Bactericidal. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). Berberine. izalpinin. volatile oil. rhamnetin. pith of rhizome small. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. berbamine.
quercetin. and glossy aromatic foliage. undersurface yellowish-green. brittle. along with methyl arbutin. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). Description Leaves obovate. -terpineol. pale yellow flowers. ursolic acid. finely reticulate. Uvaursi is astringent. glabrous. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. slightly revolute. petiole about 3 mm in length. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. summit obtuse. upper surface dark green. due to its high tannin content. catechins.3 to 3. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. Asia. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. Northern and Central Europe. tapering. -terpineol acetate. perfumes. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. taste slightly bitter. hyperoside. astringent. hydroquinone derivatives. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. 12 to 30 mm in length. linalool. covered. alkaloids. soaps. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. and plant acids. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. phenolcarboxylic acids. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. margin entire. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. -pinene. base acute. odor slight. syringic and p-coumaric acids. and detergents. texture coriaceous. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. gallic and ellagic acids. Treating small areas works best. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). The leaf also contains germacranolides. Constituents 0. Spr. and volatile oil. shiny black berries.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. However. slightly pubescent. spatulate. lotions. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. and others.
. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen.. antiseptic. eruptions. 20 to 50 cm high. Properties Astringent for eyecare products. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry. British Columbia... tonic. Whortleberry.. 1989. 3 to 5 cm long. leaf-blades thin. sores.. anti-inflammatory. 9. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees.. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations. G. 262.. 1.. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L...1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and abscesses..0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels.. boils.. 1854. Description Dwarf shrub... and other compounds identified in bee pollen... German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus... reduces inflammation..... Wyoming. ovate..1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins.. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive.. clears toxins... wounds. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW.. Michigan... enzymes. sores.. 4 mm wide.. minerals. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees... JAMA.. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx. dissolving...... Properties Restoring. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter. 55% carbohydrate. California. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit. scabs. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries.. leaves Habitat and Range Woods.... reducing visual eye fatigue. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs... Good for skin ulcers. about 5 mm long. restrains infection. 1 to 2% fat. corolla ovoid-lanceolate. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits.. softening... Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones.62 BED STRAW.. amino acids. and Asia.. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive.. and to replace retina purple. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins. Europe. promotes tissue repair. This is taken up in a collection vessel. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva.. Mirkin.. only slightly paler beneath. and ulcers..
Rattleroot. German Commission E Monograph. ascorbic acid. 1. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. 76. leaves. naturalized in northern North America. Europe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. betulol. New York. betuloside. (trace amount) asperuloside. BANZ No. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. Bugbane. Properties The bark. myrtillin. Squaw Root. 4-23-87. psoriasis. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. methyl salicylate. betuloresnic acid. 1988.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. Macmillan. Bugwort. gaultherin.. saponins. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. New Age Herbalist.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. quinic acid. North Asia. White Birch. 1. essential oil. ursolic acid. fatty acids. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. Rattleweed. parts of Arctic Siberia. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). and eczema. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Mabey. anthocyanosides. BIRCH Betula alba L. apigenin dimethyl ether. arbutin. R. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. peonidin glucosides. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne.
Rhizome horizontal. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. dyspepsia. particularly depression and hot flushes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fatty acids. fracture horny. longitudinally wrinkled. each of which shows a radiate structure. mainly formononetin. bark thin. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays.5 cm in thickness. up to 3 mm thick. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. taste bitter and acrid. and rheumatism. bark dark brown. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). externally dark brown. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. tannins. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. externally dark brown. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. It possesses estrogenic activity. resins. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. somewhat branched.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. or less frequently by fibrous strands. and sugar. internally. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. starch. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. fracture short. by deep cup-shaped scars. frequently. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled.
with thick ridges. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. Constituents Juglone. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. and Minnesota. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. glabrous. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. lanceolate. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Description A tree up to 50 m high. 5 to 8 cm long. anthelmintic. taper-pointed at the apex. bark. glabrous above. and detergent. rounded or subcordate at the base. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. and trace minerals. Massachusetts. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). tannins. serrate. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown).BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. fruit globose. Florida. leaflets 11 to 23. fixed and volatile oils. It is an astringent. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. Texas. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). juglandic acid. 8 to 10 cm long.
The texture is cartilaginous. and bruises. slimming activity. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. as a wash for psoriasis. The odor is slight.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). and frequently white deposits of saline matter. probably due to its iodine content. myxoedema. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). The color varies from brown to black. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. cellutitis. a prominent midrib. trace minerals (mainly iodine). Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. steryl glucosides. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. Frequently. The thallus is dichotomously branched. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. massage for cellulite. sprains. fucans). It can be added to hair and skin care products. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rheumatism. reproductive tissues.
sessile. Constituents Vitamin C.. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage.. hollow stem. skin cleansing and lightening. calyx of five sepals. of variable length.. flowers from June through September. mostly in the Eastern States. Borage has a cucumber-like odor.. Fruit is ovoid and light brown.. elliptical leaves wrinkled. five pointed corolla. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains. sometimes white. Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage.. simple or branched. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock.. Bugloss. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L. on long stalks. externally grayish brown. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF...... from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown... a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the crown somewhat annulate. usually blue. rhizomes... Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids. fracture somewhat horny. and minerals. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores.. saponins.. rough. sparingly naturalized in the United States. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. about 2 cm in diameter. frequently split or in broken pieces. flowers. the lower ones on short petioles. longitudinally wrinkled. tannins. mainly cultivated for commercial use. It is easily grown from seed. Description An annual robust plant. covered with bristly hairs. up to 60 cm high. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. European Burdock.. Description The root is fusiform. Gobo Part Used: Roots. leaf. the upper leaves....
psoriasis. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. creams. licorice. arctinal etc. yellow-green flowers in spring. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. and oil. pith-like tissue. gels. polyalkenes. fatty acids. cystitis. North America. in cases of acne.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. arctinol. and baths. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. scaly skin. Arctinone. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. berries with black seeds. It is also used in hair conditioners. becoming pyroligneous on milling. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. including buxine and buxozine C. and can be used in facial steams. volatile oils. lotions. fukinanolid. taste is mucilaginous. inulin. sweetish. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . centrally hollow or containing a white. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. cutaneous eruption. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. eczema. abrasions. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. tannins. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. fat.. gout. lignin. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. sterols. and slightly bitter. Odor slight. acid soils. shampoos. It has been combined with comfrey. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. anorexia nervosa.
Leaves. Description A dense. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. Fruit. Europe. borne on green. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. sudorific. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. Emmenagogue. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. diuretic. dry hills. 3 mm across. oval rigid. for the treatment of varicose veins. ribbed. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. 2 cm long. scale-like. papery ca. bushy places. ruscoside. Properties Increases circulation. mucilage. The extract has been used with success. ca. rutin. a globular red berry ca. inhibits inflammation. dark green shrub with thick. chrysophanic acid. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. 5 mm.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. Flowers greenish. saponin. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. 1 cm.
.. from 1....... Constituents Flavonoids... Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. quercitrin. Description In pieces of varying length... 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length.5 to 4 cm in diameter. Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America.. rutin. kaempferol. Mexican. taste acidulous and mucilaginous.. and from 5 to 9 angled... or Sierra Leone Pepper. penduletin. dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper.. CALENDULA.. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material... the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length. luteolin...C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia.... Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments... It has a strong.. See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L.. isorhamnetin-glucoside.. and beta-sitosterol. Mombassa..... healing for sensitive skin. herby odor... piscidic-acids. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present.. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear..
Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. Capsicum is a berry. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . red. The Mexican variety is deep red. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. The seeds are compressed and pointed. and brown. The epicarp is thin and tough. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. The odor is aromatic. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. or is free from these. yellow. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. the Nyassaland variety is red. and greenish-red. The apex is acuminate or acute. gray. The taste is pungent and warming. The fruits vary greatly in size. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. yellow. the African variety is yellowish-brown.
4%. It has a long tap root. naturalized in North America. carotene capsanthin. Bitter Bark. Sacred Bark. flavonoids. Chittem Bark. antiseptic. geraniol. After. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. jaborandi. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. Buckthorn. daucol. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). branched. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. counter-irritant. hairy stem. detergents. -pinene. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. keeping it smooth and soft. Asia. and vitamins A and C. fatty acids.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. creams. segmented. leaves. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. colocynth. rheumatic pains. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bear Wood. geranyl acetate. and others. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. is obtained by steam distillation. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. CARROT Daucus carota L. and perfumes up to 0. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. lotions. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. rubefacient used for neuralgia. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. and North America. etc.29%). Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes.
Description The tree is 4. In small doses. C = 10B. Teil C.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. Bailliere Tindall. 1974. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. Z. including those of emodin. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. aloe-emodin. Publ. It is much used as a laxative. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated.. 3. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. London. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives. See formula. D = 10 . 267. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. 1983. G. B = 10 R = OH. 1974. 444. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. It gives red color with ammonia TS. chrysophanol. 1. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). 4. bryophytes. curved pieces or quills of variable length. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. Trease. 2. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels. It is frequently covered with lichen. 12th ed.. and chrysophanol. Aloe-emodin. C. Two aloins. it acts as stomach ache treatment. R = OH. R = H. 2. Naturforsch. B. Various diathrones. C. R = H.and C-glycosidic linkages. 1. emodin oxanthrone. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. and D. in Pharmacognosy. The bark occurs in flattened.5 to 5 mm thick. Teil B. odor distinct. 5. and emodin in the free state. and Evans. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. E. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. they contain both O. W. Wagner et al. Taste bitter and slightly acrid.
. floral leaves small. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed. and aromatic. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. corolla whitish. interrupted spikes. limb bilabiate. ovate or oblong. softhairy above. dotted with purple. nepetalactone.CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L. in dense.. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. margin deeply crenate..... from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas... or crushed and broken. from 10 to 20 cm long.. (geraniol. Description Top.. flowers small.. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A. pointed at the apex. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen. pungent... crenulate. the upper lip erect and two-cleft.. downy beneath.. naturalized in North America.... lower pair shorter.. camphor.. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties.. methyl-nepetalactone. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache. tubular. carvacol.. bract-like. citronellal... stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip.. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed. from 2 to 7 cm long. up to 4 mm in diameter.. nepetol rosemarinic acid. pale gray-green.. nepetalic acid. taste bitter. nepetariaside.. throat dilated.. much branched.. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe.. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect. the middle lobe largest. Br. thymol). downy. rounded or ear-shaped at the base. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. calyx hairy. the larger. CENTELLA. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling. stems quadrangular.. Constituents Essential oil. petiolate...... Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like.. leaves opposite.. the lower spreading and three-cleft.
Mutat. S. simple. Patent 5. Wright. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. 1. 4. plenolin derivatives. S.. arnicolides. and C. myrtenol (5. H. caryophyllane-2. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes.. Ebizuka. Y. helenalin. Y. F. Wu. Wu.23%). Cai. Leaves.A. and D. aromatic. D’Amelio. Res. Chem. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide.98%). the plant has been used to treat colds. Pharm.. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells. Yang. 1973–1974. UIO. 3. W. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant. 97. 1997. and alpha-humulene.97%). 39(12).5%).. Yang. Y. and Mirhom. A. 7.6-beta-oside.C. Y. florilenalin-angelate.3 to 0. Aust. 8. Y.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic. beta-gurjunene. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. brevilin A. Odor characteristic.S. 1991. Y. Sankawa. and Mirhom. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. Phillipson.D. wounds. and amoebiasis. 1196. Microbiol. and sternutatory. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. 3272. green. venation pinate reticulate. The plant also contains diterpenes.6 to 1 cm broad. 5. T. J.7.. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. D’Amelio.18%). internodes short. 22 g.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. malaria. Lee and J. Kriby. apex acute.3 antiprotozoal. oblong.B. diarrhea. margin dentate. isoamyl caproate (1. 6.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. J. C. 1992..C.C. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. Chem. G. florilenslin derivatives. the apical cell being elongated filamentous.S. 894. asthma. Compositous glandular hairs are also present. Lin. Phytotherapy Res. Stem 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chin J.W. F. Sankawa. 40(5). 1998.T. 2. J. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. 436.5 cm in diameter. Hu. Warhurst.85%). 6. alternate. longitudinally striated. thymol (1.L. Yang. and rheumatism. 54. skin infections.1 In Chinese traditional medicine. H.W. Iwakami. Sept. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1. Abstr. 1973. Pharm. Chun. J. Bull. green. 1988. triterpenes. 1994. July 26–30. sessile.Y. cylindrical.. Pharm. and flavonoids. Lin..50%). obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. Y. and U. Bull. 8(7). the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. nasal allergies.I.B.804. 204(2). U. and U.206. Ebizuka.W. Campbell.
corolla white. three-toothed and four-veined. disk-florets tubular. matricarin. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. involucre hemispherical. apigenins. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. oblanceolate. naturalized in the United States. ray-florets from 10 to 20. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. chamazulene. and pubescent scales. pappus none. For further reading.to 5-ribbed. well over one hundred compounds. borneol. hollow receptacles. pistillate. usually reflexed. Constituents Essential oil. aromatic. healing tonic. chlorogenic acid. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. and mullein in shampoo rinses. perfect. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. longitudinally furrowed. or only a slight membraneous crown. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. New York southward. lotions. farnesol. creams. alpha-bisabolol. furfural. Odor pleasant. bisabolene. Chamomile contains azulene. peduncles light green to brownish-green. calendula. taste aromatic and bitter.5 cm. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is a carminative. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. etc. see the bibliography at the end of the book. anti-inflammatory. and without a pappus.
Description A resinous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3/8 in. Properties Good for softening. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates.G. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. Gobonadorra Greasewood. It is native to the southwestern United States. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. long. and stimulating the skin.D. The leaves grow in opposite pairs.A. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall. restoring. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. Chaparral is a source of N. Also used on skin rashes and infections. Yellow flowers have five petals. The flowers normally occur in January through May..
if unpeeled. 1. p. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. is brownish-black. brittle. and unpeeled. The taste is astringent and pungent. and 4 mm in thickness.G. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. The fracture is weak. partially peeled. and uneven.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. granular and slightly fibrous. 747. Properties Soothing. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. this has not been thoroughly investigated.CHERRY BARK. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids. bitteralmond-like when moistened. astringent. tannins.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. gossypetin. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. it is finely striated and fissured. Constituents Aspartic acid. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. 5 cm in width. The odor is aromatic. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N.A.D. Merck Index. camphor. sedating.. The outer surface. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. which can be peeled. will add body to hair. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. quercetin).). a powerful antioxidant. south to Florida and Texas. CHERRY BARK. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. 8th ed. However.
coumarins. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. creeping or ascending. For inflammed eyes. entire. emollient. lotions.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. acute. small. high. All Europe. small capsule. fruit a many-seeded. psoriasis. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. Description A weak. annual. baths. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leafy cymes. flowers white. with a line of hairs along one side. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. 1⁄6 to 1 in. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. Properties Antipruritic. stems slender. on slender. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. rooting at the nodes. triterpene gyycosides. tocopherols. gamma-linolenic acid. carboxylic acids. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. saponins. redness of face erysipelas. Can be used in creams. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. fatty acids and minerals. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. leaves ovate. rutin. satin flower. and facial steams. opposite. long. vulnerary. the uppermost sessile. white bird’s eye.1 mucilage. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. the lower petioled. swelling. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. indolent ulcers. axillary stalks and in terminal.
. Carophyllus aromaticus L.. indifference.. et Herr. vitalbiosides.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng. behenic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and inflammation... Boca Raton. 2nd ed. Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants. fragrant..CLOVES 81 1. melissic acid. 2. FL... June to August. antiscrofulous properties.. sterols... 1996. hedges. feather fruit clusters. it is used for dementia. Leung.. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L... Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval.. grey. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard. said to have antibiotic properties.... Steven Foster. John Wiley & Sons. CRC Press. Constituents Caffeic acid. each 3 to 10 cm. Y. woody... densely hairy on both sides.. inattentativeness. CINCHONA.See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy). Caryophyllum. most of Europe.. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba. 1992..) Bull. Fruit with numerous carpels. and conspicuous.. clematine.. J.. In 1770.. Description A robust.. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. petals spreading. spreading. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches.. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands.. A/B. chlorogenic acid.. thickets..... stalked leaflets... protein.... New York. mental escape from reality. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply... in lax terminal and axillary clusters. sores. Duke. each with long styles with dense. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters. Flowers 2 cm. white hairs. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. rubefacient... Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods..
exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root.. antispasmodic.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. glandular-punctate petals. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. Sri Lanka. odor strongly aromatic.5 mm in length. and others. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. afterwards very pungent. lipids. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. which alternate with the calyx teeth. and has carminative properties. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. It is native to India. Robbers. protein. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. E. ovary twolocular. Speedie. crowded. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. dark brown. 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. with numerous ovules. Properties They are due to the volatile oil.K.. and incurved.. stamens numerous. It lowers blood pressure. style 1. and Thailand. Nepal. Burma. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. followed by a slight numbness. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. vitamins. where it is widely cultivated. The buds also contain sterols. J. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. J.E. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. carbohydrates. flavonoids.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. and Tyler. and somewhat four-angled. taste pungent and aromatic. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. Williams & Wilkins. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length.
