Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.

CRC Press Boca Raton New York


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:

Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.

Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. Chinese. Let it reflect brightly upon us. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. to use plants wisely. Originally. And then the Babylonian.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. experimenting. Galen. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. Initially. Always wanting to know more. Theophratus. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. Mithridates. and Avicenna. As formulators and purveyors. always wanting to find a more active plant. observing. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. men like Shen Nong. Over time. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. Dioscorides. sorting. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. But more than anything. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures.

Inc. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists. Frank D’Amelio. Sr. He founded BioBotanica. vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist.. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry.

and assistance in editing the manuscript. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. Special thanks to Professor Dr. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. patience.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list.

.........................................................................................4 Ultraviolet Light ..............................................CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1.........1 1.....................................................3.................................................................................................................................................................7 Glycosides .........................................................................5 Alkaloids.........10 2.....................................................................1.............................................13 3......3 Tannins...................2 Solubilities ...............................1 Plant Identification ..................................24 3............................................3 Physical Constants................................1..................................3.....................................................................................30 3......................................................5 Preparations of Extracts ...................................................................................................................................................41 Infusions .....................................................................................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2...................................1 1................43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ................................................................................................3..................................11 2..5 1....................................................................................3 Procedures ..........2 1.........1 Constituents of Drugs...35 Chapter 4 4...............14 3.....39 Percolation ........................................................................................................................................1.......8 Gas Chromatography....................................................................................................................................................28 3.2 Macromorphology .....................................................................................1...........................................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3............................6 Ash Determination .................................6 Carbohydrates.......................................................................9 2.................................3.................1.....1.......................3............................1.................................................................................4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents........1 1.......42 Fluid Extracts ................................1 Microscopical Techniques...............2 1..................3 4........26 3.............................................................................................1 Botanical Terminology ...................25 3...........................................................1 1...........................9 2...1 Liquids ...........................................................6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems..........................11 2......................................5 Yield to Solvents .......3.............................1 4..................................................26 3....10 2............4 4...........................9 Resins and Resin Combinations ...........5 Infrared Spectroscopy......................................1.......................................................................................................................................................................2 Some Common Terminology ..1............23 3........40 Decoctions ........11 2..................................................................................................9 Adulteration of Drugs .........................................4 Proteins ...................................2 Phenols ......................................................1....................3 Micromorphology....................7 Methods of Identification......2 4.......................................................1..................................................1.......1...............39 Extraction Terminology.......11 References ..............................................................1 Forms 4..11 2.........................10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups .......7 Assay Procedures ..................11 2.............................8 Volatile Oils..............................1.........3...........................1 1....5 1.................

...301 8.4............................................................295 References ...................................................................................1.......253 6.............7 4.........................................247 6........................................................................................ Concentration.................................................................................................................45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures .......49 5..................................... Properties...........307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ....1 Habitat................233 6.....7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe ............................305 Chapter 9 Glossary....1.............3 Cellulite Gel Base ......................6 Spray Moisturizer ......48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5...................8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC................298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8.........................................4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics .......... Description.............................4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil .................6 4...........46 Oleoresins ......................................2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products.................................................................1............................................................................................................... and Standardization..7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ..................................................................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. and Constituents ..............283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7......................51 6....10 4....................................................................................................................289 7..................................................... Range.........................................................5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+........5 Indian Botanicals..............2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy...................................................................1.1..............225 6..............45 Extracts Strengths.............9 4.............................................2 Natural Shampoo.....11 Tinctures ........1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table....................................................269 6.........304 8.....................................6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table.....................................................4........................................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters .........300 8....................................1 Marine Algae............1............46 Product Strength...............................................................................................................................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6...........................1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo..............229 6............304 8..............................2 Hair Care Botanicals ..........303 8...............................8 4..........................302 8..299 8......................................1 History ..........

Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic.1 Phytochemistry 1. fats.1. (6) carbohydrates. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. (3) tannins. (8) volatile oils. They are widely distributed in plants. hence. and usually bitter taste. In the treatment of burns. and coumaric acids.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. they are stored in seeds. Recently.1. barks. leaves. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. palmitic. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. TS). They are generally soluble in water. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. When applied to living tissues. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. (2) phenols. etc. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. (7) glycosides. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. 1. myristyl. (4) proteins.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. In plants. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. stems. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. 1. roots. (5) alkaloids. they are also called triglycerides. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. and waxes (lipids). oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. have astringent action. fats. spores. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates.1. In most cases. glycerol. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins.1. ferulic. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. and waxes. 1. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms.

hydrogen. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. (b) obligosaccharides.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. oil-bearing plant seeds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. for example: colchicine. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. tropane. serums. they form water-soluble salts with acids. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. gymnosperms. and steroidal. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. possessing some marked physiological action. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. carboline. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. In fact. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. 1. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. piperidine. purine. imidazole. antitoxins. and cryptogams. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. which end in -in.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. brucine. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. (2) polysaccharides.1. isoquinoline.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. and seeds. Being basic in chemical character.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. quinoline. stems. and oxygen. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. Proteins are derived from amino acids. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. which are the building units.1. but mostly in fruits. leaves. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. bark. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. Whole glandular products. roots. and (3) derived carbohydrates. pyridine. phenanthrene. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. indole. (a) monosaccharides.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

and B-1. cymarose. iii. gelling agents. which is a straight chain of alpha1. mucilages. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). consisting simply of 1. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. b. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. galactosamine b. d. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. D-fructose (levulose). transluscent. Unlike cellulose. alginates. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. and thickeners. uronic acids. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. Cellulose. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. and tetrasaccharides i. melibiose ii. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). gentiobiose. trihalose Reducing: maltose. Therapeutically. Glycogen. Inulin. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. and Example Rhamnose. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. L-galactose. and some microbial polysaccharides. 2. diginose. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. e. 3. a. It is an alpha-1. True sugars a. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. epimarose. turanose.6-linked polyglucan.6-linkages. suspending agents. fucose Digitoxose. tri-. digitalose (these are 2. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. their sulfate esters.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. It is a linear polysaccharide. c. amorphous substances. f. Gums are soluble in water. i. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). Monosaccharides. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. stabilizers. and apiose.4. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. or amino sugars.2)-fructofuranose units. It contains both B-1. g. gums.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. They include hemicellulose. D-ribose. pectins. emulsifiers. it is formed of amylose. D-xylose. galacturonic Glucosamine. ii. oleandrose.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. Pentoses: L-arabinose.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). sarmentose. lactose. cellobiose.

on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. however. salicin is an analgesic. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage.g.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that. in the liver of fish. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. rutin) Anthraquinone (e. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae).. glucosamine. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone. 10. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues.. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants... and Asteraceae. 2. sinigrin) Steroid (e. 1.g. for example. crocin and picrocrocin. 11.. arbutin) Alcohol (e. are the most common ones found in nature.g.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae). 3. Apiaceae. daphnin) Flavone (e.g.1.. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond. They are products of plant metabolism. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. Other glycosides do.g. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants.g. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. In S-glycosides (e. regulating. or adenosine).. 4. Occasionally.g... Lamiaceae. Myrtaceae. sometimes called O-glycosides. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources. representing about 87 families). strophanthin. 7. for example. S-glycosides and N-glycosides.g.. occur. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e. 9. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. Such glycosides. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e..1. 5. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). Rutaceae. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. detoxifying.. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin. The chief families are Pinaceae. 12. and defensive roles. and barbaloin are laxatives. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. sinigrin)... sennosides. digitoxin) Saponin (e. Depending on the plant family. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures. Lauraceae. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1.g. There are also C-glycosides (e.g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin).g. Phenol (e. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. In the conifers.. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides.g. the sugar component is called the glycone. as sugar reserves.g. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e.g.g. In N-glycosides (e. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. 1. for example. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species. for example. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. cascarosides. 6. digitoxin.

carminatives. only in the pericarp. cosmetics. and odor characteristics. sandalwood. Classification 1. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. local irritants. thyme. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. cassia bark. chemical. and in orange. 9. ajowan. 3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . only in the bark and leaves.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. coriander. wintergreen. etc. are hard. in the mints. fennel. rose. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. 2. They can be used for their therapeutic action. geranium. neroli. however. Undoubtedly. themselves. transparent or translucent brittle substances. in cinnamon. For example. Resins. etc. etc. bitter almond. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. resulting in less food spoilage. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. cade. In addition. confections. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. 1. they are widely used in perfumery. dill. as a class. However. etc. anthelmentics. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. etc. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. These substances. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. In most cases. beverages. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. cajuput. but in few instances. 7. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. etc. local stimulants. 4. in umbelliferous fruits. parsley. rosemary. 6. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. 5. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. sweet orange. etc. etc. turpentine. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. juniper. clove. 8.1. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). horsemint. pharmaceuticals. diuretics. mild antiseptics. Ethers: anise. is rich in camphor. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. lemongrass. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. for example. however. star anise. In general. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. nutmeg. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. tend to resinify on exposure to air. Ester volatile oils: lavender. spearmint. and tobacco. lemon. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. chenopodium. etc. or parasiticides.

Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities.g. they are of pathological origin. as well as in fixed and volatile oils. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. and medullary rays cells). order. in rare cases (e. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. forming solutions which. when freshly powdered. but when heated in the air. fibers. resins occur in different secretory structures. unless very large quantities of salt are employed.e. On this basis. on evaporation. they are divided into resin alcohols. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. For example. Laccifer lacca. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. When heated in a closed vessel.g. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and glandular hairs (cannabis). but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. wood parenchyma. in Guaiacum wood. It is noteworthy to mention here that. chloroform.. They are not pure chemical substances. in the vessels. acetone. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids.. that is. but do not contain any nitrogen. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). they occur as tyloses. which is called secondary flow. resin acids. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. Many products (e. 0. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. In plants. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs)...9–1. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. colophony. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. resin alcohols. resin cells (ginger). Chemically.g. Family Coccidae. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. and glycosidal resins.g. resenes (neutral inert compounds). as in case of Pinus. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. and ether. mastic). gr. esters.. Hemiptera. resinotannols. and resenes. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). without volatilization or decomposition. with few exceptions (e. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether.25). carbon bilsulfide). shellac). owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. In this case. On heating at comparatively low temperatures. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. resins soften and finally melt. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. viz.

and uronic acids. purgatives. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. arabinose. which contains no volatile oil. Guttiferae). and malva (Malva sylvestris). No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. they can be separated from resins rather easily. parasiticides. balsam of Copaiba. cough syrups. hexoses. and Podophyllum. copaiba. cathartics. in seaweeds. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. and Canada balsam. (anywhere soothing is required). Probably. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. roots. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. (e. being called glycoresins. therefore. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. ointments. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. for example. and seeds. Mucilages are viscous. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. antispasmodic. nonadhesive solutions with water. respectively — both contain volatile oil. and anthelmintics. Balsams. glucose.g. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. viz. asafoetida).8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. liquid or semi-liquid substances. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. shave creams. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. xylose. or esters of these acids. etc. In some cases. Another is flax seed. carminatives. These are.) In general. flowers. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. mouthwashes. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. they can be incorporated into lotions. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. that form colloidial. the mixtures being called gum-resins. On hydrolysis. they form a mixture of pentoses. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes.. barks. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. Jalap. leaves. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. creams. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. expectorants. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). on the other hand. counter irritants.e. etc. fruits. like most seeds.

etc. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. cotton) below. distillation. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. or alcohol and water. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. In pharmacy. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. ether. having a bottom outlet. 2. treatment with a solvent. expression. etc. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. by which it is exhausted of potash. acetone.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. also referred to as the spent herb. both physical and chemical tests should be performed.g. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. water.. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. by traction. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation).2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the solution commonly known as lye. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum.). Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. gauze. or by chemical or physical means. suction. As with the raw materials..

Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®.C.125 mm = 125 µ. for example. By its use. However. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. that is compared with the scale.125 mm.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. That is.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. because it is the magnified object. also known as micrometers. the factors for the other objectives can be determined. 0. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer. the height of sclerenchymatous cells. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. Therefore. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. if an object.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification.001 mm). its true size is 50 0. Most of the time.0025 mm = 0. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions. and not the object itself. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2. In the same manner. always using a definite tube length. the scale of 1 mm.0025 mm. as well as identification of commercial starches.3. The diameter of fibers.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. Q. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. both of which are carefully counted. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale. botanical laboratory.3 PROCEDURES 2. the width of vessels.

Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Similarly.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. balsams. London. Other drugs. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. 2. However. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. UV light provides very useful information.3. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. 2.. malaccensis.3. 2. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. 2. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration.g. they will give a high total ash value. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash.. G.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol. 11th ed. viscosity.. such as hydrastis. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs.. W.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. Pharmacognosy. J. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence. D. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. London. and Evans. A.3. volatile oil. For certain drugs. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. and similar substances. 4th ed.. glycosides. 2.. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. E.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. 1960. resins. Derris elliptica. calumba. 1978. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. vitamins. especially if they are present in the powdered form. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.3. the yield to water of liquorice root. oleo-resins. viburnum. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. Churchill Ltd. 90%. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome. Bailliere Tindall. In this way. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. C. T. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . for example. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. Some pieces of rhapontic. REFERENCES Wallis.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity.3. E.3. optical rotation. Trease. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article. digitalis and henbane leaves).


There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. providing that they were dried properly. If this is not specified. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. etc. counter current extraction.. One should start with botanical terminology. percolation. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. super critical fluid extraction. then maceration. Many plants have common names and. ash content.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. identification can be confusing. organic solvents (ethanol. This starts with the proper solvent system.e. color. i. seed. very few plants lose their actives upon drying.. root. etc. When ordering a botanical. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. lipidic extraction. or the entire plant. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. For example. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. stem. methanol. and microscopy. flower. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. distillation.3 Quality Control 3. fruit. therefore. As seen in the example. There are many forms of extracts available. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. hexane). Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. and other tests like loss on drying. ask for it by its common name first. leaf. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. canadine. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. Fortunately. odor. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. and berberine. etc.

2. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. 2 is that of an angiosperm. and hairs (Kamala. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. 3) is a representative example.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. pollen grains. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark).. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. Lupulin. secondary phloem. 1. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). 3. starches. Fig. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. to differentiate between mineral powders. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. Quassia Wood. viz. primary phloem. glands. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. Dusting powders: One should be able. For systematic study. however. Cowhage). A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. while Fig.

1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig.


3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig.

epicarp. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. and often a raphe. if there is no stalk. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. elder flowers of petals and stamens. 7. Achillea millefolium L. for the seeds. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. argel leaf. stigmas). The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. in addition. micropyle.. 6). the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. Leaves: Example. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. the leaf is termed sessile. (3) the presence of chlorophyll. the ovary wall develops to form a case. i. styles. viz. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. There are. Flowers: In a commercial sense.e. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mm. Among common drugs. fibrous layer of anthers. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. papillosed epidermis of petals. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. red poppy. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. the calyx made of sepals. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. 6. leaves may be recognized. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. red rose and marigold of petals only.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. however. frequently. called the pericarp. 5. thus forming a fruit. two features that are constant. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form.. 5) is an example of the flower. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. which are a useful identification tool. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. In the great majority of plants. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. (Fig. 4. and endocarp. (2) their thinness. mesocarp. S /(E + S). and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. the corolla made of petals. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm.

4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig.

Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Caraway (see Fig. Tamarind. However. Simple Fruits i. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. Orange. 5 Achillea millefolium L. Bael. flowers and fruits. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. Poppy. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cardamon ii. a. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. Compound Fruits Hops In general. 8. leaves. Colocynth b.

Aframomum melegueta Rosc. 6 Grains of paradise seed.QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

g. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded.. expression (e. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. 8). For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. stage and eyepiece micrometers.. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. or are natural secretions (e.g. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. by the stomatal index. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and. For example. starch. opium). decoction (e.g. however. Clearing agents. fibers. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. 9). as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . such as incision (e. mountants.. Microscopical techniques. agar). namely. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. branches. 10.. 3. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material.. Fig. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. beeswax and myrrh). commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. olive oil). Chiretta herb. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. and sclerenchyma. which are usually slender and adventitious. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. vertically. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination.g.g. Therefore. 9. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. similarly. or by the trichomes.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio.

9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8 Fig.QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig.

The most widely used solvent is ethanol. protein. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. absorbance values should be used. ether.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. starch. the presence of coloring matters. volatile oils. lactophenol. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. chlorophyll. and resins.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. carbolic acid. for bleaching. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. Sometimes. etc. chromic/nitric is mandatory. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. and petroleum ether (pet ether). or chlorophyll. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it rapidly dissolves starch. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. 3. and expands shrunken cells. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. fats. water. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. clove oil. Other solvents include methanol. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. and causes swelling of cell walls. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. tannins. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. resins. hexane. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. alcohol.

or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. If the substance is in a solid state. depending on solvent and pH. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. It can also be used to quantitate. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. Then press under anhydrous conditions. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. This will give you a transparent disk. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. In addition. unless one has an FTIR.

