Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.

CRC Press Boca Raton New York


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:

Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.

Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

And then the Babylonian. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. Dioscorides. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. Mithridates. Let it reflect brightly upon us. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. experimenting. Originally. Always wanting to know more. Initially. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. Galen. observing. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. As formulators and purveyors. men like Shen Nong. Chinese. Over time. sorting. Theophratus. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. to use plants wisely. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. But more than anything. always wanting to find a more active plant. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. and Avicenna.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists.AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. Inc. He founded BioBotanica. Frank D’Amelio. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals.. Sr. vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry.

Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. and assistance in editing the manuscript. Special thanks to Professor Dr. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. patience. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions.

.............................................................................2 Phenols ..1.....30 3.39 Extraction Terminology.....................5 1..3..........................43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .............................................................................................................................................10 2.........................................................1 1................................................................1 Constituents of Drugs...........................................................14 3.......................................................1..........1....................1.....................................................................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2.................................1 Forms 4............................................9 2......................................................11 2..........7 Assay Procedures ........................................................................1................................3 4.............5 1...........41 Infusions ..........................................9 2.........5 Preparations of Extracts ............................9 Resins and Resin Combinations ..........5 Infrared Spectroscopy.........................................6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems...............1.8 Volatile Oils.......................................................4 Proteins ..............................................................................................................................................................5 Yield to Solvents ......24 3.........7 Glycosides ................................1.....3.....................................................................................................................................................1 Liquids ..................4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents......................................................................1 1.....................................13 3.............................2 4............3...............................10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ............................................................................6 Ash Determination .1 4.................................................................................................................................................................3..........28 3...........26 3...................2 Solubilities ..............................................................................2 Macromorphology ....................6 Carbohydrates...........2 1.............................................................11 References .....................................1 1..........................................8 Gas Chromatography.......3 Physical Constants.....................................1 Microscopical Techniques....................................................2 Some Common Terminology ............................................................................26 3........................................................................................CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1..........................................1......................................................2 1...........................................................................35 Chapter 4 4.............................................................10 2...................................40 Decoctions ...............................3 Tannins.......9 Adulteration of Drugs ....25 3.............................................................................................................................................................................................3 Micromorphology.......................................................................................1 1...............39 Percolation ........................1................................................................1....1........................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3..........................3...................11 2....1..........3..........................................11 2..........4 4...........1 1.......3 Procedures ............3........11 2.....................................................42 Fluid Extracts ..............7 Methods of Identification.......................................1.......................5 Alkaloids......................................................1 Plant Identification .............23 3............................4 Ultraviolet Light ................1.................1 Botanical Terminology .................11 2.....................................

.............304 8........................................................7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe ....................................................................................................................................................45 Extracts Strengths........... Description..................1...............................4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics ......................2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy...............................................................1..........8 4.........................................................1.....229 6..................................................... Range.......................10 4..................4.......................................301 8.........1......................................................................8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC........................................................................................................49 5....................................................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6..........51 6...................................................................1..........302 8.............................................................6 Spray Moisturizer ......298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8................................2 Hair Care Botanicals .........2 Natural Shampoo................................................. Properties...................................................................................................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table.299 8.................300 8...............................................269 6.1 History ......253 6..................46 Oleoresins .............................................1................................................................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5.....................304 8.................225 6.............289 7...................9 4....................................................................45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ..........................................................................................7 4...................................... and Standardization......................................................247 6..........5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+..............................3 Cellulite Gel Base ........................233 6...5 Indian Botanicals...................................2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products............................1 Habitat.6 4.......................................................305 Chapter 9 Glossary........... Concentration...................................4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil ..295 References .....307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .............................1 Marine Algae..............46 Product Strength................... and Constituents .................................283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7.....................................................................................7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names .............1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo........................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters .....................6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table........................11 Tinctures .........................................................4.........................................303 8............3 Botanical Quick Reference Table .......

and coumaric acids. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. palmitic. In the treatment of burns. stems.1 Phytochemistry 1. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. (5) alkaloids. 1. (6) carbohydrates. myristyl. have astringent action. etc. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. hence. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides.1. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. They are widely distributed in plants. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. ferulic. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. (4) proteins. 1.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. TS). spores. In plants. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs.1. and waxes. (8) volatile oils. 1. (7) glycosides. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes. In most cases.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. they are stored in seeds.1.1. Recently.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. leaves. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. (3) tannins. they are also called triglycerides. and usually bitter taste. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. They are generally soluble in water. (2) phenols. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. fats. fats. and waxes (lipids). Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . roots. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. When applied to living tissues. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. barks. glycerol.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability.

and oxygen. (2) polysaccharides. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. which end in -in. roots. 1. isoquinoline. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. imidazole. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. Whole glandular products. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and seeds. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. phenanthrene. and (3) derived carbohydrates. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin.1. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. but mostly in fruits. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. tropane. pyridine. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. In fact.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. for example: colchicine. leaves. possessing some marked physiological action. piperidine. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. bark. and cryptogams. serums. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. oil-bearing plant seeds. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. (a) monosaccharides. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. hydrogen. quinoline. carboline. indole. brucine. stems. they form water-soluble salts with acids. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. which are the building units. Being basic in chemical character. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. Proteins are derived from amino acids. (b) obligosaccharides. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. antitoxins.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. purine. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine.1. gymnosperms. and steroidal.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). galactosamine b. suspending agents. Inulin. consisting simply of 1. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. It contains both B-1. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. f. trihalose Reducing: maltose. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. and some microbial polysaccharides. and apiose. which is a straight chain of alpha1. D-fructose (levulose). and thickeners. True sugars a. melibiose ii. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. and Example Rhamnose.6-linked polyglucan. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). tri-. a. pectins. iii. gentiobiose. b. fucose Digitoxose.and B-1. their sulfate esters.2)-fructofuranose units. uronic acids. ii. stabilizers. Gums are soluble in water. Pentoses: L-arabinose. epimarose. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. L-galactose. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. gelling agents. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. and tetrasaccharides i. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). turanose. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. sarmentose. 2. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. Unlike cellulose. emulsifiers. Glycogen. Monosaccharides. or amino sugars. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. alginates. Therapeutically. amorphous substances. It is a linear polysaccharide. g. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). transluscent. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. D-xylose. galacturonic Glucosamine. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. Cellulose. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. c.4. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). it is formed of amylose. d. digitalose (these are 2.6-linkages. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. cymarose. D-ribose. They include hemicellulose. lactose. diginose. cellobiose.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. gums. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. i. oleandrose.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. 3.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. mucilages. e. It is an alpha-1.

g. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant..g. In the conifers. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. digitoxin) Saponin (e. arbutin) Alcohol (e..1. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides.g. 4. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin. occur. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae)..g. 12. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. for example.. for example. Rutaceae. as sugar reserves. rutin) Anthraquinone (e. 8. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. Occasionally. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e. and defensive roles.g.g. 3.g. for example. the sugar component is called the glycone. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae).. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. 2. In S-glycosides (e. S-glycosides and N-glycosides.. 1. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. Other glycosides do. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). volatile oils can occur in all the tissues.. strophanthin.g. sennosides. or adenosine). and Asteraceae.. crocin and picrocrocin. Myrtaceae. Apiaceae.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. 1. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. in the liver of fish. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. are the most common ones found in nature. representing about 87 families). barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond.1. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). sometimes called O-glycosides. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae).g.g. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm.g. glucosamine.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that. They are products of plant metabolism. 7. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. regulating.. digitoxin.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant.. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. cascarosides. salicin is an analgesic. Such glycosides. for example. and barbaloin are laxatives. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. The chief families are Pinaceae. 5. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. Depending on the plant family. 6. Lamiaceae.g.g. 11. sinigrin) Steroid (e.. detoxifying. sinigrin). however.g. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. 9. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone.g. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures. Lauraceae. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. There are also C-glycosides (e.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In N-glycosides (e... Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species.. Phenol (e. daphnin) Flavone (e. 10. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources.

local stimulants. chemical. 2. juniper. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. geranium. lemongrass. but in few instances. clove. wintergreen. 4. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. cade. beverages. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. dill. pharmaceuticals. themselves. etc. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. tend to resinify on exposure to air. transparent or translucent brittle substances. Classification 1. is rich in camphor. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. anthelmentics. chenopodium. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. cassia bark. They can be used for their therapeutic action. etc. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. they are widely used in perfumery. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues.1. 1. cosmetics. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. In most cases.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. in umbelliferous fruits. only in the bark and leaves. confections. sweet orange. For example. rosemary. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. in cinnamon. thyme. carminatives. etc. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. 9. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). and in orange. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. and tobacco. Ethers: anise. and odor characteristics. 5. 3. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. mild antiseptics. bitter almond. lemon. parsley. resulting in less food spoilage. diuretics. local irritants. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). 7. turpentine. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. 6. 8. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. cajuput. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. etc. however. In general. Resins. spearmint. as a class. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. in the mints. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. ajowan. Undoubtedly. neroli. Ester volatile oils: lavender. fennel. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. etc. sandalwood. or parasiticides. etc. etc. In addition. nutmeg. for example. However. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. coriander. etc. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. star anise. etc. are hard. horsemint. however. These substances. rose. only in the pericarp.

resins occur in different secretory structures. acetone. For example. forming sticky or adhesive fluids.g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chemically. and glycosidal resins. resin acids. with few exceptions (e. On heating at comparatively low temperatures. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. they are of pathological origin. resin cells (ginger).. colophony. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. It is noteworthy to mention here that. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation.25). on evaporation. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. as in case of Pinus.9–1. resins soften and finally melt. they occur as tyloses. esters. order. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film.g. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. shellac).. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. but do not contain any nitrogen. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). They are not pure chemical substances.g. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. forming solutions which. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. viz... resin alcohols. as well as in fixed and volatile oils.. Laccifer lacca. in the vessels. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). without volatilization or decomposition. in rare cases (e. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. and glandular hairs (cannabis). In this case. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). chloroform. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. On this basis.g.e. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. In plants. Many products (e. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. in Guaiacum wood. when freshly powdered. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. Hemiptera. resenes (neutral inert compounds). The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. carbon bilsulfide). consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. Family Coccidae. and ether. fibers. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. gr. resinotannols. but when heated in the air. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. mastic). and resenes. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. 0. which is called secondary flow. they are divided into resin alcohols. that is. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities. and medullary rays cells). Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. When heated in a closed vessel. wood parenchyma.

as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. liquid or semi-liquid substances. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation.. Jalap. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. carminatives. Guttiferae). cathartics. hexoses. leaves. xylose. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. therefore. the mixtures being called gum-resins. they can be separated from resins rather easily. or esters of these acids. that form colloidial.) In general. and seeds. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. purgatives. glucose. etc. etc. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses.g. flowers. creams. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. fruits. ointments. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. These are. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). expectorants. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. and Podophyllum. counter irritants. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). In some cases. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). Balsams. balsam of Copaiba. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale).. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. and uronic acids. shave creams. barks. on the other hand. they form a mixture of pentoses. arabinose. nonadhesive solutions with water. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. On hydrolysis. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. for example. and anthelmintics. in seaweeds. being called glycoresins. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. they can be incorporated into lotions. parasiticides. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. and Canada balsam. like most seeds. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. copaiba. (anywhere soothing is required). Another is flax seed. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. Mucilages are viscous.e. roots.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. and malva (Malva sylvestris). antispasmodic. which contains no volatile oil. Probably. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . respectively — both contain volatile oil. viz. (e. mouthwashes. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. asafoetida). cough syrups.

both physical and chemical tests should be performed. etc. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. the solution commonly known as lye. suction. having a bottom outlet. also referred to as the spent herb. In pharmacy. acetone. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. 2. by which it is exhausted of potash. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. or by chemical or physical means. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it.. As with the raw materials. distillation. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance.. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. by traction. cotton) below. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained.g. expression. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. water. etc. treatment with a solvent. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted.).1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. gauze. or alcohol and water. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. ether.

0025 mm. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. as well as identification of commercial starches. However. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. the width of vessels. botanical laboratory. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. 2.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification.001 mm). because it is the magnified object. In the same manner.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer. the factors for the other objectives can be determined. and not the object itself. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. that is compared with the scale. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0.3.C. for example. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. 0. Most of the time.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. By its use. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions.0025 mm = 0. Therefore.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. The diameter of fibers. also known as micrometers. its true size is 50 0. Q.125 mm = 125 µ. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. always using a definite tube length. That is. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens.125 mm.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. the scale of 1 mm. both of which are carefully counted. if an object. the height of sclerenchymatous cells. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length.3 PROCEDURES 2.

Some pieces of rhapontic. E. and similar substances. A. and Evans. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. London. 90%.. calumba. 2. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence. 1978. 2. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate.3. D. 1960. optical rotation. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky.3. balsams.. Similarly. Trease. T. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. malaccensis. For certain drugs. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples. C.3. Bailliere Tindall. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. oleo-resins. digitalis and henbane leaves).3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity. 2.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. E. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. Churchill Ltd.. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. G. they will give a high total ash value. 11th ed.. Other drugs. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e. viburnum. London. especially if they are present in the powdered form. 4th ed.. However. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. Derris elliptica. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. J.3. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. REFERENCES Wallis. the yield to water of liquorice root.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. In this way. 2.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. UV light provides very useful information.3. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. W. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article.. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . viscosity. volatile oil. glycosides. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. vitamins. for example. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome.g. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent. resins. Pharmacognosy. such as hydrastis. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol.3. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. 2. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration.


which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. methanol. organic solvents (ethanol. and berberine. etc. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. As seen in the example. If this is not specified. seed. etc. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. distillation. and microscopy. flower. and other tests like loss on drying. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. leaf.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. counter current extraction. fruit. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. hexane).3 Quality Control 3. or the entire plant. This starts with the proper solvent system. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. super critical fluid extraction. For example. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. then maceration.e. very few plants lose their actives upon drying.. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. ask for it by its common name first. lipidic extraction. color. There are many forms of extracts available.. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . i. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. canadine. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. Fortunately. One should start with botanical terminology. providing that they were dried properly. root. Many plants have common names and. percolation. ash content. identification can be confusing. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. etc. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. odor. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. When ordering a botanical. stem. therefore.

. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. secondary phloem. 1.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. viz. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . For systematic study. primary phloem. Dusting powders: One should be able. Cowhage). pollen grains. to differentiate between mineral powders. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. Lupulin. glands. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. Fig. 2 is that of an angiosperm. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. Quassia Wood. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). however.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. starches. 3) is a representative example. while Fig. and hairs (Kamala. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. 2. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. 3.

QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig. 1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .


3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig.

Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). Achillea millefolium L. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. 4. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. papillosed epidermis of petals. epicarp. argel leaf. 6. stigmas). (Fig. Among common drugs. 7. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. however. Leaves: Example. the leaf is termed sessile. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. and often a raphe. i.e. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. and endocarp. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. the corolla made of petals. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. (3) the presence of chlorophyll. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils.. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. elder flowers of petals and stamens. There are. mm. called the pericarp. the ovary wall develops to form a case. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. (2) their thinness. if there is no stalk. frequently. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. the calyx made of sepals. fibrous layer of anthers. 5. styles. 6). Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. for the seeds. which are a useful identification tool. leaves may be recognized.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. In the great majority of plants.. in addition. red rose and marigold of petals only. mesocarp. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. two features that are constant. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. viz. thus forming a fruit. micropyle. red poppy. Flowers: In a commercial sense. 5) is an example of the flower. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. S /(E + S). and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm.

QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig. 4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. 8. Bael. However.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. leaves. a. Poppy. Cardamon ii. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. 5 Achillea millefolium L. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. flowers and fruits. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. Compound Fruits Hops In general. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Caraway (see Fig. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Tamarind. Colocynth b. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. Simple Fruits i. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. Orange.

Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. Aframomum melegueta Rosc.QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. 6 Grains of paradise seed. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. Therefore.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. similarly. 9). olive oil). as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . starch. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. which are usually slender and adventitious. For example. fibers. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. namely. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. stage and eyepiece micrometers. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle.g. Chiretta herb.. 10. 3. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements.g. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. branches. opium). 8). Henna leaf by the absence of starch. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. such as incision (e. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and.g. expression (e. and sclerenchyma. beeswax and myrrh). commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. or are natural secretions (e. by the stomatal index. decoction (e. 9. mountants. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. Clearing agents.g. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. or by the trichomes. agar). rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels.g. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential.. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. however. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves.. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs... vertically. Fig. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio. Microscopical techniques.

9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8 Fig.QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig.

etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. hexane. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. volatile oils. protein. carbolic acid. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. and petroleum ether (pet ether). tannins. ether. chromic/nitric is mandatory. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. for bleaching. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. absorbance values should be used. water. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. the presence of coloring matters. or chlorophyll. clove oil. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. starch. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. Other solvents include methanol. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. 3. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. it rapidly dissolves starch. chlorophyll. Sometimes. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. alcohol. fats.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. and expands shrunken cells. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. and resins. lactophenol. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. resins. and causes swelling of cell walls. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents.

UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. unless one has an FTIR. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. It can also be used to quantitate. In addition. If the substance is in a solid state. depending on solvent and pH. This will give you a transparent disk. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil).QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. Then press under anhydrous conditions.

sulfuric acid). 3400–2500 (broad M). Chamomile. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. M = medium. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained.) When development is complete. 1455 (S).. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. Lavender.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. or plastic sheets are also commercially available.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). then the filter paper can be eliminated. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. 3400-3100 (variable). 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. 1600.g. Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. Precoated absorbents on glass plates. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. VS = very strong. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. ash content histology. 1760 (S).. 3. odor. strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. In addition. 2100–1700 (W).. TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. and powder microscopy are also performed. etc. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W).g. 3600–2400 (broad). TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. Other tests like loss on drying. and (4) it is inexpensive. aluminum. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. organic solvents (usually methanol). Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. 1500. Valerian. 3. as one gains experience. 2860 (M). it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. S = strong. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1710 (S) 3500 (M). one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it.7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. 3400 (M).

5: 8. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. antimony chloride UV. hence.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes. natural product.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent.

the use of the GC will continue to grow. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. From these spectra. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. After extraction of the plant material. As with the raw materials. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector.” However. This system. For plant volatiles and essential oils.) procedures in order to establish its strength. spent herb). such as rice hulls or spent herb. it will show up by having less soluble solids. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. data acquisition. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. 3. However. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. etc. In phytochemistry. give excellent fingerprints for identification. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. with expected growth well into the next generation. pharmaceutical. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. spectrometric. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. rice hulls. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. HPCL. information-rich electron ionization spectra. If there is a diluent added. a separation technique. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. System control. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. photodiode array detector. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. together with UV and IR spectra. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. With library search software.g.. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. and cosmetic industries. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. TLC.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. or chromatographic (GLC. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In addition to the TLC in chemical testing.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography.

Ltd.QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. photodiode array detector. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass.

the adulterant can be any kind of material. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. etc. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). 3. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. African. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. the color and general texture are more important. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. Instrument control.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. or Provence senna. or Cochin. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. Hence.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. data acquisition. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. Obovate. beeswax. 2. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. such as ergot. in the case of powdered drugs. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. coffee. honey. for example. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. for example. nutmeg.

GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60. sparteine. 2. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose.5:0.0–1. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray.6 50 cm): mobile phase..9 mm 30 cm). UV detection (homogencity test). acetonitrile-water (84:16). spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. mobile phase. HPLC: Zorbax CN.1 ml/min. 5% DC560. or 3% SE-30.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). 50°C. 15 psi argon. genistein Calenduladiol. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. detection.2. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10). detection. then 1. 1 ml/min. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. 1. mobile phase. flow rate. 0. R1. mobile phase. distilled water. followed by 0. mobile phase. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. galactose. flow rate. thermopsine. 0. xylose.5 mm i. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. 13-OH sparteine. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. flow rate.6 mm i.46.9 mm x 30 cm). detection. rhamnos Ginsenosides. panaxadiol. luteolin. 3. mobile phase. flow rate. UV 202 nm.5 ml/min. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). UV 320 nm detection.5 ml/min. CH3CN-H2O (73:27).1) flow rate. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2. acetonitrile-water (83:17).02 M Pi buffer pH 7. panaxatriol. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4. mobile phase. acetonitrile-water (83:17). HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin.9 mm 30 cm). mobile phase.2 M Pi buffer pH 7. 0.4x. UV 202 nm. 0. mobile phase. cytisine Anagyrine. 1. detection.8 ml/min for 7 min. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i. 15 cm). 1. Rf 0.5. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. lupanine.. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). 25 mm).0 M NaC1 gradient. 190 nm flow rate.0 ml/min.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. baptifoline.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2.5 ml/min.d. flow rate.d. 2 ml/min. flow rate. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm.0 ml/min./65 cm). 2. 220–223°C. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250.d.

phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4). water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9).6 mm. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. w/guard. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1.05. 2 liters phase B and C. begin rotation.. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). ethanol-water gradient containing 0. hydrastine Rf 0. mobile phase. 6 ml/min.9. UV 340 nm. canadaline.. berberine. 0. detection.d.d. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. 0.5 ml/min.5. increasing 3%/min). detection. mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. 3. flow rate. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. UV 340 nm. UV 365 nm. detection. detection UV 365 nm. mobile phase. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5).32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. flow rate. flow rate. vanillin in H2SO4. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. detection.4 cm i. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. 2 ml/min. methanol-water (50:50).d. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). 1. introduce sample. flow rate. 2. 66 m capacity 350 ml). 4. Merck(. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i. luteoline. Rf 0. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1).5cm). UV 330 nm. mobile phase. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient).. 2 ml/min. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient).5-methanol (67:33). detection. mobile phase.d. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. canadine. detection. detection UV 278 nm. Start w/ 350 ml phase A. mobile phase. flow rate. i. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10).1 ml/min. UV 270 nm. phase B: ethyl acetate. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). hydrastine Rf 0.1 M phorphoric acid. 1 ml/min.9 i. mobile phase. 25 cm). Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2. vanillin in H2SO4.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5. methanol-water (15% to 95%. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages). LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5).7 & 5. flow rate. flow rate. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids.0mm i. detection. apigenin.d. 25 cm at 75°C). methanol-water (50:50) flow rate.5 ml/min.5 ml/min. 30 cm). phase A: water.0 ml/min. 75°C.

caproic acid. flow rate. methanol-water (27:73). detection. UV 280 nm. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient).. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min). Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2.d. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. detection.5 ml/min. 0. mobile phase.d.6 mm i. acetonitrile-water (gradient). 1. detection. water. 30 ml/min. 30 cm).d. R1. 50% H2SO4. 150 mm). detection. caprylic acid. formononetin. mobile phase. water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10).d. UV 230 nm. 1. 25 mm).1:1). genistein. 1. mobile phase. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658). HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. detection.QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. flow rate. mobile phase. 2. mobile phase. photodiode array.8 ml/min. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. 4 ml/ min.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . biochanin-A. flow rate. capric acid Isoflavones. mobile phase.. UV 313 nm. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). 25 cm) 2 in series.25m 3 mm). detection. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min.0 ml/min. detection. 300 mm). Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. 25 cm).0 ml/min. temp.5 ml/min.d. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. analysis Column (3. UV 270 nm. flow rate 0. mobile phase.1..3 ml/min.d. detection. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3.0) mm i. UV 280 & 546 nm. mobile phase. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. methanol-water (2. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid. detection. flow rate.9 mm 30cm).5.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). UV 280 nm. detection. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. flow rate.9 mm i. prunitrin Calycosin.. mobile phase. helium flow.6 mm i.0 ml/min. mobile phase. flow rate. flow rate. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). flow rate. daidzein. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4.. 2. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4.5 10 cm). pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. mobile phase. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5.5 ml/min.

detection. GLC: 1.1 M phorphoric acid. acetonitrile-0. or hamamelis leaves. valeranone Vincristine. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. guaiacum wood. 5u Chrompack). Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances. flow rate 10 ml/min. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. mobile phase. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. UV 254 nm.d. 30 cm). usually having no relation to the genuine drug.7 ml/min. flow rate. or lead shot. mobile phase. dextrin. such as lobelia. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. stramonium. 4. 0. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. etc. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. scented bdillium for myrrh. valerosidatum. 5. 6. hydrogen flame ionization. senna.6mm i. mobile phase. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). 1. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8). Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. ethanol-water gradient containing 0.5 ml/min. mobile phase. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. coconut shells. 250 mm. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. acevaltrate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). For example. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. Substitution of exhausted drugs.0 ml/min.8% methanol in hexane. detection. 2 connected in series. 8. detection. detection.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. Sometimes.4 (1:1). stone. 7. UV 256 & 206 nm. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. walnut shells. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS.9 mm 30 cm). HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3.25 m 4 mm). detection. powdered olive stones. vitexinine 3. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. acetonitrile-0. 2. detection. for example.d. for example. conc. boiler scale. mentha. UV 254 nm. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. hazelnut shells. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. methanol-water (60:40). detection. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). 2. mobile phase. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. UV 298 nm. flow rate. vitexin. etc. almond shells.

Mucilage of: Alkanna. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3. Keep for 6 months. 7.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. Dilution better done on the slide. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. The powder is usually entirely lignified. 9. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. A little vascular tissue. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. stone cells.) Acacia. etc. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. glands. 4. palisade cells. frequently particles of small seeds. Microscopical examination. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. Frequently also cork. Nut shells and fruit stones. red. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. vessels. and medullary rays. Woods: Structures present: Vessels.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. gloves. Frequently also delicate yellow. hemicellulose. and aleurone grains. starch grains. 8. 6. cutinized and suberized walls. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. masks. fibrous layer of the anther wall. fibers. cellulose parenchyma. Structures absent: Cork. Also epidermis. especially the diagnostic epidermis. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 2. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. pericyclic and phloem fibers. wood parenchyma. palisade cells. papillose surface of the stigma..g.g. calcium oxalate crystals. however. resins. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). which often contains starch in large amounts. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. in powder. consisting of small-sized elements only. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. sieve tubes. fibers.. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. palisade tissue. 10. which often cross the fibers and vessels. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. protective glasses. or oil).g. 5. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. starch. and aleurone grains. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. xylem vessels. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. pine and juniper).. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. tracheids. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. and crystals of calcium oxalate. Frequently also trichomes. usually abundant parenchyma. Tincture of: Red with oils.

30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. with continued stirring. H2O with the aid of heat. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water.I. Deteriorates on keeping.I. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. protective glasses.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. left for some time. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. starch. gr. cellulose. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). To be freshly prepared. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. 0.880). The reaction is better carried out in the dark. through glass wool. and some mucilages. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. ligno. Store in amber bottle. Benzidine. filtered. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. etc. To be freshly prepared. Chlorophyll. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. if necessary. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. masks. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. gloves. To be freshly prepared. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. killed by steam. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. etc.I.0 g sodium iodide and 2.5 ml D. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. H2O. suberin. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). etc. Add 7. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dragendorff Reagent: Orange.

yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting. added to a solution of 2. gloves.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. etc.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. e. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. 1.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. gives yellow with colchicine. note the coloration and read off from the table. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids. the strong solution will dissolve silk. 1.75 g lead monoxide. protective glasses. Set aside until clear. 40 g glycerin.64 g copper sulfate and 0. dextrose). Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. on the label. and 20 ml water. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water. 20 g lactic acid. masks. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml.I. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water..g. and then diluted to 100 ml with water. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water.g.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. in powder. Solution A: 34. Indicator. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. Dilute: Used for mounting.. the corresponding approximate pH. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. filtered. H2O prior to use.27 g iodine and 0.I. 1. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use.

38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. with a dropper or a glass rod. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). protective glasses. masks. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. dissolving certain cell contents. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. suberin. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. 66. stains lignified walls red. 0.4% alcoholic solution. 10. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. It must be recently prepared. Potash. and cutin blue. 1% solution in water. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. and then diluted with equal volume of water. lignin. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. 5 ml of glycerin added. in small pieces. Store away from light. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5% potassium hydroxide in water. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. and 80% by volume.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. gloves. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. 10% alcoholic solution.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. Caustic: Used for clearing.

Same as P. An extract in P.4 Preparations 4. A molasses consistency.G. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. AQU P. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5x.E.M.F.P.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0. 1. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct.E. Same as P.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F.G. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing. 3x. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. 60–90%.E. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract. of various dilutions: 1:1.3BG GLY 4. Serial type dilution and succussion. Same as a solid extract (S.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. etc.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. E.G. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. H. Contains no alcohol. 4x. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today.3BG. F. but the solvent is glycerin. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate. usually contains alcohol (20–60%).1. OLEUM N. 0. P.01 = 2x 0. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. but the solvent is 1. etc. 5:1. Properties Usually high in alcohol. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form.E. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S.G. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting. Full strength 1:1. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute.

in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. and macerate for the prescribed time. etc. close the lower orifice. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. gauze. by traction. ether. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. the solution commonly known as lye. cotton) below. the product will not percolate.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). treatment with a solvent. usually 48 hours. or. water. if packed too loosely. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. contained in a suitable vessel. suction. distillation. The packing of the percolator is very important. acetone. or alcohol and water.g. etc. expression. cover the percolator. the botanical is considered exhausted.). Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. giving a weak extract (see diagram). the menstruum will channel. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. If packed too tightly. When no more actives remain... by which it is exhausted of potash. In pharmacy. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. or by chemical or physical means. also referred to as the spent herb. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. 4. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes.1. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. having a bottom outlet.

etc. Allow it to cool. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). These are usually the hard substances. 4. placed over it. preferably distilled. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. and filter. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. such as twigs.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. roots. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . barks. mix thoroughly.1. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C.

In order to prepare an infusion. Therefore.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter.1. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Refrigerate or preserve. it should be placed in a refrigerator. preferably distilled. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. Moisten the herb in water. 4. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. cold water should be used. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter. Under refrigeration. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. Refrigerate or preserve. after preparation of an infusion. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria.

4. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. bacteria. However. However. which seems to work well. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. which is very effective. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. However. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. there is also CO2 sterilization. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. especially in inactivating larvae.1. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation.

However. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts.00 per pound).G. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution.1. No vacuum concentration is used. A typical example: 5:1 P. However. and evaporation.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50.. At present. percolation. as they contain alcohol. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture.* 4. Therefore. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. from either fresh or dry botanicals. berberine. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. Additionally. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. or a combination thereof. i. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. Therefore. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). Usual laboratory method. need preservatives. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine. are weaker. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. check with the manufacturers. Filter. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine.2). However. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths. Therefore. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. and the solids are calculated.e. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. and usually precipitate on standing.1. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. as strengths vary widely. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. and canadine.S. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. Maceration is another procedure. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength.

8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. 2a.I. Separate the excess oil. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. and preserve or use the clear water portion.1. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. which lowers shipping costs. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. if necessary. returning the first portions. or distilled water. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. and add enough D. while hydrastine is colorless. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. or distilled water. and time of year collected. Avoid excessive heat. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. or distilled water. Then filter the mixture. or oven dried. The native extract is usually vacuum dried. age. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency.I. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or other specified volatile substance D. Add 1000 ml D. and contain very little water. respectively. spray dried. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. filter through wetted filter paper. Their odors and tastes are similar. 2.I.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. preferably kept in a cool area. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. to obtain a clear filtrate.I. 4. easily dispensed. dry solid. a sufficient quantity. need no preservation.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts.1. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes. Solution: The volatile oil. filtering if necessary.I.I. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. 4. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. and pass enough D. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances.

glycerin.* 4. This is very controversial. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). The starting botanical. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. tinctures. In Europe. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. etc. To avoid confusion. 4. If it was calculated from fresh weight. etc. in a cosmetic formulation. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. The true strength will vary. in a true strength extract. therefore. 1. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. is always measured on the dry basis. are often found in the cosmetic literature. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. etc. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. Recently. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. in the United States. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract.3-butylene glycol. 1997.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. 10:1.G. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish.1. bark. However. a 1:1 extract. or roots of plants (see above). depending on the manufacturer. 10:1. Obviously. glycerin. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. However. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. etc.). whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. butylene glycol. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight.1. would be too concentrated in many instances.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. fresh or dried.10 Product Strength. Concentration.

European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. the former designation is becoming the standard. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous.0% hydrastine. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. resins. and then on valeric acid. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. and starches to be significantly reduced. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients.04%). To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. that is. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0. berberine. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract.S. which is approximately 20 times less costly). With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name.5 to 4. However. This would cause the berberine. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. If the dried plants contain 0. dark in color. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents.5% of essential oil. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. and not soluble in most cosmetic products. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical. However. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. GLC. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. Thus. fixed and volatile oils. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger.15 to 0. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract.. and canadine. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. standardization can be carried to the extreme. which has been standardized on valepotriates. Analytical procedures (TLC. canadine. However.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1. A thick. Therefore. However.8% essential oil. 4.g.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. either fixed or volatile.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations.. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts.5% oil.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. or 1. followed by evaporation of the solvent. However. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. 1997. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0. alcohol. ether. consisting of an oil. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. oily resinous mass remains. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution. there are usually losses during extraction.

euphoric. soothing. poor memory. nervous fatigue. antispasmodic. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. loneliness. energy imbalance. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. Carminative. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. euphoric. affects the adrenals. cleanser. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. Cell regeneration. Revitalizing. Stimulates scalp. impotence. anxiety. thereby reducing stress. aphrodisiac.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. This is the essence of aromatherapy. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. Stimulant. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. Moisturizing. For example. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. exhaustion. antidepressant. hair growth. aphrodisiac. digestive problems. aromatic waters. wrinkles. Stimulant. soothing. mild stimulant. calming anger. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. mental strain. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. in turn.5 Aromatherapy 5. digestive problems. revitalizing. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. antidepressant. scalp stimulant. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. This. Skin elasticity. sadness. antispasmodic. Poor memory. and perfumes. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Anti-inflammatory. 5.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. tonic. hair growth.

1982. anxiety. bath oils. stimulates metabolism. lotions. antidepressant. VT. Example: to be effective.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. Therefore. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. Rochester. very little is needed. shampoos. Antidepressant. Destiny Books. uplifting. The Aromatherapy Handbook. Aging skin. Saffron. moisturizes. etc. Daniel Company. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. uplifting during depression. wrinkles. anti depressant. Essential oils are very concentrated. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. grief. shock. vaporizers. The Practice of Aromatherapy. C. Essex. If the reader has further interest. inflammations. mouth ulcers. amara) Antidepressant. Walden. Ryman. Aging skin. Mood elevating. Fabrice. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. 1984. opens psychic centers. cell proliferant. Valnet. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var.W. euphoric. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. house sprays. Nervous tension. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Jean. England. 1976. calming. Danielle. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use.

lanceolate. and involute at the point. long. about 5 in. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. The scape is naked. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and fawn-colored externally. with purplish or brownish spots. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. slender. spotted near the base. and 3 or 4 in. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. high. which is white internally.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. liliaceous. obtuse. PROPERTIES. droping. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. flowers in April or May. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. The leaves are two. RANGE. The flower is single. perennial herb. DESCRIPTION. yellow. pale-green. subradical.1 HABITAT. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L.

and borne in a dense. three-lobed at top. producing numerous heads. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. pyrocatechol. flowering in July and August. No further analytical data available. A. Ovary obovate. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. long. Hoppe. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. which is somewhat aromatic. yellow. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. 68. The leaves are alternate. Cavalitto. and tapering.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. and anti-inflammatory. Pub. and hematuria. The capsule is oblongobovate. diuretic. Properties Emollient. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. Soc. style club-shaped. Chem. anthers oblong-linear. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. and covered with a soft. harsh. de Gruyter. racemose spike. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 1.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. pyrogallic acid. and surmounted with reddish. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. conical. epistaxis. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles.. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. Am. and phlobaphene. et al. subastringent taste. Agrimonia has a bitterish. Heinz. J.1. with a loose membranous tip. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. This taste is strongest in the root. The whole herb and root contains.. W. silky pubescence. mild tonic. 8th ed. nearly smooth beneath. coarsely serrated leaflets. agrimonolide.. 1946. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. terminating in three undivided stigmas. It is much branched at the summit. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. antiscrofulous. hooked bristles.six. functional bleeding. fibrous. Berlin. and of reddish-brown color. from to 1 foot long. The root is long. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. in hedges and fields and by ditches. and three-valved.. Its odor is aromatic. longer than the stamens. but unpleasant. 2332. agrimonol (= agrimonine). interruptedly pinnate. filaments flat.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. 2. 1975. Drogenkunde.

and also to help relieve dandruff. tonic. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. triterpenes. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. eupatorin. Med. V. et al. volatile oil. Rev. Alder also helps to unclog pores. glycosides. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. glutinous.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . apigenin. and minerals. However. M. flavonoids. 1. 29(2). sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. nicotinic acid. 7-0-B-glucoside. 10(2). It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. quercitrin. 1964. as do other types of face packs. phytosterin. and polysaccharides. 1994.. gum. Ser. wedge shaped. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. usually abrupt at the tip.. Dermato-Vernol. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. which are roundish. citric acid and silicic acid. 190-193. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. 153-157. luteolin. ursolic acid. alterative.. choline. fruiting tops. Constituents Tannins. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. 2. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. Patrascu. catechin. organic acids. this should only be done once a week. Europe. The bark is dark gray and ridged. wavy-serrated. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. southwest Asia. et al.. Peter-Horvath. after which a good face cream should be applied.. United States.

and Barbados Islands. irritated skin. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). calcium and trace minerals. bath gels. oils. and burns. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. etc. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. Alfalfa is also high in minerals. ALOE Aloe vera L. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. The texture is waxy. To date. and is employed in skin creams. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . creams. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. scratches. this has not been verified. chrysophanic acid. a mild exfoliant in oils. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. boron. saponin. carotene.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. insect bites. lotions. and tannin. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. etc. hair treatments. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. West Indies. hair rinses. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. sun poisoning. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. which would suggest its use in baths. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. etc. The odor is strongly aromatic. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. Properties Used in facial steams.50% (5 grams. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. cuts.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. Aloe contains 99. The surface is dull and smooth. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. The size of the pieces is variable. The fracture is conchoidal. lotions. Further reading is recommended.

Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. glucomanine. Constituents Malic acid. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). Rome.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. Macintosh. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. It contains malic acid. Granny. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. Delicious. sugars. and pectin.

both internally and externally. long. wax. Wolf’s Bane. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. Cones oblong. in height. ARNICA Arnica montana L. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. tannins. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. moles. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. having pale.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. shoddy bark and light. and polyps. containing thujone. and mucilage. ⁿ in. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. soft durable wood. flavonoids. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

malic). xanthophylls. In mouthwashes. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. polyacetylenes. 5 to 7 mm long. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). Note: There can be side effects. the cypsella spindle-shaped. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with fleshy bases. northern Mediterranean. fatty acids (fumaric. about 1 cm long. ray flowers yellow. the receptacle setaceous. Sesquiterpene lactones. lauric. and the cypsella not beaked. and essential oil. dark green and pubescent. 7. stearic). tubular flowers perfect. Arnica tincture DAB 10. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. palmitic. edema. quercetin.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. the involucre dilated and imbricate. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. dark brown. Description This plant is perennial. finely striate. pinnate. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. The heads are discoid and homogamous. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. taste bitter and 12-veined. isorhamnetin. Has been used for hematomas. kaempferol. and undivided leaves. inflamed insect bite. three-toothed. Topically. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. the scales ovate. stamens without a tail-like appendage. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. inflammation of the oral mucosa. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. pistillate. reddish yellow. sprains. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. emarginate and pointed. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. the pappus plumose and sessile. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. with subspinose. patuletin. receptacle slightly convex. and surface phlebitis. leaves. pectolin arigenin). Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. Odor characteristic and agreeable.

and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. diuretic.e. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cynadase. tannin. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. bread crumbs. vitamins. ascorbic acid. flavonoids. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. Around the holidays. ascorbinase). beta-carotene. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. oxydase. protein. choleretic. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. cynarin. Also employed in jaundice. trace minerals. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. sterols.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. cholagogue. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. garlic.. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. peroxidase. Cosmetically. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. and hypocholesterolytic.

Herbalists use it for treating colds. The apex is acute. The taste is pungent and bitter. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. balm buds Part Used: Buds. Has been used on blemishes. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. cuts. and various skin diseases. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which has mostly escaped from cultivation. * Formerly CTFA. These buds are sessile. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. The base is truncate or depressed. or in threes occasionally. twigs. The color is reddish brown. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. It is a stimulating expectorant. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. The margin has projecting points of scales. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. resinous substance. sores. The odor is balsamic.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves.

BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). Grecian Laurel. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. fracture hard and tough. circulatory stimulant. taste distinctive. magnoflorine. Internally used to treat liver disorders. oxyacanthine. jateorrhizine. populin. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. wood yellow. bervulcine. knotty. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . galangin. on chewing. Bactericidal. Odor slight. izalpinin. volatile oil. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. strongly branched. salicin. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. and showing rings of growth. 5-0-methylgalangin. gallstones. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. pinocembrin. has been used for indolent ulcers. tinges saliva yellow. Flavonoids. sometimes excentric. chrysin and apigenin. acetophenone. Properties Astringent. Berberine.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. True Bay. North America. pith of rhizome small. Description Cylindrical. easily separable into layers. rhamnetin.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. usually splitting somewhat on drying. 3. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. Europe. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. very bitter. bark 1 mm in thickness. color more pronounced upon wetting. tannic and gallic acids. berbamine. volatile oil. externally light yellowish brown. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. distinctly radiate. and the Middle East. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine.

Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. ursolic acid. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. Treating small areas works best. Uvaursi is astringent. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. spatulate. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. quercetin. However. slightly revolute. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. hyperoside. syringic and p-coumaric acids. -terpineol.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). texture coriaceous. alkaloids. covered. Northern and Central Europe. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America.3 to 3. phenolcarboxylic acids. Description Leaves obovate. margin entire. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. perfumes. hydroquinone derivatives. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. slightly pubescent. and detergents. glabrous. along with methyl arbutin. astringent. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. upper surface dark green. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). and plant acids. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. brittle. odor slight. Spr. gallic and ellagic acids. and others. tapering. base acute. 12 to 30 mm in length. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. catechins. Constituents 0. taste slightly bitter. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. summit obtuse. The leaf also contains germacranolides. soaps. Asia. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. petiole about 3 mm in length. linalool. finely reticulate. -terpineol acetate. due to its high tannin content. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. shiny black berries. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . undersurface yellowish-green. and glossy aromatic foliage. pale yellow flowers. lotions. and volatile oil. -pinene.