The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. When the leaves are dried. 1996. Kronenthal. river gravels. palmately 5. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . carotenoids. senkirkine. Odor indistinct. pubescent. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. A. 83. 1998. screens.. it is said to help relieve asthma. tussilagone and essential oil. floccose beneath. blade very brittle.to 9-nerved. mucilage. Description Petiole long. slightly wrinkled.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. minerals.. Constituents Tannins. landslides. flavonoids. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. All Europe. deeply cordate at the base. banks. Personal communication. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. faintly herbaceous. R. Properties Emollient. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth.. The younger leaves densely white. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. taste mucilaginous. and smoked like tobacco. bitter. Chevallier. London. tussillagine. glabrous above. ground. terpene alcohols. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. 3.L.
antihemorrhagic. Bruiswort. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched..84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. salves. Blackwort. and Fasulo M. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. 1. cone flower. up to 10 in. Healing Herb. marshes. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. long. The stalks are hollowed and cornered.. Knitbone Part Used: Root. Description The lower.) Comfrey is also an astringent. a very powerful cell proliferent.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils.. feebly astringent taste. anti-inflammatory. radical leaves are very large. hair rinses. alkaloids. 944. 1987. asparagine (1–3%). watersides. The powder is green in color. chlorogenic. althea. Menghini A. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. and demulcent... Capassa F. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). shampoos. and has a mucilaginous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .7%). Most of Europe.P. aloe.2–4. Mascolo N. very hairy. lotions. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). Comfrey can be used in creams. I. Fillipendula. fractures. caffeic. It is almost inodorous. douches. phenolics. B-sitosterol amino cids. and lithospermic acids. ointments. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. on wounds. Autoreg. Phytotherapy Res.
14 49.0 30.10 19600 10 6 28 0.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.51 4.480 0.2 0. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.86 49.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.8 2.624 8.0 0.59 2.61 0. for cattle Maint.07 100.00 57 34 34 1.19 5.18 2.456 0.10 0.72 1.29 44.26 0.58 5.41 0.05 0.7 7.78 7.50 1101100.0 1200.111 1.65 0.0 0.142 0.085 0.30 1.01 24. A equiv. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.79 275.20 0.92 0.7 0.0 3.285 0.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.11 25.73 28.176 0.0 15.84 4.93 0.01 14.40 0. energy therms cwt Prod.0 5.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .59 0.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.47 1.8 44.037 17.19 0. Dig. Nutrients Calc.0 100 g 4.600 0.0 7.1 Dry matter 30.89 0. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.8 213.14 8.93 0.92 0.99 1. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.74 0.7 0.208 100.795 0.
and dark color.. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin.. internally creamy white. cultivated extensively. reduces inflammation and clotting.. creates astringency. Europe. It is almost inodorous.5 cm thick and 30 cm long. riverbanks.. and has a sweetish.. North Africa. branched... often more than 2. feebly astringent taste. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia.... horny texture. Healing Comfrey Herb. firm. occasionally dark brown in color.. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark.... externally wrinkled.. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable.. Blackwort. mucilaginous... *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. woodland.. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf. promotes tissue repair. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..... CONE FLOWER. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped........ Bruiswort.See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L. Good when used in burn creams.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L.. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey.
except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. deodorants. two or three layers of large. coumaric. phenolic acids (caffeic. straight. perfumes.). rutin). and flavors. fatty acids. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. geraniol and geranyl acetate. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. cremocarp nearly globular. flavonoids (quertcetin. undulate secondary ribs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. p-cymene. Properties Has been used in body lotions. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. The essential oil is used in massage oils. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. tannin. limonene. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. frequently with numerous large. toilet waters and after shaves.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. tangentially elongated. ferulic). trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. etc. camphor. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. -terpinene. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. endocarp of large tabular cells. mericarps easily separated. chlorogenic. each mericarp with five prominent. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. eliptical oil ducts. toothpaste.
bracts greenish-yellow. For aging skin.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. marginal corollas funnelform. and various skin complaints. stem 3 to 7 dm high. Description Annual. native of Europe. Quebec. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. blue. ascending branches. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. or as a compress for tired eyes. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. conjunctivitis. heads long-peduncled. British Columbia. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . more or less floccose. with slender. about 15 mm high. varying to rose or white. Virginia. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. involucres round-ureolate. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. scrapes. California. it is soothing and emollient. floccose.
and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. protein. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. alanine. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. tannin. maizeric acid. protocyanin. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. stigmas bifid. frequently unequal. flavonoids (Maysin). cultivated extensively. yellow or light brown color. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. saponins. tocopherols. and from 0.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. minerals.4 to 3 mm in length. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. and 0. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. CORN SILK Zea mays L. light green. cnicin. purplish-red.4 mm in diameter.2 to 0. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. and temperate Asia. polygalacturonic acids. Constituents Acetanapthene. Europe.8 m in length. stigmasterol. spiral or annular tracheae. potassium. the upper portion being usually unicellular. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. palmitic acid. segments very slender. vitamin C. the basal trichomes 50. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. the epidermal cells rectangular. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fixed oil. proline. Topically very soothing and softening. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. corn silk. arginine. cichorin. cyanidin glucoside. spherical nucleus.
Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. apricot-like... cooling. Properties Stimulate circulation... wrinkled leaves.. quercetin)..M. colds..90 CRESS. sweetish. and for chapped skin or sunburn.. volatile oils.... *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India. According to the German Commission Monograph E.. phytosterol. five-lobed.. 1984.. Berlin.. soothing eye compress. 176. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America. and E. and refreshing. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis..... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Plant Drug Analysis. phenolic acids. cucurbitacins.. amino acids. H. hairy perennial....SEE WATERCRESS Description A short.. Blatt. S.. flavonoids (gossypetin.. The flowers are tubular.. in face creams. yellow. enzyme (primeverase). some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging).. Springer-Verlag. with oval. 1.. odor... Description This trailing annual has rough stems. fatty acids.. and spotted with orange at the throat.. and coughs... Wagner. Constituents Vitamins... Constituents Saponins.... and 3-gentiotrioside.. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles.. slightly curved.. broad hairy leaves. campferol dirhamnoside.. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract.. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties.. astringent... sunburn. CRESS. Taste.. dark green fruits.. tubular yellow flowers. p... Zgalinski... Hydrating.See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L. and cylindrical. Both the fruit and seeds are employed. about 1 cm in diameter. For blotchiness of skin. minerals.
the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. Frequent pieces of cut. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. Foreign Dandelion. with a pronounced midrib. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. and for various skin complaints and eczema. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. 0. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. dark green or brown-green in color. Stomata are present in both epidermises. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. ending in a spherical secreting cell. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. approximating 90°. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. naturalized in the United States. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long).S. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T.0 cm long and 0. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 to 1.5 cm wide. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum.5 cm wide. where it is a common weed. yellow-brown and sometimes purple. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls.
and is especially high in potassium. as a diuretic. the root has been used to treat inflammation. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. Vitamin B and C. It is also considered a blood purifier. The white sap has been used to treat warts. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses.
but often divides into several erect branches. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. whitish bark in which numerous. glucoside. milky latex exudes. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. which have not been found anywhere else. and the eudesmanolides. a narrow cortex. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. which toward the upper part. and wrinkled longitudinally. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. Description The root consists of a simple. and a layer of cork externally. straight root. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). but a bitter taste. with concentric rings as in the root. carotenoids. surrounded by a thick. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. which is rather hygroscopic. and sterols. much shriveled. where it is a common weed. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. naturalized in the United States. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The drug. the latter sometimes remains simple. becomes tough when slightly moist. 1. It has no odor. it tapers but little below.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11.1% mucilage. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. and its derivative taraxacoside. brownish concentric rings of sieve. The dried root is dark brown. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. also ca. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. porous. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. vitamins and minerals. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. the section exhibiting a yellow. It attains a length of about 30 cm. flavonoids.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. whitish and fleshy within.
occasionally with cavities. claw-like fruit. procumbide). heavily concentric. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. M. Planta Med.5 cm thick. polysaccharides.. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. bitter. rheumatism). taste astringent. with some fan-shaped pieces. 1.. The plant produces bright red flowers. Lanhers. quinones. triterpenes.. (oleanolic acid. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. et al. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. light grey-brown. hooked. slightly analgesic. Fracture short. 58. flavonoids. 117.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. chlorogenic acid. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. Description It has a characteristic large.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside.-C. Xylem radiate. polyphenols. ursolic acid) phytosterols. Odor slight. Antiphlogistic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1992.
Indian head. E. (Nutt. Part Used: Root. L.) Nutt. E. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. Black Susans. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. Hedgehog Part Used: Root. purpurea. pallida. Scurvy Root. Black Sampson. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Moench..E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC.
This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. fibrous. etc. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. wound healing. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. bark less than 1 mm thick. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. boils. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. light brown. Odor faint. bed sores. fracture short. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. When administered orally. sieve tissue in radial rows. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. or furrowed. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or purplish-brown.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. externally grayish-brown. For example. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. or poisonous insects. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. use for snake bite. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. bites. aromatic. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. stings. slightly annulate in the upper portion. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. taste sweetish. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. ulcers. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. wounds. cylindrical. burns. blood purification. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled.
It also increases T-cell proliferation. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients.ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities. interleukin-1 (IL-1). Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. and Interferon-B2. this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X).3 Furthermore. TNF-X. A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii). Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages.
3–1. chlorogenic acid.4E. • Polysaccharides. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E.. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. In E. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood. angustifolia. Present in both E.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid.g. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E. purpurea and E. purpurea (0. but practically absent in E. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. in vivo. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. angustifolia).6–2. albicans pathogens. angustifolia. purpurea)]. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans.5 Furthermore. isobutylamide of undeca (2E. pyrrolizidine alkaloids. – The mono. including an essential oil. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea. These include aliphatic amides. ferulates of tartaric.10E)-tetraenoic acid). Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E.7% (except in E. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds.8Z. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. which is useful for species identification.g. arabinoga lactan). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro.4Z-diene8.1%). pallida.. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e.
Jurcic. Intn. 38(2). (Bethesda). 1988. S. 1988. M.E.. J. Brouillard. Zawatzky. Immuno Pharmacol. H. B.. Zenk. 1989. 276-281. 1989. Luettig. Phytochemistry.. Wuerdinger. Cheminat. J. 3. Schranner. 353-364.. and R. R. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .Matthes. M. 13(1). A. 1991. Gifford. Christiane. 5.744. H. 36(5).L. 27(9). Lohmann. I. R. 1989 2. O. Ger Offen De 3. E. Wagner. Wagner. Steinmueller. J. K. 27-38. Ser. K.. 669-675. 2787-2794. and J. H. Becker. C. Klumpp and U. N. Wagner. Vet. G.. Puhlmann. Cancer Inst.-L.345. J.H. Med. J. and H. Natl. Albrecht. Bauer. B. Andreas. 4. Wagner. 6. and M. Arzneim-Forsch. Lohmann-Matthes. 81(8). Roesler. Loesch. Holger.ECHINACEA 99 1.
taste slightly bitter. covered with finely punctate markings. triterpenes (alpha. inflammation. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. Description Small. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mucilage. rotate. tumors. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. five-lobed. minerals. rutin. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. stamens five. regularly five-lobed. astragalin. soreness.and beta-amyrin). *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. filaments. flat or slightly campanulate. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. calyx superior. shriveled. from 2 to 3 mm in width. slender anthers oblong. It is said to reduce swellings. volatile oils. having three pores and up to 0. sambunigrin). yellow. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. and tannins. sterols. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. joint stiffness etc. ursolic acid.023 mm in diameter. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. south to Florida and Texas.
frequently curved or irregularly curled. as a bactericide. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and separated by large intercellular spaces. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. bitter. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal.) strongly lignified wood fibers. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. and pungent. fracture short and horny. central Europe. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. wounds. naturalized in northeastern North America. asthma. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. west to Missouri. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. south to North Carolina. roots cylindrical and tapering. up to 13 cm in length and 1. itching skin. taste acrid. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. and catarrh. Scabwort. Odor aromatic. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. and rashes.5 cm in diameter. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large.
triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. germacrene-D-lactose). Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. sterols. inulin. isolantolactone. polyacetylene. friedelin).
odor characteristically aromatic. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. always deeply cut-in teeth. has a bitter and astringent taste. revolute or undulate. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. essential oil. long and about in. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. The stem is erect and wiry. broad. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. Constituents Tannins. or with many opposite branches. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). woolly beneath. heads numerous. their margins. Astringent tonic. Description It is an elegant little annual plant.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. Also has slight Anodyne properties. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. and phytosterin. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. high. Europe. 2 to 8 in. Hemostatic. small. The leaves are sometimes almost round. but sometimes tinged with brown. and at other times pointed and narrow. 1 ⁄6 to in. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . woodland. green above. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. obtuse bracts which are white. Description Stems white-woolly. It is odorless. either unbranched in small specimens. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. however. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. resin. taste bitter and aromatic. sessile. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. febrifuge. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. heaths.
inflamation of the blood vessels. catapol. caffeic acid. Euphrasia contains glycosides. conjunctivitis. Constituents Aucubin.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. ferulic acid. and a volatile oil. minerals. including aucubin. luproside. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and various skin conditions. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. poultices. lotions or drops for eye complaints. geniposide. gallotannins. inflammation of the eyelid.
Description Mericarps usually separate. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. making usually six oil ducts in all. It is * Formerly CTFA. conical stylopod. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. For use in eye washes. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. New Jersey. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. composed of polygonal cells. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. United States. more or less curved.5 mm in breadth.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. dorsal surface convex. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. brown walls. strongly lignified fibers. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. south to Florida and Texas. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil.
in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. Soaked in water. anisaldehyde. the radicle being accumbent. Pakistan. organic acids. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. The odor of Fenugreek. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. horny. including -pinene. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. and 2 mm thick. -phellandrene. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . translucent endosperm. especially if powdered. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. In addition. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. they are hard. dark. the taste is disagreeable and oily. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. protein. and limonene. and flavonoids. the former appearing as a whitish point. However. and flattened. the fruits contain a fixed oil. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. Nearly in the center of one of the long. yellowish-brown. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. Israel. there are methylchavicol. 2 to 3 mm wide. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. is strong and spicy. cultivated in India. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. In addition. and Turkey. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed.
Square stalk. diosgenin.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. It is also used as a galactagogue. swollen glands. mucilage. aspartic acid. wounds. damp copses. sores. yamogenin. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. tumors. flowering from July to October. A poultice has been employed for gout. cystine. trigofoenoside A-G. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glycine. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. Fenugreek contains mucilage. choline. mucin. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. choline. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. and various skin irritations. Scrofula plant. glutamic acid. histidine. in woods. neurosis. Constituents Dioscin. fenugreakin. and banks. trigonelline. hedges.
cleansing. veined. tuberous. acute. Constituents Saponins. and circulatory stimulant. dark purple. whitish. with a leafy. the corolla of a dull green color. acutish or broadly cordate at base. the limb contracted. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with paniculate. with a livid purple lip.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. and knotty root. ovoid. long. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. and slightly margined. thyrsoid panicles. which are broadly ovate. opposite branches above. forked. anodyne. adnate to the upper side. The flowers are small. erect. smooth stem. The leaves are opposite. having a green scale or sterile filament. in length. obtuse. on axillary and terminal. petiolate. or the upper lanceolate. hesperetin. alkaloids and flavonoids. of a deep-green color. The calyx is in five segments. and subglobose. rounded. sublabiate. cardio-active glycosides. ovate. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. and 3 to 7 in. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. 3 to 4 in. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. sharply and unequally serrated. 2 to 4 ft in height. lecithin. quadrangular. slightly drooping. ovate-oblong.
*INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. and rough on the margins. with hooked prickles. with an acidulous. styles 2. procumbent. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). and Burdock. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. verticillate in sixes. and flowering from June to September. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. and midrib. stamens 4 and short. coumarins. Stinging Nettle. 2 or 3 lines in width. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. growing in cultivated grounds. or eights. numerous and scattered. The fruit is large and bristly. but are inodorous when dried. Description Galium aparine is an annual. Calyx 4-toothed. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. cleansing. and bitter taste. and is hairy at the joints. sterols. with a weak. the peduncles are axillary and 1. mucronate. phenolic acids. tapering to the base. Catch-weed. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. tannins. GARLIC Allium sativum L. small. and along banks of rivers. the flowers white. corolla rotate and 4-parted. In a green state. and astringent. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . quadrangular. and n-alkanes. these plants have an unpleasant odor.or 2-flowered. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. including psoriasis. moist thickets. flavonoids. succulent plant. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. sevens. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. retrorsely prickled stem.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. fatty acids. in length. astringent.
thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. expectorant. promotes leucocytosis. hypotensive and anthelmintic. compound. sores. taste intensely pungent and persistent. Properties Cosmetically. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. C. scordinins. (alliin. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. apex acute. and attached to a flattened circular base. Vitamins A. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. Internally. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. spasmolytic. cultivated extensively. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. The membranaceous scales. and fructans.750 mm in diameter. However. Description Bulb subglobular. about 0. base truncate. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. and acne. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. the outer surface convex. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. Garlic does not lend itself. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. Garlic is diaphoretic. B. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. Italy is a large producer. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. surrounded by whitish. It has been applied successfully to swellings. each bulbil covered by whitish.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. antiseptic. membranaceous. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. g-glutamyl). with 8 to 15 bulbils. antiviral. trace minerals. for obvious reasons. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . peptides. pimples. bacteriostatic. in place of butter. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. scale-like leaves. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. dry leaf. and E. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. Constituents Sulfur compounds. membranaceous scales. allicin — dialltrisulfide.
Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. volatile oils. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. sialagogue. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. xanthones. but pliable when it is moist. then strongly bitter. These roots measure up to 8. but are usually shorter. The odor is aromatic. and to 37 mm in diameter. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. that of the root. sweroside. and middle western United States. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. amarogentin. and alkaloids (gentiamine). The taste is first sweet.5 dm in length. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cleansing. swertiamarin). It is recommended for loss of appetite. gastric stimulant. polysaccharide. Cranesbill. and cholagogue. bitter. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. phenolic acids. Properties Gentian is an astringent. The cambiam zone is dark brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. anti-inflammatory. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown.
Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.
Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root
Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.
Ginseng root (american) cultivated
Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.
GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves
Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.
Golden rod (Solidago)
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome
Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.
GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part
Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.
GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit
Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract
Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
conditioning.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. theophylline). lotions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. ferulic).. which can be used in various sun-care products. and phenolic acids (caffeic. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. shampoos. creams. gallo catechins). hair rinses. theobromine. tannins (catechins.
Properties Flowers. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation.) C. catechin.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. vitexin glucosides. sores. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. Monogyna (jacq. and central and northern Asia. Cosmetically. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .C. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. Externally. fatty acids. and externally wrinkled. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. leaves. and frost bite. it has been used as a wash for itching. phenolic acids. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. quercetin and glucosides). Medically. and dimeric procyanidin. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. purple-brown to brown in color. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. with five parts. Description The fruits are small berries. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins.
319. fruit. It will add body and highlights to hair. l. simple. glabrous. and conditioners. etc. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. mucronate. shortly petiolate. hair rinses. Sci. opposite.. small. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. decoction orange-brown. 51. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. with occasional stems and brown. 1983. astringent. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. Della Loggia. brown. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. entire. and decolorized by a special extraction process. however. 4-napthoquinone). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .126 HENNA 1. et al. oblong or broadly lanceolate. India.. It is also said to be cooling. Pharm. It will not impart any color to the hair. often imported in coarse powder. 1 to 2 cm wide. in an aqueous solution. Chamomile. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. R. as henna. triangular pitted seeds. fading on the addition of acid. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. 2 to 3 cm long. acids destroy its properties. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. deepening with alkalies. However. It can be used in shampoos. tapering at the base. (2-hydroxy. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. Arabia. Description Leaves greenish-brown. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. Persia. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. Calendula.
nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. luteolin). flavonoids. and semi-solid on keeping.4-napthoquinone). Honey obtained from heather. Description Honey is a viscid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It becomes partially crystalline. and New Zealand. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. various parts of Africa. and tannins. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. phenolic acid. orange blossom.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. California. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. Australia. Chile. (glucosides of apigenin. translucent. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. fatty acids.
it will reduce swellings. sores. bitter principles. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. formic acid. bactericidal. and hair conditioning. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). and pollen grains. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. Hops is a sedative. xanthahumol). Asia. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. face creams. and tannins. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. wax. The strobiles measure 5. Useful in treatment of dandruff. Bark Bongay. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. The odor is aromatic. ringworm. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. and discoloration. tannins. humulene. lupulone. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. and alleviates pain and itching. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. The taste is pungent and bitter. consisting mainly of humulene. one margin is flat. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. tetters. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin).8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It has been used on crural ulcers.brown. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. hypnotic. volatile oil. will give body to the hair. The individual bracts are thin and papery. dextrin. In combination with Chamomile. It contains small quantities of sucrose. the veins are elevated. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. Hops is a strobulus.
phenolic acids. and has an unpleasant. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. when dry. The nut. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. is nearly odorless. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. Anti-inflammatory.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. is subglobular. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. peculiar odor. and hemorrhoids. and non-astringent. and tannin. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. aesculin). Properties Cosmetically. The inner bark has a rough. varicose veins. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. quercetin). showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. yellowish-white in color. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. vasoconstrictor. stimulates digestion and circulation. and swellings. lotions. chestnut-brown testa. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. Gaertn et Schert. The plant has long. increases circulation. fleshy roots. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. nearly an inch in diameter.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. and slimming products. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. fawn-colored. compressed. It has been used in cellulitis. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. bitter taste. with a shining. tendonitis. in diameter. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. iron gives a green precipitate. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. sprains and various sports injuries. large rough leaves. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. The root has antimicrobial properties. The aqueous infusion is bitter. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. bitter taste. from 1 to 1 in.25–0. hand creams. Properties Astringent. Constituents Saponins (aescin. Increases venous tone. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. phlebitis. The nut has a slight. The bark is thin. Description A perennial . marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. The internal portion is starchy.
mostly with sterile spores. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. 1 to 3. 2 to 3 mm. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. high. Alaska. 5 to 10 mm. South Carolina.5 dm. However. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Eurasia. sterile stems decumbent to erect. However. California. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. branched. yields 0. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. greasy skin. solid. it should be used with caution and low concentrations.5 dm. 10 to 14 furrowed. high. thick.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. Greenland. acuminate. cones peduncled. 2 to 4 cm long. branches 3 to 4 angled. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. as the fresh juice can be irritating. after crushing and moistening. which would validate its use on blemished. thick. causing the skin to blister. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. rarely with a few branches. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths.
Used for putrid wounds. with the middle obe larger. kaempferol. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. seldom white. Stamens 4. Upper lip of the corolla.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. and diverging. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. spreading. astringent. with the middle of the corolla erect. flat. The flowers are bluish-purple. scarcely shorter than the calyx. It is diuretic. anthers with linear divaricating cells. sunny sites. usually oblong-linear. protruding. phenolic acids. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. emarginate. sometimes narrower. acute. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. emarginate. acute. and equistetolic acid. and borne in racemose. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but smaller. The leaves are opposite. flat. and 1 ribbed underneath. silicic acid. and external bleeding. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. Will add strength and sheen to hair. lower lip trifid. saponin (equisetonin). sessile. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. the branches are rod-like. green on each side. apigenin). Its stems are quadrangular. palustrine alkaloid. sometimes elliptical. minerals. punctate. entire. second whorls. and 1 to 2 ft in height. spreading. erect. southern Europe. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. rather thick. gangrenous ulcers. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. or lanceolate. woody at the base. very much branched. healing.
oleanic acid. flavonoid glycosides. and resin. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. phenolic acids. Tannin. Constituents Volatile oil. marrubin. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gum. ursolic acid.
with a varegated throat. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. curved.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. marubiin. phenolic acids. hairy. and glaucous on both sides. creeping stem. The calyx is long. the limb oblique. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. * Formerly CTFA. The leaves are petiolate. Also useful in cough preparations. The floral leaves are of the same form. radicating at base. square. crenate. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). with a prostrate. amino acids. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. Europe to Caucasus. decongesting tonic. villous. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. hairy herb. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . forming the appearance of a cross. roundish. cordatereniform. The flowers are bluish-purple. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). the upper being the largest. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. though often purplish beneath. North America. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. gray. opposite. volatile oil. luteolin [cynaroside]. about three together in axillary whorls. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid.
or Ivy gum). This plant is common all over Europe. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. The former possesses a peculiar. It is acrid. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. anthelmintic. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. sun or shade. control of cellulite. Description An evergreen climber. exudes from the incised bark. Ivy has been used in face packs. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. Scandinavia. However. faintly bitter. molluscicidal. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. Properties Anti-fungal. Europe. aromatic odor. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. and introduced into North America. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. antimutagenic. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. rather fragrant odor. and when heated emits a pleasant.
and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides. flavonoids. hederacoside C (5%). . and fatty acids.IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. phenolic acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . malic acid. hederacoside.
5 cm. The leaves are compound. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. The upper surface is yellowish-green. The blades are asymmetric. and stems. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. The under surface is yellowish-green. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stalks. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. The odor is slight. dull. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. The taste is salty and bitter. and the veins are elevated. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. smooth.
volatile oil. antiglaucoma agent. hair tonics. colocynth. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. isopilocarpine). calyx linear. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. and sweat hypersecretion. Combines well with Nettles. and mullein as a hair tonic. pilocarpic acid. It contains pilocarpine. gastric. conditioners. It increases intestinal motility. jaboric acid. tincture of Capsicum. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. isamone. hair rinses. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. containing benzylacetate. Constituents Essential oil. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. jaborino. the terminal leaflet larger. Leaves opposite. lotions. It can be used in shampoos. It induces salivary. eugenol. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. skin creams. gels. more than half as long as the corolla tube. benzyl alcohol. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. and soaps. and farnesol. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. very sweet-scented flowers.
algin. Constituents Iodine. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. (For additional information. restoring. Description Vesicles large. potassium. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. benefits the skin. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. softening. and many trace minerals and micronutrients. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. see Chapter 7. each bearing an expanded blade. hair products. dissolving. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . skin care products. Nourishing.
Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. southern India and Sri Lanka. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. and alkaloid. antipyretic. wide. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. tropical habitats in dry soil. and lotions. antioxidant. analgesic. Antimicrobial properties. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. The flowers are in branched panicles. and similar skin problems. and antifungal. triterpenoids. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. creams. dandruff. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. shampoos.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. Approximately 30 species have been identified. Description This aromatic grass has clumped.
and cleansers. It is aromatic and astringent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L.) Burman F. cleanse the skin. phenolic acids. skin bleach. Glycyrrhizae Radix. Liquorice Root. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. and Hungary. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. odor fragrant. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. Constituents Essential oil. skin creams. Russia. and close the pores. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. flavonoids. taste aromatic. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. When taken on an empty stomach. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Sweet Wood. southern Europe. Properties Healing antiseptic. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. bacteriastatic. dilute it with water. distinctive. giving relief.
Anti-inflammatory. somewhat tapering. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. Externally. it is yellow and radiate. Internally. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. anti-infectant. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. longitudinally wrinkled.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. antibacterial. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. including dermatitis. antihepatotoxic. antiviral. Properties Good for skin eruptions. antiseptic. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. antiphlogistic. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. pruritus. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. it is externally pale yellow. Internally. Its odor is distinctive. its taste is sweetish. and cysts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sometimes split longitudinally. eczema. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. when deprived of the outer corky layer. The upper portion is more or less knotty.
LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. echinatin. licoisoflavanone. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. glyzarin. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. liquiritigenin. 4-hydroxychalcone. Europe. bracts N/S Flowers. amino acids. On hydrolysis. licoricone. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose).144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. etc. lignin. glabrolide. 2 to 20% starch. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. glycyrol. gum wax. bracts Flowers. etc. isoglabrolide. isoliquiritin. amines. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .). sterols. 4’. neoisoliquiritin. neoliquiritin. formononetin. B-amyrin. rhamnoisoliquiritin. limestone. bracts N/S Flowers.). glabronin etc.7-dihydoxyflavone. licuraside. glabrol. coumarins. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. licoisoflavones A and B. Basswood. White Wood.). liquiritin. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. Linn Tree. licochalcones A and B. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. licoric acid. kumatakenin. glycyrrhetol. glabrone. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin.
LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. when dry. or approach yellow. faint. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. linear. leaf-like bract. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. For bruises and to reduce swelling. Internally. odor is agreeable. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. are oblong or lanceolate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). Emollient. which are axillary. The petals are five and whitish. When fresh. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters.
Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. W. mucilage. Description Lovage has large. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. Maggi Herb.0% volatile oil. The rhizome and root are aromatic. Smallage. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. D. sterols. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. caffeic). naturalized in North America. The fruit is a cremocarp. and resin are also present. gum. high amount of uronic acid. volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . creams. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0.5 to 1.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. and perfumes. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. cultivated in central and southern Europe. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. dark green. Coumarins. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. tannins. kaempferol). lotions. J.
quinic acid. primary forks. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. mucilage. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and shining frond bases. The rhizomes are horizontal. Properties In rinses. pedately branching at the summit. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. Constituents Adiantone. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. slender. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. and then into several spreading pinnae. first into two recurving. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. tannin. astragalin. The odor is slight.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. phenolic acids and their sulfates. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. adiantoxide. blackish. and with blackish roots. They consist of long.
Medicinally used in cough preparations. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. and phenolic acids. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. and insect bites. spasmodic colitis. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. thick. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. niacin. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. The flower heads have a short. British Columbia to Mexico. mostly ligulate. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. The odor is not distinct. The blade is cordate at the base. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. the veins are elevated. Relieves itching. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. protective. Holligold. greenish-gray bracts. hairy. Useful in eye preparations. The individual flowers are yellow.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. the veins are palmate. flowers. and slightly elevated. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . distinct. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. These flowers are oblanceolate. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. naturalized in North America. blotchiness. Properties Soothing and softening. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. The texture is herbaceous. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. and fruits. Emollient for sensitive skin. Mary-bud. curved peduncle. The taste is mucilaginous.
The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.
MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops
Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.
MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root
Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb
Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers
Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. mildly expectorant. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. Myrrh is used in incense. diuretic. sore throats. It is said to bring forth the gods. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. and anti-inflammatory. It is said to promote granulation. The odor is aromatic. powdery. engler) The surface is dull.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. The taste is pungent. Used for halitosis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. diaphoretic. bitter. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. and acrid. antifungal. for example. carminative. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. The fracture is conchoidal.
creamy white flowers.2 to 0. and blue-black berries. on bruises and hemorrhoids. geraniol. camphene. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. cineole.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. and nerol). Constituents Yields 0. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and myrtenol (mainly as acetate.
.. Urtica urens L....... in hedges..... As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy. and epistaxis malaena.... minerals (high amount). Stimulates hair growth. Nettles has been used as an astringent... common to Europe and the United States. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll. See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L. sterols. flowering from June to September...N NASTURTIUM . by woodsides. growing in waste places. which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed. Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle.. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles.. acetyl choline. choline. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic. Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant.. amines (histamine. beta-carotene.. and in gardens. Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant.... formic and citric acids.. and isorhamnetin). serotonin).. Description This plant is a perennial. nervous eczema.. herbaceous. and for cutaneous eruptions.. kaempferol. dull-green plant.
up to 1. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. Odor slight. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. above the center. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. two-veined palet or scale. within the groove a narrow. Florida. at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. a scar or. rarely.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. and the Yukon.O OATS Avena sativa L. tapering toward each end. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. taste starchy. the base somewhat contracted. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. Texas. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. thinly membranous. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). the apex pointed.
There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. The drug tastes bitter. less heavily developed tissue. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. eczema. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. these are elongated thick-walled. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. subsessile. entire and coriaceous. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. bent here and there. polyphenols. The leaves are opposite. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. Description The tree is small. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. highly refringent and truncate. rarely over 25 ft in height. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. avenacin). Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. lignified. shingles. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. Medically. and herpes. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. some of which give rise to unicellular. straight or slightly curved. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. Properties Benefits the skin. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sleeplessness. lignified walls. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. elliptical stomata up to about 0. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. partially beaded. the cells filled with protein. pointed hairs.