Chamomile. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. 3400-3100 (variable). Other tests like loss on drying. one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. as one gains experience. 3400–2500 (broad M).g. Lavender. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase.. aluminum. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254).6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. ash content histology. then the filter paper can be eliminated. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). odor. 2100–1700 (W). 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). 3600–2400 (broad). with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. organic solvents (usually methanol). or plastic sheets are also commercially available. etc. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. Precoated absorbents on glass plates. Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. sulfuric acid). 1455 (S). strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e.. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. and (4) it is inexpensive. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. 1760 (S). 3. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. 1500. 1600. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained. VS = very strong. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound.g.. 3400 (M). Valerian. M = medium. In addition.7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. 2860 (M).) When development is complete. S = strong. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. and powder microscopy are also performed. 3.

hence. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration. natural product. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5: 8. antimony chloride UV. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance.

GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. System control.. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken.” However. In phytochemistry. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. or chromatographic (GLC. However. give excellent fingerprints for identification. together with UV and IR spectra. pharmaceutical. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. As with the raw materials. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . TLC. the use of the GC will continue to grow. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. such as rice hulls or spent herb. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. From these spectra. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). photodiode array detector. data acquisition. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. both physical and chemical tests should be performed.g. With library search software. 3. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. After extraction of the plant material. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. spectrometric. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. a separation technique. If there is a diluent added. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. HPCL. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. This system. For plant volatiles and essential oils. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. spent herb). separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. and cosmetic industries. with expected growth well into the next generation. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. it will show up by having less soluble solids. information-rich electron ionization spectra. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines.) procedures in order to establish its strength. etc. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. rice hulls. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products.

and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. Ltd. photodiode array detector.

Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. Instrument control. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. or Provence senna. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. etc. African. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. data acquisition. the color and general texture are more important. the adulterant can be any kind of material. beeswax. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. coffee. for example. Hence. 2. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27).30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. Obovate. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. 3. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. in the case of powdered drugs. honey. for example.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . such as ergot. nutmeg. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. or Cochin.

mobile phase.2. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4. acetonitrile-water (83:17). lupanine. 0. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10).5 ml/min. mobile phase.0–1. baptifoline. acetonitrile-water (84:16). then 1. 1.0 ml/min.9 mm x 30 cm)..5 mm i. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. 15 cm).d. 1. UV 320 nm detection. panaxadiol. UV detection (homogencity test). galactose.d. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7.6 50 cm): mobile phase. 5% DC560. mobile phase./65 cm). thermopsine. R1. 3. spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. followed by 0. 0. 1 ml/min. mobile phase.1) flow rate. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. 220–223°C. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.46. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm. mobile phase. detection. detection.4x. panaxatriol. 15 psi argon. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. distilled water. mobile phase.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). detection. flow rate. 2 ml/min. or 3% SE-30. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. 1. flow rate. detection. cytisine Anagyrine. 2. flow rate. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i.0 M NaC1 gradient. 0. 25 mm). UV 202 nm.5. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60. xylose.8 ml/min for 7 min. HPLC: Zorbax CN. flow rate. 13-OH sparteine.9 mm 30 cm). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sparteine. 50°C.0 ml/min.6 mm i.5 ml/min. rhamnos Ginsenosides. luteolin. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose.5:0. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). flow rate. 0. Rf 0. E-500 and E-100 (Waters).0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. CH3CN-H2O (73:27). 2. 190 nm flow rate. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. mobile phase.2 M Pi buffer pH 7. UV 202 nm.1 ml/min.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. acetonitrile-water (83:17). HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250..5 ml/min. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). mobile phase. flow rate.d. genistein Calenduladiol.9 mm 30 cm).

..d.d.5 ml/min. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0.05. mobile phase. i. detection UV 278 nm. phase A: water. w/guard. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. vanillin in H2SO4. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4).5-methanol (67:33). C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. increasing 3%/min).6 mm. mobile phase. begin rotation.5cm). canadaline. introduce sample. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i. 4. phase B: ethyl acetate. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2. flow rate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). UV 340 nm. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9). flow rate. mobile phase. detection. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). mobile phase. apigenin. hydrastine Rf 0. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10).9.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. 0. 2. 1. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate. flow rate. hydrastine Rf 0. Start w/ 350 ml phase A. 2 liters phase B and C. 3. luteoline. detection. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). methanol-water (15% to 95%. 25 cm at 75°C). flow rate. mobile phase. 6 ml/min.5 ml/min. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. 1 ml/min. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2.7 & 5. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. 0.9 i.1 M phorphoric acid. detection. Merck(. flow rate.1 ml/min.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. canadine. flow rate. mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). ethanol-water gradient containing 0. methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. berberine. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). detection.d. flow rate. mobile phase. vanillin in H2SO4.4 cm i. 2 ml/min. 66 m capacity 350 ml).d.0 ml/min. detection. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. UV 365 nm. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. 2 ml/min. detection. 25 cm). CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. 75°C. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. 30 cm). UV 330 nm. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). detection UV 365 nm.5 ml/min.d. UV 340 nm. detection. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages).0mm i..5. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rf 0. methanol-water (50:50). UV 270 nm.

d. flow rate. mobile phase. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flow rate. mobile phase. detection. 25 cm). water. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. detection.d. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2. flow rate 0.d.. 30 ml/min. mobile phase. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. detection. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658). UV 270 nm. 25 cm) 2 in series. mobile phase. detection. mobile phase.5 ml/min. UV 230 nm.5 ml/min. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol.. 2. mobile phase. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. caprylic acid.0) mm i. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient).QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2.d. HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. 1. analysis Column (3. flow rate. detection.8 ml/min. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid. formononetin.0 ml/min. flow rate. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. 2. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. 150 mm)... 4 ml/ min. flow rate. UV 280 nm. 50% H2SO4. detection. genistein.1:1). R1. water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). 300 mm).d. detection.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. methanol-water (2. temp. detection..3 ml/min. mobile phase. UV 313 nm. capric acid Isoflavones. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min). GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. UV 280 nm. prunitrin Calycosin.5 10 cm).6 mm i.1.d.5 ml/min. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). 0.9 mm 30cm). flow rate.0 ml/min. daidzein. mobile phase.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. mobile phase.0 ml/min. mobile phase. UV 280 & 546 nm.25m 3 mm). tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). helium flow. biochanin-A. 25 mm). HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. 30 cm). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. acetonitrile-water (gradient).5. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid. caproic acid. mobile phase. photodiode array.9 mm i. detection. detection. mobile phase. methanol-water (27:73). HPLC: Develosil ODS-5. flow rate. 1. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. 1.6 mm i.

Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. detection. 2 connected in series. UV 256 & 206 nm.1 M phorphoric acid. GLC: 1. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. UV 254 nm. 250 mm. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2.0 ml/min. mobile phase. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8). stramonium.d. mentha. stone.5 ml/min. acetonitrile-0. 30 cm). Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. 6. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. 5.d. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. for example. 5u Chrompack). 2. etc.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . UV 254 nm. usually having no relation to the genuine drug. detection.25 m 4 mm). hydrogen flame ionization.7 ml/min. hazelnut shells. mobile phase. detection. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. coconut shells. 4. vitexin. mobile phase. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. walnut shells. conc. Substitution of exhausted drugs.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. 1. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. detection. Sometimes. scented bdillium for myrrh. 7. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug.4 (1:1). excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. powdered olive stones. or lead shot. flow rate. acetonitrile-0. UV 298 nm. for example. boiler scale. 8. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. valerosidatum. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances. For example. valeranone Vincristine. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. etc. detection. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. flow rate. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. almond shells. detection. methanol-water (60:40). acevaltrate.6mm i. mobile phase. such as lobelia. guaiacum wood. 0.8% methanol in hexane. detection.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). or hamamelis leaves. flow rate 10 ml/min. senna. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. dextrin. 2. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint.9 mm 30 cm). and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. vitexinine 3. mobile phase.

g. Frequently also trichomes. sieve tubes. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. 7. The powder is usually entirely lignified. A little vascular tissue. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fibers. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. wood parenchyma. 4. in powder. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. masks. especially the diagnostic epidermis. red. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. and medullary rays. consisting of small-sized elements only. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. protective glasses. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. xylem vessels. papillose surface of the stigma. hemicellulose. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests.g. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. which often cross the fibers and vessels. Frequently also cork. fibrous layer of the anther wall. cutinized and suberized walls.. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. 8. frequently particles of small seeds. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. Mucilage of: Alkanna.g. resins. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. Also epidermis. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. Microscopical examination. Nut shells and fruit stones. 9. or oil).) Acacia. and crystals of calcium oxalate. pericyclic and phloem fibers. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma.. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. Keep for 6 months. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. fibers. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. gloves.. however. 5.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. palisade cells. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). starch. pine and juniper). tracheids. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. glands. palisade tissue. calcium oxalate crystals. and aleurone grains. etc. which often contains starch in large amounts. 2. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. and aleurone grains. 10. Tincture of: Red with oils. stone cells. starch grains. usually abundant parenchyma. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. 3. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. Frequently also delicate yellow. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. Dilution better done on the slide. palisade cells. 6. Structures absent: Cork. vessels. cellulose parenchyma.