Properties Astringent for eyecare products. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones. and Asia. about 5 mm long.62 BED STRAW. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter.. enzymes.... softening.. British Columbia. clears toxins... This is taken up in a collection vessel. antiseptic.. 1 to 2% fat. Wyoming. reduces inflammation. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L.. Whortleberry.. 1854. amino acids.... Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations.. wounds... promotes tissue repair.. boils. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive. and to replace retina purple..... G. and abscesses.. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva.. dissolving.1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anti-inflammatory.. Properties Restoring...... and ulcers.... 55% carbohydrate.. 1989. reducing visual eye fatigue. JAMA. corolla ovoid-lanceolate. Description Dwarf shrub.. and other compounds identified in bee pollen. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus.. Mirkin..... 3 to 5 cm long.. eruptions.. scabs. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx. only slightly paler beneath.. sores. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen.... Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein... SEE GALIUM BED STRAW. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. minerals.0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels. 4 mm wide.. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit. California. Michigan.. restrains infection. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry.. leaf-blades thin. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries. leaves Habitat and Range Woods. Europe. tonic... 262. 20 to 50 cm high. ovate. sores...1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins. 9.. Good for skin ulcers.. 1. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits.. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees.

and eczema. arbutin. ursolic acid. essential oil. quinic acid. 1. betulol. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch.. Europe. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. German Commission E Monograph. R. Mabey.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. 76. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. BIRCH Betula alba L. saponins. 4-23-87.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. naturalized in northern North America. BANZ No. New York. myrtillin. ascorbic acid. 1988.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. apigenin dimethyl ether. leaves. gaultherin. methyl salicylate. betuloresnic acid. 1. White Birch. Macmillan. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. peonidin glucosides. Bugbane. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). fatty acids. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. anthocyanosides. betuloside. Rattleroot. Bugwort. New Age Herbalist. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rattleweed. Properties The bark. North Asia. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. (trace amount) asperuloside. Squaw Root. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. parts of Arctic Siberia. psoriasis. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne.

Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. somewhat branched. It possesses estrogenic activity. externally dark brown. bark thin. dyspepsia. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. resins. fracture horny. bark dark brown. and sugar. or less frequently by fibrous strands. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. and rheumatism. internally. longitudinally wrinkled.5 cm in thickness. starch. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. frequently. mainly formononetin. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. tannins. by deep cup-shaped scars. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. each of which shows a radiate structure. fatty acids. fracture short. particularly depression and hot flushes. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. externally dark brown. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. up to 3 mm thick. Rhizome horizontal. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. taste bitter and acrid. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids.

BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. lanceolate. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. glabrous above. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Massachusetts. rounded or subcordate at the base. taper-pointed at the apex. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. Description A tree up to 50 m high. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. It is an astringent. tannins. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). serrate. and detergent. fruit globose. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. Florida. and Minnesota. anthelmintic. 8 to 10 cm long. leaflets 11 to 23. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. Texas. fixed and volatile oils. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. glabrous. Constituents Juglone.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. 5 to 8 cm long. with thick ridges. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. juglandic acid. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). and trace minerals. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. bark.

The color varies from brown to black. probably due to its iodine content. myxoedema. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. The thallus is dichotomously branched. Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. trace minerals (mainly iodine). reproductive tissues. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. a prominent midrib. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as a wash for psoriasis. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. slimming activity. fucans). sprains. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. It can be added to hair and skin care products. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). cellutitis.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). The odor is slight. massage for cellulite. Frequently. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. and bruises. rheumatism. steryl glucosides. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. The texture is cartilaginous.

. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe... externally grayish brown. rhizomes. skin cleansing and lightening. longitudinally wrinkled..BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. Gobo Part Used: Roots. Constituents Vitamin C. It is easily grown from seed. covered with bristly hairs. sessile. the upper leaves. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown... and minerals. usually blue. European Burdock. calyx of five sepals. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains... *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage... sometimes white.. of variable length. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage.. Bugloss.. the lower ones on short petioles. mainly cultivated for commercial use. hollow stem. up to 60 cm high. tannins. leaf. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock. Description An annual robust plant.. mostly in the Eastern States. about 2 cm in diameter. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Borage has a cucumber-like odor. rough. saponins. simple or branched.. sparingly naturalized in the United States. frequently split or in broken pieces.. Description The root is fusiform. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L... on long stalks... and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. elliptical leaves wrinkled.. the crown somewhat annulate.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. five pointed corolla. flowers. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin.. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. fracture somewhat horny. flowers from June through September.

The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe.. abrasions. and baths. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. becoming pyroligneous on milling. fatty acids. yellow-green flowers in spring. including buxine and buxozine C. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. It is also used in hair conditioners. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. arctinal etc. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. fat. pith-like tissue. gels. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. inulin. Odor slight. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. shampoos. anorexia nervosa. sweetish. polyalkenes. It has been combined with comfrey. and can be used in facial steams. eczema. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. tannins. cystitis. and slightly bitter. volatile oils. scaly skin. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. gout.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. lotions. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. and oil. creams. acid soils. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. cutaneous eruption. lignin. arctinol. Arctinone. licorice. North America. in cases of acne. centrally hollow or containing a white. sterols. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. berries with black seeds. fukinanolid. psoriasis. taste is mucilaginous. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent.

and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. The extract has been used with success. diuretic. Europe. rutin. borne on green. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. dark green shrub with thick. Flowers greenish.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. 2 cm long. 1 cm. saponin. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . for the treatment of varicose veins. 5 mm. bushy places. ribbed. Properties Increases circulation. a globular red berry ca. chrysophanic acid. 3 mm across. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. dry hills. ca. Description A dense. sudorific. ruscoside. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. mucilage. Leaves. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. scale-like. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. Fruit. Emmenagogue. oval rigid. inhibits inflammation. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. papery ca.


. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear. Mombassa. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material... piscidic-acids. It has a strong. healing for sensitive skin. from 1. luteolin.. CALENDULA.. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments.... quercitrin. or Sierra Leone Pepper. Mexican.5 to 4 cm in diameter... Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America....... herby odor. and from 5 to 9 angled. Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. isorhamnetin-glucoside.... taste acidulous and mucilaginous. dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper. penduletin........ Constituents Flavonoids...C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia.. kaempferol. Description In pieces of varying length... together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length.... rutin. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present. See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L... and beta-sitosterol.

and greenish-red.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. The Mexican variety is deep red. the African variety is yellowish-brown. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. red. The seeds are compressed and pointed. and brown. the Nyassaland variety is red. The taste is pungent and warming. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. or is free from these. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. The fruits vary greatly in size. gray. The apex is acuminate or acute. The epicarp is thin and tough. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. The odor is aromatic. yellow. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. Capsicum is a berry. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. yellow.

while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. Asia. and perfumes up to 0. is obtained by steam distillation. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. antiseptic. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). carotene capsanthin. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. It has a long tap root. Chittem Bark. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. and others. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. fatty acids. lotions.29%). naturalized in North America. leaves. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. Sacred Bark. hairy stem. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. segmented. geraniol. -pinene.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. and North America. rheumatic pains. jaborandi. rubefacient used for neuralgia. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. counter-irritant. and vitamins A and C. Bear Wood. daucol. branched. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. Buckthorn. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. creams. After. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. detergents. CARROT Daucus carota L. geranyl acetate. keeping it smooth and soft. colocynth. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. Bitter Bark.4%. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. etc.

it acts as stomach ache treatment. D = 10 . 267. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. R = H.and C-glycosidic linkages. Teil C. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. 2. 2. R = H. Description The tree is 4. E. The bark occurs in flattened. 1. B. curved pieces or quills of variable length. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). 1983. in Pharmacognosy. emodin oxanthrone. they contain both O. Wagner et al. 1974. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. 12th ed. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya.5 to 5 mm thick. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. 3. and chrysophanol. See formula. odor distinct. It is much used as a laxative. and D. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. Bailliere Tindall. 4. It gives red color with ammonia TS. and emodin in the free state. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives. Z. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. Trease. Two aloins. bryophytes.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. 444. Publ. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). R = OH. Teil B. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. In small doses. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. W. C = 10B. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. C. Various diathrones. and Evans. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. B = 10 R = OH. chrysophanol. G.. 1.. including those of emodin. London. Naturforsch. aloe-emodin. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. C.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. It is frequently covered with lichen.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. Aloe-emodin. 5. 1974. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic.

much branched.CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L.. carvacol. stems quadrangular.. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties.. the middle lobe largest. downy beneath. limb bilabiate. nepetariaside.. calyx hairy. Br. thymol).. margin deeply crenate. (geraniol.. interrupted spikes... rounded or ear-shaped at the base.. and aromatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dotted with purple. nepetalic acid. floral leaves small. throat dilated. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect.. up to 4 mm in diameter. Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like. corolla whitish. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed.. the lower spreading and three-cleft. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache. crenulate. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A.. citronellal..... methyl-nepetalactone. the larger. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. in dense. Description Top. flowers small.. pointed at the apex. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling... bract-like. camphor... tubular.. softhairy above. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen. leaves opposite.. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed... petiolate.. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. pale gray-green. ovate or oblong... the upper lip erect and two-cleft. pungent. downy... naturalized in North America. Constituents Essential oil.. taste bitter. CENTELLA. from 2 to 7 cm long. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East.... or crushed and broken. from 10 to 20 cm long. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip.. nepetalactone... nepetol rosemarinic acid. lower pair shorter....

5%). Yang...2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells. Pharm. 1973. Phillipson. longitudinally striated. Kriby. 3272. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting.S. Warhurst. cylindrical. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. arnicolides. Pharm. Ebizuka. Chem. Y. Stem 0. Mutat. Lin. beta-gurjunene. plenolin derivatives. green. Bull. 1997.. 1196. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. thymol (1. 6. 2. The plant also contains diterpenes. 54. 436.85%). midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. Sept. caryophyllane-2. Y.. aromatic. 1998. florilenalin-angelate.23%). F.97%). Chun. Patent 5. and U. and amoebiasis. and Mirhom. 8. Sankawa. simple. asthma. Yang. triterpenes. venation pinate reticulate. 1973–1974. Ebizuka. 1. wounds. 6. 1991. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1. alternate.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant. S. and C.W.1 In Chinese traditional medicine.98%). 97. Y. 8(7).C. 204(2).D. florilenslin derivatives.50%). obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. Compositous glandular hairs are also present. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. Phytotherapy Res. J. and sternutatory. Microbiol.804.T. 1994. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. Pharm. G. 39(12). diarrhea. Lin. sessile. the apical cell being elongated filamentous. Leaves. Iwakami. J. oblong. Aust. Campbell. Y.18%). S. Wright. and rheumatism. 7.B. T. C. J. Chin J. Hu.I. 894. Bull. 4. and flavonoids. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. D’Amelio. brevilin A. and alpha-humulene. UIO. D’Amelio. 3. apex acute. Lee and J. Y.A. Y. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. F. Cai. isoamyl caproate (1. Odor characteristic. 5. 40(5).W.S. H. helenalin. Wu. J.3 antiprotozoal. W. margin dentate.L. U.7..6-beta-oside. green.C. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical.. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns..W.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic.Y. nasal allergies. and Mirhom. and U. Y. Abstr. July 26–30. A. 1992. and D. malaria.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes. the plant has been used to treat colds. skin infections.C. 22 g.6 to 1 cm broad.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. myrtenol (5. Res. Chem. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length.5 cm in diameter. Yang.B. Sankawa. internodes short. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. 1988.3 to 0.206. Wu. H.

5 cm. hollow receptacles. healing tonic. New York southward. see the bibliography at the end of the book. naturalized in the United States. calendula. It is a carminative. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . longitudinally furrowed. disk-florets tubular. pappus none. chlorogenic acid. Chamomile contains azulene. perfect. apigenins. corolla white. alpha-bisabolol. furfural. pistillate. creams. borneol. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. Constituents Essential oil. well over one hundred compounds. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. usually reflexed. farnesol. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on 5-ribbed. and without a pappus. For further reading. involucre hemispherical. and mullein in shampoo rinses. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. and pubescent scales. taste aromatic and bitter. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. ray-florets from 10 to 20. matricarin. aromatic. lotions. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. anti-inflammatory. oblanceolate. chamazulene. Odor pleasant. etc. peduncles light green to brownish-green. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. bisabolene.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. or only a slight membraneous crown. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. three-toothed and four-veined.

A.D. The flowers normally occur in January through May. Gobonadorra Greasewood. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The leaves grow in opposite pairs. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. long. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. Also used on skin rashes and infections. and stimulating the skin.G. Yellow flowers have five petals. 3/8 in. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. restoring. Chaparral is a source of N. Properties Good for softening.. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. each consists of two olive-green leaflets.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. It is native to the southwestern United States. Description A resinous. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov.

if unpeeled. 8th ed. p. Constituents Aspartic acid. However. 747. The outer surface.). Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. astringent. The fracture is weak. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled.A. granular and slightly fibrous. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. The taste is astringent and pungent.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. will add body to hair. 1. Merck Index. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. bitteralmond-like when moistened. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. and uneven..G. sedating. is brownish-black. The odor is aromatic. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. partially peeled. Properties Soothing. 5 cm in width. tannins. which can be peeled. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. this has not been thoroughly investigated. gossypetin. phenolic acids. it is finely striated and fissured.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. camphor. a powerful antioxidant.CHERRY BARK. and 4 mm in thickness. quercetin). and unpeeled. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. CHERRY BARK. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. brittle. south to Florida and Texas.D. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces.

the uppermost sessile. flowers white. fruit a many-seeded.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. Can be used in creams. fatty acids and minerals. rutin. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. vulnerary.1 mucilage. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . saponins. swelling. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. axillary stalks and in terminal. rooting at the nodes. stems slender. All Europe. on slender. gamma-linolenic acid. leaves ovate. satin flower. redness of face erysipelas. Properties Antipruritic. high. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. tocopherols. lotions. small capsule. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. the lower petioled. and facial steams. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. psoriasis. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. indolent ulcers. Description A weak. leafy cymes. emollient. carboxylic acids. For inflammed eyes. creeping or ascending. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. with a line of hairs along one side. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. 1⁄6 to 1 in. baths. triterpene gyycosides. annual. acute. small. entire. opposite. white bird’s eye. coumarins. long.

CLOVES 81 1. 2.. Description A robust. stalked leaflets. protein. melissic acid. rubefacient.. Fruit with numerous carpels. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . densely hairy on both sides. vitalbiosides. John Wiley & Sons. hedges.. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches.) Bull. and conspicuous. antiscrofulous properties. et Herr. Caryophyllum..... woody. CINCHONA. indifference. inattentativeness........ J. A/B. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval. mental escape from reality... Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods.. Steven Foster. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters. Y.. Boca Raton. 1996. thickets. spreading... clematine..... CRC Press. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. In 1770. FL. fragrant.... each 3 to 10 cm. Duke. 1992..... then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba. petals spreading... feather fruit clusters.. sterols.. sores. chlorogenic acid. Flowers 2 cm. 2nd ed. behenic acid. Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants. June to August. Leung. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. it is used for dementia. Constituents Caffeic acid. each with long styles with dense.See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L. said to have antibiotic properties. New York.. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng. Carophyllus aromaticus L. in lax terminal and axillary clusters.. grey.... white hairs.. most of Europe... and inflammation. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy)..

. and incurved.K. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. vitamins. J. flavonoids. ovary twolocular. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. afterwards very pungent. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17.. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. and Thailand.5 mm in length. with numerous ovules. J. Robbers. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. and has carminative properties. style 1. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. dark brown. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . carbohydrates. The buds also contain sterols. and others. taste pungent and aromatic. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length.. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. followed by a slight numbness. It is native to India. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. It lowers blood pressure. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. and Tyler. antispasmodic. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root.E. crowded. Williams & Wilkins. odor strongly aromatic. protein. lipids. Sri Lanka. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. Burma. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. Speedie. which alternate with the calyx teeth. Nepal. where it is widely cultivated. and somewhat four-angled. glandular-punctate petals. E. stamens numerous. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. 1. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties.

from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. it is said to help relieve asthma. and smoked like tobacco. senkirkine. 1998. blade very brittle. carotenoids. deeply cordate at the base. glabrous above. landslides. London. slightly wrinkled. palmately 5. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Petiole long. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. banks. ground. R.. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. river gravels. pubescent. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. terpene alcohols.L. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. The younger leaves densely white. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. 83. mucilage. Odor indistinct. 1996. faintly herbaceous.. Constituents Tannins. minerals.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. screens. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. angular and dentate with red-brown 9-nerved. All Europe. taste mucilaginous. floccose beneath. Chevallier. tussilagone and essential oil. Personal communication. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. tussillagine. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform.. bitter. Kronenthal. 3. Properties Emollient. A. flavonoids. When the leaves are dried.

aloe. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Description The lower.. marshes. Menghini A. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. very hairy. Bruiswort. The powder is green in color. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. watersides. chlorogenic. Phytotherapy Res. Most of Europe. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. Fillipendula. Comfrey can be used in creams. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). and demulcent. long. feebly astringent taste. alkaloids. 1.. anti-inflammatory. Mascolo N. a very powerful cell proliferent.2–4. antihemorrhagic.) Comfrey is also an astringent. shampoos. hair rinses. I. up to 10 in. Capassa F. salves.. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. 1987.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Blackwort.. cone flower. Healing Herb. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. 944. ointments.7%). phenolics. fractures. lotions. on wounds. It is almost inodorous. Autoreg.P.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). caffeic. and has a mucilaginous. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. and Fasulo M. asparagine (1–3%). Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. and lithospermic acids. Knitbone Part Used: Root.. althea. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. B-sitosterol amino cids. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. radical leaves are very large. douches.

A equiv.8 2.0 100 g 4.176 0.7 0. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.93 0.0 0.480 0.59 0.085 0.29 44.61 0.19 5.456 0.79 275.99 1.18 2.10 0.78 7.037 17.208 100.0 15.19 0.73 28.624 8.11 25.285 0.7 0.40 0.93 0.0 7.50 1101100.8 44.0 5.65 0.59 2.20 0. for cattle Maint.111 1.07 100. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.795 0.30 1.2 0. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.41 0. Nutrients Calc. Dig.142 0.0 3.26 0.51 4.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.10 19600 10 6 28 0.1 Dry matter 30.0 1200.92 0.47 1.72 1.84 4.14 49.92 0.14 8.01 14.89 0.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.58 5. energy therms cwt Prod.0 0.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.01 24.0 30.8 213.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.00 57 34 34 1.05 0.600 0.86 49.7 7.74 0.

..See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable. CONE FLOWER.. branched. riverbanks.. cultivated extensively... Blackwort. feebly astringent taste. externally wrinkled... reduces inflammation and clotting. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia...... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Europe.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L.. It is almost inodorous.. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface. promotes tissue repair.. North Africa... *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. mucilaginous. often more than 2.5 cm thick and 30 cm long.. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped. firm. Good when used in burn creams... and dark color.. horny texture. and has a sweetish.. occasionally dark brown in color.. creates astringency.. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf. woodland. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland.. Bruiswort... *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L.... Healing Comfrey Herb. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin. internally creamy white.

a layer of several rows of thin-walled. toilet waters and after shaves. straight. camphor. toothpaste. deodorants. tannin. etc. frequently with numerous large. each mericarp with five prominent.). and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. chlorogenic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . coumaric. fatty acids. undulate secondary ribs.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. tangentially elongated. two or three layers of large. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. Properties Has been used in body lotions. eliptical oil ducts. perfumes. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. ferulic). Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. cremocarp nearly globular. endocarp of large tabular cells. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. phenolic acids (caffeic. limonene. mericarps easily separated. p-cymene. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. -terpinene. and flavors. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. rutin). flavonoids (quertcetin. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. geraniol and geranyl acetate. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. The essential oil is used in massage oils.

heads long-peduncled. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bracts greenish-yellow. Description Annual. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. varying to rose or white. or as a compress for tired eyes. and various skin complaints. floccose. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. Virginia. involucres round-ureolate. with slender. marginal corollas funnelform. conjunctivitis. ascending branches. blue. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. scrapes. about 15 mm high. it is soothing and emollient. stem 3 to 7 dm high. British Columbia.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. California. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. Quebec. For aging skin. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. more or less floccose. native of Europe. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips.

4 mm in diameter. protein. fixed oil. and 0. the upper portion being usually unicellular. Constituents Acetanapthene. cnicin. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. cultivated extensively. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. polygalacturonic acids. CORN SILK Zea mays L. Topically very soothing and softening. alanine. minerals.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. vitamin C. arginine. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. Europe. stigmasterol.8 m in length. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. and from 0. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. cyanidin glucoside. palmitic acid. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. yellow or light brown color. cichorin. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. stigmas bifid. segments very slender.2 to 0. potassium. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. frequently unequal. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . spherical nucleus. corn silk. spiral or annular tracheae. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. proline. the basal trichomes 50. flavonoids (Maysin). maizeric acid. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. purplish-red. tocopherols. saponins. light green. tannin. the epidermal cells rectangular. and temperate Asia. protocyanin.4 to 3 mm in length. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small.

and cylindrical.90 CRESS.... p. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Stimulate circulation... sweetish.. CRESS.. flavonoids (gossypetin. H... Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles. fatty acids. Constituents Saponins.. in face creams. enzyme (primeverase)... and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory..See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L. and spotted with orange at the throat.. broad hairy leaves.. with oval... quercetin).. Constituents Vitamins. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis. dark green fruits.. and 3-gentiotrioside.. sunburn.. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties. Plant Drug Analysis. Description This trailing annual has rough stems. and for chapped skin or sunburn. For blotchiness of skin.... Wagner. Zgalinski.... 1.. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging).. colds.. S.. hairy perennial... Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. five-lobed.. phenolic acids.. Taste.SEE WATERCRESS Description A short... campferol dirhamnoside. Both the fruit and seeds are employed. Berlin. cooling. odor. tubular yellow flowers. minerals. phytosterol... According to the German Commission Monograph E.. apricot-like.... 1984. and coughs. Hydrating. wrinkled leaves... about 1 cm in diameter.M. volatile oils. soothing eye compress... astringent. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract. yellow.. Blatt. Springer-Verlag. amino acids. slightly curved.. and E. The flowers are tubular... *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India.. cucurbitacins. 176. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America... and refreshing.

Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe.5 cm wide. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Frequent pieces of cut.S. 0. dark green or brown-green in color. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs.5 cm wide. where it is a common weed.5 to 1. yellow-brown and sometimes purple. with a pronounced midrib. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). naturalized in the United States. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. ending in a spherical secreting cell. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. the acute lobes are directed toward the base.0 cm long and 0. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. Stomata are present in both epidermises. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum. approximating 90°. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. Foreign Dandelion. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. and for various skin complaints and eczema.

Vitamin B and C.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile. the root has been used to treat inflammation. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. and is especially high in potassium. probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The white sap has been used to treat warts. as a diuretic. It is also considered a blood purifier.

Description The root consists of a simple. and its derivative taraxacoside. the section exhibiting a yellow. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. 1. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. porous. naturalized in the United States. straight root.1% mucilage. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. It attains a length of about 30 cm. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. also ca. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. flavonoids. whitish and fleshy within. which toward the upper part. glucoside. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. with concentric rings as in the root. milky latex exudes. becomes tough when slightly moist. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. whitish bark in which numerous. it tapers but little below. carotenoids. but a bitter taste. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. a narrow cortex. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. the latter sometimes remains simple. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. but often divides into several erect branches. much shriveled. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. which is rather hygroscopic. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. It has no odor.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. and the eudesmanolides. vitamins and minerals. brownish concentric rings of sieve. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. where it is a common weed. The drug.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. and a layer of cork externally. which have not been found anywhere else. The dried root is dark brown. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. surrounded by a thick. and wrinkled longitudinally. and sterols. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem.

occasionally with cavities. Antiphlogistic. M. et al. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. light grey-brown.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. Description It has a characteristic large. flavonoids. ursolic acid) phytosterols. heavily concentric. Planta Med.. with some fan-shaped pieces. The plant produces bright red flowers. polysaccharides. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations.. Fracture short.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. triterpenes. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. slightly analgesic. Lanhers. bitter.. Odor slight. rheumatism). taste astringent. (oleanolic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hooked. procumbide). The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice.5 cm thick. polyphenols. 1. 1992. chlorogenic acid. 58. quinones. 117. claw-like fruit. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. Xylem radiate.-C.

*INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. Moench. Indian head. L. Part Used: Root. Hedgehog Part Used: Root. pallida. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Nutt. Scurvy Root. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower.. (Nutt.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. purpurea. Black Susans. Black Sampson. E. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. E.

central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. light brown. bites.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. or poisonous insects. bark less than 1 mm thick. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. Odor faint. aromatic. blood purification. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. ulcers. fibrous. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. etc. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. For example. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. or furrowed. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. burns. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. cylindrical. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. or purplish-brown.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. boils. externally grayish-brown. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. use for snake bite. slightly annulate in the upper portion. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. taste sweetish. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. wound healing. fracture short. sieve tissue in radial rows. bed sores. When administered orally. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. stings. wounds. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses.

and Interferon-B2. interleukin-1 (IL-1). Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii).ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities.3 Furthermore. It also increases T-cell proliferation. TNF-X. indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients.

g. which is useful for species identification. – The mono.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid. but practically absent in E.7% (except in E.6–2. pallida. These include aliphatic amides. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. In E. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity.3–1. Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. • Polysaccharides. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. purpurea and E.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro.g. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. angustifolia. purpurea (0. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0.5 Furthermore. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan. purpurea)].4E. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. isobutylamide of undeca (2E.. arabinoga lactan). Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . angustifolia). and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. Present in both E. in vivo.1%). • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. pyrrolizidine alkaloids.4Z-diene8. including an essential oil. albicans pathogens. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e.. angustifolia. ferulates of tartaric.10E)-tetraenoic acid). chlorogenic acid.8Z.

R.L.744. 669-675. G. and R. B. M. 5. Vet. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Phytochemistry. C. J. 81(8).ECHINACEA 99 1. J.-L. 1991. N. Natl.345. R.E. Zenk. Luettig. and J. Schranner.Matthes... 36(5). H. Wuerdinger. O. J. 38(2). S. J. 1989 2. A. and H. K. Gifford. Loesch. Ger Offen De 3. 1989. 1989. Jurcic. 1988. B. Cancer Inst. Wagner. 1988. Wagner. Cheminat. 4. Intn. H.. Brouillard. Andreas. Med. Steinmueller. H... 13(1). Albrecht.H. Ser. Arzneim-Forsch. Roesler. 27-38. K. Lohmann. E. Christiane. Zawatzky. and M. Bauer. 2787-2794. Lohmann-Matthes. I. J. 353-364. Klumpp and U. Puhlmann. 3. 6. (Bethesda). Wagner. Immuno Pharmacol. M. 27(9). Becker.. Wagner. 276-281. Holger.

Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. south to Florida and Texas. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. ursolic acid. sterols. flat or slightly campanulate. mucilage. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. taste slightly bitter.023 mm in diameter. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. inflammation. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. minerals. triterpenes (alpha. from 2 to 3 mm in width. stamens five. astragalin. five-lobed. It is said to reduce swellings. Description Small. shriveled. rotate. joint stiffness etc.and beta-amyrin).100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. slender anthers oblong. calyx superior. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. volatile oils. soreness. having three pores and up to 0. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. covered with finely punctate markings. filaments. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. rutin. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. and tannins. sambunigrin). phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). regularly five-lobed. tumors. yellow.

) strongly lignified wood fibers. itching skin. bitter. and pungent.5 cm in diameter. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. Scabwort. central Europe. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. and separated by large intercellular spaces. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. naturalized in northeastern North America. roots cylindrical and tapering. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. fracture short and horny.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. wounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. asthma. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. as a bactericide. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. taste acrid. Odor aromatic. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. and catarrh. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. frequently curved or irregularly curled. up to 13 cm in length and 1. south to North Carolina. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. and rashes. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. west to Missouri. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal.

102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. inulin. isolantolactone. sterols. friedelin). polyacetylene. germacrene-D-lactose). Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Description It is an elegant little annual plant. heaths. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. essential oil. broad. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. obtuse bracts which are white. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. sessile. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. taste bitter and aromatic. small.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. resin. revolute or undulate. It is odorless. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. Hemostatic. Also has slight Anodyne properties. Description Stems white-woolly. Constituents Tannins. Astringent tonic. however. woolly beneath. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. their margins. always deeply cut-in teeth. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. has a bitter and astringent taste. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. febrifuge. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. either unbranched in small specimens. high. odor characteristically aromatic. woodland. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. or with many opposite branches. 1 ⁄6 to in. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. but sometimes tinged with brown. green above. and phytosterin. 2 to 8 in. The leaves are sometimes almost round. Europe. long and about in. heads numerous. and at other times pointed and narrow. The stem is erect and wiry.

lotions or drops for eye complaints. luproside. including aucubin. poultices. Euphrasia contains glycosides. caffeic acid.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. and a volatile oil. Constituents Aucubin. gallotannins. geniposide. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. ferulic acid. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. minerals. and various skin conditions. inflammation of the eyelid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . inflamation of the blood vessels. conjunctivitis. catapol.

light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. making usually six oil ducts in all. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. south to Florida and Texas. composed of polygonal cells. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. United States. It is * Formerly CTFA. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. dorsal surface convex. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. Description Mericarps usually separate. conical stylopod. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular.5 mm in breadth. brown walls. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. strongly lignified fibers. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. For use in eye washes.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. more or less curved. New Jersey. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs.

in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. especially if powdered.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. there are methylchavicol. the former appearing as a whitish point. and flavonoids. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. and limonene. Soaked in water. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. The odor of Fenugreek. including -pinene. organic acids. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. translucent endosperm. and Turkey. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. the radicle being accumbent. In addition. cultivated in India. they are hard. horny. Israel. -phellandrene. yellowish-brown. is strong and spicy. and 2 mm thick. protein. the fruits contain a fixed oil. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. Nearly in the center of one of the long. 2 to 3 mm wide. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. However. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. Pakistan. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. anisaldehyde. the taste is disagreeable and oily. In addition. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. and flattened. dark. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty.

trigonelline. cystine. aspartic acid. tumors. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. choline. histidine. neurosis. and various skin irritations. Square stalk. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. glycine. glutamic acid. A poultice has been employed for gout. trigofoenoside A-G. diosgenin. sores.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. mucin. mucilage. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. and banks. Scrofula plant. hedges. It is also used as a galactagogue. Constituents Dioscin. wounds. Fenugreek contains mucilage. damp copses. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. yamogenin. fenugreakin. flowering from July to October. swollen glands. in woods. choline.

on axillary and terminal.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. the corolla of a dull green color. with paniculate. lecithin. Constituents Saponins. quadrangular. the limb contracted. 2 to 4 ft in height. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acute. ovoid. dark purple. cardio-active glycosides. alkaloids and flavonoids. slightly drooping. and subglobose. whitish. tuberous. hesperetin. and slightly margined. smooth stem. with a livid purple lip. ovate. which are broadly ovate. petiolate. 3 to 4 in. The leaves are opposite. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. thyrsoid panicles. obtuse. erect. acutish or broadly cordate at base. of a deep-green color. forked. cleansing. or the upper lanceolate. and 3 to 7 in. sharply and unequally serrated. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. veined. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. and circulatory stimulant. in length. with a leafy. adnate to the upper side. ovate-oblong. anodyne. long. and knotty root. rounded. sublabiate. The flowers are small. The calyx is in five segments. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. opposite branches above. having a green scale or sterile filament.

fatty acids. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. 2 or 3 lines in width. flavonoids. GARLIC Allium sativum L. stamens 4 and short. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. or eights. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. sevens. phenolic acids. Description Galium aparine is an annual. and Burdock. moist thickets. corolla rotate and 4-parted. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. Stinging Nettle. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. tapering to the base. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). sterols. with hooked prickles. with an acidulous. verticillate in sixes. numerous and scattered. and astringent. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. these plants have an unpleasant odor. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. in length. mucronate. growing in cultivated grounds.or 2-flowered. and bitter taste. but are inodorous when dried. with a weak. and along banks of rivers. Catch-weed. the flowers white. procumbent. and is hairy at the joints. coumarins. Calyx 4-toothed. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. small. including psoriasis. and n-alkanes. tannins. In a green state.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. and rough on the margins. and flowering from June to September. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. and midrib. succulent plant. retrorsely prickled stem. the peduncles are axillary and 1. styles 2. astringent. quadrangular. The fruit is large and bristly. cleansing.

the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. Garlic is diaphoretic. It has been applied successfully to swellings. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. and fructans. membranaceous scales. antiviral. B. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. Garlic does not lend itself. dry leaf. (alliin. peptides.750 mm in diameter. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. However. scordinins. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and E. for obvious reasons. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. promotes leucocytosis. the outer surface convex. Internally. antiseptic. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. and attached to a flattened circular base. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. hypotensive and anthelmintic. base truncate. sores. C. expectorant.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. Constituents Sulfur compounds. and acne. spasmolytic. pimples. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. membranaceous. g-glutamyl). cultivated extensively. The membranaceous scales. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. surrounded by whitish. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. allicin — dialltrisulfide. trace minerals. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. each bulbil covered by whitish. Italy is a large producer. scale-like leaves. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. Description Bulb subglobular. in place of butter. taste intensely pungent and persistent. with 8 to 15 bulbils. compound. Properties Cosmetically. bacteriostatic. about 0. Vitamins A. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. apex acute. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur.

The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. It is recommended for loss of appetite. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. The odor is aromatic. These roots measure up to 8. but pliable when it is moist. and alkaloids (gentiamine). Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. phenolic acids. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. volatile oils. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. The taste is first sweet. swertiamarin). that of the root. xanthones. Cranesbill. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. gastric stimulant. sialagogue. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. The cambiam zone is dark brown. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots.5 dm in length. cleansing.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. and to 37 mm in diameter. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. sweroside. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. but are usually shorter. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. then strongly bitter. and cholagogue. bitter. Properties Gentian is an astringent. amarogentin. anti-inflammatory. polysaccharide. and middle western United States.



Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.

Wild alum

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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome

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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf

Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.


Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.

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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root

Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.

Ginseng root (american) cultivated

Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its

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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.

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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.

GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves

Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.

Golden rod (Solidago)

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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome

Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.

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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.

GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part

Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near

Gotu kola

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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin

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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.

GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit

Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract

Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.

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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf

Green tea

Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannins (catechins. shampoos. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. which can be used in various sun-care products. Green tea contains anti-oxidants.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. and phenolic acids (caffeic. etc. lotions. creams. hair rinses. gallo catechins). wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. theobromine. conditioning. theophylline).. ferulic).


Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins.C. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. Medically. sores. purple-brown to brown in color. with five parts. catechin. phenolic acids. vitexin glucosides. Externally.) C. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. Cosmetically. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. Monogyna (jacq. Properties Flowers. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. Description The fruits are small berries. fatty acids. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. and central and northern Asia. and dimeric procyanidin. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. quercetin and glucosides). and frost bite. leaves. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. and externally wrinkled. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it has been used as a wash for itching.

Chamomile. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. oblong or broadly lanceolate. Sci. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. Pharm. Arabia. hair rinses. decoction orange-brown. However. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. etc. R.126 HENNA 1. mucronate. opposite. 1983. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. (2-hydroxy. as henna. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. entire. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . deepening with alkalies. with occasional stems and brown. It will add body and highlights to hair. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. l. 319. 4-napthoquinone). tapering at the base. in an aqueous solution. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations.. however. small. acids destroy its properties. It can be used in shampoos. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. 2 to 3 cm long. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. Della Loggia. It is also said to be cooling. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. and conditioners. glabrous. brown. astringent. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. 1 to 2 cm wide. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. India. simple. fruit. often imported in coarse powder. 51. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. et al. fading on the addition of acid. Persia.. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. It will not impart any color to the hair. shortly petiolate. Description Leaves greenish-brown. and decolorized by a special extraction process. Calendula. triangular pitted seeds.

orange blossom. various parts of Africa. translucent. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. phenolic acid. It becomes partially crystalline. and New Zealand. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. Honey obtained from heather. California. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies.4-napthoquinone). owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. luteolin). the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. and semi-solid on keeping. (glucosides of apigenin. fatty acids. Australia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. Description Honey is a viscid. Chile. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. and tannins.

hypnotic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. dextrin. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. bitter principles. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. lupulone. In combination with Chamomile. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. xanthahumol). Useful in treatment of dandruff. and hair conditioning. It has been used on crural ulcers. and alleviates pain and itching. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. Bark Bongay. it will reduce swellings. sores. consisting mainly of humulene. bactericidal. and tannins. humulene. and pollen grains. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits.brown. Asia. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. It contains small quantities of sucrose. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin).8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. Hops is a sedative. Hops is a strobulus. ringworm. tannins. the veins are elevated. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. wax. volatile oil.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. one margin is flat. The taste is pungent and bitter. The individual bracts are thin and papery. The strobiles measure 5. tetters. The odor is aromatic. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. and discoloration. will give body to the hair. formic acid. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. face creams.

The nut has a slight. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. aesculin). and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The inner bark has a rough. is nearly odorless. and non-astringent. Increases venous tone. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. Gaertn et Schert.25–0. Properties Astringent. compressed. and swellings. The aqueous infusion is bitter. in diameter. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. Properties Cosmetically. and slimming products. increases circulation. Anti-inflammatory. from 1 to 1 in. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. nearly an inch in diameter. iron gives a green precipitate. The bark is thin. varicose veins. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. The internal portion is starchy. Constituents Saponins (aescin. The root has antimicrobial properties. bitter taste. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. phenolic acids. peculiar odor. fleshy roots. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. The plant has long. with a shining. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. It has been used in cellulitis. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. when dry. sprains and various sports injuries. yellowish-white in color. The nut. hand creams. quercetin). Description A perennial . *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. bitter taste. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. stimulates digestion and circulation. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. chestnut-brown testa. lotions. and has an unpleasant. fawn-colored. phlebitis. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. is subglobular. tendonitis. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. vasoconstrictor. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. and hemorrhoids. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. large rough leaves. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. and tannin.

causing the skin to blister. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . greasy skin. 1 to 3.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. as the fresh juice can be irritating. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. branched. cones peduncled. after crushing and moistening. thick. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. branches 3 to 4 angled. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. mostly with sterile spores. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. sterile stems decumbent to erect. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. solid. which would validate its use on blemished. high. rarely with a few branches. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. high. 2 to 4 cm long.5 dm.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. 10 to 14 furrowed. However. Alaska. acuminate. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. 5 to 10 mm. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. thick. yields 0.5 dm. Greenland. 2 to 3 mm. and Eurasia. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. South Carolina. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. California. However. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth.

sunny sites. punctate. It is diuretic. astringent. emarginate. flat. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. spreading. apigenin). lower lip trifid. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. Its stems are quadrangular. Will add strength and sheen to hair. second whorls. with the middle obe larger. spreading. saponin (equisetonin). Upper lip of the corolla. but smaller. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. woody at the base. rather thick. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with the middle of the corolla erect. flat. very much branched.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. sometimes elliptical. and borne in racemose. and diverging. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. green on each side. seldom white. entire. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. protruding. and equistetolic acid. sessile. silicic acid. healing. emarginate. acute. or lanceolate. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. the branches are rod-like. erect. Stamens 4. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. scarcely shorter than the calyx. phenolic acids. The flowers are bluish-purple. palustrine alkaloid. and 1 ribbed underneath. minerals. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. anthers with linear divaricating cells. usually oblong-linear. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. gangrenous ulcers. kaempferol. The leaves are opposite. southern Europe. sometimes narrower. Used for putrid wounds. and external bleeding. and 1 to 2 ft in height. acute.

Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. Tannin. and resin. gum.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. phenolic acids. marrubin. oleanic acid. ursolic acid. Constituents Volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoid glycosides.

Europe to Caucasus. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. volatile oil. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. forming the appearance of a cross. about three together in axillary whorls. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cordatereniform. square. hairy herb. and glaucous on both sides. crenate. with a varegated throat. luteolin [cynaroside]. The calyx is long. radicating at base. though often purplish beneath. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). decongesting tonic. curved. Also useful in cough preparations. North America. hairy. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. villous. The floral leaves are of the same form. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. opposite. marubiin. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. roundish. the upper being the largest. * Formerly CTFA. amino acids. phenolic acids. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. creeping stem. The flowers are bluish-purple. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). gray. the limb oblique. The leaves are petiolate. with a prostrate.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel.

which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. antimutagenic. It is acrid. aromatic odor. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. The former possesses a peculiar. Europe. The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. molluscicidal. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. Scandinavia. sun or shade. Description An evergreen climber. exudes from the incised bark. Properties Anti-fungal. control of cellulite. This plant is common all over Europe. and introduced into North America. Ivy has been used in face packs. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. and when heated emits a pleasant. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. rather fragrant odor. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. faintly bitter. anthelmintic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. or Ivy gum). However. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals.

. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. phenolic acids. hederacoside C (5%). flavonoids.and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides. and fatty acids. malic acid. hederacoside.


The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. The under surface is yellowish-green. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. The blades are asymmetric. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and stems. The taste is salty and bitter. dull. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. smooth.5 cm. The leaves are compound.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. and the veins are elevated. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay. The upper surface is yellowish-green. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. The odor is slight. stalks. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin.

isamone. It can be used in shampoos. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. gels. tincture of Capsicum. very sweet-scented flowers. and farnesol. lotions. hair rinses. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. Leaves opposite. Combines well with Nettles. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. calyx linear. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. eugenol. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. and mullein as a hair tonic. conditioners. It contains pilocarpine. isopilocarpine). and sweat hypersecretion. antiglaucoma agent. jaboric acid. gastric. the terminal leaflet larger. and soaps. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. benzyl alcohol. It induces salivary. pilocarpic acid. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. colocynth.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. skin creams. volatile oil. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. jaborino. It increases intestinal motility. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. containing benzylacetate. more than half as long as the corolla tube. hair tonics. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. Constituents Essential oil. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

and many trace minerals and micronutrients. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. potassium. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hair products. skin care products. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. benefits the skin. Nourishing. Description Vesicles large. Constituents Iodine. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. dissolving. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors. softening. (For additional information. see Chapter 7. restoring. algin.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. each bearing an expanded blade.


and alkaloid. creams. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. shampoos. analgesic. antioxidant. and antifungal. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. and lotions. Approximately 30 species have been identified. antipyretic. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. dandruff. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. southern India and Sri Lanka. wide. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. The flowers are in branched panicles. and similar skin problems. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. triterpenoids. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Antimicrobial properties. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. tropical habitats in dry soil.

Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. bacteriastatic. cleanse the skin. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. taste aromatic. dilute it with water. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. When taken on an empty stomach. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. and Hungary. and cleansers. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. skin creams. Constituents Essential oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. Sweet Wood. giving relief. odor fragrant. Glycyrrhizae Radix. phenolic acids. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. flavonoids. and close the pores. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. Properties Healing antiseptic. Russia. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. skin bleach. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). southern Europe. distinctive.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. It is aromatic and astringent.) Burman F. Liquorice Root.

its fracture is coarsely fibrous. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. antiseptic. The upper portion is more or less knotty. Externally. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. its taste is sweetish. longitudinally wrinkled. Internally. antiviral. eczema. Internally. Anti-inflammatory. pruritus. and cysts. it is externally pale yellow. sometimes split longitudinally. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. antibacterial. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. anti-infectant. somewhat tapering.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. it is yellow and radiate. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. when deprived of the outer corky layer. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. Its odor is distinctive. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. Properties Good for skin eruptions. antihepatotoxic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . including dermatitis. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. antiphlogistic.

licoric acid. glyzarin. amino acids. formononetin. neoliquiritin. lignin. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. sterols. licuraside. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. glabrolide.7-dihydoxyflavone. liquiritin. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). White Wood. isoliquiritin. isoglabrolide. Linn Tree. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . licoisoflavones A and B. licoricone. licochalcones A and B. glabrone. Basswood. bracts N/S Flowers. glabrol.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. glabronin etc. limestone. bracts N/S Flowers. B-amyrin. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. neoisoliquiritin. kumatakenin. rhamnoisoliquiritin. coumarins. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. etc.).). Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. 4-hydroxychalcone. glycyrrhetol. 2 to 20% starch. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers.). Europe. On hydrolysis. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. 4’. bracts Flowers. echinatin. amines. liquiritigenin. etc. gum wax. licoisoflavanone. glycyrol. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid.

Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. Internally. or approach yellow. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The petals are five and whitish. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. odor is agreeable. When fresh. leaf-like bract. when dry. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. Emollient. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). are oblong or lanceolate. faint. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. linear. For bruises and to reduce swelling.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. which are axillary.

celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. gum. W. The rhizome and root are aromatic. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. volatile oil. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage.0% volatile oil. Maggi Herb. Description Lovage has large. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. lotions. cultivated in central and southern Europe. kaempferol). composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. The fruit is a cremocarp.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside.5 to 1. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. mucilage. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. D. and perfumes. and resin are also present. Coumarins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. J. creams. Smallage. sterols. tannins. dark green. caffeic). naturalized in North America. high amount of uronic acid.

tannin. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. quinic acid. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. They consist of long. The rhizomes are horizontal. pedately branching at the summit. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. slender. and with blackish roots. primary forks. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . blackish. Properties In rinses. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. Constituents Adiantone. and shining frond bases. phenolic acids and their sulfates. adiantoxide. mucilage. The odor is slight. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. and then into several spreading pinnae. first into two recurving. astragalin. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States.

and slightly elevated. distinct. naturalized in North America. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . blotchiness. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. The blade is cordate at the base. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. British Columbia to Mexico. Holligold. the veins are elevated. spasmodic colitis. protective. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. Emollient for sensitive skin. flowers. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. The taste is mucilaginous. niacin. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. mostly ligulate. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. Useful in eye preparations. curved peduncle. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. The individual flowers are yellow. and phenolic acids. greenish-gray bracts. These flowers are oblanceolate. the veins are palmate. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. hairy. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. The flower heads have a short.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. The texture is herbaceous. The odor is not distinct. and fruits. Properties Soothing and softening. thick. Medicinally used in cough preparations. Relieves itching. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. and insect bites. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. Mary-bud. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate.



The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root

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yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops

Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.


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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.

MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root

Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.

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Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb

Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)

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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers

Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied

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Mullein (plant)

to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin

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diaphoretic. carminative. Myrrh is used in incense. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. The odor is aromatic. The taste is pungent. engler) The surface is dull. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. and anti-inflammatory. diuretic. and acrid. mildly expectorant.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. powdery. The fracture is conchoidal. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. It is said to bring forth the gods. bitter. It is said to promote granulation. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. Used for halitosis. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. sore throats. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. antifungal. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. for example.

Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 to 0. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. cineole. geraniol. and nerol).5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. camphene.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. creamy white flowers. on bruises and hemorrhoids. Constituents Yields 0. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. and blue-black berries. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction.

and in gardens.. sterols. beta-carotene. amines (histamine. Stimulates hair growth. in hedges. common to Europe and the United States. serotonin)... and isorhamnetin).N NASTURTIUM .. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic. Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant. Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... and epistaxis malaena..... which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed... (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle.. herbaceous. See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L.. by woodsides.. dull-green plant.. Description This plant is a perennial... nervous eczema.. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. formic and citric acids... minerals (high amount).. kaempferol. acetyl choline. Nettles has been used as an astringent.... Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy.. and for cutaneous eruptions. choline. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll. growing in waste places. Urtica urens L... flowering from June to September...


at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. a scar or. Texas. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. above the center. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. two-veined palet or scale. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. rarely. thinly membranous. within the groove a narrow. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. Florida. tapering toward each end.O OATS Avena sativa L. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. the base somewhat contracted. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. Odor slight. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. the apex pointed. and the Yukon. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. up to 1. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. taste starchy.

leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). straight or slightly curved. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. these are elongated thick-walled. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. Medically. elliptical stomata up to about 0. avenacin). a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. lignified. shingles. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. the cells filled with protein. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. rarely over 25 ft in height. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. polyphenols. Description The tree is small. lignified walls. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. partially beaded. The drug tastes bitter. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. Properties Benefits the skin. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. eczema. less heavily developed tissue. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. highly refringent and truncate.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. The leaves are opposite. sleeplessness. subsessile. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. and herpes. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. some of which give rise to unicellular. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. entire and coriaceous. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. pointed hairs. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. bent here and there. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber.

Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). ll-demethyl oleuropein. also hollow. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. et al. 7. hypotensive. Zarzuelo.. yellow globe. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. ONION Allium cepa L. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. 1991. Planta Med. A. 417. et al. and red globe onions. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 m high.. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). Gonzalez.. 57. hypoglycemic. few of them have been studied experimentally. ligustroside. up to about 1. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. 58. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. 1.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. 2. M. diuretic. 513. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. antifungal.. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. Planta Med. hypoglycemic. and antimicrobial. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. 1992.

fructans. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. 2 to 2 cm long. Flowers. 1-propenesulfenic acid. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alkyl and alkenylcysteines. oblong-oval. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. with bitter rind and sour flesh. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. acute. reddish-orange. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. white. 7 to 8 cm globular. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Fruit. very sweet-scented. Description Leaves.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. introduced to Europe.

Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. non-bitter flavonoids. furanocoumarins.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. such as hesperidin. tangeretin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. Constituents Essential oil (ca. considerable amounts of pectin. neohesperidose (2-0. rutoside. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. taste aromatic and bitter. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. short. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. with limonene as main constituent. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. somewhat curved. and bitter substances. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. inner surface whitish. conical projections and linear. more astringent than rose water. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. nobiletin. It is also given internally. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. with many slight. var. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. minute pits. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. fracture hard. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. the sugar component of which. aromatic wash.2 to 0. 0. used for oily skin and acne. odor fragrant and aromatic.5%).

Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. It is also an aromatic. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. naringin. sinensis Osbeck. odor fragrant. quercetin. citronellal. taste pungently aromatic. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. Cultivated in Florida and California. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. citral. Flavonoids. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. and hesperidin. globules of volatile oil.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. bitter and carminative. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sinensis L. skin creams for its flavonoids. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid.

antipyretic. flavonoids. e. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. eczema. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. Constituents Essential oil. Petals usually longer than the sepals. Monograph 6. very variable in size. p-coumaric acid. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. Properties Used as a healing tonic. mucilage. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannin. anthocyanidin glycosides. violutoside. galacturonic acid. but often palmately lobed with a larger. Description Flowers mostly tricolored. impetigo. acne. rheumatism. anti-inflammatory. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. scoparine. Exerpt from German Commission E. rutin. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. spur short. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. but sometimes up to twice as long. gaultherin. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. tocopherol. magnesium tartrate. stipules variable.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. arabinose. leafy. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. and carotenoids.g. Leaves variable. pruritus.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. saponins. meadows. usually little longer than the calyx appendages..

The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). which resembles sinigrin. vitamins. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. and minerals. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. etc. with large. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . carpinine (an alkaloid). staminate and pistillate flowers. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. Naturalized in southern Florida. edible berry up to about 15 lb. shampoos. The fruit is a large melon-like. long petioled. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. C14H2502N. Carpaine.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow.

4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. Vent. ms = latex tubes. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. Tabl. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels. and B. Veget. p = parenchyma. kr = individual crystals.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. q = group of large fibers. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins.2-benzenediol.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold.F. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. m = outer lamella. taste woody and characteristic. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Odor faint. (After T. Kr´ = crystal rosettes. papyrifora. Regn. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. margin dentate to crenate. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme.

3.05 to 0. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown. P. emmenagogue. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. isopimpenillin. extensively cultivated in California. The tap root is fusiform. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. fruit. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. Apium petroselinum. above-ground herb. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. green. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. stout. fruit. and imperatorin. and antimicrobial. sativum. apiin. p-mentha-1. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. expectorant. ex A. and Hungary.8-triene (9%). Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . compound umbels. diuretic. Other parts of the plant contain 0. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. and others. (Mill.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). W. antirheumatic. Belgium. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. 8-methoxypsoralen. psoralen. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. Odor characteristic. and starch. B-phellandrene (12%). Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. apiole (18%). taste faintly sweet. France.) Nym. aromatic. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. above-ground herb. Furocoumarins including bergapten. Germany.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. spasmolytic. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. hortense.

chlorogenic. cholagogue. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. The stems are simple or branched. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). The nodes are enlarged. and the color varies from green to purple.5 cm in length and to 3. naturalized in North America. large. The pith is white. Properties Stimulant. south to Florida and Alabama. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. and the veins are slightly depressed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the texture is fibrous. cultivated in Japan and the United States. hesperidin). menthofuran. The calyx is campanulate. The odor is aromatic.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. The margin is sharply serrate. The cortex and wood are thin.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. rutin. The under surface is light green. ursolic acid. its color varies from light to dark purple. The outline is quadrangular. The blade measures up to 7. and minerals. The apex is acute. as it contains flavonoids. The corolla is united and tubular below. cineole. four-lobed above. mildly sedative. flavonoids (luteolin. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. rosemarinic). tonic. phenolic acids (caffeic. its five teeth are subulate. sitosterols. The under surface is light green. antiseptic. hair tonics. broad. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). The flowers are arranged in dense. The fracture is tough and incomplete. and solid or hollow. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. the leaves are opposite decussate. menthone (10 to 40%). Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. interrupted spikes. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. notably viridoflorol. triterpenes. They measure up to 9. the internodes are of variable length.3 cm in width. carminative. and the veins are slightly depressed. and the veins are more prominent. spasmolytic. The bracts are lanceolate.

flavonoids. corolla blue. dark green. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. trailing. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. shining.5 to 3 cm broad. Vinca contains vincamine. and ursolic acid. vulnerary sedative. Has also been used to stop external bleeding. tannins. native of Europe. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. Properties Used as a hemostatic. they are different. and Georgia. as well as Europe. however. entire.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. 1. vasodilator. in Connecticut. the lobes obovate. truncate. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. hypoglycemic. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. Minnesota. leaves ovate to oblong. a standardized extract should be used. astringent. 1 to 6 dm long. Description Stem spreading. hypotensive. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . firm. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L.

raffinose sequoyitol. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. The stamens and styles are long. aromatics. and applied to sores. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). leaving smooth surfaces. Vessels are absent. The flowers are white. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity.35 to 0. and abruptly narrowed into a long. balsamic. very small. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. campesterol. seven-nerved. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. dark band of autumn wood. and in grass plats. in fields. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. n-nonacosane. smoothish. growing in rich. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. and is common in Europe and America. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. and insect bites. quercetin. malonic acid. pinitol. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. tannins. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. arising from a fibrous root. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. The medullary rays. It flowers from May to October. imbricated. abietic acid. Constituents Contains oils. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. numerous. In a radial surface. somewhat toothed. cuts. dihydroquercetin. channeled petiole. five. which are the medullary rays. Plantago major L. pinnicorretin. The leaves are ovate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the seeds numerous. moist places. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. parahydroxybenzoic acid. it has a density varying from about 0. ferulic acid. shikimic acid. Ripple-grass. quinic acid. long. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. Properties Astringent. by the roadsides.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous.

aucubin. and palmitic acids). for healing. polysaccharides. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. oleic. and phenolic acids. they both have the same virtues. allantoin. asperuloside. catapol. fixed oil (linoleic. apigenin. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. balcalin. Constituents Mucilage. sterols. essential oils. and for cell proliferation. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata).172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. apparently. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. tannins.

. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2. ArnzneimittleForschung.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. 1990.. 1. and pinobanksin). antiviral. fungicidal. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin.. pollen.F. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. Dent. Nihon Univ.E. essential oils. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. Philadelphia.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. balsam. galangin. 30(1). pinocembrin. 3.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. 32(1). Tyler. J. The New Honest Herbal. Sch. G. Magro Filboo. et al.. V. de Carvalho Ac. galagin. 1847. 1980..2 Constituents Resin. 1987. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester. and anti-inflammatory. and caffeic acid. Stickley Co.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. Hiadon B. 4. and pinobanksin.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. wax.


Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . Upon microscopic examination. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. Smegmandermos deC. * Formerly CTFA. coarsely fibrous. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description In flat pieces of variable size. channels. Historically. and Peru. and occasional circular depressions. finely wrinkled. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. Bolivia. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. odor slight sternutatory. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. longitudinally striate. these species appear to resemble that of Q. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. conical projections or transverse. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. outer surface nearly white. fracture uneven. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. inner surface yellowish-brown. taste very acrid and unpleasant.

uronic acids. or compound quilled. Ecuador. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. to 7 cm in width.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. free acids (quinic acid). calcium oxalate sugars. Remineralizing protein. which is nearly always chip-like. are used. quinine and quinidine. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured.8 dm in length. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. and to 6 mm in diameter. shallowly fissured transversely. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). cinchonidine. overlapping quilled. quinamine). its important alkaloids. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. quilled. The bark is flat or chip-like. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. cinchonine. The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. and volatile oils. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). quinidine. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. partially quilled. tannins. a neutral saponin. Internally. The odor is not distinct. The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. The root. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gypsogenin. The fracture is tough and uneven.

but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. being coated with mucilage. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. It is also used as a suspending agent. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. triangularly compressed. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. ovoid or oblong. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with water. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. present in the epidermis of the testa. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia.


pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. tapering. sitosterol. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. contains over 40 compounds. * Formerly CTFA. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. fatty acids. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. calyx teeth subulate. style slender. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. Properties Historically. genistein. phenolic acids. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. taste sweetish. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. starch. purplish and more or less brown from drying. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. Mildly anti-spasmodic. including methyl salicylate. Constituents Flavonoids.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. and furfural. volatile oil. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). volatile oil. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . daidzein. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. petals united into a tube below. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. biochanin A. and esters. Medicinally. then slightly bitter. benzyl alcohol. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. phenolic acids. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. shriveled. eugenol.

The numerous veins run from the base toward. By drying. somewhat smaller. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. armed with bristles or weak prickles. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. hair rinse. Rhode Island. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. fruit red. with an entire margin. doubtfully indigenous to England. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). shortacuminate. Description Stem biennial. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. Maine. dark violet claw. Properties Soothing.15 to 0. such as hand creams. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . light-colored. thimble-shaped. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. they are smooth and shining above. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. rounded or cordate at the base. lotions. mainly rhoeadine. emollient. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. finely tomentose when young. and Minnesota. terminal leaflet broadly ovate.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. ovate. when fresh. and are then employed in the fresh state. erect. double-serrate. inflorescence short-racemose. leaving a space about 0. etc. with a short. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. Quinoline alkaloids. They have.

Internally. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. have been isolated. Constituents Ascorbic acid. fragarine. thiamine. succinic acid. minerals. and inflammations. it comes in various sizes and shapes.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. hepatitis. gallic acid. antioxidant. Dried and whole. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. granoderan A. and chest and heart diseases. Note: However. malic acid. consult a qualified physician before using. Constituents Polysaccharides.). B. and beta-carotene. Auspicious Herb. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. Ling-Zhi (Chin. protein. and C. Miraculous chi. China. riboflavin. lactic acid. Japan. insomnia. ellagic acid. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A series of tritepenoids. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. Ergosterol derivatives. and antibacterial properties. mouth ulcers. nervousness. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. and North American coastal rainforests. Happy Herb.

The texture of the cortex is granular. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 cm in diameter at the crown. and it tapers into the main root. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. The taste is astringent. that of the wood. The color is dull reddish-brown. of the larger roots. of the larger roots. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. The odor is not characteristic. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. very tough and hackly. fibrous. and P. which has numerous branches. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. of the wood. dark reddish-brown. rough and scaly. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly.

III. II. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. The smoothed. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. Dark areas may still be found here and there. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. to give a good appearance. which when carefully shaved off. face creams. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. parenchymatous matrix. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . immediately within the secondary xylem. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. Within the cambium is a ring. about 5 mm wide. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines.5 mm long. Constituents Gum. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. showing that they are leaf traces. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. barrel-shaped or conical. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. ratanine). contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. etc. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. and N-methyltyrosine. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. After removing the powder. If the trimming has been very severe. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. officinale. after-shave lotions.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. mouth wash. In the periphery of the pith. in the form of a fine yellow powder. tannins (proanthocyanidines). and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. the cortex has been removed. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines.

which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color.5% calculated as rhein). the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. rhein. it is used as a stomachic. of which many aglycones have been identified.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. and compact. The predominant aglycone varies. but in one investigation. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. and physcion. A very complex mixture is present. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). astringent taste. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. the mechanism is described under Aloes.and 7-0-glucosides. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. This is applied to the hair and left to dry. due to the bitter taste. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. min. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. chrysophanol. (+)-afzelechin. With its high tannin content. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . heavy. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. it is very gritty between the teeth. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. aloeemodin. when chewed. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. also (+)-catechin 5. the fractured surface. It is then rinsed out. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. Barbados. In most cases. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. 2. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. and (+)-gallocatechin.Eur.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). Flavonoids. In small amounts. it is often rhein.

free and in combined forms with glucose. One example would be rose water. and traces of carvone. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. approx. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content.0. and astringent. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. phenylethyl alcohol. and procyanidins. pink. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. however. catechins. Tannins. glycerol. 5 to 10%. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. taste sweetish. gallic acid. Minor constituents are citral. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. French Rose. slightly bitter. filter. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. odor fragrant and rose-like. l-linalool.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. it can be prepared by using rose oil. L.

epicatechin. much branched. boron. Constituents Ascorbic acid. gallocatechin. flavonoids. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. rubixanthin. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. alpha-tocopherol. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. rubidium. malic acid. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. low. sucrose. xanthophyll. isoquercitrin. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. coriaceous. linoleic acid. essential oil. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. kaempferol-3-glucoside. opposite. capric acid. and zeaxanthin. they are refrigerant. protein. Description The fruit of R. leucoanthocyanins. vanillin. succinic acid.2 cm wide. sessile. Wild Brier. tannins. lycopene. citric acid. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. and slightly diuretic.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. it will add highlights to light hair. evergreen. pectin. linolenic acid. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. Description A bushy.5 cm in length and up to 2. mildly astringent. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. invert sugars. When combined with various other hair preparations. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. magnesium. The achenes themselves are hairy. catechin-tannins.5 to 3.

Its basic external use is in hair lotions. characteristic. rosmarinic acid. creams. and bitter. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. taste pungently aromatic. Constituents Essential oil. Topically. diaphoretic. astringent. margin revolute. and showing a prominent midrib. Properties Tonic. flavonoids. glandular-punctate. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. protein. phenolic acids. tannin. borneol. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. it is used to increase circulation. and triterpenic acids.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. lotions. boron. camphor. odor aromatic. diosmin. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. The extract can be used in shampoos. lower surface wooly. etc. stimulant. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. hair conditioners. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The oil is used in fragrances. camphoraceous.


fungistatic. the reticulations being very small. texture velvet-like. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . apex acute or obtuse. venation pinnate-reticulate. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. margin crenulate. Properties Cosmetically. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. camphors. From an underground fibrous root system.5 cm in length. petiole up to 4.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. beta-sitosterol. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. carminative. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. long petiolate. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. pinene. In early summer. midrib and veins prominent. antiseptic. and disinfectant (against inflammations). astringent. phenolic acids. 1 to 2. Sage Garden Sage. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. cineole. stimulating. Leaves opposite. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. protein. densely pubescent. lamina elliptical. estrogenic compounds. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. thujone. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. much branched. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. linalool. Constituents Volatile oil. to 1 ft high. borneol. and tannins. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. salvin. 2 to 10 cm in length. taste aromatic and bitter. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. pubescent stem with branches opposite. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. It is antibacterial. caryophyllene. the upper branches bear blue. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. uneven or lobed.6 cm in breadth. saponins. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. ursolic acid. flavonoids. there arises a grayish. base rounded or subcordate. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). carnosolic acid.

SANICLE Sanicula europaea L.r.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. Asia Minor. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. and similar articles. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. vulnerary. White Sandal Wood. –13° to –21°). The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. carvings.985. but easily split. o. astringent. of which it contains over 90%. and erect. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. and dense. hemorrhoids. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. The taste is slightly bitter. pectoral. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. or as a perfume. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. burns. and a stomachic. hard. In Yellow Sandal Wood. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. It is also used in perfumery. L. and inflammed skin.and -santalols). The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. hemostatic. gr. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter.973 to 0. the vessels are mostly solitary. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. and lotions. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. and for the manufacture of boxes. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. the odor strong and fragrant. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. North and South America. depurative. palmately lobed leaves. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . the medullary rays are very fine and close together. alterative. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. heavy. Black Snakeroot. wounds. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. 0.

resin. saponin. and a bitter principle. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . essential oil.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Mucilage.

occasionally compressed.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name.5 cm in diameter. Dark Palmetto. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . smooth and somewhat oily. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto. from 1.

and stearic acid.7 dm in width... Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside... Properties Sabal berries.. 1983. 1. The fracture is very strong. ferulic acid. Ann. aromatic.. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous. SEAWEED. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids.. or as cut and sawed pieces. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles. were eaten by the Indians. palmitic acid. beta-sitosterol. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces..... somewhat flattened. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity.. ellipsoidal or ovoid.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length.. skin creams.P..1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich. myristic acid. and to 1. and to 3 mm in thickness... apex marked by the scar of the style. Tarayre. Constituents Anthranilic acid. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. capric acid.. 41. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which measure up to 3 dm in length. inner layer of endocarp smooth. and lotions. oleic acid. when cork patches are present. to 17 cm in width. The odor is distinct.6 dm in thickness. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown.. mannitol.. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. to 1. Odor pronounced. arabinose..... et al. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. a native of the southern United States.. 559. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled. Franc. lipase. reddish-brown seed. sito sterols. and slightly acrid.. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota. Ulmus rubra Muhl. Pharm. enclosing a hard. taste sweetish.. caproic acid. aromatic. such as anorexia nervosa. tough... it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. They are said to be very nutritious.. lauric acid. it is coarsely striated longitudinally. and incomplete. south to Florida and Texas... J....

Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. 5 to 8 cm long. and tannin. healing. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. native from Europe. Description Glabrous perennial. Colorado. It can be used to emulsify oil. pentosans. Florida. Colorado. polysaccharides.2 cm long. blades obcordate. and Saskatchewan.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. North Carolina. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. etc. and other beverages. d-galacturonic acid. L-rhamnose. starch. hair conditioners. Nova Scotia. New Mexico. minerals. ulcers. stem 3 to 6 dm high. petals pink or white. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). Soap Wort produces a gentle. leaves oval or ovate. and wounds. and beta-carotene. Massachusetts. soothing. capsule oblong. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. starch. 3 to 5 ribbed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and tannins. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. lotions. New Brunswick. hexosan. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. Can be used in creams. calyx tubular. tannin (minute). boils. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. 1 to 5. protein. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. chemicals that foam when added to water.

chlorogenic acid. with revolute margins. the rest broadly oval. British Columbia. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. 4 to 6 cm long. California. St. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . toothed above the middle on one side. and superficial burns. Nova Scotia. leaves linear to oblong. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. bruises. 10 to 12 mm long. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. glandular-punctate. Constituents Essential oil. slightly tomentose beneath. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. disk-florets 15 to 20. poultices. Used in aromatic baths. heads numerous. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. bracts canescent. 1 to 3 cm long. disinfectant. lower leaves petioled. astringent.5 cm broad. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. Properties Used as a nervine. flowers cymose. native to Europe. isofraxidin. Medically. the outer linear-lanceolate. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. acute or acuminate. uric acid. Virginia. conditioners. petals obovate. Manitoba. capsule ovoid. uterine tonic. leaves. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. Colorado. ST. rutin. having antibacterial properties. and for skin conditions. stimulant. and anthelmintic. scarious. 2 to 10 mm wide. John’s Wort ing. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. obtuse. quebrachitol. guanine. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. choline. and scopolin. etc. frostbite. ray florets about 10. scopoletin. caffeic acid. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. umbelliferone.ST. tannin. and anodyne. 5 to 10 dm high. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. antiseptic. corolla 2 to 2. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. tonics. emmenagogue.

) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. saponin. Newfoundland. phenolic acids. mannitol. flavonoids. John’s Wort St. protein. hypericin. Manitoba.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hypericin-like substances. hyperoside. resin sitosterol. New Mexico. tannins. and Virginia.

5 to 7. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. and phenolic acids. ellagitannins. seldom over 1. very rarely leafy-bracteate.5 cm long. scape slender. sharply and deeply serrate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . very soon glabrate on both sides. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. rhombic-obovate. seldom much exceeding the leaves.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. fatty acids. quercetin).5 dm high. condensed tannins). fruit elongate-ovoid.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. mostly acute. very thin.


tannin. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Also said to be an insect repellant. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. Scented Fern. sesquiterpenes. button-like flowers. are collected at the time of flowering. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. * Formerly CTFA. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. Parsley Fern. The roundish. and branching near the top. Ginger plant. erect stem. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. somewhat reddish. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. phenolic acid. anthelminitic. tanacetin. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. and quercetin. English Cost.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. The entire leaf is about 6 in. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. It has a stout. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. 1 to 3 ft high. flat-topped. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. resin. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. usually smooth. and spasmolytic. fern-like leaves and yellow. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. button-like. carminative. Bitter buttons. The leaves and flowering tops.

abrasions. constantly renewable tree. including treatments for sunburn. cymene). spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers.5 to 2. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. with a broad range of health claims. erect. and dense. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene.0 ml high. scabies. either singly or with other ingredients. capsule. Bark. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex.5%). Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. bronchial congestion. streamsides. New South Wales. burns. while cineole is low (about 2. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. oral infections. boils. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . in a flattened rosette. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. sparingly branched biennial. stings. sore throat. pimples. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. cuts.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. Over-wintering leaves. athlete’s foot. and the like. terpinene. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. and vaginal infections. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. spongy. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. conical. Description A stiff. and Australia. ringworm. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. It is found in numerous product forms. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. 0. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. fruit. lanceolate. insect bites. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. upcurved. lice. thickets. abrasions.

yellow spines. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). rare in Britain. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. Description Leaves spiny. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. 1955. stems..1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. The root and root stock are short and erect. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. Blessed Milk Thistle. Foster. 1. Ed. glucosides. Also used in homeopathy. purple. flavonoids (keampferol. and tannins. quercetin. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. St. Mary Thistle. both orally and also by intravenous injection. TX. taxifolin). The injection gives better results.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. Flowerheads rayless. It is said to contain saponins. dark green. Taste and odor. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. fatty acids. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. and magnesium. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. entire or toothed. S. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. Austin. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. American Botanical Councin.

Florida. Colorado. glutamic acid. 0. sore gums. glucose. hair tonics. corolla yellow. minerals. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cystine. New York. sensitive skin. conditioners.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. -hydroxy acids. It can be employed in creams. brown or blackish externally. gargles. Description Viscid-pubescent. Texas. vitamins. lobed. rinses. abscisic acid. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. and reddish within. fruit through cultivation very variable. lotions. that can be used for hemorrhoids. 10 to 15 mm broad. and dentate. and phytosterols. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. Constituents Proteins. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla.5 to 10%. subglobose. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. facial muds. aspartic acid. somewhat fusiform. etc.5 cm thick. lycopene.5 to 1. much branched. cyclohexanol. acne. leaves two-pinnatifid. to add sheen. from 2. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. branching and more or less curved.5 to 8 cm long. antihemorrhagic. and California. diarrhea. glycine. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L. and sore throats. flavonoids. red or yellow. It can be incorporated into shampoos. ellipsoid. or pear-shaped. ascorbic acid. styptic. menstrual disorder. stem 3 to 10 dm high. mouth rinse. Properties Fruit: astringent. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. and from 0. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste.

bluntly tapering at each end.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). longitudinally wrinkled. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. and other tropical countries. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. China.. Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. Indian Saffron. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. quinovic. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. They are hard and heavy. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. they bear short knob-like branches. a red pigment. Curcuma. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . internally. caffeic. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. Occasionally. tormentillin. Java. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. and break with a short fracture. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color.

previously restricted to certain scattered cells. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). antibacterial. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. A complex acidic arabinogalactan.. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. comprising mainly bisabolane. and antimutagenic. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. 2-7% essential oil. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. antifungal. ar-turmerone. it colors the saliva yellow. etc. It is also choleretic. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). guaiane. monodesmethoxycurcumin. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. when chewed. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. and anti-edemic. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. anti-arthritic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . curlone. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. but the coloring matter. zingiberene. hypotensive. is also present.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. ukonan A.

and to 2 cm in diameter. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. Wood is small. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. acevaltrate. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. alkaloids (valerianine. However. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. Constituents Essential oil. phenolic acids.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. simple or branched. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. fatty acids. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. The taste is sweet. and spasmolytic. and baldrinal. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. and to 3 mm in diameter. cultivated in Germany. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. The rhizome is vertical. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. Roots are branched or simple. actinidine). relaxant. Pith is white or grayish-white. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. It is sedative. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. pungent. Belgium and England. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. and valepotriates (valtrate. Cortex is thick. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. and disagreeable. * Formerly CTFA. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. central and cylindrical. valerosidatum). Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. isovaltrate. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia.

206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

and Arizona. in addition to verbenin. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. ursolic acid. volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . artemitin. caffeic acid. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. Constituents Iridoids. four-sided stem. Wild Hyssop. Description This rather rough. Verbena officinalis L. 4 to 7 feet high. gout remedy. long. straight. aucubin. meadows. diuretic. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. finely haired herb has an erect. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. and against sunburns. tannin. and superficial and limited burns.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. Simpler’s Joy. Nebraska. verbenalin. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. anorexic (appetite suppressant). contraceptive. hastatoside. False Verbain. verbenelol.


Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. open crown. round-topped. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. Juglans nigra L. The leaves are alternate. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and varicose ulcers. vermifuge. *INCI Name . blisters. deep. gout. scabbing pruritus. disinfectant. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. Properties Tonic restorative. soft and coarse grained. astringent. The kernel is sweet. The wood is light brown. Used for skin complaints. The bark varies from nearly smooth. styes. * Formerly CTFA. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. rheumatism. west to Minnesota and Kansas. imparipinnate. eczema. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. scrofula. glandular disturbances. and edible. oily. irritation of the eyelid. ophthalmia. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. depurative.

Description Aquatic perennial. alanine. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. glutamic acid. Mexico. it will strengthen and thicken hair.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). thiamine.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. Externally. 3 mm thick. valine. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. destroying most of its active principles. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. biotin. tumors. lysine. leaves pinnate. histidine. petals white. and kaempferol.g. cystine. 5. amino acids. aspartic acid. phenylalanine. Virginia. fruiting pedicels divaricate. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. Clark. A Cure For All Cancers. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. South America. West Indies.. tyrosine. it looks rather yellowish. about 4 mm long. high in protein. methionine. caffeic acid. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. lymphatic or edematous swellings. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. Rubbing on scalp. many trace minerals. spatulate. hyperin. tannin. ellagic acid. gluconasturtiin. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). Rheumatism and nervousness. folacin. and Europe. about 2 mm long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . arginine. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. its action being both detergent and healing. 4. 1. California. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. proline. glycine. protein. sepals oblong. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. British Columbia. and diastase. threonine. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. ascorbic acid. tryptophan. leucine.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. somewhat curved. beak about 1 mm long. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). -carotene.

It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. Couch Grass. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Durfa Grass. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. Creeping Wheatgrass. of young grass. sprouts. Fin’s Grass. Quake Grass. Quitch Grass. Dutch Grass. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. Devil’s Grass. Scutch Grass. Twitch Grass. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. Durfee Grass.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South.

. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous. yellowish wood bundles. Colic Root. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols.. and phenolic acids.. and hair conditioners. which are thickened at the joints. lotions. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. 1 to 3 ft high. are produced from a long. and dermatitis. cut into small pieces about in....See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root. and dried.. with numerous small.. amino acids. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes. elongated. often compressed... a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma.... Its smooth hollow stems... the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish. Constituents Vitamins. WHITE NETTLES. fracture short but tough. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils... Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.. collected in the spring... bent and branched. long. The flowering heads are produced from July to September. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached.. Description Knotted and woody.. thickets... more or less detached. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States.. Over 240 compounds have been identified..See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L. Odorless. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer. externally pale brown. afterwards acrid. fatty acids. creeping root stock.... are carefully cleaned. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist.. thin outer layer. creams. eczema. bearing scattered nodular projections. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled. flavonoids. taste starchy.212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath... and stem scars on the upper surface. insipid.. scattered. 6 to 20 mm thick. -carotene. The root stocks.

slightly lignified parenchyma. minerals. vimalin). shampoos. in older bark dull. it should be standardized for its salicin content. ascorbic acid. antiseptic. rinses. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. irregularly wrinkled. and trace minerals. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. taste astringent and slightly bitter. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. dioscin. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. endodermis distinct. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. Constituents Steroidal saponins. analgesic. as this could vary among different manufacturers. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). anti-inflammatory. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. diosgenin. dioscorin. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. longitudinally striated. etc. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. populin. Contains steroid-like substances. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. fracture short fibrous. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. odor slightly aromatic. and antipyretic. outer surface in young bark smooth. greenish-brown. antirheumatic. White Willow. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. triandrin. salicortin. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. inner surface. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. yellowish-brown to dark brown. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. naturalized sparsely in North America. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. cortex composed of thin-walled. fragilin. However. as it contains salicin. It can be used in hair conditioners. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. porous slightly lignified parenchyma.

while it may grow to 25 ft in height. eastern United States. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. long. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. Wych-hazel. Winterbloom. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. and alcohols. and leaves Bark. and polyphenols. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. due to its high tannin content. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. brown bark.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. tannin. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. thick. Spotted Witch Alder. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. bark. eastern Canada. Constituents Essential oil. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. esters. saponins. yellow flowers. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. and borne on short stalks. forking branches with smooth. scattering the shining black. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. flavonoids. It has a crooked stem and long. leaves. Description Witch Hazel. when it bursts open. Striped Alder.

It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. Sweet Bugleweed. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. Constituents Alkaloids. Missouri. The leaves are about 2 in. Green Archangel. rather narrow. Gypsywort. which appear from about July to September. Water Bugle. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. Description This herb has long. are small. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. Gypsy Herb. Wolf Foot. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. The plant has a rather pleasant. They are followed by four nutlets. smooth. erect stem from 6 in. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Therefore. The whitish flowers. but a disagreeable bitter taste. American Water Hoarhound. mint-like odor. Carpenter’s Herb. to 2 ft in height. Purple Archangel. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. including betonicine. Gypsyweed. and Nebraska. and bell-shaped. shady places from Canada to Florida.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. tublar. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. in length. pointed. and stachyerine. Paul’s Betony. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. slender. bitter. Externally.

Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. Flowers small. Description A short perennial. unbranched. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. antiseptic. and the iridoids asperuloside. white. forwardpointing bristles. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . citric acid. monotropein. astringent. etc. quadrangular. bitters. with four petal lobes. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. Odor. pointed leaves edged with tiny. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. Used in aromatherapy. in loose clusters. when dry. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. vermouths.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. coumarin. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. of new-mown hay. wines. with slender. anti-inflammatory. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. antineuralgic. soothing to the nerves. tannin. calming. anti-arthritic.

p-coumaric acid. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. artabsin. and antipyretic. especially in Michigan and Indiana. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. the lower lobe is petiolate. It is cultivated in some localities. rutin. two to three pinnately divided. Mingwort. anthelmintic. consist of numerous small. thujone. protein. Old Woman. and anthelmintic. used as an external antiseptic. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. isovaleric acid. the florets tubular. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. taste bitter. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Madderwort. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. are divided into small leaflets. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. which are from 2 to 5 in. and the grayish-green leaves. the inner linear with membranous margins. Flower heads greenish-yellow. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. approximately 100 identified constituents. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. long.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. absinthin. Bitter stomachic. insignificant. tannins. Odor aromatic. drooping. camphene. Absinth. chamazulene. thujyl alcohol. yellow heads. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. choleretic. aromatic. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. -carotene. Constituents Essential oil. Also used to clean atonic wounds. 2 to 3 mm long. Description This shrubby. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium.


. Gordoloba.. Green Arrow... and is urinary antiseptic... antipyretic... Carpenter Grass... From June to September... It * Formerly CTFA.. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic.. Yarrow Milfoil.. high and has many finely divided.. Sanguinary... Bloodwort....... Dog Daisy. Nosebleed... 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing. astringent. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small.. pastures.... Cammock. white flower heads... hypotensive.Y YAM.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L. Old-Man’sPepper.. diuretic.. Soldiers’ Woundwort. Closely related forms occur in the western states.. and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada... feathery. dark green leaves. It has a strong odor. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields. *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium..... Thousand-Leaf Clover.. Thousand-leaf. Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in...

dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. and furrowed stem. carminative. it is stomachic.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. blue colored chamazulene). Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. and cholagogue. phenolic acids. bearing numerous. angular. and along roadsides. spasmolytic. Internally. It has been used for cuts. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. flavonoids. alkaloids (achilleine). sesquiterpenes (achillicin. Broad-leaved Rumex. Curled Dock Root. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. long. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. it is also used in hair care preparations. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. injuries. achillin). *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. among rubbish heaps. and tannin. camphor. and varicose ulcers. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. Broad-leaved Dock Root. in cultivated as well as in waste ground.

Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. in length. swellings. and pale radially split wood. chrysophanic acid. with long stalks. et Tor. tapering or spindle shaped. in length. Properties Astringent for itchy skin.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. Gum Plant. Consumptive’s Weed. protein. psoriasis. lapathinic acid. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides.The root. from 6 to 8 in. short stemmed or stemless. and carefully dried. they become rusty brown. nepodin. while the upper leaves are narrower. and tannin. and eruptive diseases. Bear’s Weed. They are washed. long. with few or no rootlets. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . only 3 to 6 in. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. The root is large and fleshy. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. emodin. yellowish cortex. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. These are followed by the fruits. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. usually from 8 to 12 in. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. sores. As the clusters ripen.

tannin. and eriodyctyonine. eriodictyonic acid. Schum. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. Gabon. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. cerotic acid. chrysoeriodictyl. eriodictyol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acetic acid. Constituents Resin. essential oil. butyric acid. dark green.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. The narrow. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. and the Congo. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. The rather showy. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites.

minerals. oblong or conical-ovoid. Kansas. and epiallo-yohimbine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 cm long. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. saponin. allo-. Personal communication. 1998. smilagenin. spreading. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. at low doses. Constituents Sarsapogenin. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. samogenin.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. Texas. 1. Torr Yucca brevifolia. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. sometimes 2 dm long. YUCCA Yucca baccata. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. Properties Yucca contains saponins. is sympatholytic. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. and protein. coarsely filiferous. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. style slender. It is also being used for arthritis internally. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. Soap Yucca Root. pseudo-. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. the major alkaloid. Description Low. tannin. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. sepals and petals lanceolate. shagreen roughened. L. the most important of which is yohimbine. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. however. Colorado. pendent. fruit large. tigogenin. Soap Weed. hence its aphrodisiac effect. leaves rigid. Arizona.. R. It also contains corynanthine. about 7. Kronenthal. elongate. with narrow brown margins. and Nevada. fleshy. concave. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex.1 Yohimbine. Roezl.

224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. not essential oil. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. However. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. The leaves contain buxine. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. Lavender See “Folklore” section. Dark brown contains juglone. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. The botanical extract. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. makes an excellent hair rinse. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. Hemp.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. Galls Used to dye the hair black. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. See “Folklore” section. Henna Used to dye hair red. Oak. Hops See “Folklore” section.

An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. The essential oil is used to add sheen. and linalol. The extract contains thymol. Can be used in deodorants. and help keep it free of dandruff. Vitamins A and D. Lemony fragrance. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. make it soft and shiny. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. borneol. See Lichwort. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. and mouthwashes.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. It also helps to remineralize. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. Contains a yellow dye. It is antiseptic. and some protein. See Stinging Nettle. A source of potassium and iodine. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. Combined with rosemary. it will darken the hair. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. leaving it silky and glossy. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC .HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp. Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. It is said that when blended with rosemary.


Tumeric. Echinacea. Tilia. Thyme. refer to the index). Tomato. Uva Ursi Quassia. Rosemary. Milk Thistle. Anise. Calendula. Rosemary. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Oak Bark. Myrrh. propylene glycol. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Nasturtium. Comfrey. Chamomile. White Willow. Grapefruit. Papaya. Bayberry. Juniper Berries. Orris. Fenugreek. Lady’s Mantle. Lavender. Raspberry. Burdock. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Thyme. Plantain. Wild Indigo. Tormentil. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Proanthocyanidins. Cinnamon Agrimony. Myrrh. Wild Alum. Orange Peel. White Willow. Artichoke. Chamomile. Soap Bark. Arnica Lemon. etc. glycerin. Artichoke. Hops. Balsam Peru. Nettles. Onion. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Witch Hazel. Slippery Elm. oil. Soap Root. Thyme. Vinca Minor. Bistort. Bladderwrack. Lavender. Sage. Lemon Grass. Benzoin. Birch. in various vehicles as water. Garlic.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Comfrey. Bayberry. Hops. Lemon. Parsley Broom Flowers. Oats. Pansy. Burdock. Lemon. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Rosemary. 1. Sandalwood. Inc. Hawthorn Angelica. Arnica. Pineapple. either when applied topically or taken internally. Rosemary. White Lily. Asparagus. Violet. Peppermint. Southernwood. Nettles. powders or extracts. Rhatany. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bilberry. Cardamom Seed. Birch. Lemon. Rose. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. that is. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. ethanol. Horsechestnut. Althea. Sage. Myrrh. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Eucalyptus. Witch Hazel. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Lavender. Yarrow. Myrtle. Sandal Wood. Chamomile. Calendula. Ginkgo. Horsechestnut Papaya. Calendula. Chaparral. Lemon. Rosemary. Golden Seal. Yarrow. Bay Laurel. Quassia. Cucumber.3-butylene glycol. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Corn Flower. Black Walnut.