Zarzuelo.. Gonzalez. 1. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 m high. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. also hollow.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. and red globe onions. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. 513. 57. et al. ll-demethyl oleuropein. ONION Allium cepa L. 417. 7. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. 1991.. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). 1992. M.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. hypoglycemic.. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. A. et al. diuretic. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. hypoglycemic. antifungal. few of them have been studied experimentally. ligustroside. up to about 1.. and antimicrobial. yellow globe. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. Planta Med. hypotensive. 2. Planta Med. 58. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe.
Flowers. acute. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. Fruit. reddish-orange. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with bitter rind and sour flesh. very sweet-scented. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. fructans. white. oblong-oval. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. 2 to 2 cm long. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Description Leaves. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. alkyl and alkenylcysteines. 1-propenesulfenic acid. 7 to 8 cm globular. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. introduced to Europe.
from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. fracture hard. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. with limonene as main constituent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rutoside. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. with many slight. minute pits. the sugar component of which. var. inner surface whitish. used for oily skin and acne. more astringent than rose water. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. and bitter substances. somewhat curved. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite.2 to 0. such as hesperidin.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. It is also given internally. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. flavonoids. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. furanocoumarins. short. conical projections and linear. nobiletin. 0. odor fragrant and aromatic. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). aromatic wash. considerable amounts of pectin. neohesperidose (2-0. taste aromatic and bitter. non-bitter flavonoids. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. Constituents Essential oil (ca.5%). tangeretin.
schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. bitter and carminative. sinensis Osbeck. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. Flavonoids. citral. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. skin creams for its flavonoids. Cultivated in Florida and California. It is also an aromatic. odor fragrant. and hesperidin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. globules of volatile oil. citronellal. taste pungently aromatic. naringin. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. quercetin. sinensis L. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster.
1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. p-coumaric acid. Petals usually longer than the sepals. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Essential oil. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. eczema. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. but sometimes up to twice as long.g. rheumatism. meadows. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. magnesium tartrate. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. tannin. very variable in size. Leaves variable. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. anti-inflammatory. leafy. arabinose. acne. impetigo. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. and carotenoids. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. tocopherol. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. Properties Used as a healing tonic. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. Description Flowers mostly tricolored. Exerpt from German Commission E.. antipyretic. stipules variable. gaultherin. but often palmately lobed with a larger. spur short. anthocyanidin glycosides. flavonoids. scoparine. saponins. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. mucilage. Monograph 6. galacturonic acid. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. e. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. rutin. violutoside. pruritus.
Naturalized in southern Florida. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. The fruit is a large melon-like. staminate and pistillate flowers. long petioled. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. with large. and minerals. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). edible berry up to about 15 lb. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. Carpaine. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. carpinine (an alkaloid). which resembles sinigrin. vitamins. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). etc. shampoos. C14H2502N. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes.
ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. kr = individual crystals. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. Regn. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Veget. m = outer lamella. Odor faint. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme.F. q = group of large fibers.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. (After T. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. papyrifora.2-benzenediol. Kr´ = crystal rosettes.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. margin dentate to crenate. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. Vent.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. p = parenchyma. and B. ms = latex tubes. Tabl. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels. taste woody and characteristic. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2.
aromatic. sativum. emmenagogue. cylindrical and striated stem about 0.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). Apium petroselinum. taste faintly sweet. and antimicrobial. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp.) Nym. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. antirheumatic. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. stout. fruit. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering.05 to 0.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. Other parts of the plant contain 0. hortense. isopimpenillin. 8-methoxypsoralen. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. spasmolytic. and Hungary. extensively cultivated in California. green. Furocoumarins including bergapten. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. Belgium. and imperatorin. above-ground herb. apiole (18%). The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. psoralen. apiin. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. P. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. France. The tap root is fusiform. and others. above-ground herb.3. Odor characteristic. W. and starch. diuretic. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. (Mill. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. p-mentha-1. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L.8-triene (9%). yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. expectorant. Germany. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. ex A. compound umbels. fruit. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown. B-phellandrene (12%).
The cortex and wood are thin. large.5 cm in length and to 3. phenolic acids (caffeic.3 cm in width. its color varies from light to dark purple. notably viridoflorol. as it contains flavonoids. menthone (10 to 40%). The calyx is campanulate. tonic. chlorogenic. hair tonics. mildly sedative. carminative. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. The pith is white. triterpenes. and the veins are more prominent. four-lobed above. its five teeth are subulate. The stems are simple or branched. The bracts are lanceolate. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. The margin is sharply serrate. the leaves are opposite decussate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. The fracture is tough and incomplete. rutin. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. rosemarinic). hesperidin). The nodes are enlarged. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%).5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. They measure up to 9. cultivated in Japan and the United States. spasmolytic. south to Florida and Alabama. and the color varies from green to purple. cineole. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. and the veins are slightly depressed. The odor is aromatic. interrupted spikes. cholagogue. sitosterols. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. and the veins are slightly depressed. ursolic acid. and minerals. Properties Stimulant. The apex is acute. flavonoids (luteolin. naturalized in North America. antiseptic. the texture is fibrous. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. The flowers are arranged in dense. The blade measures up to 7. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. the internodes are of variable length. The under surface is light green. broad. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. The corolla is united and tubular below. The outline is quadrangular. menthofuran. and solid or hollow.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. The under surface is light green.
Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. entire. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. they are different. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. Properties Used as a hemostatic. firm. Minnesota. shining. the lobes obovate. tannins. a standardized extract should be used. Description Stem spreading. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. 1 to 6 dm long. dark green. leaves ovate to oblong. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). hypoglycemic. trailing. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. Has also been used to stop external bleeding. and Georgia. hypotensive. in Connecticut. vulnerary sedative. however. native of Europe.5 to 3 cm broad. flavonoids. as well as Europe. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. corolla blue. astringent. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. vasodilator. Vinca contains vincamine.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. truncate. and ursolic acid.
Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. very small. in fields. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. Constituents Contains oils. smoothish. by the roadsides. and in grass plats. aromatics. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. quercetin. the seeds numerous.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The flowers are white. which are the medullary rays. leaving smooth surfaces. long. numerous. raffinose sequoyitol. it has a density varying from about 0. abietic acid. and is common in Europe and America. In a radial surface. Plantago major L. quinic acid. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. and applied to sores. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. channeled petiole. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. shikimic acid. and insect bites. swellings. balsamic. moist places. The medullary rays. growing in rich. ferulic acid. pinitol. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. Vessels are absent. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. malonic acid. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. dihydroquercetin. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb.to seven-nerved. five. and abruptly narrowed into a long. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. arising from a fibrous root. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. pinnicorretin. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. somewhat toothed. imbricated. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. dark band of autumn wood. tannins. It flowers from May to October. campesterol. The leaves are ovate. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. Ripple-grass.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. n-nonacosane. Properties Astringent. parahydroxybenzoic acid. cuts. The stamens and styles are long. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines.35 to 0. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins).
The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. and palmitic acids). Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. tannins. aucubin. sterols. catapol. balcalin. apigenin. they both have the same virtues. fixed oil (linoleic. and phenolic acids. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oleic. polysaccharides. apparently. Constituents Mucilage. for healing. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. asperuloside.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. essential oils. and for cell proliferation. allantoin.
galagin. de Carvalho Ac. The New Honest Herbal.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro. Stickley Co.2 Constituents Resin. Magro Filboo.E. Hiadon B.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. V. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . J. 1987. and pinobanksin). minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. 1990. et al. 4. ArnzneimittleForschung.. Philadelphia. Nihon Univ. 1980. and pinobanksin. 30(1). balsam. pinocembrin. essential oils. pollen.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. antiviral.. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester.. wax.F. Tyler. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. fungicidal.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. Sch. 32(1). G. 1847. 1. galangin. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. 2.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. and anti-inflammatory. Dent.. 3. and caffeic acid.. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds.
Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. outer surface nearly white. Description In flat pieces of variable size. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. conical projections or transverse. channels. finely wrinkled. Historically. and occasional circular depressions. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. inner surface yellowish-brown. * Formerly CTFA. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. Bolivia. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. fracture uneven. Upon microscopic examination. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . longitudinally striate. these species appear to resemble that of Q. coarsely fibrous. taste very acrid and unpleasant. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. and Peru. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. odor slight sternutatory. Smegmandermos deC.
The odor is not distinct. The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. cinchonidine. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. quinamine).176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. partially quilled. to 7 cm in width. Ecuador. uronic acids. The root. quilled. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. gypsogenin. or compound quilled. shallowly fissured transversely. free acids (quinic acid). The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured.8 dm in length. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). and to 6 mm in diameter. overlapping quilled. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. cinchonine. The fracture is tough and uneven. its important alkaloids. quinine and quinidine. The bark is flat or chip-like. quinidine. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. calcium oxalate sugars. Remineralizing protein. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). a neutral saponin. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. and volatile oils. tannins. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. are used. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Internally. which is nearly always chip-like. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. quillaic acid (C19H30O10).
the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. It is also used as a suspending agent. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. with water. ovoid or oblong. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. present in the epidermis of the testa.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. triangularly compressed. being coated with mucilage.
isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. volatile oil. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . salicylic and p-coumaric acids. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. genistein. and esters. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. then slightly bitter. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. including methyl salicylate. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. starch. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. shriveled. fatty acids. sitosterol. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. purplish and more or less brown from drying. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. * Formerly CTFA. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. phenolic acids. calyx teeth subulate. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. tapering. contains over 40 compounds. petals united into a tube below. benzyl alcohol. biochanin A. Constituents Flavonoids. taste sweetish. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. Medicinally. phenolic acids. Properties Historically. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. style slender. daidzein. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). and furfural. volatile oil. eugenol. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. Mildly anti-spasmodic.
about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. emollient. ovate. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. The numerous veins run from the base toward. with an entire margin. etc. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. By drying.15 to 0. inflorescence short-racemose. lotions. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. mainly rhoeadine.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). finely tomentose when young. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. thimble-shaped. light-colored. and Minnesota. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. They have. doubtfully indigenous to England. Properties Soothing. armed with bristles or weak prickles. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. leaving a space about 0. Rhode Island. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. and are then employed in the fresh state. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. hair rinse. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. Maine. dark violet claw. erect. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . such as hand creams. Quinoline alkaloids. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. Description Stem biennial. when fresh. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. they are smooth and shining above. with a short. fruit red. double-serrate. rounded or cordate at the base. shortacuminate. somewhat smaller.
Note: However. insomnia. riboflavin. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. hepatitis. and North American coastal rainforests. it comes in various sizes and shapes. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. and C.).REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. Japan. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. fragarine. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. A series of tritepenoids. granoderan A. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. have been isolated. and beta-carotene. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. minerals. nervousness. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. Happy Herb. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Internally. Constituents Ascorbic acid. consult a qualified physician before using. Constituents Polysaccharides. China. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. Ling-Zhi (Chin. protein. B. Ergosterol derivatives. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. gallic acid. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. succinic acid. and antibacterial properties. Auspicious Herb. thiamine. mouth ulcers. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. Dried and whole. and inflammations. lactic acid. ellagic acid. malic acid. Miraculous chi. and chest and heart diseases. antioxidant.
The taste is astringent. The texture of the cortex is granular.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. The color is dull reddish-brown. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. very tough and hackly. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. and it tapers into the main root. and P. fibrous. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. of the wood. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. rough and scaly. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. of the larger roots.5 cm in diameter at the crown. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. that of the wood. of the larger roots. dark reddish-brown. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. which has numerous branches. The odor is not characteristic.
mouth wash. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb.5 mm long. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. to give a good appearance. II. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. If the trimming has been very severe. tannins (proanthocyanidines). the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. face creams. etc. Dark areas may still be found here and there. immediately within the secondary xylem. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . After removing the powder. Constituents Gum. and N-methyltyrosine. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. which when carefully shaved off. the cortex has been removed. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. III.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. In the periphery of the pith. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. Within the cambium is a ring. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. ratanine). officinale. in the form of a fine yellow powder. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. showing that they are leaf traces. about 5 mm wide. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. The smoothed. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. after-shave lotions. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. parenchymatous matrix.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. barrel-shaped or conical. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome.
Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. In most cases. the mechanism is described under Aloes. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. Flavonoids. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. it is often rhein. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. This is applied to the hair and left to dry. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. but in one investigation. also (+)-catechin 5. it is used as a stomachic. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). With its high tannin content. and physcion.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . min. of which many aglycones have been identified. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. aloeemodin. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. It is then rinsed out. The predominant aglycone varies. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. and compact. In small amounts.Eur. the fractured surface. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. astringent taste. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. chrysophanol. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. due to the bitter taste. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. heavy. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. (+)-afzelechin. when chewed. and (+)-gallocatechin.5% calculated as rhein). 2. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). A very complex mixture is present.and 7-0-glucosides. it is very gritty between the teeth. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. Barbados. rhein.
Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. pink. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. One example would be rose water. French Rose. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. filter. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. gallic acid. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. l-linalool.0. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and traces of carvone. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. phenylethyl alcohol. Minor constituents are citral. it can be prepared by using rose oil. Tannins. and procyanidins. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. slightly bitter. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. 5 to 10%. free and in combined forms with glucose. catechins. however. odor fragrant and rose-like.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. and astringent. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. taste sweetish. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. glycerol. approx. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. L. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose.
which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface.5 to 3. alpha-tocopherol.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. flavonoids. sessile. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. sucrose. tannins. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. linolenic acid. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . evergreen. capric acid. boron. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. gallocatechin. rubixanthin. pectin.2 cm wide. Wild Brier. mildly astringent. Description The fruit of R. kaempferol-3-glucoside. citric acid. it will add highlights to light hair. and slightly diuretic. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. they are refrigerant. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. When combined with various other hair preparations. lycopene. much branched. isoquercitrin. malic acid. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. succinic acid. leucoanthocyanins. Description A bushy. opposite. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. coriaceous. linoleic acid. essential oil. epicatechin.5 cm in length and up to 2. catechin-tannins. and zeaxanthin. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. The achenes themselves are hairy. invert sugars. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. xanthophyll. protein. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. Constituents Ascorbic acid. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. vanillin. rubidium. low. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. magnesium.
glandular-punctate. borneol. odor aromatic. diaphoretic. creams. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. and showing a prominent midrib. Properties Tonic. characteristic. stimulant. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. lotions. and bitter.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. etc. boron. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. camphor. Constituents Essential oil. tannin. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rosmarinic acid. lower surface wooly. astringent. and triterpenic acids. flavonoids. phenolic acids. margin revolute. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. diosmin. camphoraceous. The oil is used in fragrances. it is used to increase circulation. hair conditioners. taste pungently aromatic. Topically. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. protein. The extract can be used in shampoos.
protein. uneven or lobed. saponins. the reticulations being very small. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups.6 cm in breadth. to 1 ft high. taste aromatic and bitter. there arises a grayish. lamina elliptical. It is antibacterial. phenolic acids. apex acute or obtuse. and tannins. linalool. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. antiseptic. and disinfectant (against inflammations). much branched. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. Properties Cosmetically. beta-sitosterol. In early summer. Leaves opposite. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. From an underground fibrous root system. astringent. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. fungistatic. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. borneol. long petiolate. carnosolic acid. 2 to 10 cm in length. ursolic acid. camphors. texture velvet-like. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). caryophyllene. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. the upper branches bear blue.5 cm in length.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. cineole. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. midrib and veins prominent. margin crenulate. pinene. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . carminative. flavonoids. Constituents Volatile oil. densely pubescent. Sage Garden Sage. stimulating. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. base rounded or subcordate. thujone. petiole up to 4. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. estrogenic compounds. pubescent stem with branches opposite. venation pinnate-reticulate. salvin. 1 to 2. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA.
o. vulnerary. palmately lobed leaves. 0. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle.985. In Yellow Sandal Wood. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. hemorrhoids. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. Black Snakeroot. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. and lotions. The taste is slightly bitter.973 to 0. and similar articles. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. astringent.and -santalols). depurative. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. gr. North and South America. hard. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . –13° to –21°). It is also used in perfumery. Asia Minor. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. the odor strong and fragrant. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. hemostatic. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. or as a perfume. and dense. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. carvings. of which it contains over 90%.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. wounds. burns. heavy. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. the vessels are mostly solitary. pectoral. and a stomachic. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. White Sandal Wood. L. and inflammed skin. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. and erect. alterative.r. and for the manufacture of boxes. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. but easily split. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter.
and a bitter principle. resin. essential oil. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . saponin. Mucilage. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins.
smooth and somewhat oily. occasionally compressed. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid. from 1. Dark Palmetto.5 cm in diameter.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Odor pronounced. palmitic acid.. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled.. arabinose. taste sweetish.... 1.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. and stearic acid. inner layer of endocarp smooth.... or as cut and sawed pieces.. and to 1. south to Florida and Texas. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. and slightly acrid. and incomplete. 559. reddish-brown seed..1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions. to 17 cm in width. caproic acid. oleic acid. Ulmus rubra Muhl... ellipsoidal or ovoid. skin creams. somewhat flattened. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp. Pharm. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown. 41... Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids. beta-sitosterol.. tough. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. when cork patches are present. and lotions. aromatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ann. such as anorexia nervosa. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. 1983... ferulic acid..7 dm in width. lipase. were eaten by the Indians.. The fracture is very strong. Franc. sito sterols.P.. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. They are said to be very nutritious. to 1. aromatic. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp.. myristic acid. capric acid. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous.. mannitol.. SEAWEED.. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar.. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. The odor is distinct. a native of the southern United States. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. which measure up to 3 dm in length. apex marked by the scar of the style.. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity. Constituents Anthranilic acid.. it is coarsely striated longitudinally..6 dm in thickness... Tarayre. enclosing a hard. Properties Sabal berries.. et al. and to 3 mm in thickness. lauric acid.. J... The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles.