The reaction is better carried out in the dark. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. killed by steam. and some mucilages. gloves. etc.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. Store in amber bottle. through glass wool. cellulose. 0. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. ligno. Deteriorates on keeping. protective glasses. with continued stirring. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. Chlorophyll. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose.I. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. To be freshly prepared. Benzidine. masks. if necessary. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). etc.I. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water. starch. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30).I. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. Add 7. To be freshly prepared. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered.880). H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5.5 ml D. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. filtered. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. left for some time. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances.0 g sodium iodide and 2. gr. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . suberin. H2O. To be freshly prepared. etc. H2O with the aid of heat.

1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. Dilute: Used for mounting. in powder. 1. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. 1. and 20 ml water. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. H2O prior to use. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use.I.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. 20 g lactic acid. Set aside until clear. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gives yellow with colchicine. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. dextrose). masks.27 g iodine and 0. the corresponding approximate pH.75 g lead monoxide. protective glasses.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. and then diluted to 100 ml with water. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. 1. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting. note the coloration and read off from the table. filtered. etc. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids.64 g copper sulfate and 0. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals.g. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. on the label.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. gloves.I. Solution A: 34.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml. e.g. the strong solution will dissolve silk. 1... 40 g glycerin. Indicator. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water. added to a solution of 2.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water.

producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. dissolving certain cell contents. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. Potash. 5 ml of glycerin added. with a dropper or a glass rod. lignin. protective glasses. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. stains lignified walls red. and cutin blue. in small pieces. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls.4% alcoholic solution. 66.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). gloves. masks. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). 10. etc. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. Store away from light. 10% alcoholic solution. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. It must be recently prepared. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). 5% potassium hydroxide in water.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. Caustic: Used for clearing. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). and 80% by volume. suberin. 0. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). 1% solution in water. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. and then diluted with equal volume of water. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash.

usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract. 5x. 3x.E.3BG. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute.G. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S.E.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. AQU P.3BG GLY 4. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1. OLEUM N. Same as a solid extract (S. A molasses consistency. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate. Properties Usually high in alcohol.G. 0. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. Same as P.P. F. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form. P.1. etc. 5:1. Contains no alcohol. 1. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct.E.G. but the solvent is glycerin.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing.G. Same as P.F.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. H. of various dilutions: 1:1. Full strength 1:1. E. but the solvent is 1. 4x. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. 60–90%. An extract in P. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). Serial type dilution and succussion.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0.01 = 2x 0. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .M.E. etc.4 Preparations 4.

ether. distillation. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. cover the percolator. expression. and macerate for the prescribed time. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it.. water. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). If packed too tightly. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. The packing of the percolator is very important. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. if packed too loosely. 4. or. or alcohol and water. etc. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass.1.g.). gauze. In pharmacy. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. cotton) below. suction. the product will not percolate.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. close the lower orifice. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. by traction. etc. acetone. the botanical is considered exhausted. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. by which it is exhausted of potash. contained in a suitable vessel. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. the solution commonly known as lye. usually 48 hours. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. the menstruum will channel. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . giving a weak extract (see diagram). When no more actives remain.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. treatment with a solvent. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. also referred to as the spent herb. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly.. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. having a bottom outlet. or by chemical or physical means.

then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. barks. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. Allow it to cool. such as twigs. roots. preferably distilled. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. etc.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). 4. and filter. These are usually the hard substances. placed over it.1. mix thoroughly.

Refrigerate or preserve. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Moisten the herb in water. 4. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. it should be placed in a refrigerator. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. Therefore. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. after preparation of an infusion.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. Refrigerate or preserve.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen.1. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Under refrigeration. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. cold water should be used. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter. In order to prepare an infusion. preferably distilled.

Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. bacteria. However. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. However.1. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant. especially in inactivating larvae. which is very effective. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. which seems to work well. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . there is also CO2 sterilization. 4. However. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO.

A typical example: 5:1 P. Maceration is another procedure. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. However. check with the manufacturers. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. Therefore.S. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine.00 per pound). Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc.e. berberine. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum.1. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2). depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. from either fresh or dry botanicals. need preservatives. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. and canadine. No vacuum concentration is used. percolation. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. as strengths vary widely. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. Usual laboratory method. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. At present. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. However. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. Therefore. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. However.* 4. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. as they contain alcohol. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine.. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. and evaporation. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water.G. are weaker. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths.1. and usually precipitate on standing. Additionally. i.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. Filter. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. Therefore. and the solids are calculated. or a combination thereof. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day.

They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. dry solid. filter through wetted filter paper. and add enough D. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. preferably kept in a cool area. Add 1000 ml D. need no preservation. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. easily dispensed. Separate the excess oil. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. Then filter the mixture. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1.I. which lowers shipping costs. The native extract is usually vacuum dried. returning the first portions. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. Solution: The volatile oil. and pass enough D. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard.I.1. respectively. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes. or distilled water. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders. age. to obtain a clear filtrate. and time of year collected. 2. a sufficient quantity. spray dried. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light.I. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. and contain very little water. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. while hydrastine is colorless.I. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. or distilled water. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. or distilled water. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1.I.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. 4.I. 4. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. Avoid excessive heat. 2a. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. Their odors and tastes are similar. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. if necessary. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. and preserve or use the clear water portion. or oven dried. or other specified volatile substance D. filtering if necessary.

1. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. However. is always measured on the dry basis. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia.G. 4.1. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. 1. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. would be too concentrated in many instances. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. are often found in the cosmetic literature. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. Concentration.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). If it was calculated from fresh weight. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. butylene glycol. 10:1. etc.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. fresh or dried.* 4. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. However. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. etc. etc. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. a 1:1 extract. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color. 1997. tinctures. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . therefore. in the United States. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. Recently. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. or roots of plants (see above). Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. glycerin. The true strength will vary. In Europe.3-butylene glycol.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. etc. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. glycerin. in a true strength extract. in a cosmetic formulation.10 Product Strength. bark. This is very controversial. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. etc. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent.). 10:1. The starting botanical. Obviously. To avoid confusion. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. depending on the manufacturer. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1.

actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract.0% hydrastine. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. However. fixed and volatile oils. However. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. which is approximately 20 times less costly). it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. GLC. that is. and not soluble in most cosmetic products.S. and canadine.04%). Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. and then on valeric acid. and starches to be significantly reduced. Analytical procedures (TLC. berberine. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract.15 to 0. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. the former designation is becoming the standard.. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract.5% of essential oil. dark in color. Thus. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. However. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. This would cause the berberine. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract.5 to 4. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. standardization can be carried to the extreme. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. resins. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. If the dried plants contain 0. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical. canadine.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. which has been standardized on valepotriates. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7.

1. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. either fixed or volatile. Therefore. A thick. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1997.5% oil. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution.g. However. However.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. 4. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. there are usually losses during extraction. oily resinous mass remains.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. ether. or 1. alcohol. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0. consisting of an oil. followed by evaporation of the solvent. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States..8% essential oil.

soothing. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. thereby reducing stress. aphrodisiac. revitalizing. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. mild stimulant. soothing. Cell regeneration. Stimulant. Stimulates scalp. 5. tonic. digestive problems. poor memory. in turn. exhaustion. impotence. scalp stimulant. cleanser. anxiety. For example. wrinkles.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. euphoric. calming anger.5 Aromatherapy 5. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. Skin elasticity. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. antidepressant. Anti-inflammatory. Moisturizing. nervous fatigue. Poor memory. and perfumes. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. digestive problems. aromatic waters. affects the adrenals. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. This is the essence of aromatherapy. euphoric. aphrodisiac. Carminative. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. Revitalizing. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. mental strain. sadness. hair growth. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. antidepressant. Stimulant. antispasmodic. energy imbalance. loneliness. antispasmodic. This. hair growth.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative.

approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. 1976. Essential oils are very concentrated. opens psychic centers. 1984. Aging skin. uplifting during depression. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Essex. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. stimulates metabolism. shock. Jean. C. Nervous tension. Fabrice. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. Mood elevating. shampoos. The Aromatherapy Handbook. Therefore. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. vaporizers. Destiny Books. grief. Daniel Company. Valnet. amara) Antidepressant. anti depressant. Example: to be effective. very little is needed. VT. bath oils. mouth ulcers. 1982. lotions. uplifting. wrinkles. euphoric. Saffron. Ryman.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. Danielle. England. house sprays.W. etc. inflammations. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Antidepressant. Walden. cell proliferant. calming. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. moisturizes. antidepressant. Aging skin. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. anxiety. Rochester. If the reader has further interest.