Grapefruit. Witch Hazel. Oregon Grape. Feverfew. Cade. Garlic. Red Poppy. Southernwood. Pansy. Tea. etc. Raspberry. to add sheen Hair. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Fenugreek. Flax. White Willow Bark. Marigold Golden Seal. Cedar. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cardamon. to relieve Nails. Chickweed. Calendula Oil. Elder Flowers. Slippery Elm. Brown Henna Rosemary. Catnip Bayberry. Lemon Peel. Oak Bark. Thyme. Calendula. Chamomile. Elder. Sage. Horsetail Grass. Yellow Dock. Burdock. Nettles. Orange Peel. Corn Flower Water. Witch Hazel Bark. Witch Hazel. Comfrey. dark Hair. Chamomile. to add highlights Marigold. Eyebright. Pansy. Rosemary. Capsicum. Hops Chamomile.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Rosemary. Thyme. Plantain. to add highlights Black Walnut. Raspberry. Echinacea various oils. Orris Root. Cucumber Chamomile. Comfrey Root. Figwort. Purple Loosestrife. White Willow Aloe Vera. Cleavers. Lavender. Broom. Jaborandi. Onion. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Comfrey. Lavender.* Centella. Chamomile. Camphor. Sage. Olive. rinses. Sage. Fenugreek. Red Clover. Orange Flowers. Rose. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Golden Seal. Echinacea. Neem. Quince. Dandelion. Basil. Raspberry. Quince Seed. Horsetail Grass. Fennel. conditioners. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. split ends Scalp. Oats. Nettles. Yarrow. Comfrey. Fenugreek. Wormwood Chamomile. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Golden Seal. Chamomile. Althea. Black or Neutral Henna. Capsicum Bistort. Citronella. Rosemary. Melilote. Cucumber. Coriander. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Echinacea. Arnica. Basil. Rosemary. Yarrow. Golden Seal. Mullein Flowers. Cantharides. Orange Flowers. Southernwood. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Quince Seed. Parsley. Horsechesnut. Rosemary. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Phytoplenolin®. Quassia. Pine Tar. Red Henna. Seaweed. Pilewort. Comfrey. Alfalfa. Chamomile. Lemon Peel. Anise Rosemary. Bayberry Bark. Cowslip. Comfrey. Thyme. Tilia. Flax Horsetail Grass. Comfrey. dry Hair. Southernwood. Malva Flowers. Citrus Bioflavonoid. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Capsicum. Horseradish. Peppermint Aloe. Jaborandi. Rhatany. Roseberries. Wild Alum. Sarsaparilla. Chaparral. Sage Jaborandi. Eucalyptus. Southernwood. Cucumber. Quinine. Rosemary. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Sage. Pansy. Capsicum. Patchouli. Red Clover. Primula Flowers. to add highlights Hibiscus. Nettles. Centella. Capsicum. Birch. various seaweeds. Elder. Peach Leaf. Myrrh.

Garlic. Seaweed. Dandelion. Peach. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Lavender. Blue Flag.804. Dulse. Chamomile. Bistort. John’s Wort. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Primula Flowers. Chickweed. White Pond Lily. Capsicum. Apples. Uva ursi Wild Alum. Lemon. St. Hawthorn. Lemon Grass. Comfrey.Vinegar. Aloe Vera. Apple. Bayberry. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Slippery Elm. Plantain. Althea Root. Rose. Orange Peel. Red Clover. Horsechestnut. John’s Wort. Mullein. Centella. Arnica. Comfrey. Plantain.206 for Centipeda. Sept. Horsetail grass. dry Botanical Cantharides. Capsicum. Lemons. Slippery Elm. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Red Poppy. Fennel. Colts Foot. Hawthorn Berries. Arnica. Valerian. Yarrow flowers. Bayberry. Capsicum. Sage. Slippery Elm bark. Orange Flowers. Birch. Lemon. Yarrow. Citrus bioflavonoids. Comfrey. Licorice Cleavers. Cucumber. 1998. Chamomile. Elecampane Skin. Croton. Oats.Yarrow. Golden Seal. Cleavers. Poke Root. Tilia. St. Grapefruit. Calendula. Pine. Echinacea. Comfrey. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Lavender. Cinchona. Licorice. Witch Hazel. Witch Hazel. Calendula. Seaweeds. Dandelion. Wormwood. Calendula. Violets. Corn Flower. Thuja. however. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera.) Aloe Vera. Witch Hazel. Oils. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Comfrey. Pansy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . St. Parsley. John’s Wort. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Wild Alum Althea. Ginseng Caraway. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Jaborandi. St. John’s Wort. Passion Flowers. Elder Flowers. Fennel. Evening Primrose. Nettles. Cucumber. Chamomile. Quince. Capsicum. Tilia.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Meillot. Althea Root. Echinacea.


The nuts are spherical. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. The powder is used on abscess. yellowish-white. wounds. Common botanicals such as Lotus. The seeds are also spherical. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. The female flowers are white and ligulate. The flowers are polygamous. and tonifies the heart. Constituents Saponin. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. elongated. Licorice root. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. Internally. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. aril white. 1. 8 stamens.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. etc. which are coriaceous. nicotine. rough.5 to 5 cm wide.) STEUD. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. wedeloclactone. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. internally used to blacken hair. elliptical shaped. it strengthens the spleen. short stiff hairs. Ginger. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vitamin A. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets.5 to 2 cm in diameter. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. yellowish brown. and eyebrows.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. and fleshy. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. nourishes the blood. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. sores. beard. tannin. etc. It grows in fields and ditches. can be found in the main section.

Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412. etc. choline. fats. ringworm. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. Vitamins A and B. antiparasitic. protein.70. sucrose. pruritus. vaginal itches. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tartaric acid.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema. adenine. yeast infections.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose.

The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. When using Ginseng internally. astragalin-glucose. cnidiankin. isopimpinellin. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. ostol (C15H16O3). alloimperatorin. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. Astragalin. B-sitosterol. heart palpitations. berry-like fruits. and has red. It is also said to promote blood production. columbianadin (C19H20O5). It is an astringent. weak pulse. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. diabetes. palmate leaves. bornyl isovalerate.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. Betaine. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. any citrus and turnips. edultin. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. amino acids. improves circulation in the skin. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. etc. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties.) Bge. L-camphene. a glucoside C20 H20 011. xanthotoxol. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . folic acid. amino acids. dihydrooroseiol. columbianetin (C14H14O4). dyspepsia. avoid black tea. used as an aphrodisiac. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. and arabinose. hypertension. ginsenosides. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. sugars. moisturize. it could nourish. Constituents Saponins. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. asthma. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. dilates the blood vessels. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. cnidiadin. insomnia. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. isoborneol). choline. lack of appetite. imperatorin. deficiency of energy.

sugar fatty oil. Constituents Triterpenes. resin. tricosanthin. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. protein. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. antibacterial.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. The root has antipyretic. and antifungal properties. saponins (ginsenosides). (C18H30O2). trichokaurin. essential oil. These are a few of the constituents. To list all would take several pages. trichosanic acid.

this herb can be used safely in large doses. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. traumatic injuries. and Re. and is analgesic. it has been used in coughing of blood. dissolves clots. According to Chinese tradition. both internally and externally. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. ginsenosides. blood in the stool. reduces swelling. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. Constituents Saponins. It is said to heal without leaving scars. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . helps to promote circulation. Rb2-Rb. etc. nosebleeds. Internally.

fructose. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. and arabinose. and a slightly bitter taste. ziyuglycoside I. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. tannin. essential oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. U. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. long. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. glucose. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. xylose. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. It has almost no odor. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L.V. stearic acid. 1/3 in.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. Cones oblong. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. rhamnose. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. anti-inflammatory. Constituents Flavonoids. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. palmitic acid. II. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. sitosterol. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. L-typhasterol. Vitamin A. glucose.

the base tapers into a winged petiole. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. fenchone. 5 to 8 cm wide. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. which has hairs on both surfaces. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. having pale.-fenchone. It is a hemostatic. tannin. and pinnatipartite. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. L. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. soft durable wood. shoddy bark and light. caryophyllene. 15 to 30 cm long. The basal leaves are clustered. and hermaphroditic. in height. pinene. and is said to have antibacterial.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. Vitamin C. astringent.5 to 1 m high. The flowers are tubular. Constituents Thujone. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. flavonoids. resin. and antipyretic. reddish-purple. becoming smaller on top. and antiviral properties. obovate-lanceolate shaped. anthelmintic. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

B-amyrin. The tuber is thick and fleshy. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. 2 to 3 cm long. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). and in abscesses. It is used in traumatic injuries. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. Their base runs into a long sheath. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. its apex acute and the labellum abovate.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. -amyrin. reduces swelling. antibacterial. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. The perianth is in 6 segments. 15 to 30 cm long. starch. and 2 to 6 cm wide.F. skin infections. anti-inflammatory. and promotes the healing of the flesh. antifungal. essential oil. Constituents Glucose. hemostatic. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. and antibacterial. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. stigmasterol.

chlorogenic acid. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. Antibacterial. having antipyretic properties. acetyl eugenol). ipterocopal. esculetin. sores. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. erythrodiol. humulene. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. hydroxydammarone II. palmitic acid. stamens numerous. stearic acid. with numerous ovules. style 1. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. odor strongly aromatic.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. caffeic acid. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. caryophyllene. fat. cold sores. and somewhat 4-angled. Constituents D-borneol. wax. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. antibacterial. oval. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. boils. and incurved. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. B-caryophyllene. tannin. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. oleic acid. antiparasitic. asiatic acid. It has been used in ringworm. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. Constituents Scoparone. etc. capillarisin. arachidic acid. dryobalanone. crowded. and antiviral. taste pungent and aromatic. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. essential oil. analgesic. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. The dark green. which alternate with the calyx teeth. See “Botanical” section for further description. linoleic acid. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. and nasal mucositis. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . conjunctivitis. dark brown. montanic acid. followed by a slight numbness. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. glandular-punctate petals.5 mm in length. One tree can yield as much as pound. ovary 2-locular.

and 1 to 2 cm wide. pruritus. imparipinnately divided. 10 to 20 cm long. and other skin ailments. The corolla is papilionaceous. The raceme is terminal. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The stamens are 10 and free. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. flavonoids. and allergic reactions. Constituents Alkaloids. yellowish-white. The leaves are alternate. which are globose and black. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. sores. The pods are cylindrical. Excellent remedy for sores. It is used for vaginal infections. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. 3 to 4 cm long. The stem is erect with many branches.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. constricted between the seeds. itchy skin.

Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . aesculetin. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. obakulactone. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis).MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. It is applied externally to swollen. Constituents Aesculin. and red eyes. red. ferulic acid. obakunone. fraxin. Antiinflammatory. aching. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. tannin. jatrorrhizine. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. fraxetin. used as an eye wash for sore. coptisine. Constituents Berberine. and swollen eyes. magnoflorine. columbamine. palmatine.

5 cm wide. The leaves are opposite. their margins sparsely serrate. The calyx is bilabiate. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. ovate shaped. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. and 0.5 to 1.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. 1 to 3 cm long. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Its stem is erect.

The flower has 2 sepals. abscesses. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. beta-cyanin.. Constituents Portulal. It is also a good source for GLA. and intestines. and English consume this plant in salads. The Chinese. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. antiphlogistic. gamma-linolenic acid. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic.3 cm long. French. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. gamma-linolenic acid. and often purplish in color. It is used to reduce swelling. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs.5 cm wide.5 to 1. Constituents GLA. betanin. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. decumbent or slanting upward. 5 yellow petals. snake bites. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. boils. fleshy. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. 8 to 12 stamens. stomach. 1 to 1. betanidini.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. Italians. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. Its stem is cylindrical.

246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

4.1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.

85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6.248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3.

JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6. 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8.

Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4.250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2. 84082-80-4 68917-49-7.

84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1.

252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1. 84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.

starch. globular. Description Main leaf axis has stout. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). simple. ellipticoblong. firm. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. Several species grow in the United States. corylifolean.BENDUC NUT 253 6. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. Seeds are hard. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. ovate or oblong and inflated. Kal-karanj Nuts. Constituents Furanocoumarins. pitted black. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. Leaflets about 10 pairs. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. tannin. campesterol group. Description It is an erect herb. perianth covered withspines. and Sri Lanka. and flavones. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. chalcones. Burma. and gray with thick testa. isopsoralidin. alkaloids. and protein in kernel. etc. Leaves petiolate. glabrous slightly compressed. Essential. Flowers are dense. and saponin in the seed coat. roots. hairs few. circular. Flowers yellow. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. shiny. covered with numerous black dots. Fruit small subglobular. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. oil. hairy tip acute. sporalidin. sharp recurved spines.

and skin diseases. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. Leaves opposite. phytosterol. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. Constituents Oil. starch. and sulfurcontaining peptides. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. lanceolate. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . arresting hemorrhage.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. The endodermis is indistinct. bluish-purple. However. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. Flowers about 2 cm long. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. oblong. aspartic acid. borne on convex flower heads. and citrulline. and for infectious diseases. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. with winged petiole. Few layers of cork cells are present. sterols. margin toothed. basal are large. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. flower head white. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. upper leaves smaller. Leaves membranaceous. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. reducing sugar. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. Seeds also contain protein. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. arginine. sessile. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus.

The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. terpene alcohols. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. Flowers are small. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India.but white internally. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. entire. mucronate. Leaves simple. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. apex subacute. The oil and root contains camphene. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. arranged densely on the branchlets. linear oblong or elliptic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phyllanthe emblic. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. stipulate. greenish-yellow. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. In old samples. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. slightly recurved. The fruit is subglobular. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. unisexual. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. slightly broader than long. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. Description A medium tree. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. Feathery.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long.

margin serrate. elliptic-oblong. tulsi. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. insecticidal. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . in terminal raceme-like panicle. opposite. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. and carvarol. very short. ovate compressed. pubescent calyx. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. antidiabetic. hairy along the veins. antifungal. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. antihepatotoxic. antiviral. The leaves yield ursolic acid. taste bitter. camphor. smooth and shining.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. odorant. antispermatogenic. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. bitter. seeds. apigenin. flowers. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. A. antihistaminic. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. pod woody. such as antistress. and luteolin. CNS-depressant. antispasmodic. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. antipyretic. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. 2 to 4 inches long. Leaves pinnate. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. Leaves are simple. testa light-red. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. krishna tulsi. decyladehyde. corolla 2-lipped. antiulcer. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. cotyledons very oily. point decurved. Sri Lanka. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. style 2-lobed. subcoriaceous. Each flower consists of. sacred basil Leaves. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. antibacterial. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. Flowers small. exserted. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. apex thick and blunt. filament slender.& Bpinene.

the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. singly. The bark contains alkaloids. and butyric acid. the berries are the color of a raisin. rheumatism. herpes. sitosterol. each berry is the size of a cherry. kaemferol. . Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. and as an anthelmintic. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. Properties The seeds. Constituents Saponins. smooth. leaves. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. where it is woody. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. pectin. glucose. yellow within. the size of large a pea. the inner membranaceous. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. Radicle at the base of the seed. the skin is shriveled. spirally incurvate. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. thick. S. the outer very thick and hard. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. the pulp translucent.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. except at the scar. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. (S. tough. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. pointing to lower and inner angle. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. the testa is double. The root bark is rustybrown externally. Emarginatus. The oil is used to treat scabies. cotyledons unequal. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. When dry. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. firm and fleshy. pengaglabrone. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. pongamin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and translucent. The seed is black. then bitter. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. with a peculiar pungency. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. pongamol. and other cutaneous diseases.

alterative. Root consists of short stock. It also has anodyne properties. deobstruent. coloring matter. flowers small yellow in color. inflammations. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. skin diseases such as ulcers. and tonic. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. Description A climbing plant. then acrid and bitter. The taste is sweetish at first. gum. garancin. freckles. Properties The roots are astringent. Leaves heart shaped. alizarin. and discoloration of skin. round violet colored and seeds light black. leucoderma. scaly. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. Constituents Roots contain resins. and sugar.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. fruit long. and xanthine. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin.

starch. Bhutan. Leaves usually in pairs sessile. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Description An herbaceous plant. Pods broadly oblong. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. It is a good substitute for valerian. valves papery smooth. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. and contain obvate. nardol.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. sugar. dark brown. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rhizomes long. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. valeranal. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. oblong or ovate. B-sitosterol. and combined with Henna. slightly curved. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. which also contains sesquiterpenes. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. Corolla 5-lobed. Flowers in racemes. and Nepal. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. Tracheids and few fibers. seeds.5% essential oil. Himalaya (11. nervous headache. resin. calarenol. mainly in palpitation of heart. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). is used to dye the hair black. and bitter extractive matter. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate.000 to 15. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. n-hexaconsanol. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. Roots contain valeranone. nardostechone. and flatulence. Epidermal hairs are few. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. Senna is also a safe purgative.



Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume

Synonyms: Parts Used:

Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.

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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.

Neem (leaves)

Neem (whole plant)

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PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.

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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Southern India.

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Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed

Synonyms: Parts Used:

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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.

WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.

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Constituents It contains alkaloids. The root is seldom branched. rheumatism. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. Leaves simple. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. branching perennial. loss of muscular energy. somniferine. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. globose. withananine. white internally. It is in flower all year long. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. plump. petiolate and alternate. zeylinone. and starchy. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. erect. and spermatorrhoea. It is also cultivated. a mixture of W. Isolation of nicotine. withanine. as in enlarged glands. brittle. 3. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. For improving sight. ovate hair-like branches. elliptinone. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. fracture short. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. It bears small. Somnifera. Iso-zeylinone. grayish or hoary. greenish or yellow flowers. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. smooth. brain lag. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. and appetite stimulant. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. and droserone. The dried root is of uniform appearance. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. somniferinine. Licorice powder. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. tapering. gastric stimulant. loss of memory. smooth.3-biplumbagin. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. senile debility. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids.

pseudotropine. choline. Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and cuscohygrine. Roots also contain tropine. In addition to alkaloids.


BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6. These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938.6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bitter Orange Peel. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. Black Ash.S. U. White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel.

U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba.S. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. yellow Cinchona. pale Cinchona. calisaya Cinchona. black Cohosh. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. pale Cinchona. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. blue Cohosh. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel.

S. U. American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

S. U. S. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum. U.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula.

U. Black Indian Hemp. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. Black Hellebore. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U. American Hellebore. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. S. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. White Indian Hemp. Canadian Hemp.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. S.

276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

U. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier. Green Osier. S. Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona.

278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.S.280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica.

S. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. U. U. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber.


Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fucus vesiculosus L. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L.F. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. Cynara scolymus L.) Juglans nigra L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Alnus glutinosa L. Optuntia. Betula alba L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. Ruscus aculeatus L. Aloe vera L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L.

Allium sativum L. Zea mays L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Inula helenium L. Symphytum officinale L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. Sambucus nigra L. & Aschers. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Br. Centaurea cyanus L. Geranium maculatum L. Scrophularia nodosa L. Gentiana lutea L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . See Coleus Galium aparine L. spp. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Larrea divaricata Cav. purpurea.) Briq Tussilago farfara L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. Cucumis sativus L. Symphytum officinale L. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A.

Althaea officinalis L. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Solidago Virgaurea L. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Schert Equisetum arvense L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Gaertn. Calendula officinalis L. Justicia Adhatoda. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Melissa officinalis L. et. Hydrastis canadensis L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ocimum sanctum linn. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Camellia sinensis L. Pongamia glabra P. Limm Malva sylvestris L. Hedera helix L. Amoracia rusticana.) Burman F. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Citrus paradis. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Mac Fad. Centella asiatica L. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L.

Pinus silvestris L. papyrifora. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Nasturtium officinale R. Vinca minor L. Allium cepa L. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. Trifolium pratense L. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Vent. Veget. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Tabl. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Mentha piperita L. Regn. and B. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum.L. Olea europoea L.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Carica papaya L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lythrum salicaria L. Rubus idaeus L. ssp. Rheum rhabarbarum L. Engler Myrtus communis L. & P. Papaver rhoeas L. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Commiphora molmol.

Betonica officinalis L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Juglans regia L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St.) Tanacetum vulgare L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. Artemisia abrotanum L.) Acacia Concinna. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. Juglans nigra L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Salvia officinalis L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Salix alba L.

Gentiana lutea L.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Torr. Yucca brevifolia. Schum.) Perre Yucca baccata. Rumex crispus L. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Artemisia absinthium L.

Xanthophyta. body rubs. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. Seawater. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. 3. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. ice cream. and sometimes in seawater. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. as well as vitamins. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. weeds. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. etc). 7. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. bath. 5. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. 4. 9. blue. and sterols. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. However. and vitamin content. Cryptophyta — Contain green. and red pigments. cosmetics. high in carotenoids. e 8. 2. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. sea grasses. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. 10. It is said that life started in the seas. The sea holds an endless source of life.7 Marine Natural Products 7. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. including: 1. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. phytoplanktons. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. They are also used as thickeners in jams. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. mud baths. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. 6. mineral. Xanthophylls. and have even been used to put a head on beer. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. sauces. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat.

for example. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. and vitamins. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. marshmallows. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. and other fruits. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. prunes. it is resistant to microorganisms and. lipids. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. steroids). and lycine). seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . B2. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. B12. glycine. Therefore. growth substances. second. prostaglandins. fucose polymers. This allows incubation at higher temperatures.. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. pharmaceutical. and C. sulfur compounds.g. anticoagulants. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. diterpenes. cranberry. pears. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. cardiac substances. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. carotenoids. For example. emulsions. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. proteins. For plating microorganisms. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. proline. anthelmintics. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. emulsion stabilizer. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. and cosmetic fields. and ice cream as a thickening agent. and herbicides. polyphenols. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. mainly from some gelidium species. First. acetylenes. such as ursolic acid derivates. and polysaccharides.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. Kelp is also the main source for algin. and imparts slip. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. furanoterpenes.

minerals (Zn. C. iron. There are traces of chloride. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). in combination with Vitamin E. Co. oleic. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. I. Mn. sodium. F. including iodine. which is a polysaccharide. creams. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. and lauric acids). salads. L. K. B6. potassium. B12. B. Laminaria longicruris (L. bromide. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. B12. magnesium. fat. galactose. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. In addition. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. Na. B. and iodide ions. B6. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. lotions. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. Fe. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. broadspectrum. and glutamic acid. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. Algin. Ca). It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. and antiglaucomic. calcium. iodine. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. Cr. etc. Mg. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. and mannitol. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. B3. shampoos. B 2. both in vivo and in vitro. mannitol. phosphorus. myristic. particularly fluoride. and ointments. protein. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. phosphorus. A). It is said to contain a low-toxicity. potassium. P. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. it has a high content of potassium. and carbohydrates. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. and zinc. antimicrobial agent. Sargassum contains fructose. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). antioxidant. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. B3. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. a synergestic effect was exhibited. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. palmitic.