1 to 5. starch. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. and other beverages. Massachusetts. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. calyx tubular. 3 to 5 ribbed.2 cm long.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. starch. Soap Wort produces a gentle. petals pink or white. Nova Scotia. native from Europe. New Mexico. Colorado. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. chemicals that foam when added to water. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. leaves oval or ovate. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. d-galacturonic acid. and beta-carotene. healing. ulcers. L-rhamnose. lotions. Description Glabrous perennial. tannin (minute). and tannins. soothing. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. North Carolina. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It can be used to emulsify oil. Can be used in creams. blades obcordate. pentosans. etc. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. and Saskatchewan. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. polysaccharides. protein. Florida. hair conditioners. boils. and tannin. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. minerals. and wounds. capsule oblong. Colorado. New Brunswick. stem 3 to 6 dm high. hexosan. 5 to 8 cm long. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides).
and for skin conditions. tonics. ray florets about 10. disk-florets 15 to 20. with revolute margins. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. having antibacterial properties. chlorogenic acid.5 cm broad. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. frostbite. 2 to 10 mm wide. and superficial burns. Properties Used as a nervine. scopoletin. slightly tomentose beneath. 4 to 6 cm long. and anodyne. stimulant. caffeic acid. antiseptic. uterine tonic. scarious. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. and anthelmintic. 1 to 3 cm long.ST. the outer linear-lanceolate. choline. disinfectant. flowers cymose. bruises. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. Used in aromatic baths. toothed above the middle on one side. uric acid. quebrachitol. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. heads numerous. tannin. native to Europe. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. Medically. bracts canescent. capsule ovoid. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. Nova Scotia. corolla 2 to 2. etc. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. 10 to 12 mm long. leaves linear to oblong. Virginia. John’s Wort ing. isofraxidin. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. British Columbia. astringent. guanine. 5 to 10 dm high. Constituents Essential oil. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. conditioners. and scopolin. ST. obtuse. poultices. emmenagogue. Manitoba. California. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. glandular-punctate. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acute or acuminate. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. the rest broadly oval. leaves. petals obovate. Colorado. rutin. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. St. lower leaves petioled. umbelliferone.
saponin. Newfoundland. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. phenolic acids. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. New Mexico.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. and Virginia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. hyperoside. John’s Wort St. tannins. hypericin-like substances. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. Manitoba. protein. resin sitosterol. hypericin.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. mannitol.
condensed tannins). very thin. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. fruit elongate-ovoid.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. rhombic-obovate. seldom over 1. mostly acute. sharply and deeply serrate.5 cm long. quercetin). very soon glabrate on both sides. very rarely leafy-bracteate. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. 5 to 7. and phenolic acids. ellagitannins. scape slender. fatty acids. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth.5 dm high. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. seldom much exceeding the leaves.
Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. and spasmolytic. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. anthelminitic. Parsley Fern. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. usually smooth. button-like. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. Scented Fern. fern-like leaves and yellow. resin. and branching near the top. tannin. The roundish. tanacetin. English Cost. Ginger plant. phenolic acid. Bitter buttons. are collected at the time of flowering.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. carminative. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. flat-topped. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. somewhat reddish. It has a stout. Also said to be an insect repellant. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. erect stem. The entire leaf is about 6 in. and quercetin. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. * Formerly CTFA. sesquiterpenes. 1 to 3 ft high. The leaves and flowering tops. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. button-like flowers.
oral infections.0 ml high. terpinene. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. either singly or with other ingredients. stings. streamsides. cuts. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. conical. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. Bark. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. thickets. abrasions. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. erect. 0. while cineole is low (about 2. burns. athlete’s foot. bronchial congestion. abrasions. and the like. insect bites.5%). spongy. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. lanceolate. Over-wintering leaves. and Australia. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. upcurved.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. including treatments for sunburn. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. in a flattened rosette. and vaginal infections. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. constantly renewable tree. capsule. Description A stiff. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. sore throat. cymene). It is found in numerous product forms. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. ringworm. lice. with a broad range of health claims. sparingly branched biennial. fruit. scabies. New South Wales. pimples. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. and dense. boils.5 to 2.
TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. and tannins. rare in Britain.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. Foster. The root and root stock are short and erect. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). S. and magnesium. St. Mary Thistle. American Botanical Councin. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. Flowerheads rayless. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. fatty acids. entire or toothed. Description Leaves spiny. Taste and odor. both orally and also by intravenous injection.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. Blessed Milk Thistle. glucosides. TX. taxifolin). Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. stems. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. 1..) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. The injection gives better results. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. It is said to contain saponins. Ed. flavonoids (keampferol. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. Austin. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. dark green. 1955. purple. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. quercetin. yellow spines. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. Also used in homeopathy.
glycine. facial muds. New York. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. gargles. styptic. etc. fruit through cultivation very variable. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. much branched. flavonoids. Texas. lobed. stem 3 to 10 dm high. lotions. vitamins. It can be employed in creams. abscisic acid. antihemorrhagic. and reddish within. minerals. brown or blackish externally. hair tonics.5 to 1. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. and sore throats. and phytosterols. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L. mouth rinse. -hydroxy acids. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. diarrhea. cystine. subglobose. conditioners. that can be used for hemorrhoids. and dentate. glucose. cyclohexanol. leaves two-pinnatifid. ellipsoid. sore gums. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. aspartic acid. acne. Florida. and California. to add sheen.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. lycopene.5 to 10%. somewhat fusiform. red or yellow. 0.5 cm thick. Constituents Proteins. and from 0. menstrual disorder. Description Viscid-pubescent. Properties Fruit: astringent. from 2. ascorbic acid. glutamic acid. It can be incorporated into shampoos. Colorado. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sensitive skin.5 to 8 cm long. rinses. branching and more or less curved. corolla yellow. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. or pear-shaped. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. 10 to 15 mm broad.
a red pigment. Curcuma. longitudinally wrinkled. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. bluntly tapering at each end. they bear short knob-like branches. Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. internally. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. quinovic.. China. Java. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. caffeic. Indian Saffron.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). They are hard and heavy. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. tormentillin. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. and break with a short fracture. Occasionally. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). and other tropical countries. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow.
previously restricted to certain scattered cells. antifungal. etc. ukonan A. ar-turmerone. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. anti-arthritic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . guaiane. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. when chewed. monodesmethoxycurcumin.. zingiberene. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. and anti-edemic. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. it colors the saliva yellow. 2-7% essential oil. It is also choleretic. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. hypotensive. antibacterial. but the coloring matter. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. is also present. curlone. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. and antimutagenic. comprising mainly bisabolane.
The taste is sweet. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. It is sedative. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. Wood is small. Roots are branched or simple. and baldrinal. The rhizome is vertical. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. cultivated in Germany. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. acevaltrate. actinidine). The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. and to 3 mm in diameter. * Formerly CTFA. and spasmolytic. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. alkaloids (valerianine. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. Belgium and England. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. and to 2 cm in diameter. pungent. central and cylindrical. Pith is white or grayish-white.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. Constituents Essential oil. valerosidatum). phenolic acids. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. relaxant. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. and valepotriates (valtrate. fatty acids. isovaltrate. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. simple or branched. and disagreeable. However. Cortex is thick.
206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. long. diuretic. caffeic acid. in addition to verbenin. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. Simpler’s Joy. verbenalin. gout remedy. Wild Hyssop. and Arizona. volatile oil. and against sunburns. Constituents Iridoids. artemitin. tannin. hastatoside. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. aucubin. four-sided stem. 4 to 7 feet high. finely haired herb has an erect. Nebraska. contraceptive. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. anorexic (appetite suppressant). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . meadows. and superficial and limited burns. verbenelol. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). ursolic acid. straight. Verbena officinalis L.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. Description This rather rough. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. False Verbain.
Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. vermifuge. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. rheumatism. deep. scrofula. west to Minnesota and Kansas. The bark varies from nearly smooth. eczema. and edible. gout. ophthalmia. glandular disturbances. The wood is light brown. *INCI Name . scabbing pruritus. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. styes. The kernel is sweet. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. and varicose ulcers. imparipinnate.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. Juglans nigra L. soft and coarse grained. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. Properties Tonic restorative. blisters. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. Used for skin complaints. irritation of the eyelid. depurative. The leaves are alternate. oily. * Formerly CTFA. open crown. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . disinfectant. astringent. round-topped.
1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. arginine.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). spatulate. leucine. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). Mexico. Description Aquatic perennial. and Europe. threonine. ascorbic acid. Rubbing on scalp. petals white. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . about 2 mm long. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. 5. West Indies. 3 mm thick. tryptophan. sepals oblong.g. thiamine. glutamic acid. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. somewhat curved. 1. folacin. Clark.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract.. aspartic acid. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. gluconasturtiin. caffeic acid. histidine. cystine. and diastase. it will strengthen and thicken hair. lysine. tumors. -carotene. methionine. alanine. Externally. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). beak about 1 mm long. Rheumatism and nervousness. many trace minerals. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. 4. amino acids. A Cure For All Cancers. South America. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. tyrosine.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. British Columbia. Virginia. its action being both detergent and healing. biotin. proline. lymphatic or edematous swellings. hyperin. about 4 mm long. fruiting pedicels divaricate. valine. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. it looks rather yellowish. leaves pinnate. protein. high in protein. destroying most of its active principles. and kaempferol. ellagic acid. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. phenylalanine. California. glycine. tannin. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. Devil’s Grass. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. Quitch Grass. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. Twitch Grass. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. Fin’s Grass. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. Durfa Grass. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. of young grass. Dutch Grass. Couch Grass. Durfee Grass. Quake Grass. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. sprouts. Scutch Grass. Creeping Wheatgrass. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland.
and stem scars on the upper surface. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils.. Colic Root. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous. Its smooth hollow stems.. and hair conditioners.. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist. insipid.See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES. Odorless. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer.... partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos. Description Knotted and woody. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout.. Constituents Vitamins.... are carefully cleaned... surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached..212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse.. fracture short but tough. externally pale brown... its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L. with numerous small.. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled.. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat. afterwards acrid. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes. scattered. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and phenolic acids... amino acids. and dried. eczema.. 6 to 20 mm thick. bent and branched.. more or less detached. 1 to 3 ft high. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma. The flowering heads are produced from July to September. thickets. taste starchy.. yellowish wood bundles.. cut into small pieces about in. bearing scattered nodular projections. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. collected in the spring.... Contains diosgenin and plant sterols.. Over 240 compounds have been identified. WHITE NETTLES. are produced from a long. fatty acids.. and dermatitis. often compressed. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States. flavonoids. The root stocks. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish.. thin outer layer.. lotions. elongated.. which are thickened at the joints.. creeping root stock.. -carotene. creams. long.
as this could vary among different manufacturers. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. shampoos.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. endodermis distinct. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. cortex composed of thin-walled. dioscorin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . inner surface. However. taste astringent and slightly bitter. White Willow. irregularly wrinkled. fracture short fibrous. and trace minerals. It can be used in hair conditioners. anti-inflammatory. diosgenin. outer surface in young bark smooth. naturalized sparsely in North America. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. dioscin. it should be standardized for its salicin content. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. odor slightly aromatic. populin. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. ascorbic acid. as it contains salicin. vimalin). slightly lignified parenchyma. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. yellowish-brown to dark brown. flavonoids. Contains steroid-like substances. antiseptic. analgesic. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. greenish-brown. fragilin. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. antirheumatic. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. Constituents Steroidal saponins. minerals. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. longitudinally striated. rinses. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. salicortin. in older bark dull. and antipyretic. etc. triandrin. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations.
which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. thick. Spotted Witch Alder. and polyphenols. Winterbloom. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. due to its high tannin content. saponins. eastern United States. tannin. forking branches with smooth. when it bursts open. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. leaves. bark. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yellow flowers. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. brown bark. and leaves Bark. and alcohols. scattering the shining black. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. Wych-hazel. Striped Alder. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. It has a crooked stem and long. long.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. Description Witch Hazel. eastern Canada. Constituents Essential oil. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. and borne on short stalks. esters. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. flavonoids.
are small. Missouri. bitter. The whitish flowers. Purple Archangel. Sweet Bugleweed. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. including betonicine. and bell-shaped.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. Gypsywort. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. Green Archangel. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. rather narrow. shady places from Canada to Florida. Gypsy Herb. Externally. American Water Hoarhound. Water Bugle. to 2 ft in height. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. and Nebraska. Constituents Alkaloids. Wolf Foot. smooth. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. pointed. mint-like odor. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. Carpenter’s Herb. The plant has a rather pleasant. Therefore. Description This herb has long. Gypsyweed. which appear from about July to September. They are followed by four nutlets. erect stem from 6 in. Paul’s Betony. The leaves are about 2 in. but a disagreeable bitter taste. and stachyerine. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. slender. tublar. in length.
antineuralgic. soothing to the nerves. and the iridoids asperuloside. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. vermouths. with four petal lobes. forwardpointing bristles. Flowers small. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. when dry. coumarin. with slender. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . unbranched. etc. in loose clusters. tannin. antiseptic. anti-inflammatory. citric acid. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. pointed leaves edged with tiny. of new-mown hay. Description A short perennial. anti-arthritic. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. Odor. wines. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. monotropein. quadrangular. Used in aromatherapy. calming. astringent.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. bitters. white. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation.
drooping. aromatic. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. especially in Michigan and Indiana. taste bitter. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. p-coumaric acid. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. isovaleric acid. two to three pinnately divided. It is cultivated in some localities. Description This shrubby. and anthelmintic. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. and antipyretic. anthelmintic.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. 2 to 3 mm long. chamazulene. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. consist of numerous small. used as an external antiseptic. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. artabsin. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. rutin. Odor aromatic. Also used to clean atonic wounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yellow heads. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. the inner linear with membranous margins. which are from 2 to 5 in. Madderwort. Old Woman. thujone. thujyl alcohol. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. are divided into small leaflets. long. tannins. approximately 100 identified constituents. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. Mingwort. insignificant. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. the florets tubular. choleretic. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Flower heads greenish-yellow. protein. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. the lower lobe is petiolate. camphene. Constituents Essential oil. and the grayish-green leaves. absinthin. Absinth. -carotene. Bitter stomachic.
.. Thousand-Leaf Clover.. Thousand-leaf. Closely related forms occur in the western states.... high and has many finely divided....... From June to September.. Carpenter Grass. Cammock.. Gordoloba. Sanguinary... white flower heads. 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .Y YAM. *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium. and is urinary antiseptic... dark green leaves.. It has a strong odor. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic. Old-Man’sPepper.... astringent. Soldiers’ Woundwort. antipyretic. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields......See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L... Yarrow Milfoil.. Dog Daisy....... diuretic.. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small. Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing.... pastures.. Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in. hypotensive. feathery. Green Arrow. Nosebleed. and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada..... Bloodwort. It * Formerly CTFA.
Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. angular. and cholagogue. carminative. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. blue colored chamazulene).220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. Broad-leaved Dock Root. It has been used for cuts. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. and tannin. and varicose ulcers. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. among rubbish heaps. alkaloids (achilleine). spasmolytic. and along roadsides. flavonoids. in cultivated as well as in waste ground. Curled Dock Root. it is stomachic. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . long. Internally. it is also used in hair care preparations. achillin). and furrowed stem. camphor. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. bearing numerous. injuries. Broad-leaved Rumex. phenolic acids.
tapering or spindle shaped. Gum Plant.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. and carefully dried.The root. nepodin. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. in length. short stemmed or stemless. swellings. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. from 6 to 8 in. they become rusty brown. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. usually from 8 to 12 in. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. while the upper leaves are narrower. only 3 to 6 in. protein. long. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. chrysophanic acid. with few or no rootlets. and pale radially split wood. in length. They are washed. and eruptive diseases. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. yellowish cortex. The root is large and fleshy. These are followed by the fruits. et Tor. psoriasis. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. Consumptive’s Weed. emodin. and tannin. with long stalks. Bear’s Weed. As the clusters ripen. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. sores. lapathinic acid.
tannin. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. Schum. chrysoeriodictyl. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. essential oil. eriodictyol. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. and eriodyctyonine. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. cerotic acid.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. The rather showy. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. eriodictyonic acid. Gabon. Constituents Resin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acetic acid. and the Congo. The narrow.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. butyric acid. dark green.
it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. Constituents Sarsapogenin. and protein. and epiallo-yohimbine. tannin. It also contains corynanthine. and Nevada. It is also being used for arthritis internally. Arizona.5 cm long. Texas. Soap Weed. the most important of which is yohimbine. sometimes 2 dm long. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. Colorado. tigogenin. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. the major alkaloid. about 7. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. Description Low. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. concave. style slender. allo-. pendent. R. however. Soap Yucca Root. Kronenthal. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. spreading. hence its aphrodisiac effect. coarsely filiferous. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide.. 1. Properties Yucca contains saponins. YUCCA Yucca baccata. elongate. L. Roezl. at low doses. minerals. Torr Yucca brevifolia. fleshy. fruit large. is sympatholytic. Personal communication. Kansas. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . saponin. leaves rigid. pseudo-. shagreen roughened. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown.1 Yohimbine. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. smilagenin.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. sepals and petals lanceolate. oblong or conical-ovoid. with narrow brown margins. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. samogenin. 1998.
224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. However. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. The botanical extract. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. The leaves contain buxine. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. See “Folklore” section. Oak. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. not essential oil. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. Lavender See “Folklore” section. Hemp. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Henna Used to dye hair red. makes an excellent hair rinse. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. Hops See “Folklore” section. Galls Used to dye the hair black. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. Dark brown contains juglone.
The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. A source of potassium and iodine. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. and mouthwashes. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. It also helps to remineralize. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. and linalol. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. it will darken the hair. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. The extract contains thymol. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. The essential oil is used to add sheen. See Lichwort. and some protein. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. See Stinging Nettle. It is antiseptic. borneol. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. Contains a yellow dye. Combined with rosemary. make it soft and shiny. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. Vitamins A and D. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. and help keep it free of dandruff.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. leaving it silky and glossy. Can be used in deodorants. Lemony fragrance.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC .HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp. It is said that when blended with rosemary.
Lavender. White Willow. Pineapple. Burdock. Sandalwood. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Slippery Elm. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Cardamom Seed. Parsley Broom Flowers. Inc. Anise. Arnica. Vinca Minor. Echinacea. Lemon. Papaya. Soap Bark. Lemon. Bladderwrack. that is. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. propylene glycol. Comfrey. Horsechestnut Papaya. Tormentil. Uva Ursi Quassia. Raspberry. Lemon Grass. Hawthorn Angelica. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Myrrh. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Bilberry. oil. Asparagus. Nettles. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. Rosemary. Rose. Nasturtium. Corn Flower. Fenugreek. Rosemary. Artichoke. Chamomile. Eucalyptus. Lemon. Myrrh. Hops. refer to the index). Thyme. Bayberry. Orris. Ginkgo. Birch. Golden Seal. Calendula. Comfrey. Witch Hazel. glycerin. in various vehicles as water. Black Walnut.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Rosemary. Rosemary. Plantain. Tilia. Sage. Wild Indigo. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Arnica Lemon. Chamomile. Rhatany.3-butylene glycol. Sandal Wood. Lady’s Mantle. Tumeric. White Lily. 1. Bistort. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Birch. ethanol. White Willow. Lavender. Thyme. Onion. Juniper Berries. Yarrow. Nettles. Yarrow. Balsam Peru. Bayberry. Cucumber. powders or extracts. Lemon. Violet. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Thyme. Southernwood. Myrtle. etc. Milk Thistle. Orange Peel. Artichoke.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Sage. Oats. Witch Hazel. Horsechestnut. Chamomile. Tomato. either when applied topically or taken internally. Calendula. Althea. Calendula. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rosemary. Garlic. Grapefruit. Hops. Oak Bark. Cinnamon Agrimony. Pansy. Benzoin. Burdock. Proanthocyanidins. Lavender. Peppermint. Bay Laurel. Quassia. Wild Alum. Soap Root. Myrrh. Chaparral.
Comfrey. Cleavers. Chickweed. Chamomile. Sage. Calendula Oil. Sage. Horsetail Grass. Jaborandi. Calendula. Alfalfa.* Centella. Phytoplenolin®. Wormwood Chamomile. Capsicum Bistort.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Fenugreek. Lavender. Cantharides. Fenugreek. Peppermint Aloe. Golden Seal. Citronella. Purple Loosestrife. Pine Tar. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Flax Horsetail Grass. Basil. Raspberry. Figwort. Lemon Peel. dry Hair. Neem. Mullein Flowers. Jaborandi. Brown Henna Rosemary. Rosemary. Anise Rosemary. Cade. Southernwood. Yellow Dock. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Pansy. split ends Scalp. Elder. Thyme. Capsicum. White Willow Aloe Vera. Elder. dark Hair. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Centella. Rosemary. Red Clover. Birch. Coriander. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Arnica. Witch Hazel. Yarrow. Thyme. Chamomile. to add sheen Hair. to add highlights Marigold. Bayberry Bark. Chamomile. Southernwood. Cucumber Chamomile. to relieve Nails. various seaweeds. Dandelion. Onion. Quince. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Melilote. Nettles. Nettles. Grapefruit. Witch Hazel. Orange Flowers. Quince Seed. Echinacea. Comfrey. Horsechesnut. Chamomile. Chamomile. Flax. conditioners. Comfrey Root. Wild Alum. Elder Flowers. Capsicum. Oats. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Patchouli. Parsley. Tea. Malva Flowers. Cucumber. Thyme. Red Henna. Eyebright. Lavender. White Willow Bark. Witch Hazel Bark. Sage. Peach Leaf. Sage Jaborandi. Oregon Grape. Pilewort. Fennel. Capsicum. Burdock. Garlic. Orange Flowers. to add highlights Hibiscus. Comfrey. Echinacea. Orris Root. Citrus Bioflavonoid. Catnip Bayberry. Black or Neutral Henna. Camphor. Oak Bark. Broom. Rhatany. Pansy. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Comfrey. Althea. Pansy. etc. Southernwood. Tilia. Rosemary. Hops Chamomile. Olive. Rosemary. rinses. Chaparral. Southernwood. Yarrow. Rosemary. Raspberry. Quassia. Slippery Elm. Myrrh. Marigold Golden Seal. Horsetail Grass. Sarsaparilla. Rosemary. Cardamon. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Seaweed. Cucumber. to add highlights Black Walnut. Comfrey. Corn Flower Water. Feverfew. Horseradish. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Comfrey. Nettles. Basil. Roseberries. Eucalyptus. Lemon Peel. Golden Seal. Red Poppy. Orange Peel. Plantain. Cowslip. Cedar. Raspberry. Rose. Quinine. Sage. Fenugreek. Primula Flowers. Echinacea various oils. Capsicum. Quince Seed. Golden Seal. Red Clover. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching.
Licorice. Fennel. Citrus bioflavonoids. Croton. Uva ursi Wild Alum. Comfrey. Peach. Corn Flower. Yarrow flowers. Lavender. Lavender. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Violets. Althea Root. Echinacea. Horsechestnut. Chamomile.Yarrow. Slippery Elm bark. Meillot. Capsicum. Echinacea. St. Comfrey. Valerian. Rose. Hawthorn. Licorice Cleavers. Calendula. White Willow Bark Mistletoe.) Aloe Vera. Oats. Fennel. Sept. Dulse. Cucumber. Blue Flag. Bistort. Quince. Evening Primrose. Wormwood. Bayberry. White Pond Lily. Seaweeds. Seaweed. Passion Flowers. John’s Wort. Lemon. Capsicum. 1998. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Thuja. Lemon. Lemon Grass. St.804. Plantain. Poke Root. Capsicum. Bayberry. Tilia. Parsley. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Plantain. Elder Flowers. Apple. Garlic. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Calendula. Wild Alum Althea.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Orange Flowers. Primula Flowers. Cleavers. Arnica. Witch Hazel. Arnica. however. Slippery Elm. John’s Wort. Capsicum. Grapefruit. Chickweed. Centella. Comfrey.206 for Centipeda. Red Clover. St. Colts Foot. Orange Peel. Witch Hazel. Lemons. Red Poppy. Hawthorn Berries. St. Yarrow. Calendula. Pansy. Apples. Aloe Vera. dry Botanical Cantharides. Birch. Dandelion. Althea Root. Slippery Elm. John’s Wort. Mullein.Vinegar. Oils. Horsetail grass. Comfrey. John’s Wort. Witch Hazel. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Cinchona. Golden Seal. Tilia. Chamomile. Dandelion. Ginseng Caraway. Jaborandi. Chamomile. Sage. Pine. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Cucumber. Nettles. Comfrey. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Elecampane Skin.
it strengthens the spleen. elongated. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. nicotine. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts.) STEUD. 1. which are coriaceous. and eyebrows. sores. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. elliptical shaped. nourishes the blood.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. Vitamin A. etc. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. wedeloclactone. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. yellowish-white. etc. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets.5 to 5 cm wide. beard.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. Internally. Ginger. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter.5 to 2 cm in diameter. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. The seeds are also spherical. short stiff hairs. internally used to blacken hair. and tonifies the heart. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. rough. yellowish brown. Common botanicals such as Lotus. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. The nuts are spherical. and fleshy. tannin. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. wounds. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. aril white. The female flowers are white and ligulate. Constituents Saponin. The flowers are polygamous. 8 stamens. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. Licorice root. It grows in fields and ditches. The powder is used on abscess. can be found in the main section.
) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema. pruritus. sucrose. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose. Vitamins A and B. choline. fats. yeast infections. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .70. etc. antiparasitic. ringworm. vaginal itches. adenine. protein. tartaric acid.
lack of appetite. alloimperatorin. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. etc. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. isoborneol). bornyl isovalerate. amino acids. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. and arabinose. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. Betaine. deficiency of energy. weak pulse. dyspepsia. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. hypertension. Astragalin. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. palmate leaves.) Bge. It is also said to promote blood production. folic acid. a glucoside C20 H20 011. L-camphene. columbianadin (C19H20O5). avoid black tea. xanthotoxol. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. dihydrooroseiol. cnidiankin. used as an aphrodisiac. it could nourish. asthma. any citrus and turnips. improves circulation in the skin. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. berry-like fruits. sugars. It is an astringent. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. edultin. moisturize. heart palpitations. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. isopimpinellin. and has red. Constituents Saponins. diabetes. choline.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . B-sitosterol. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. columbianetin (C14H14O4). imperatorin. insomnia. When using Ginseng internally. cnidiadin. ostol (C15H16O3). dilates the blood vessels. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. ginsenosides. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. amino acids. astragalin-glucose.
Constituents Triterpenes. The root has antipyretic. sugar fatty oil. antibacterial. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. trichosanic acid. essential oil. resin. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . saponins (ginsenosides). protein. and antifungal properties. trichokaurin. (C18H30O2).236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. These are a few of the constituents. To list all would take several pages. tricosanthin.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dissolves clots. Rb2-Rb. etc. both internally and externally. Constituents Saponins. and Re. traumatic injuries. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. Internally. It is said to heal without leaving scars. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. helps to promote circulation. nosebleeds. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. blood in the stool.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. it has been used in coughing of blood. and is analgesic. According to Chinese tradition. ginsenosides. this herb can be used safely in large doses. reduces swelling. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic.
rhamnose. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. anti-inflammatory. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. fructose. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. and arabinose. glucose. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). and a slightly bitter taste. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. 1/3 in. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. It has almost no odor. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. essential oil. II. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. L-typhasterol. U. stearic acid. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. palmitic acid. Vitamin A. Cones oblong. tannin. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. xylose. ziyuglycoside I. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. glucose.V. long. sitosterol. Constituents Flavonoids. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity.
The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. having pale. and hermaphroditic. Constituents Thujone. and antiviral properties. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. the base tapers into a winged petiole. reddish-purple. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base.5 to 1 m high. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. 15 to 30 cm long. obovate-lanceolate shaped. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . astringent. and antipyretic. It is a hemostatic. soft durable wood.-fenchone. The flowers are tubular. 5 to 8 cm wide. in height. shoddy bark and light. L.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. pinene. caryophyllene. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. which has hairs on both surfaces. The basal leaves are clustered. and pinnatipartite. and is said to have antibacterial. fenchone. tannin. anthelmintic. Vitamin C. becoming smaller on top. flavonoids. resin. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage.
Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. antibacterial. The tuber is thick and fleshy. hemostatic. skin infections. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. and promotes the healing of the flesh. B-amyrin. and 2 to 6 cm wide. and antibacterial. antifungal. and in abscesses. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. reduces swelling. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. It is said to be antiviral hemostatic.F. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. starch. stigmasterol. The perianth is in 6 segments. -amyrin.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. essential oil. 15 to 30 cm long. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. anti-inflammatory. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is used in traumatic injuries. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). Constituents Glucose. Their base runs into a long sheath. 2 to 3 cm long. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B.
caffeic acid. acetyl eugenol). sores. ipterocopal. montanic acid. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. and antiviral. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. fat. with numerous ovules. and nasal mucositis. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. esculetin. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. Constituents D-borneol. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. followed by a slight numbness. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. antibacterial. wax. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. One tree can yield as much as pound. which alternate with the calyx teeth. caryophyllene. tannin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Scoparone.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight.5 mm in length. See “Botanical” section for further description. oval. analgesic. It has been used in ringworm. and incurved. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. oleic acid. palmitic acid. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. The dark green. dryobalanone. dark brown. humulene. linoleic acid. ovary 2-locular. boils. and somewhat 4-angled. conjunctivitis. asiatic acid. capillarisin. stearic acid. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. cold sores. B-caryophyllene. odor strongly aromatic. essential oil. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. erythrodiol. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. chlorogenic acid. hydroxydammarone II. etc. arachidic acid. crowded. style 1. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. having antipyretic properties. antiparasitic. glandular-punctate petals. taste pungent and aromatic. Antibacterial. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. stamens numerous.
The stamens are 10 and free. The pods are cylindrical. yellowish-white. and allergic reactions. The stem is erect with many branches. The leaves are alternate. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. Constituents Alkaloids. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. pruritus. The raceme is terminal. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. 10 to 20 cm long. constricted between the seeds. imparipinnately divided. itchy skin. The corolla is papilionaceous. sores. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. and other skin ailments. flavonoids. which are globose and black. It is used for vaginal infections. 3 to 4 cm long. and 1 to 2 cm wide.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. Excellent remedy for sores.
jatrorrhizine. Constituents Aesculin. columbamine. coptisine. palmatine. red. obakunone. and swollen eyes. aesculetin. Antiinflammatory. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. fraxetin. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). fraxin. tannin. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. and red eyes.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. ferulic acid. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. aching. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. obakulactone. used as an eye wash for sore. magnoflorine. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. Constituents Berberine. It is applied externally to swollen.
The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. 1 to 3 cm long. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. and 0. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. Its stem is erect.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. ovate shaped.5 to 1. The calyx is bilabiate. The leaves are opposite. their margins sparsely serrate.5 cm wide.
Constituents Portulal. betanin.3 cm long.5 cm wide. antiphlogistic. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. beta-cyanin. 5 yellow petals. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. and often purplish in color. stomach. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. gamma-linolenic acid. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. and English consume this plant in salads.. Its stem is cylindrical. Constituents GLA. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA. betanidini. snake bites. The Chinese. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. 8 to 12 stamens. The flower has 2 sepals. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. gamma-linolenic acid. boils. Italians. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. It is used to reduce swelling. abscesses. and intestines. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. fleshy. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. 1 to 1. French. It is also a good source for GLA. decumbent or slanting upward. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds.5 to 1.
246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.4.1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.
84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3.248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6.