The leaves are two. high. obtuse.1 HABITAT. perennial herb. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. DESCRIPTION. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and 3 or 4 in.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. long. PROPERTIES. and fawn-colored externally. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. slender. spotted near the base. flowers in April or May. subradical. The scape is naked. about 5 in. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. RANGE. The flower is single. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. which is white internally. with purplish or brownish spots. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. and involute at the point. pale-green. droping. yellow. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. liliaceous. lanceolate.

nearly smooth beneath. yellow.six. epistaxis. W. diuretic. mild tonic.. Ovary obovate. and especially more fragrant when in bloom.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. hooked bristles. Cavalitto. No further analytical data available. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. which is somewhat aromatic. subastringent taste.. harsh. interruptedly pinnate. agrimonolide. Berlin. 2. and three-valved. This taste is strongest in the root. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. Its odor is aromatic. Hoppe. three-lobed at top.1. functional bleeding. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. pyrogallic acid. 8th ed. and covered with a soft. long. 1946. producing numerous heads. filaments flat. et al. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. in hedges and fields and by ditches. The whole herb and root contains. It is much branched at the summit. pyrocatechol. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. fibrous. conical. 1975. racemose spike. Am. J. style club-shaped.. A. The root is long. terminating in three undivided stigmas. and surmounted with reddish. The leaves are alternate. 1. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. 2332. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with a loose membranous tip. Drogenkunde. and borne in a dense. agrimonol (= agrimonine). antiscrofulous. Soc. from to 1 foot long. flowering in July and August. and of reddish-brown color. Chem.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. Heinz.. and anti-inflammatory. Agrimonia has a bitterish. coarsely serrated leaflets. de Gruyter. longer than the stamens. anthers oblong-linear.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. and hematuria. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. 68. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. Properties Emollient. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. but unpleasant. Pub. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. silky pubescence. The capsule is oblongobovate. and phlobaphene. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. and tapering. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils.

glycosides. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. 153-157.. wedge shaped. and minerals. 1994. and polysaccharides. and also to help relieve dandruff. However. M. 29(2). gum. Patrascu. triterpenes. 10(2). ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. 1964. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. choline. fruiting tops. V. Constituents Tannins.. phytosterin. eupatorin. Ser. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. Med. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . this should only be done once a week. Rev. Europe. which are roundish. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss.. 2.. catechin. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. 1. United States. Peter-Horvath. glutinous. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. flavonoids. 7-0-B-glucoside. alterative. nicotinic acid. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. ursolic acid. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. southwest Asia. Dermato-Vernol. quercitrin. tonic. usually abrupt at the tip. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. organic acids. as do other types of face packs. luteolin. 190-193. volatile oil. citric acid and silicic acid. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. after which a good face cream should be applied. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. Alder also helps to unclog pores. et al.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. wavy-serrated. The bark is dark gray and ridged. et al. apigenin..

saponin. a mild exfoliant in oils. and Barbados Islands. sun poisoning. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. creams. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. To date. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. hair rinses. boron. Further reading is recommended. The size of the pieces is variable. etc. The odor is strongly aromatic. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. West Indies. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . carotene. etc. ALOE Aloe vera L. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. calcium and trace minerals. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. hair treatments. and is employed in skin creams. Properties Used in facial steams. and burns. this has not been verified. irritated skin. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. The surface is dull and smooth. Alfalfa is also high in minerals. which would suggest its use in baths. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. insect bites.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. chrysophanic acid.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. cuts. oils. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). etc. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue.50% (5 grams. lotions. scratches. and tannin. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. The texture is waxy. Aloe contains 99. lotions. bath gels. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. The fracture is conchoidal.

Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). sugars. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. Delicious. It contains malic acid. Rome.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. glucomanine. Granny. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. and pectin. Constituents Malic acid. Macintosh.

Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. having pale. and mucilage. tannins. Cones oblong. ARNICA Arnica montana L. ⁿ in. and polyps. shoddy bark and light. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . in height. containing thujone. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. soft durable wood. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. long. wax. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. flavonoids. both internally and externally. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. Wolf’s Bane. moles. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts.

patuletin. reddish yellow. the receptacle setaceous. lauric. and essential oil. The heads are discoid and homogamous. stearic). with subspinose. sprains. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. pectolin arigenin). leaves. polyacetylenes. Arnica should not be used on broken skin.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. 7. finely striate. and surface phlebitis. Topically. ray flowers yellow. kaempferol. and undivided leaves. Arnica tincture DAB 10. edema. pistillate. the cypsella spindle-shaped. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. dark green and 12-veined. pinnate. malic). fatty acids (fumaric. Description This plant is perennial. stamens without a tail-like appendage. isorhamnetin. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. Note: There can be side effects. inflamed insect bite. and the cypsella not beaked. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. the scales ovate. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. dark brown. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. quercetin. about 1 cm long. inflammation of the oral mucosa. with fleshy bases. palmitic. northern Mediterranean. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. In mouthwashes. xanthophylls. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. 5 to 7 mm long. tubular flowers perfect. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. receptacle slightly convex. the pappus plumose and sessile. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. three-toothed. emarginate and pointed. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. Odor characteristic and agreeable. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. the involucre dilated and imbricate. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). Has been used for hematomas. Sesquiterpene lactones. taste bitter and acrid.

and hypocholesterolytic. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. choleretic. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. ascorbinase). artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries.e. ascorbic acid. Also employed in jaundice. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. protein. Around the holidays. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. garlic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . diuretic. sterols.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. cynadase.. bread crumbs. tannin. peroxidase. cynarin. cholagogue. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. vitamins. beta-carotene. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. trace minerals. Cosmetically. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. oxydase. flavonoids.

Properties Aromatic antiseptic. The margin has projecting points of scales. sores. and various skin diseases. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. The apex is acute. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. The taste is pungent and bitter. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. or in threes occasionally. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. balm buds Part Used: Buds. Has been used on blemishes. The base is truncate or depressed. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. cuts.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. twigs. Herbalists use it for treating colds. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. It is a stimulating expectorant. resinous substance. The color is reddish brown. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. * Formerly CTFA. These buds are sessile. The odor is balsamic.

Bactericidal. taste distinctive. bark 1 mm in thickness. fracture hard and tough. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. jateorrhizine.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. Europe. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. North America. 3. usually splitting somewhat on drying. gallstones. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. Internally used to treat liver disorders. 5-0-methylgalangin. easily separable into layers. wood yellow. color more pronounced upon wetting. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. distinctly radiate. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. Description Cylindrical. Odor slight. circulatory stimulant. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. has been used for indolent ulcers. on chewing. tinges saliva yellow. and the Middle East. Grecian Laurel. oxyacanthine. sometimes excentric. galangin. True Bay. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. magnoflorine. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. pith of rhizome small. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). salicin. izalpinin. volatile oil. Flavonoids.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. knotty. tannic and gallic acids. strongly branched. chrysin and apigenin. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. and showing rings of growth. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. volatile oil. populin. rhamnetin. acetophenone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Astringent. pinocembrin. very bitter. berbamine. bervulcine. externally light yellowish brown. Berberine.

Asia. -terpineol. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. Description Leaves obovate. covered. -pinene. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. due to its high tannin content. catechins. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). spatulate. and glossy aromatic foliage. syringic and p-coumaric acids. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. pale yellow flowers. lotions. undersurface yellowish-green. and others. odor slight. upper surface dark green. ursolic acid. shiny black berries. along with methyl arbutin. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. linalool. soaps. glabrous. Spr. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. summit obtuse. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. quercetin. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. and detergents. and plant acids. hydroquinone derivatives. margin entire. However. gallic and ellagic acids. taste slightly bitter. brittle. finely reticulate. Constituents 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. slightly revolute. Treating small areas works best. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. 12 to 30 mm in length. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. hyperoside. alkaloids. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. and volatile oil.3 to 3. The leaf also contains germacranolides. texture coriaceous. Uvaursi is astringent. 5 to 13 mm in breadth.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. slightly pubescent. -terpineol acetate. astringent. phenolcarboxylic acids. petiole about 3 mm in length. perfumes. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. base acute. tapering. Northern and Central Europe.

. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen.. 1989.. 55% carbohydrate.. corolla ovoid-lanceolate. 1 to 2% fat.. reducing visual eye fatigue. 9. leaf-blades thin......0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels.. California. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees.. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L. clears toxins. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus.. boils.. British Columbia... 1854.. 1. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter... sores.. only slightly paler beneath... reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive.. about 5 mm long. anti-inflammatory. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW.. Whortleberry. amino acids..... softening. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones.. and ulcers. wounds. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx.1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Mirkin.. sores. Description Dwarf shrub. antiseptic. dissolving.. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry. This is taken up in a collection vessel.. promotes tissue repair.. Properties Restoring. enzymes. JAMA.. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries.. and abscesses. 262. 3 to 5 cm long. 20 to 50 cm high..... scabs. Europe. tonic. restrains infection. G.... 4 mm wide.. Good for skin ulcers. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits.. Wyoming.. Properties Astringent for eyecare products. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations.. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit.. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees. and other compounds identified in bee pollen. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. Michigan.. and to replace retina purple.... minerals. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins... ovate. leaves Habitat and Range Woods.. eruptions...1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive.62 BED STRAW. reduces inflammation. and Asia.

ursolic acid. 76. essential oil. New Age Herbalist. leaves.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. anthocyanosides. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy.. 1. Rattleweed.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . betulol. Bugwort. BANZ No. fatty acids. myrtillin. naturalized in northern North America. New York. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. Squaw Root. and eczema. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. quinic acid. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. ascorbic acid. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. Rattleroot. methyl salicylate. 1988. saponins. German Commission E Monograph. White Birch. R. (trace amount) asperuloside. Bugbane. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. BIRCH Betula alba L. betuloresnic acid.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. arbutin. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. psoriasis. peonidin glucosides. apigenin dimethyl ether. Properties The bark. 4-23-87. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. 1. Macmillan. parts of Arctic Siberia. gaultherin. North Asia. Europe. betuloside. Mabey.

the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. fracture horny. tannins. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. by deep cup-shaped scars. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). internally. fatty acids. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. each of which shows a radiate structure. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. fracture short. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. dyspepsia. It possesses estrogenic activity. externally dark brown. up to 3 mm thick. taste bitter and acrid. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. or less frequently by fibrous strands. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. and rheumatism. frequently. and sugar. mainly formononetin. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. bark thin. Rhizome horizontal. somewhat branched. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. longitudinally wrinkled. particularly depression and hot flushes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bark dark brown.5 cm in thickness. resins. starch. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. externally dark brown.

with thick ridges. Texas. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. Florida. and Minnesota. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. serrate. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. 5 to 8 cm long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bark. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. Description A tree up to 50 m high. fixed and volatile oils. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). fruit globose. taper-pointed at the apex.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. glabrous. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. and detergent. leaflets 11 to 23. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. Massachusetts. tannins. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). juglandic acid. 8 to 10 cm long. lanceolate. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. anthelmintic. glabrous above. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. rounded or subcordate at the base. Constituents Juglone. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. It is an astringent. and trace minerals.

It can be added to hair and skin care products. massage for cellulite. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. slimming activity. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. The color varies from brown to black. The texture is cartilaginous. cellutitis. rheumatism. as a wash for psoriasis. sprains. myxoedema. trace minerals (mainly iodine). The odor is slight. Frequently. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. a prominent midrib. reproductive tissues. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. probably due to its iodine content. The thallus is dichotomously branched. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. steryl glucosides. and bruises. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. fucans).66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs.

Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage. about 2 cm in diameter. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin. frequently split or in broken pieces. Constituents Vitamin C... tannins. It is easily grown from seed. the lower ones on short petioles.. simple or branched. longitudinally wrinkled. Gobo Part Used: Roots.. Description The root is fusiform. rough.. the upper leaves.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. externally grayish brown. European Burdock. skin cleansing and lightening. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains.. on long stalks.. Borage has a cucumber-like odor... flowers from June through September... a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. covered with bristly hairs. Description An annual robust plant. calyx of five sepals... and minerals. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage. the crown somewhat annulate.. sessile. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe. of variable length. elliptical leaves wrinkled.. Bugloss.. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. saponins. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids... up to 60 cm high. usually blue. hollow stem. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. mainly cultivated for commercial use. fracture somewhat horny. sometimes white.. sparingly naturalized in the United States. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock. flowers. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids. mostly in the Eastern States. leaf. five pointed corolla... rhizomes..

It has been combined with comfrey. polyalkenes. scaly skin. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. abrasions. including buxine and buxozine C. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. cystitis. and can be used in facial steams. cutaneous eruption. anorexia nervosa. gels.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. fatty acids. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. yellow-green flowers in spring. fukinanolid. taste is mucilaginous. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. arctinal etc. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lignin. shampoos. in cases of acne. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. lotions. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. volatile oils. Odor slight. It is also used in hair conditioners. becoming pyroligneous on milling. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. arctinol. sweetish. berries with black seeds. inulin. pith-like tissue. acid soils. sterols. and oil. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. eczema.. licorice. tannins. centrally hollow or containing a white. gout. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. psoriasis. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. fat. North America. creams. and slightly bitter. and baths. Arctinone. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin.

Properties Increases circulation. dark green shrub with thick. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. 3 mm across. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . scale-like. sudorific. borne on green. dry hills. Emmenagogue. Leaves.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. The extract has been used with success. mucilage. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. 5 mm. for the treatment of varicose veins. chrysophanic acid. ca. Fruit. bushy places. Flowers greenish. a globular red berry ca. saponin. rutin. ribbed. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. 1 cm. Europe. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. inhibits inflammation. oval rigid. ruscoside. papery ca. diuretic. Description A dense. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. 2 cm long.


. dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper. CALENDULA. isorhamnetin-glucoside... from 1.C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia.. penduletin. healing for sensitive skin... the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length. taste acidulous and mucilaginous. and beta-sitosterol... Mexican.. piscidic-acids.... herby odor... Description In pieces of varying length... *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material.. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear. Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA.. Mombassa... It has a strong. Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ....... or Sierra Leone Pepper. rutin..5 to 4 cm in diameter.... See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Constituents Flavonoids... and from 5 to 9 angled.. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments. kaempferol.. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present. luteolin...... quercitrin. together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length.

or is free from these. The Mexican variety is deep red. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. The odor is aromatic. The apex is acuminate or acute. and brown. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. The epicarp is thin and tough. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. The fruits vary greatly in size.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. and greenish-red. gray. the African variety is yellowish-brown. yellow. The seeds are compressed and pointed. the Nyassaland variety is red. red. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. yellow. Capsicum is a berry. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The taste is pungent and warming.

colocynth. and vitamins A and C. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. Bear Wood. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. counter-irritant. fatty acids. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. rheumatic pains. CARROT Daucus carota L. flavonoids. etc. is obtained by steam distillation. geraniol. jaborandi. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids.4%. Sacred Bark. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. antiseptic. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. Bitter Bark. keeping it smooth and soft.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. carotene capsanthin. daucol. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and perfumes up to 0. Buckthorn. naturalized in North America. lotions. It has a long tap root. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. Chittem Bark. and North America. geranyl acetate. hairy stem. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. and others. -pinene. rubefacient used for neuralgia. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. segmented. Asia. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. detergents.29%). leaves. branched. After. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. creams. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot.

4. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. Bailliere Tindall. 12th ed. bryophytes. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. R = H. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. odor distinct. C. It is much used as a laxative. Trease. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives. G. 1. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. C = 10B. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1).. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. and emodin in the free state. in Pharmacognosy. Wagner et al.5 to 5 mm thick.and C-glycosidic linkages. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. emodin oxanthrone. 2. Various diathrones.. R = OH. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. 444. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. Publ. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. Teil C. and Evans. 2. Aloe-emodin. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. 1974. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). E. 3. 1983. aloe-emodin. London. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. W. Two aloins. Teil B. and D. Z. It is frequently covered with lichen. it acts as stomach ache treatment. 267. D = 10 . they contain both O. B = 10 R = OH. 1974. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels. In small doses. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. and chrysophanol. B. R = H. It gives red color with ammonia TS. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. The bark occurs in flattened. chrysophanol. Description The tree is 4. curved pieces or quills of variable length.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. See formula. 5. 1. C. including those of emodin. Naturforsch.

nepetalic acid... curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed.. up to 4 mm in diameter.. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache. stems quadrangular.. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen.. methyl-nepetalactone.. floral leaves small. the lower spreading and three-cleft. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A.. Description Top. camphor... downy beneath.. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect.. thymol).. much branched. flowers small.. nepetalactone. the middle lobe largest. carvacol. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. crenulate. nepetol rosemarinic acid.. from 2 to 7 cm long. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip... citronellal. softhairy above..... downy. (geraniol... Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. pointed at the apex. CENTELLA.. the upper lip erect and two-cleft. naturalized in North America.. bract-like.. Br.. leaves opposite. or crushed and broken... calyx hairy.. tubular. corolla whitish. ovate or oblong. margin deeply crenate. petiolate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. interrupted spikes. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties.. rounded or ear-shaped at the base. pungent.. Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like. limb bilabiate. Constituents Essential oil. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe. in dense. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. from 10 to 20 cm long...CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L. the larger. lower pair shorter. dotted with purple.... taste bitter. and aromatic.. throat dilated.. nepetariaside. pale gray-green.

arnicolides. isoamyl caproate (1. 894. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. 40(5). Aust. green. and C. 3.W. nasal allergies. 5. Bull. W. and Mirhom. Yang.5 cm in diameter. skin infections. Yang. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells. Y. Res. asthma. Y. Pharm.206. 436. Chun. 3272. Yang. July 26–30. A. plenolin derivatives..C. Chem. J. and alpha-humulene.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. Bull. malaria. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pharm. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns. Y. caryophyllane-2. Compositous glandular hairs are also present. Chin J. J. 1988. cylindrical.85%). obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. Sankawa. alternate. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. 1992. UIO. 1973–1974. J. H. the apical cell being elongated filamentous. 1997. F.23%). 2. apex acute. and flavonoids. 1196. venation pinate reticulate. 1998. G.804.Y. helenalin. sessile. Y.6 to 1 cm broad. aromatic. florilenalin-angelate. brevilin A. 6..6-beta-oside.. 22 g. Phytotherapy Res. Cai.. and D. triterpenes. 54.L. F. Lin. Mutat. Warhurst. 8(7).18%).T. green. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. Patent 5. S.98%). Wu. simple. Phillipson.D.B.S.I. Ebizuka. 6. and U. thymol (1. Y. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm.S. Abstr. oblong.C. Iwakami. 4. Kriby. Campbell. and rheumatism.. longitudinally striated. florilenslin derivatives. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex.3 to 0. 7.5%). S. Sankawa. Wu.A. Y. trans-sabinyl acetate (22.C. Stem 0.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic. H.50%). 204(2). 1991. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. Lin. D’Amelio. diarrhea. 39(12). wounds. Y. 97. 8.7.W. Pharm. Hu. and Mirhom. and sternutatory. Wright. internodes short. 1.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. U. 1994. margin dentate.97%).. Sept. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. Odor characteristic. beta-gurjunene.W.3 antiprotozoal. myrtenol (5. Chem. Ebizuka. J. Lee and J. the plant has been used to treat colds.1 In Chinese traditional medicine. Leaves.B... Microbiol. and U. The plant also contains diterpenes. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1. C. and amoebiasis. T. D’Amelio. 1973.

well over one hundred compounds. matricarin. hollow receptacles. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. lotions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. alpha-bisabolol. etc. healing tonic. or only a slight membraneous crown. and without a pappus. apigenins. bisabolene. anti-inflammatory. corolla white. borneol. Odor pleasant. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. calendula. New York southward. chlorogenic acid. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. creams. see the bibliography at the end of the book. For further reading.5 5-ribbed. farnesol. oblanceolate. usually reflexed. Constituents Essential oil. perfect. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. taste aromatic and bitter. pappus none. ray-florets from 10 to 20. furfural. aromatic. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. peduncles light green to brownish-green. disk-florets tubular. and mullein in shampoo rinses. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. pistillate. Chamomile contains azulene. involucre hemispherical. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. naturalized in the United States. longitudinally furrowed. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. and pubescent scales. It is a carminative. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. three-toothed and four-veined. chamazulene.

and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. Description A resinous. Chaparral is a source of N. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Also used on skin rashes and infections. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. The flowers normally occur in January through May. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. restoring.D. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. Yellow flowers have five petals. Properties Good for softening. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall.A. It is native to the southwestern United States. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov.. 3/8 in. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. Gobonadorra Greasewood. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. The leaves grow in opposite pairs. long. and stimulating the skin.G.

quercetin). The taste is astringent and pungent.D. astringent. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. gossypetin. tannins. 8th ed.A.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. south to Florida and Texas. bitteralmond-like when moistened. However. is brownish-black. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. granular and slightly fibrous. Merck Index.). which can be peeled. partially peeled. The odor is aromatic. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. and 4 mm in thickness. and uneven. The fracture is weak. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. 5 cm in width. 747. this has not been thoroughly investigated. The outer surface. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. will add body to hair. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. brittle.. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. and unpeeled. Constituents Aspartic acid. CHERRY BARK. camphor. a powerful antioxidant. phenolic acids. 1.G. it is finely striated and fissured. if unpeeled. Properties Soothing.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. p. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing.CHERRY BARK. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. sedating. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

vulnerary. annual. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. carboxylic acids. All Europe. Can be used in creams. lotions. baths. rooting at the nodes. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. indolent ulcers.1 mucilage. 1⁄6 to 1 in. triterpene gyycosides. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. and facial steams. saponins. flowers white. coumarins. swelling. white bird’s eye. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. stems slender. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. For inflammed eyes. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . small capsule. emollient.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. gamma-linolenic acid. psoriasis. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. high. axillary stalks and in terminal. tocopherols. rutin. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. redness of face erysipelas. small. on slender. leafy cymes. satin flower. leaves ovate. Properties Antipruritic. opposite. entire. the lower petioled. with a line of hairs along one side. acute. Description A weak. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. fatty acids and minerals. fruit a many-seeded. creeping or ascending. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. the uppermost sessile.

Steven Foster. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters. spreading... It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. protein. sores. densely hairy on both sides. J. thickets.. 2nd ed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Flowers 2 cm. FL. 1992.. petals spreading. sterols.. 2... In 1770. Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods..... mental escape from reality. behenic acid. vitalbiosides. each 3 to 10 cm.. Duke. stalked leaflets.. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba. clematine.. grey. June to August. A/B. each with long styles with dense.. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches. said to have antibiotic properties.. it is used for dementia. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy).... John Wiley & Sons. Description A robust.. Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants.. Leung. white hairs. New York. Caryophyllum.... most of Europe. and conspicuous.. fragrant. Constituents Caffeic acid... *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard. Y. antiscrofulous properties.) Bull. Carophyllus aromaticus L... Fruit with numerous carpels. feather fruit clusters.. indifference. CINCHONA. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng.. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion.. Boca Raton. et Herr.. and inflammation.. CRC Press... woody. inattentativeness.....CLOVES 81 1.. chlorogenic acid. 1996. melissic acid. hedges.. rubefacient. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients.. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval... CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L. in lax terminal and axillary clusters.See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L.

82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. J. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lipids. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. Nepal. with numerous ovules. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. and has carminative properties.E. Williams & Wilkins. and somewhat four-angled. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. Robbers. E.K. flavonoids. style 1. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. protein. and incurved. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. ovary twolocular. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa.5 mm in length. It is native to India.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. and Thailand... It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. dark brown. stamens numerous. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. 1. odor strongly aromatic. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. The buds also contain sterols. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. Speedie. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. Burma. and others. Sri Lanka. followed by a slight numbness. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. which alternate with the calyx teeth. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. taste pungent and aromatic.. and Tyler. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root. antispasmodic. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. afterwards very pungent. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. It lowers blood pressure. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. carbohydrates. vitamins. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. J. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. crowded. glandular-punctate petals. where it is widely cultivated.

pubescent. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. Kronenthal.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. All Europe. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. 1998. landslides. R. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. glabrous above.L. Properties 9-nerved. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. faintly herbaceous. The younger leaves densely white. tussillagine. minerals. 1996. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. ground.. palmately 5. it is said to help relieve asthma. blade very brittle. Personal communication. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. deeply cordate at the base. senkirkine. London. screens. When the leaves are dried. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. floccose beneath. mucilage. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. carotenoids. Chevallier. slightly wrinkled. 3. 83. flavonoids. Description Petiole long.. A. banks. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. tussilagone and essential oil. Constituents Tannins. Odor indistinct. terpene alcohols. taste mucilaginous. and smoked like tobacco. river gravels. bitter.

and Fasulo M. shampoos. a very powerful cell proliferent. Healing Herb. Mascolo N.. 944. lotions. fractures. marshes..P. feebly astringent taste. Fillipendula. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). Autoreg. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. up to 10 in. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. phenolics. Menghini A.7%). Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. 1987. Description The lower. chlorogenic. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. and lithospermic acids. alkaloids. cone flower. Bruiswort.. Most of Europe. asparagine (1–3%). aloe. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Knitbone Part Used: Root. Comfrey can be used in creams.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. caffeic. very hairy. douches. and has a mucilaginous. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. anti-inflammatory. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. It is almost inodorous. on wounds. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. ointments.) Comfrey is also an astringent. radical leaves are very large. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). antihemorrhagic. and demulcent. I.2–4. althea. The powder is green in color. long.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. Capassa F. Blackwort. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. B-sitosterol amino cids. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. Phytotherapy Res. hair rinses. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. watersides. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum... salves.