This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity.02 to 0. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). rheumatism.6 Fucus contains trace minerals. which means it is a self-sufficient. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. polar lipids. a well-known anti-inflammatory.500 IU/100 g 180. and as a massage for cellulite. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme.000). fucans. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. alginic acid. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. F. polysaccharides. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O. It is a single-cell protein. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. containing all the essential amino acids.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Eisenia contains a complex polymer. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols.8 mg/100 g 1. Halidrys siliquosa L.3. the Pacific. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55. single-cell.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). and the Baltic Sea. sterols as free fucosterol. mainly iodine (0. Echinus esculentus L. phlorotannins. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L. sulfated.1%). which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. sulfonate.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. Lyngb. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus.

29 w/w% 2. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.5 mg 4.8% 18.29 w/w% 3. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).9 mcg 15. pp.6% 60.2% 4. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin.6 mcg 0.8 mg 1. Spirulina Spirulina.40 w/w% 4.8 mg 1. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell. Tests performed by the U.06 w/w% 0. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.93 w/w% 3. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.80 w/w% 0.64 w/w% 1.26 w/w% 2.5% 11. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron.09 w/w% 3.0% 20.63 w/w% 5. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation. B.64 w/w/% 5. Dr.A.38 w/w% 3.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3. It is found in both brackish and fresh water. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .70 w/w/% 2. Moreover.8 mg 1.. called the Chlorella Growth Factor.20 w/w% 2.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0.S.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81. Chlorella. et al. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.46 w/w% 1.45 w/w% 2.2% 55.. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll. In a controlled study.1% 0.59 w/w% 3. 14-15.08 w/w% 0. The Emerald Food.9 mcg 191. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder.3 mg 26.78 w/w% 6. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.08 mg Potter.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.7 mg 125.469 mg 613 mg 1.500 IU/100g 180. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation.

Spirulina.L. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. B3. Mn. carotenoids.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). Biotin. Cu. as it is high in plant protein. B2. Mg.. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. G. Fe. Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. B6. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. etc. lipids (4 to 7%). at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .L. minerals.40) B1. and minerals (5 to 10%). K. Na.A. P. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. B12 Folacin.A. Zn. Ge. Cr. vitamins. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca.

14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas.8 The results obtained are quite promising. or temperature.9 2. plant. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. 7.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. such as those of elevated salinity. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. the following being some examples: 1. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. including phaeophyta. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. soft corals. but no chemical study has been reported. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. bacteristatic.12 5. pressure.11 4. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. were isolated from marine organisms. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. Oahu. bactericidal. penazetidines. Unfortunately. kalkitoxin. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. which although poorly known. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. and imidazole disulfides. as a soothing demulcent. the search is only beginning.10 3. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. such as the curacins. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. and marine organisms. antillatoxin. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. are common in marine environments. anti-inflammatory.13 6. having distinct anti-cancer properties. cyanophyta. anticancer. barbamide. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . Thus. melemeleones. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. and chlorophyta. Related unicellular microorganisms. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. Significant compounds. the Bacteria. microcolin C. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. and ascidians. sponges.

An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. antimicrobial. which produce anti-tumor compounds. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. A series of B-carboline derivatives. and cytotoxic activities. the swinholides.19 12. and the theonellapeptolides. fungi.15 8.18 11. actinomycetes. Cyanovirin-N. and true symbionts from sponges. including corals and sponges. a unique anti-viral protein. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum.. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria.16 9. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia. including potent antiviral.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. the eudistomins. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum. tunicates. and gorgonians. which display a variety of pharmacological activities.17 10.

29 22. discorhabdin A. Phorbas sp. and F. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle.31 24.35 28. Isolation of Dysidiolide. latrunculin B and swinholide A. Isolation of Microcolin C. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic.39 32. cytotoxic natural products. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges). B.26 19. including makaluvamines A. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus. D.28 21.23 16. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. were isolated from the marine sponge.37 30. immunopotentiating. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum.36 29. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani.30 23.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13.24 17. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica.22 15. Several new classes of compounds. phorboxazole A and B. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. Many novel. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. and anti-tumor promoting properties. Diamirone B.38 31. makaluvone. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. a novel. C. Cyclomarin A.34 27. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds.25 18.32 25.21 14. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges.33 26. Okoadene and Mailidene. New antimycotics. E.27 20. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa.

Haughey. and Munro. O’Sullivan. N. T. F. M. Blunt. 36.S. McMahon. J. Cardellina. Allen. T. S... Suecica.. Gerwick.A.. Bringano. A. Shangxiao.. 32. P. Carney. T...P.. McInnes. and Munro. Maranda. 19... D.J. L. Ogren.J.E. and Yavor. Ferrante. B.R. J.. H. B. S.K. Gunasekera... S. pp. Mokinski.P. and Boyd.J. UCSC. 26. L. 1983...A..G.. Major. 13. S. L. 180. 34. P. L. Solimabi. ibid P 19. Schumacher.. E. C. Yoo.. ibid S 14..C. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. O 50. J. ibid P 28. Andersson. McCombs.M. P.. 478-488. Westley. Harrison. and Hung.....R. Beverly A.. G. Venables.. G.. and Russel G.. Gerwick. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae. Chem. Barrows.A.. and Gerwick. Papers presented at the 37th Annu... ibid P 30. 28. Slate. 37. Pharmaceut. ibid O 25. Lassota. July 27-31. ibid O 11. Lloyd. K. M. J. G... Chan. B.. Wilkins. ibid S 9. 30. ibid P 149. Andersen.S... K.E...F. D.. L. 8.. and Thompson. 14. W.. and Crews. 304-313. and Hamann. Phytochemistry.M. Duh. Abstr. and Afzelius..J...J. H... Coleman.J. Gush. Bohlin.... ibid P 155. M. Kerr. J. and Francis..F.. D. 20(6).J. ibid O 36. McCarthy. 1996.R..A. G. H.. I.. C.. Jayatilake. Hemling.. Kloareg. Potter.. M. B. Chlorella. M. Wright.E..C.P.. ibid P 156. Harrigan. 39. J. and Gould. B. Zhang... ibid P 151. Gerard. 33. 5. 18. Boyd. Erim.. and Leahy. 63..A. B. Ph. Blunt. and Scheuer.. R..H. Gulakowski.. S. 1258. J.. M. Clark. and Cardellina. and Kelly.. R. Yoshida. B. J.. 29. July 27-31. and Harrigan. G... M. S.E. 3. Heath. and Scheuer. K.. J.. Ind. N. Pettit. J... McMahon. Fulton. P. Hong.. Franklin. I. 10.. Rea. Linton. B.. D.. A.. Hamel. ibid S 22. D... Beutler. P. S. A. J. J. 22..T.B. T.. Bewicke. Santa Cruz (UCSC). B. Mendola. Screening of biological activity.A. K. Mabeau. Goins. Forenza.A. J... B. 11. G. 1990. G. 16. ibid P 36. P.. S. M. Y.. 14-15. Crews... W. J... Dumdei.. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae. Ragan.. and Walter.A. ibid P 9. J. Smith. Hargraves. J.. C..W. J. Brzezinski.H. 35. Nakao.W.. O’Keefe. D. Davidson..-Y.. 25. 12. Andrew. Haygood. S.A.. T. D. O’Keefe.. Plubrukarn. H. The Emerald Food. Mar.. Janus.A. Carte’. M. M. L.A. Dhyana...W.. ibid P 31. and Kerr. 2. K. Rodriguez. B.H. D. Sheehan. 21.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. ibid P 154.. Baker. Copp. R. ibid O 10. Lill. ibid P 145. R.. 1993. Al. M. Varoglu.K. Fernandes..T. McKee.-R. and Kelly-Borges.J. S 8. S. Searle.. Lidgren.. P. J. K.K. Gulakowski. and Crews. Shoemaker. 23. R. R. T. ibid P 25.. and Joseleau. D. J.. ibid P 27.S. C.R. and Rodriguez. ibid O 49. Lawry. 1975. Janda. Mendola. D.A.. J. J..P. 31. J. R.. 29.. 4.. C. M. Sci. L.. B. ibid P 150. Can. Chikarmane. 64.J. A. Fucus Vesiculosus L. El-Sayed. W.. ibid O 7. Castor. W. Magni. ibid O 26. P.. 40. K. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy. R. 1977. et al. Gustafson. H.G. S. 38.. Green. and Bair. R. de Silva. Xie. L. 17.. L. ibid P 26. P.. and Hamann. D... Lam.F. 27.J.M.T.G. R. J. 15..D. ibid P 141. Pomponi. 1996. and Bauer. 1985. ibid O 38.. Haden. J. M. Sci. Acta Pharm. Natural Prod. Hook. J.. 6. 20. Zheng. ibid S 23. M. ibid S 15. 24. 7. P. Freyer.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2441-2446... W. J.Y.. Meeting. 9. and Ireland.A.. Javor.. and Molinski. and Wang. L... 401-414. R. T. L. J. 6.. Perry. M.-P. 56(4). M.A. P. Schmitz..J.. and Baker.-D.. Dunbar.. El Sayed.. S. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. Brielmann. J.

Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.00 6. 3. In main kettle. 8. Rohm & Haas.2) with Sequence 5. Henkel. Adjust pH to 5.s. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. PROCEDURE: 1. Adjust pH to 9.10 0. NJ 07504..2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.60 21.5 (±0.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes.00 10. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 0. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. 5. 4. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous./Lipo Chemicals. 207 19th Avenue. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products. either alone or in combination with other products.2 (±0.s. Inc. 2.00 0. Therefore. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.00 q.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47. 5. Patterson.00 10.10 q. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used.10 0.

10. 6. 6.5 (±0.00 10. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous.00 0.10 q. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. 2. 7. high-foaming. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3.10 0.00 1. Inc.s. Rohm & Haas.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural.00 0. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.10 0. Procedure: 1. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq. Adjust pH to 5. 5.50 15. Inc.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Amerchol.10 q.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.00 20.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.s.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.00 6. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. Adjust pH to 9. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31.2 (±0. Lipo Chemicals.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient. 4. Henkel. In main kettle. combine Sequence 1 ingredients. at room temperature.10 0.

Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. In main kettle at room temperature. Goodrich Co. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine.10 0. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch. Inc. 5.10 5. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed.00 0. Aqualon. 4.45 0. 3.50 3. 2. B.00 1. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals.10 0. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65.FORMULATIONS 301 8.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22.95 0. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.(Induchem). Procedure: 1. 6. Inc.50 1.F.

At 25°C. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved.10 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . add Sequence 3 to correct shade. 2. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C. Cool to 30°C.10 0.96 63. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 q.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals. Inc.10 0.10 0.00 10.s.00 5. Procedure: 1. 3. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15.54 5. Inc.00 0.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. In main kettle. At 30°C.

02 0.10 0. Inc. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86.50 0. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals.10 0. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.10 0.28 0. 2.FORMULATIONS 303 8.50 0. Inc.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No. Begin cooling. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C . Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Cool to 25°C. Fanning Corp. Givaudan Corp. Procedure: 1.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base. 3.00 4. In main kettle.10 0.05 6. Haarmann & Reimer Corp.00 2.10 0. BASF.10 0.

Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.30 0.s. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4. Cool to 60°C. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel.70 2. Inc. 4.10 0.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8. Inc. Spl Phosphoric acid.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.05 20.75 0. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals.05 0. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940.00 0. 10% sol’n Supplier B.80 0.00 5. 3.00 0. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.25 0.88 45.10 g. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1.10 0. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92. 2. Procedure: In main kettle. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant.00 0. F.82 0.

Guardian Chemicals.70 1.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0. Lipo Chemicals.20 0.00 2.00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine. Goodrich.30 0. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem). Procedure: 1.00 5. Inc.05 1 2 Triethanolamine. B.00 0. 99% Hypan SA100H 25. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25. 2. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.10 0.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35. 3. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin.FORMULATIONS 305 8. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible. Lipo (Kingston).F.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5.


Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. the fecundating material from an antheridium. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. or Akene: A dry. one-seeded fruit. with firm pericarp. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. one-celled. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). Achaenium. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Acicular: Needle-shaped. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Acerose: Needle-shaped. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. indehiscent. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. or flower-arrangement. like the leaves of pines. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. containing the pollen.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. as ferns. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem.

Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Bi-: Signifying double. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. Appendages: Superadded parts. with two leaves. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs.g. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears.. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. meristematic cells. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Atropous: With erect ovule. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e.. Bulb: An underground discoid stem. the hilum and the chalaza being together. Blisters: See Vesicants. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. stiff hairs. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form.g. Bacca: A berry. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. carrying the ovary. rare in present times). Capitate: With globose head. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. cinnamic). Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. Castor seed). Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Apetalous: Without petals.g. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Nutmeg). Capsule: A dry. Calcarate: Spurred. as bi-foliate. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue.. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Bristles: Sharp. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle.g. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e.. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. a pulpy. Carina: The keel. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. Axillary: Growing in an axil. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary. Cardamon).

underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. Contorted: Twisted. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Connate: where two parts. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus.g. Cespitose: Tufted. usually distinct. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. indehiscent fruit. Clavate: Club-shaped. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. Cortex: The bark.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Caudale: Having a hairy style. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. Umbelliferous fruits). Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Also a name given to a short. Corm: A solid. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Convolute: Rolled up. tuber-like. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Costa: The midrib. become joined. one-seeded. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Coriaceous: Leathery. Caulis: The stem. upright rhizome. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. outer layer.. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. from which they hang when ripe. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Cathartic: A purgative. Cohesion: Attachment. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . one-celled. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. Cilia: Marginal hairs. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Caudex: The axis. thick.

Determinate: Definite. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. dividing into irregular branches. Didynamous: With four stamens. Decompound: Many times compound. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Deliquescent: Dissolving. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. Discoid: With convex face. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. two long and two short. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Didymous: In pairs. Deltoid: Triangular. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Deflexed: Bent. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. etc. Crispate: Curled. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Deciduous: Falling off. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Dentate: With sharp teeth. producing intellectual confusion. lymphatic. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. or tending to fall. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Definite: Constant. Dichotomous: Forked. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. downward throughout the length. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered.

g. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. or borne on. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. E: Signifies deprived of. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. Epidermis: The true skin. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. Episperm: The coat of seed.. without. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. wood. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Etiolated: Blanched. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Epigynous: Adnate to.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. wood. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. the ovary. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Extrorse: Turned outward. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Epispastics: See Vesicants. purgation). Echinate: Prickly. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. and bark. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. and pith distinct. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. the outermost layer. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. Escharotics: See Caustics. Exogenous: Having bark. nearly parallel. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Fibrils: Root-hairs. as the maple and the elm or outer parts.

Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Filiform: Thread-like. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. orange). Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. as bifid. Glabrous: Smooth. as petals and leaves. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Fimbriated: Fringed. Fid: Cleft. more swollen on one side than on the other. Furcate: Forked. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae.g. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell.. devoid of hairs. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Flocculose: Woolly. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Globose: Roundish. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Flexuose: Wavy. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. algae. as in the cypress and juniper. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. the point of attachment. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion.

Labellum: (Lip). Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Inferior: Growing below another. Incanescent: Hoary. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. Lateral: Attached to the side. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals.e. layer. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). or appearing to have.. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. squirrels. Innate: Adhering to apex. Internode: Interval between nodes.. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Lacuna: A space between cells. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. cats. either by mechanical or chemical action. Inflexed: Bent inward.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns.e. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. two or three times longer than broad. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). dogs. i. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Causing watery evacuations. inflammation. like shingles. rabbits. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Laxative: A mild purgative. on the receptacle. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). Inarticulate: Not jointed. the lower petal of an orchid. i. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. etc. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. as innate anther. Imbricated: Overlapped. Keel: See Carina. Lacinate: Fringed. Involute: Rolled inward. Jointed: Having. and irritation. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. joints or nodes.

Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. found at the ends of young stems. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. with hard tubercles. Ligulate: Strap-like. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Lobate: Divided into lobes. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Multifid: Many-cleft. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. but with lipclosed (flower). Monopetalous: Having petals united. Masked: Labiate. style. and roots. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. with parallel sides. Muricate: Rough. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Monospermous: One-seeded. Monandrous: Having one stamen. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Linear: Narrow. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. with upper lobes largest. Locusta: The spike of grasses. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Monogynous: Having one carpel. often caused by fungus infection. leaves. or stigma. Medulla: The pith of exogens.

Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. another plant. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Pedate: Palmate. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. death. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. apex broad (leaf). and nourished by. Nut: A hard. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. and the keel. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Oblique: Unequal sided. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. thick runner. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as ergot. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. rounded. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Offset: A short. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. Pedatifid: Pedate. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. in large doses. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Obsolete: Suppressed. with lobes nearly free. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. one-celled fruit. Orbicular: Circular. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. having tufts of leaves at extremity. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Pedatipartite: Pedate. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. as in the pea-flower. with lateral divisions again subdivided. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. indehiscent. Obtuse: Blunt. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. the wings. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. Parasitic: Growing upon. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs.

lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Pubsecent: Downy. few-seeded. dehiscent fruits. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. resembling a mouth. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. indehiscent. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. fleshy fruit. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Pentandrous: Having five stamens. with petiole attached at or near the center. usually of family Leguminosae. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Polygamous: With male. Petals: The corolla leaves. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. pointed cells. Pod: A general name given to dry. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. two or more celled. and perfect flowers on the same plant. Personate: Masked. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Pendulous: Hanging down. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. squash. Peltate: Shield-shaped. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. female. and the like. melon. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Petaloid: Resembling petals. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Pilose: Hairy. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Pome: An inferior.

Recurved: Bent backward. Sheath: See Ocrea. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. indehiscent. Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. with wide lips (corolla). winged. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Radical: Springing from roots. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Scarious: Thin. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). such as glands. Sclariform: Barred or striated. creeping. Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. etc. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. one. its function being to support the flower organs. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. bearing leaves and rootlets. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. rooting and budding at nodes. Setae: Stiff. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). with reflexed margins (estivation).or two-celled fruit. Runner: A slender. with deep notch in middle (leaves). Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. Retuse: Obtuse. Retrorse: Directed backward. prostrate stem. Reduplicate: Valvate. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Saccate: Sac-like. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. bristly hairs. Revolute: Rolled backward. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. and shriveled. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). with backward pointing teeth (leaves). and producing pustules. Reclinate: Bent downward. Runcinate: Jagged margin. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). dry. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Ringent: Labiate.

Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). with short hairs. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. dehiscing from below upward. Sporangium: A spore-case. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Tendril: A thread-like. Squamose: Scaly. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. may be modified leaf or stem. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). leafless. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. and one short pair. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. falsely two-celled pod. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. Subulate: Awl-shaped. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. bearing the stigma. Suture: A line of junction. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Tomentose: Pubescent. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. in pairs. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Style: The prolongation of ovary. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Ternate: Arranged in threes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. Spine: A pointed modified branch. spiral branch. Stipitate: Stalked. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation).318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long.

Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. 529-536. Valvate: United only by the margins. 1895. Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Verticel: A whorl. Uncinate: Hooked. Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. pp.. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). few-seeded fruit. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Utricle: A superior. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Trichomes: Hairs. Verrucose: Covered with warts. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Sayre. Versatile: Freely swinging. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. one-celled. Toxic: Poisonous. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). Lucius E. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. Zones: Concentric bands. Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate.GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Vexillum: The standard. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Volute: Rolled up.

Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. FL. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. 18. MD.K.. 1902.. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. MIS Publication. Notes on Parmacognosy.. Grieve. Bruneton. 1930. Wallis. 1971.. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. MO. Inc. & A. 1996. 22. Foter.C. O. The Honest Herbal. Stuttgart.E. 1964. SpringerVerlag. 14. St. Chicago. 7th ed. Wren. Merck & Co. New York. Aug. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. Youngken. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. 6. V. D. Krieger Publishing.. Washington. 1960. 1936.. Berlin. John Wiley & Sons. K. U. Herbs of Choice. Y. E.. 1975. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. A Modern Herbal. Churchill Ltd. PA.E. 1996. T. Louis. 1989.. London.. Vol.A. 4.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1. 11. 5. Boca Raton. Ltd. Merck Research Laboratories. 1932.K.. 12th ed. Bisset. Lavoisier. FL.W. Biddles. NY. Philadelphia. The Merck Index. FL 1992. Bladt.. Robert E. U. New York. J. 1995. Rockville. 1990.. 1983. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. P.. 2nd ed... 3rd ed. Bailliere Tindall. 13th ed. Guenther. R. Academic Press. V. 1994. Ltd. Mack Publishing. London. Pharmacognosy. J. 10. A. CRC Press. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. H. J. Potter & Clarke. Natural Products Chemistry.. Dover Publications. 17. 21. Plant Drug Analysis. Leung and S. Ltd. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. Bournemouth. Duke. N. 12. IL. Ehrhart & Karl. U. 20.E. Biddles. 1992. 9. Tease and Evans. G. Wall.. British Herbal Medicine Association. The National Formulary XVIII. 24. CRC Press. Nakanishi et al. 2. New York. Vol. A. Huntington. 1995. 4th ed. 19. 1974. Vol. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 4th ed. Boca Raton.K. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. CRC Press. 1992. I and II. 2nd ed. The Essential Oils. Blakiston’s Son & Co. 1996. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Haworth Press. Boca Raton. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. Duke. 3. 13. British Herbal Compendum. 1993. Tyler. H.. 23..A. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. 1997. Vol. 7. 1.. Wagner and S. Haworth Press. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. I and II..C. 1994. 16. American Pharmaceutical Association. Tyler. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Paris. 15. 1–7. J. New Jersey. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8. M. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. New York.

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