84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8.
84929-52-2. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4. 84082-80-4 68917-49-7.250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1. 84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1.
firm. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. and gray with thick testa. simple. globular. roots. Constituents Furanocoumarins. sharp recurved spines. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. ovate or oblong and inflated. Seeds are hard. Essential. isopsoralidin. covered with numerous black dots. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. chalcones. campesterol group. ellipticoblong. starch. hairy tip acute. corylifolean. Description Main leaf axis has stout. etc. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. Kal-karanj Nuts. and saponin in the seed coat. Several species grow in the United States. hairs few. and flavones. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci.BENDUC NUT 253 6. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. corolla yellow or bluish-purple.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. Description It is an erect herb. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. Flowers yellow. tannin. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). and Sri Lanka. perianth covered withspines. Leaves petiolate. alkaloids. pitted black. Leaflets about 10 pairs. circular. and protein in kernel. Flowers are dense. oil. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. Burma. shiny. glabrous slightly compressed. sporalidin. Fruit small subglobular.
Seeds also contain protein. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. bluish-purple. margin toothed. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. aspartic acid. and for infectious diseases. Constituents Oil. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. and sulfurcontaining peptides. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and citrulline. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. However. and skin diseases. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. phytosterol. flower head white. sessile. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. arginine. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. The endodermis is indistinct. Leaves membranaceous. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. with winged petiole. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). borne on convex flower heads. lanceolate. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. oblong. basal are large. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. Leaves opposite. Few layers of cork cells are present. sterols. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. upper leaves smaller. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. reducing sugar. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. Flowers about 2 cm long. starch. arresting hemorrhage.
Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. terpene alcohols. arranged densely on the branchlets. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. phyllanthe emblic. The oil and root contains camphene. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. Flowers are small. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown.but white internally. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. stipulate. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. Description A medium tree. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. greenish-yellow. slightly recurved. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. In old samples. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. entire. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. apex subacute. The fruit is subglobular. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. linear oblong or elliptic. unisexual. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. mucronate. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. slightly broader than long. Feathery. Leaves simple.
testa light-red. antibacterial. antiviral. krishna tulsi. margin serrate. tulsi. sacred basil Leaves. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. opposite. very short. A. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. Each flower consists of. camphor. decyladehyde. antifungal. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. point decurved.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. cotyledons very oily. 2 to 4 inches long. subcoriaceous. bitter. antiulcer. insecticidal. CNS-depressant. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. seeds. Flowers small. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. odorant. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. and carvarol. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. apex thick and blunt. apigenin. style 2-lobed. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. corolla 2-lipped. antispermatogenic. in terminal raceme-like panicle. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. antihistaminic. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. pod woody. Leaves pinnate. elliptic-oblong. antihepatotoxic. antidiabetic. and luteolin. filament slender.& Bpinene. ovate compressed. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. Leaves are simple. hairy along the veins. The leaves yield ursolic acid. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. taste bitter. smooth and shining. such as antistress. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. antispasmodic. flowers. Sri Lanka. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. exserted. pubescent calyx. antipyretic.
The seed is black. Radicle at the base of the seed. kaemferol. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. the outer very thick and hard. and as an anthelmintic. pectin. S. the skin is shriveled. smooth. sitosterol. firm and fleshy. and translucent. pengaglabrone. singly. cotyledons unequal. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. the size of large a pea. When dry. and butyric acid. leaves. (S. then bitter. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The oil is used to treat scabies. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. the testa is double. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. the pulp translucent. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. Properties The seeds. the berries are the color of a raisin. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. pointing to lower and inner angle. except at the scar. Emarginatus. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. The bark contains alkaloids. and other cutaneous diseases. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. . The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. glucose. rheumatism. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. each berry is the size of a cherry. the inner membranaceous. thick. yellow within. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. tough. where it is woody. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. herpes. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. Constituents Saponins. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. with a peculiar pungency. The root bark is rustybrown externally. pongamol. spirally incurvate. pongamin.
and sugar. Constituents Roots contain resins. Properties The roots are astringent. It also has anodyne properties. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. deobstruent. Description A climbing plant. round violet colored and seeds light black. gum. inflammations. and tonic. then acrid and bitter. flowers small yellow in color. Leaves heart shaped. scaly. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. fruit long. skin diseases such as ulcers. Root consists of short stock. The taste is sweetish at first. alterative. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. and discoloration of skin. freckles. garancin. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. coloring matter.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. and xanthine. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. leucoderma. alizarin. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
is used to dye the hair black. nervous headache. and combined with Henna. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. Pods broadly oblong. Epidermal hairs are few. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mainly in palpitation of heart. and flatulence. Himalaya (11. It is a good substitute for valerian.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. dark brown. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). which also contains sesquiterpenes. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. B-sitosterol. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. and Nepal. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. nardol. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. Leaves usually in pairs sessile. valeranal. nardostechone.000 to 15. sugar. Rhizomes long. starch. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. Tracheids and few fibers. slightly curved. Flowers in racemes. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. calarenol. n-hexaconsanol. Senna is also a safe purgative. seeds.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine.5% essential oil. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. resin. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. Corolla 5-lobed. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. Description An herbaceous plant. oblong or ovate. Bhutan. and contain obvate. valves papery smooth. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. Roots contain valeranone. and bitter extractive matter.
Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume
Synonyms: Parts Used:
Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.
Neem (whole plant)
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Southern India.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed
Synonyms: Parts Used:
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.
WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. gastric stimulant. senile debility. and spermatorrhoea. and appetite stimulant. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. smooth. The root is seldom branched. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. 3. The dried root is of uniform appearance. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. zeylinone. It is also cultivated. Constituents It contains alkaloids. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. somniferine. and starchy. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. branching perennial. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. Licorice powder. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. Isolation of nicotine. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . brittle. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. Leaves simple. globose.3-biplumbagin. It bears small. loss of muscular energy. plump. white internally. brain lag. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. somniferinine. rheumatism. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. greenish or yellow flowers. erect. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. grayish or hoary. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. elliptinone. fracture short. and droserone. ovate hair-like branches. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. Iso-zeylinone. petiolate and alternate. It is in flower all year long. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. Somnifera. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. loss of memory. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. smooth. as in enlarged glands. withanine. tapering. a mixture of W. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. For improving sight. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. withananine.
and cuscohygrine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. Roots also contain tropine. Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. pseudotropine. In addition to alkaloids.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. choline.
Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6.6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference.
S.270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U. White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. Black Ash. Bitter Orange Peel.
Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba.
calisaya Cinchona. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pale Cinchona. yellow Cinchona. black Cohosh. blue Cohosh.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. pale Cinchona. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel.
S. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion. American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara. U.
U.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S. S. U. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum.
American Hellebore. S. Canadian Hemp. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. S. White Indian Hemp. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. U. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. Black Hellebore. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. Black Indian Hemp.
276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. S. U. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. Green Osier.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier.
278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
S.280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica. Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. S. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber.S. U. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.
Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. Fucus vesiculosus L.) Juglans nigra L. Aloe vera L. Ruscus aculeatus L. Optuntia. Agrimonia eupatoria L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Cynara scolymus L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Betula alba L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. Alnus glutinosa L.F. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. Capsicum annum/frutescens L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6.
Scrophularia nodosa L. Zea mays L. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. & Aschers. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Cucumis sativus L. Sambucus nigra L. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Geranium maculatum L. Symphytum officinale L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. spp. Centaurea cyanus L. purpurea. See Coleus Galium aparine L. Inula helenium L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Larrea divaricata Cav. Allium sativum L. Br. Symphytum officinale L. Gentiana lutea L.
Calendula officinalis L. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Melissa officinalis L. Camellia sinensis L. Solidago Virgaurea L. Althaea officinalis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Amoracia rusticana. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Hedera helix L. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Limm Malva sylvestris L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Pongamia glabra P. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Gaertn. Ocimum sanctum linn. Justicia Adhatoda. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Hydrastis canadensis L. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L.) Burman F. Centella asiatica L. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Mac Fad. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Schert Equisetum arvense L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. et. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Citrus paradis.
Carica papaya L. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Vinca minor L. Trifolium pratense L. Commiphora molmol. Tabl. Engler Myrtus communis L. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. Papaver rhoeas L. Veget. Olea europoea L. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Regn. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Nasturtium officinale R. ssp. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Rheum rhabarbarum L.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Mentha piperita L. Pinus silvestris L.L. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. Vent. & P. and B. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Allium cepa L. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lythrum salicaria L. papyrifora. Rubus idaeus L.
See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L. Juglans regia L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G.) Tanacetum vulgare L. Betonica officinalis L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Salvia officinalis L. Artemisia abrotanum L.) Acacia Concinna. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Salix alba L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Juglans nigra L.
) Perre Yucca baccata. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Schum. Rumex crispus L. Yucca brevifolia. Gentiana lutea L. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Artemisia absinthium L.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Torr. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L.
A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. ice cream. high in carotenoids. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. 2.7 Marine Natural Products 7. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. body rubs. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. as well as vitamins. and have even been used to put a head on beer. blue. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. Xanthophylls. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. Xanthophyta. mud baths. Seawater. and vitamin content. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. e 8. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. 3. and red pigments. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. It is said that life started in the seas. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. including: 1. sauces. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. weeds. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. and sometimes in seawater. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. 7. bath. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. 6. 9. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. and sterols. mineral. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. 4. However. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. The sea holds an endless source of life. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. They are also used as thickeners in jams. cosmetics. phytoplanktons. Cryptophyta — Contain green. etc. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. 10. etc). Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. sea grasses.
the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anthelmintics. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. B2. second. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. mainly from some gelidium species. cranberry. First. Therefore. acetylenes. Kelp is also the main source for algin. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work.. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. for example. marshmallows. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. sulfur compounds. pears. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. anticoagulants. such as ursolic acid derivates. and lycine). and other fruits. For example. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. it is resistant to microorganisms and. cardiac substances. proteins. prostaglandins. growth substances. and herbicides. proline. emulsion stabilizer. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. B12. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. carotenoids. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. and cosmetic fields. prunes. and polysaccharides. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. and vitamins. furanoterpenes. fucose polymers. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. lipids. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. diterpenes. pharmaceutical.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. and C. polyphenols. and imparts slip. emulsions. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. glycine. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate.g. For plating microorganisms. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. steroids). • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. and ice cream as a thickening agent.
and ointments. B6. particularly fluoride. B6. and zinc. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. Laminaria longicruris (L. broadspectrum. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. minerals (Zn. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. protein. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). myristic. etc. galactose. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. B. L. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. including iodine. B3. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. creams. antimicrobial agent. iron. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . both in vivo and in vitro. and mannitol. and glutamic acid. Cr. salads. F. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. I. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. A). in combination with Vitamin E. and iodide ions. phosphorus. B. potassium. Mn. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. K. calcium. Co. potassium. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. In addition. phosphorus. Algin. palmitic. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. and antiglaucomic. oleic. B 2. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. Fe. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. B12. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. mannitol. Na. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. lotions. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. B12. There are traces of chloride. iodine. it has a high content of potassium. magnesium. Sargassum contains fructose. a synergestic effect was exhibited. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. C. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. B3. bromide. antioxidant. P. and lauric acids). Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. sodium. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. fat. and carbohydrates. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. However. shampoos. which is a polysaccharide. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). Ca). plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. Mg.
single-cell. F. polar lipids. Eisenia contains a complex polymer.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. Echinus esculentus L. Chlorella contains over 60% protein.02 to 0. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year. the Pacific. fucans. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L. a well-known anti-inflammatory. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. Lyngb. It is a single-cell protein. sterols as free fucosterol. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine.500 IU/100 g 180. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. Halidrys siliquosa L. mainly iodine (0. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). which means it is a self-sufficient.000). which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. sulfonate. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols.1%). alginic acid. polysaccharides. sulfated. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms.6 Fucus contains trace minerals. phlorotannins. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O.8 mg/100 g 1. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. rheumatism.3. containing all the essential amino acids. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55. and as a massage for cellulite. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. and the Baltic Sea.
Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder.S.6 mcg 0.26 w/w% 2.80 w/w% 0. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).500 IU/100g 180.40 w/w% 4.70 w/w/% 2.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation.8 mg 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6% 60. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.45 w/w% 2. Moreover.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.59 w/w% 3.. pp.06 w/w% 0.9 mcg 15.20 w/w% 2. 14-15.08 mg Potter. Chlorella. Spirulina Spirulina.9 mcg 191.8% 18.5 mg 4. The Emerald Food. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.64 w/w/% 5.38 w/w% 3. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron.09 w/w% 3. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin. et al.63 w/w% 5.2% 55.0% 20.8 mg 1. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll.469 mg 613 mg 1.3 mg 26.8 mg 1.93 w/w% 3.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.78 w/w% 6. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.7 mg 125.5% 11. B. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.A.1% 0. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation. Tests performed by the U.2% 4.46 w/w% 1. In a controlled study.. called the Chlorella Growth Factor.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3.08 w/w% 0.29 w/w% 2. It is found in both brackish and fresh water.29 w/w% 3.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.64 w/w% 1. Dr.
P. G. at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc.. Zn. K. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams.A.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). B6. Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0.A. B12 Folacin.L. Ge. carotenoids.40) B1. B2. Fe. minerals. Biotin. Cr. Na. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca. and minerals (5 to 10%). vitamins. lipids (4 to 7%). B3. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. Mn. Mg. as it is high in plant protein. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. Cu. Spirulina.L. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989.
12 5. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. including phaeophyta. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. Related unicellular microorganisms. the search is only beginning. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. Thus. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. the following being some examples: 1. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. and marine organisms.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. antillatoxin. as a soothing demulcent. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. anti-inflammatory. plant. were isolated from marine organisms. and imidazole disulfides. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. barbamide. having distinct anti-cancer properties. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. such as those of elevated salinity. Unfortunately. kalkitoxin. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). bactericidal. Significant compounds.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. soft corals. pressure.9 2.10 3. the Bacteria. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula .2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. or temperature. bacteristatic. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. 7. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. microcolin C. but no chemical study has been reported.11 4. which although poorly known. sponges. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. anticancer.13 6. and ascidians. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. such as the curacins. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. penazetidines. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. are common in marine environments.8 The results obtained are quite promising. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. Oahu. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. cyanophyta. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. and chlorophyta. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. melemeleones.
which produce anti-tumor compounds. tunicates. including potent antiviral. actinomycetes. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum. fungi. including corals and sponges. and cytotoxic activities. A series of B-carboline derivatives.. which display a variety of pharmacological activities. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates.16 9. the swinholides.17 10. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. Cyanovirin-N. and gorgonians. and the theonellapeptolides. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. and true symbionts from sponges. antimicrobial.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media.19 12. the eudistomins. a unique anti-viral protein.15 8. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum.18 11.
33 26.31 24.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle. including makaluvamines A. and F. Isolation of Dysidiolide.27 20.28 21. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.29 22. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro.30 23. and anti-tumor promoting properties. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. Cyclomarin A. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. a novel. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines. makaluvone.21 14. C. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.23 16. cytotoxic natural products. D. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. E. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum.26 19. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. Several new classes of compounds. immunopotentiating. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins. discorhabdin A.22 15. Isolation of Microcolin C. New antimycotics.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. Phorbas sp. phorboxazole A and B. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. were isolated from the marine sponge.24 17.39 32. Okoadene and Mailidene. Diamirone B. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. Many novel.25 18. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic.38 31. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii.36 29. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges).34 27. latrunculin B and swinholide A.37 30.32 25. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. B.35 28. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity.
Studies of Swedish marine organisms. D. Chan. 19. 9. and Leahy. July 27-31. M. Abstr. J.. Haygood.A. 11. Boyd. T. M.. J. 14-15. 22.. Janus. UCSC. Javor.A.. Baker. McCombs. 8. ibid P 156. Gustafson. Hook. Andersson.H. 13.A..J. B. 4. Cardellina. G. El-Sayed..J. 38. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae. Lill. P. and Walter. Dunbar. H. The Emerald Food. ibid O 25. T. B.. 6. 27. ibid P 151. Lloyd. B. Chlorella... and Bauer... B. Bewicke. Schumacher. W. ibid P 31.J. R. O’Sullivan.. S.C.. ibid P 149.K. B. W. Hemling.. T.A. M.. Gush. ibid P 25. M. Can.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. P.M.. L. P. Lam. Hong. P. Goins. Carte’. Potter. B. Chikarmane. Duh. L. et al. R...H. S...K. B. P. R. Green.. R. Yoo. ibid O 38. J. 1983. O’Keefe. Al. P. F. Fernandes.. Chem. S. S.. and Gerwick. K. 15. McInnes.. T. 14. ibid P 155. L. Carney. 20(6). Brzezinski. Gerwick.E. J.. ibid P 27..F. 1975. 3. L.. Blunt. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California.P. 1996. 21.A. Gunasekera. ibid P 141. 1993. I. Schmitz.. pp.J.. 12.. and Hamann. N. Mokinski. 1985. and Yavor. J. and Baker. D. Mabeau.H. McMahon.S.A.. 304-313.. ibid O 7. 2. J. K. ibid O 36. Santa Cruz (UCSC). and Harrigan. Beutler. 29. Kloareg. J...... ibid S 14. B. 33. Franklin. ibid O 26.E.. Copp. 16. Ph... J. M. Fucus Vesiculosus L. and Munro.A. Zhang. D. Zheng.. Dumdei. W. Varoglu. and Joseleau.. and Thompson. 56(4).D. 1977. Searle. de Silva.. and Kelly. D. J..... Maranda... J. and Kerr... and Hamann. El Sayed. B.A.. ibid P 26. Linton. Meeting.. Nakao. D. Sci. J.J. J. July 27-31. Shangxiao.. ibid P 28. P..A. P. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae.. J.T. L. and Scheuer. R... Gerard.R.. and Boyd... R.. ibid P 30. Wilkins. and Gould.. S. Mendola.. and Rodriguez. and Munro. H. ibid P 36. Kerr. Allen. Lassota. 180. 5. Forenza. ibid P 150... Suecica. and Scheuer..E. S 8. Phytochemistry. ibid S 15. M. T. 25. and Cardellina. G. Haughey.E. K.. and Wang. 39... and Molinski. 6. ibid P 154.. M. S. D.P... C. Janda. 2441-2446. Fulton. ibid P 19. L.. G.S. Sheehan. Davidson. 40. Harrigan.. Gulakowski.P. G. 26. L..R. S. T. 31.. A. S. and Afzelius.... Heath. N. Lawry. Andersen..-P..F... Bohlin. K..M. J...... H.A. ibid O 10.Y.W. J. J.. Beverly A.A. G.K. S. 63. and Russel G. ibid O 49. Hamel. M. Shoemaker.. L. ibid O 11. 1990. B. Mar. Dhyana. J. 401-414.. J. Blunt. H. I. Andrew. D. W. S.J. Coleman. ibid P 145. J. 35.. 32.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. C. S. 18. K. M..J. Pettit. B... Jayatilake. and Crews.. Major.T. Ind. McCarthy. Hargraves. 64. Plubrukarn. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy.. R. and Francis. O’Keefe. Harrison.J.G.... 10.G. D...J. L. M.F. ibid S 9. ibid S 23. R. Mendola. 20. Castor.. D... Screening of biological activity. Lidgren. 23... O 50. Pharmaceut..A.. Gerwick. Perry.-Y. 17.. ibid S 22. and Ireland. 34. M.. J.P. T.. Slate. A. Acta Pharm. J. C. Haden. D. Pomponi. 478-488. 24. K. Rea.. Ogren.-R.. Wright. L. 28. Venables. 7. 36.. 29..T.M. B. and Crews. Magni.. Westley. M.. Ragan. J... C. H.R. A.A.B. R.W. Gulakowski. E. 1996.. Clark. W... J. Sci. Natural Prod.. Brielmann. 30...G. M. P.. McMahon. Xie.R. Solimabi. M..A. L. J.. J. and Hung.. D.-D. ibid P 9. Rodriguez.. Barrows. J. A.. Papers presented at the 37th Annu.S... Crews. G. P. C.J. M. R. Erim. McKee. G. Freyer.. R... and Kelly-Borges. Smith. S. 37. M. K. Y.W. Yoshida. Bringano. P.C. J.. Ferrante. J. and Bair.J. 1258..
5 (±0. Therefore. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used. Adjust pH to 9.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47. PROCEDURE: 1. Adjust pH to 5.00 0. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes.2 (±0. Henkel. 207 19th Avenue.60 21. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. 5.00 10. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq.2) with Sequence 5.00 10. 2.s.. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. 4. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc. Patterson. either alone or in combination with other products.s. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. In main kettle.10 0.10 0. 8. Rohm & Haas.00 q. NJ 07504. 5. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. Inc./Lipo Chemicals.10 0.10 q. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing.00 6. 3.
10 q. 6. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31. 4. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq.10 0. 3.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.5 (±0. Amerchol. 5. Procedure: 1. Inc.00 6.10 q. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. Henkel. Adjust pH to 9. Lipo Chemicals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In main kettle. combine Sequence 1 ingredients.2 (±0.s.50 15. 7. 6. 2.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Adjust pH to 5.00 0.00 20. Rohm & Haas. high-foaming. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Inc.10 0.00 1. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.10 0. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq.00 10. at room temperature. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural. 10.s.00 0. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient.
Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform. 4. Aqualon. B. Procedure: 1.10 5.(Induchem). Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch. 5. 6. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.10 0. Inc. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals.00 0.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq.50 3. Goodrich Co.F. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens. 2.45 0. Inc. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed. 3. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform.00 1. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine.95 0.10 0. In main kettle at room temperature.FORMULATIONS 301 8.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22.50 1.
add Sequence 3 to correct shade. Procedure: 1.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cool to 30°C. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 0.54 5. 3.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15.s.10 0.00 10. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0. Inc. At 25°C. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved.10 q. Inc. In main kettle.96 63.00 5. At 30°C.10 0. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals.10 0. 2.00 0.
FORMULATIONS 303 8.00 4. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved.10 0. 2. Inc. Fanning Corp. Givaudan Corp.00 2.50 0. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86.10 0.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No.10 0. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals. Cool to 25°C. Procedure: 1.10 0. Inc.02 0.10 0. Begin cooling.10 0.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base. Haarmann & Reimer Corp.50 0. BASF. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C . In main kettle. 3.28 0. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.05 6. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
3. Spl Phosphoric acid. Cool to 60°C. 10% sol’n Supplier B. Inc.00 0.00 0. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4.82 0.10 g. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92.05 0.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .30 0.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous.10 0. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940. F.75 0. Inc. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel.88 45.25 0.80 0. 2.10 0.00 0.00 5.05 20.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals. 4.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant.70 2.s. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform. 8. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Procedure: In main kettle.
3.FORMULATIONS 305 8. Inc.00 5.05 1 2 Triethanolamine. Guardian Chemicals.30 0. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin.00 2. B. Lipo Chemicals.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem). Procedure: 1. 2. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25.70 1.F. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine.00 0.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp.10 0. 99% Hypan SA100H 25.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35.20 0. Lipo (Kingston). Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous. Goodrich. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C.
with firm pericarp. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. or Akene: A dry. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. one-seeded fruit. indehiscent. as ferns. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. or flower-arrangement. Adnate: Adhering to another structure.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. like the leaves of pines. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Acicular: Needle-shaped. Achaenium. containing the pollen. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. one-celled. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. the fecundating material from an antheridium.
Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. Capsule: A dry. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Atropous: With erect ovule... Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. Calcarate: Spurred. Carina: The keel. meristematic cells. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Nutmeg). Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Bi-: Signifying double. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. the hilum and the chalaza being together. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Bacca: A berry. Bulb: An underground discoid stem. Appendages: Superadded parts. Apetalous: Without petals. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. a pulpy. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. as bi-foliate. Axillary: Growing in an axil. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with two leaves. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. Cardamon).. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum.g. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Capitate: With globose head. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. Bristles: Sharp. Castor seed). Blisters: See Vesicants. carrying the ovary. stiff hairs.g.g. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy.. cinnamic).g. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. rare in present times).
indehiscent fruit. Clavate: Club-shaped. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. usually distinct. Caudale: Having a hairy style. outer layer. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit.. Cohesion: Attachment. thick. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Convolute: Rolled up. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. Cespitose: Tufted. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. Also a name given to a short. one-seeded. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells.g. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Caulis: The stem. tuber-like. become joined. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. Corm: A solid. Umbelliferous fruits). with the dry pericarp united with the testa. Caudex: The axis. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. from which they hang when ripe. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. one-celled. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. Cilia: Marginal hairs. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. Costa: The midrib. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Contorted: Twisted. Cathartic: A purgative. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. Cortex: The bark. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. Connate: where two parts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Coriaceous: Leathery. upright rhizome. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another.
Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Crispate: Curled. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. dividing into irregular branches. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Didynamous: With four stamens. Deflexed: Bent. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Definite: Constant. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. two long and two short. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. lymphatic. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. or tending to fall. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Deliquescent: Dissolving. Decompound: Many times compound. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Determinate: Definite. Deciduous: Falling off. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Deltoid: Triangular. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Dichotomous: Forked. downward throughout the length. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Didymous: In pairs. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Cupule: An acorn-cup. Discoid: With convex face. producing intellectual confusion. etc. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point.
Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Exogenous: Having bark. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Echinate: Prickly. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. the ovary. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Epidermis: The true skin. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fibrils: Root-hairs. Etiolated: Blanched. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Episperm: The coat of seed. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. without.g.. purgation). Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. Escharotics: See Caustics. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. wood. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. nearly parallel.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. and pith distinct. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. wood. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Extrorse: Turned outward. and bark. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. or borne on. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. E: Signifies deprived of. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. the outermost layer. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. Epigynous: Adnate to. Falcate: Sickle-shaped.
Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. more swollen on one side than on the other. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Foliaceous: Leaf-like.g. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Flexuose: Wavy. the point of attachment. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Fid: Cleft. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. algae. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Glabrous: Smooth. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Filiform: Thread-like. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. as bifid. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Flocculose: Woolly. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Globose: Roundish. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. as in the cypress and juniper. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion.. etc. devoid of hairs. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Fimbriated: Fringed. as petals and leaves. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Furcate: Forked. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. orange). Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature.
rabbits. and irritation. layer. Jointed: Having. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. etc. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem.e. Innate: Adhering to apex. Lacinate: Fringed. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Lateral: Attached to the side. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). Laxative: A mild purgative. two or three times longer than broad. Inferior: Growing below another. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. cats. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Inflexed: Bent inward. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. either by mechanical or chemical action. Labellum: (Lip). Inarticulate: Not jointed. Causing watery evacuations. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. dogs. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. as innate anther. Imbricated: Overlapped. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. like shingles. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. on the receptacle.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. inflammation. i. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. Internode: Interval between nodes. Lamina: A leaf-blade.. the lower petal of an orchid. or appearing to have. i. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. Involute: Rolled inward. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Incanescent: Hoary. squirrels. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate.. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens).e. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. joints or nodes. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). Lacuna: A space between cells. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Keel: See Carina.
Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Multifid: Many-cleft. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Monandrous: Having one stamen. Monospermous: One-seeded. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Monopetalous: Having petals united. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. or stigma. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Linear: Narrow. Monogynous: Having one carpel. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Muricate: Rough. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. but with lipclosed (flower). Ligulate: Strap-like. Lobate: Divided into lobes. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. with hard tubercles. found at the ends of young stems. Medulla: The pith of exogens. style. with upper lobes largest. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Masked: Labiate. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Locusta: The spike of grasses.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. leaves. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with parallel sides. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. often caused by fungus infection. and roots.
Pedatipartite: Pedate. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. thick runner. Parasitic: Growing upon. in large doses. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Pedate: Palmate. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. and the keel. Oblique: Unequal sided. Obtuse: Blunt. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. and nourished by. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Palmate: Having usually five lobes.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. as ergot. Nut: A hard. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. one-celled fruit. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). Obsolete: Suppressed. Offset: A short. apex broad (leaf). Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. another plant. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. death. as in the pea-flower. with lateral divisions again subdivided. Orbicular: Circular. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. indehiscent. the wings. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Pedatifid: Pedate. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. rounded. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. having tufts of leaves at extremity. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. Node: Point where the leaf develops. with lobes nearly free. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but lobe extending only half way to midrib.
Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. two or more celled. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. with petiole attached at or near the center.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Pome: An inferior. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. Peltate: Shield-shaped. pointed cells. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. fleshy fruit. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. Petals: The corolla leaves. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Petaloid: Resembling petals. few-seeded. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Polygamous: With male. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. usually of family Leguminosae. Pilose: Hairy. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Pubsecent: Downy. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. and the like. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Pentandrous: Having five stamens. dehiscent fruits. and perfect flowers on the same plant. squash. female. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. indehiscent. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Personate: Masked. Pod: A general name given to dry. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. melon. Pendulous: Hanging down. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. resembling a mouth. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Perigynous: Having the ovary free.
Recurved: Bent backward. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed.. Retuse: Obtuse. etc. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Setae: Stiff. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. Scarious: Thin. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). with deep notch in middle (leaves). and producing pustules. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. Revolute: Rolled backward. Sheath: See Ocrea. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Runcinate: Jagged margin. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. indehiscent. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. rooting and budding at nodes. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Reduplicate: Valvate. Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). Saccate: Sac-like. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. such as glands. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. bearing leaves and rootlets. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. one. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). Ringent: Labiate. and shriveled. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Retrorse: Directed backward. creeping. with wide lips (corolla). Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. prostrate stem. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. with reflexed margins (estivation). bristly hairs. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. winged. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. its function being to support the flower organs. dry. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Radical: Springing from roots. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). Runner: A slender. Reclinate: Bent downward. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Reniform: Kidney-shaped.or two-celled fruit. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity.
spiral branch. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. with short hairs.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Sporangium: A spore-case. Tendril: A thread-like. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. falsely two-celled pod. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Stipitate: Stalked. in pairs. Suture: A line of junction. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Tomentose: Pubescent. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. dehiscing from below upward. leafless. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. bearing the stigma. Spine: A pointed modified branch. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. Squamose: Scaly. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. may be modified leaf or stem. and one short pair. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Subulate: Awl-shaped. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. Ternate: Arranged in threes. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis.
Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Uncinate: Hooked.GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Trichomes: Hairs. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. 529-536. one-celled. Verticel: A whorl. Lucius E.. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. Volute: Rolled up. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Valvate: United only by the margins. few-seeded fruit. Vexillum: The standard. Toxic: Poisonous. Versatile: Freely swinging. Sayre. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Zones: Concentric bands. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. pp. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Utricle: A superior. 1895. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled.
New York. CRC Press. Chicago. Herbs of Choice. 23. British Herbal Compendum. Grieve. SpringerVerlag. 4. T. Aug. Notes on Parmacognosy. 20. New York. 1995. 7.E. The Honest Herbal. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. 11. H. Ehrhart & Karl. 2nd ed. 1974. 13. Rockville. 14. Leung and S. 3rd ed.. U. 1994. 1989. Duke. Guenther. H. 12th ed. Academic Press. Wall. 16.. The Merck Index. 1902.. 2... MO. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. Tyler. P. J.E. 1990. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. John Wiley & Sons. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. U. Vol. Y. New Jersey. 10. Foter. Blakiston’s Son & Co. K.K. IL. 1996. 15. New York. Lavoisier. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. Haworth Press. Merck & Co. Youngken. E. A. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. U. Boca Raton. Ltd. 1975. J. M.. 6. 2nd ed.. G. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants.. Louis..C. Vol.. Bournemouth. 9. Merck Research Laboratories. Boca Raton.C.W. FL 1992. The National Formulary XVIII. St. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 13th ed. 7th ed. 1–7. The Essential Oils. Berlin.E. Dover Publications. Boca Raton. New York. V. 22. Potter & Clarke. Pharmacognosy. N. Bisset. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. Stuttgart.A. Wren. & A.. 1936. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. Haworth Press. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. J. 1996. American Pharmaceutical Association. 1992. Nakanishi et al.. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Philadelphia. FL. Wagner and S. Duke. O. FL. MD.. D. 1930.K. Paris. Natural Products Chemistry. 1996. 17. Biddles. A. Vol. 1992. 1993. Bladt. 1971. Biddles.. MIS Publication. 1997. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. Vol.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1.A. 4th ed. CRC Press. Mack Publishing. 24. 3. I and II. Churchill Ltd. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook.. R.K. Bailliere Tindall. Ltd. 1. I and II. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 8. London. Krieger Publishing. 1964. Plant Drug Analysis. 19. 5. 1932. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. A Modern Herbal. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. London.. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. British Herbal Medicine Association... 1994. 18. J. 12. NY.. PA. V. Robert E. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. Ltd. 4th ed. Bruneton. Huntington. Tyler. 1995. 1960... 21. 1983. Inc. Tease and Evans. Wallis. CRC Press. Washington.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.