93 0. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.26 0.93 0.0 3.176 0.30 1.11 25.92 0.99 1.10 0.84 4.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.79 275.51 4. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.085 0.600 0.0 30.0 15.208 100. Dig.0 0.78 7.0 7.0 0.8 213.142 0.47 1.285 0.18 2.41 0.86 49.59 0.50 1101100.59 2.72 1.0 1200.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.92 0.19 5.29 44.7 0.58 5.1 Dry matter 30.8 44. for cattle Maint.456 0.00 57 34 34 1.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.795 0.07 100.65 0. Nutrients Calc. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.7 0.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Net Energy therms cwt Calc.20 0.05 0.624 8. A equiv.14 8.480 0.74 0. energy therms cwt Prod.01 24.0 100 g 4.2 0.14 49.73 28.01 14.8 2.0 5.19 0.037 17.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.111 1.61 0.89 0.40 0.10 19600 10 6 28 0.7 7.

firm.. horny texture.See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L. and dark color. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin.. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia. promotes tissue repair.. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf. Europe. reduces inflammation and clotting. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L... riverbanks. externally wrinkled.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey.... Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped. Good when used in burn creams. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark...... *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. Blackwort. woodland. and has a sweetish. branched... occasionally dark brown in color. feebly astringent taste.. Healing Comfrey Herb..... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. creates astringency.. often more than 2.. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable.... North Africa. internally creamy white. mucilaginous. cultivated extensively..5 cm thick and 30 cm long.. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland... It is almost inodorous.. CONE FLOWER. Bruiswort.

phenolic acids (caffeic. tangentially elongated. eliptical oil ducts. and flavors. flavonoids (quertcetin. tannin. toothpaste. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. ferulic). each mericarp with five prominent. camphor. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. etc. The essential oil is used in massage oils. frequently with numerous large. Properties Has been used in body lotions. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool.). Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. undulate secondary ribs. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. cremocarp nearly globular. two or three layers of large. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . p-cymene. rutin). fatty acids. perfumes. coumaric. -terpinene. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. chlorogenic. endocarp of large tabular cells. mericarps easily separated. toilet waters and after shaves. geraniol and geranyl acetate. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. straight. limonene. deodorants.

marginal corollas funnelform. more or less floccose. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or as a compress for tired eyes. scrapes. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. blue. conjunctivitis. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. For aging skin. Virginia. California. floccose. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. native of Europe. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. heads long-peduncled. involucres round-ureolate. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. it is soothing and emollient. ascending branches. with slender. Description Annual. about 15 mm high. bracts greenish-yellow. and various skin complaints. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. varying to rose or white. stem 3 to 7 dm high. Quebec. British Columbia. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings.

polygalacturonic acids. cultivated extensively. Topically very soothing and softening. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. and 0. proline. saponins. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. vitamin C. yellow or light brown color. the basal trichomes 50. purplish-red. Europe. spiral or annular tracheae. and from 0. and temperate Asia. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length.8 m in length. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. tocopherols. alanine. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. maizeric acid.4 to 3 mm in length. the epidermal cells rectangular. stigmas bifid. palmitic acid. stigmasterol. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. tannin. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. protein. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. light green. Constituents Acetanapthene.2 to 0. segments very slender. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. potassium.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside.4 mm in diameter. frequently unequal. spherical nucleus. cyanidin glucoside. cichorin. protocyanin. fixed oil. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. minerals. CORN SILK Zea mays L. arginine. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. flavonoids (Maysin). cnicin. corn silk. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. the upper portion being usually unicellular. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain.

For blotchiness of skin. and for chapped skin or sunburn. Constituents Saponins.. with oval. Springer-Verlag. odor.... Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis... five-lobed. Wagner. broad hairy leaves... about 1 cm in diameter. Properties Stimulate circulation. and spotted with orange at the throat. and refreshing. apricot-like....M. and 3-gentiotrioside.. and coughs.. *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. phenolic acids. 1984. H. campferol dirhamnoside....... S. in face creams.. Both the fruit and seeds are employed.. Berlin. sunburn.. According to the German Commission Monograph E. sweetish.90 CRESS.. minerals. quercetin).. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging).. 176.... flavonoids (gossypetin. enzyme (primeverase). Plant Drug Analysis. hairy perennial. yellow.SEE WATERCRESS Description A short.. phytosterol.. and E.. colds.. Zgalinski. amino acids. cooling.... used for catarrh of the respiratory tract... slightly curved. dark green fruits. 1.. cucurbitacins.. p..See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L.. astringent.. Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. and cylindrical. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles. Description This trailing annual has rough stems. Blatt.... often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America.. volatile oils. Constituents Vitamins.. wrinkled leaves. fatty acids. Taste.. Hydrating. The flowers are tubular.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties... CRESS... tubular yellow flowers. soothing eye compress..

the acute lobes are directed toward the base. where it is a common weed. Stomata are present in both epidermises.0 cm long and 0. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. and for various skin complaints and eczema. approximating 90°. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. yellow-brown and sometimes purple. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. naturalized in the United States. 0. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous.5 to 1.S.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum. Foreign Dandelion. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. Frequent pieces of cut.5 cm wide.5 cm wide. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. ending in a spherical secreting cell. with a pronounced midrib. dark green or brown-green in color. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide.

92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). It is also considered a blood purifier. as a diuretic. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile. the root has been used to treat inflammation. The white sap has been used to treat warts. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vitamin B and C. probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. and is especially high in potassium.

where it is a common weed. and wrinkled longitudinally. becomes tough when slightly moist. but a bitter taste. The drug. glucoside.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. it tapers but little below. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. and sterols. whitish and fleshy within. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. It has no odor. also ca. but often divides into several erect branches. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. which toward the upper part. and a layer of cork externally. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents See Dandelion leaves. the latter sometimes remains simple. a narrow cortex. vitamins and minerals. surrounded by a thick. It attains a length of about 30 cm. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. straight root. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith.1% mucilage. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. and the eudesmanolides. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. flavonoids. The dried root is dark brown. milky latex exudes. and its derivative taraxacoside.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. naturalized in the United States. carotenoids. 1. porous. whitish bark in which numerous. brownish concentric rings of sieve. which have not been found anywhere else. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. with concentric rings as in the root. much shriveled. Description The root consists of a simple. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). which is rather hygroscopic. the section exhibiting a yellow.

flavonoids. slightly analgesic.. procumbide). The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. 1. (oleanolic acid. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. polyphenols. with some fan-shaped pieces. triterpenes. The plant produces bright red flowers. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. claw-like fruit. occasionally with cavities. ursolic acid) phytosterols. Odor slight. 1992. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Xylem radiate. chlorogenic acid. heavily concentric.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. bitter. taste astringent. Lanhers. polysaccharides.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. rheumatism).5 cm thick. 58. light grey-brown. Antiphlogistic. M. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. et al. hooked.. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. Description It has a characteristic large..-C. Planta Med. 117. Fracture short. quinones.

aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pallida. Black Sampson. (Nutt. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. Hedgehog Part Used: Root.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. Part Used: Root. Moench. Black Susans. E. E. Indian head.) Nutt. Scurvy Root. L.. purpurea.

stings. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. aromatic. Odor faint. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. bark less than 1 mm thick. or furrowed. cylindrical. ulcers. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. etc. burns. fracture short. bed sores. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. sieve tissue in radial rows. taste sweetish. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. or poisonous insects. wounds. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fibrous. slightly annulate in the upper portion. For example. or purplish-brown. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. use for snake bite. bites. blood purification. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. externally grayish-brown. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. When administered orally. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. light brown. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. boils. wound healing. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite.

and Interferon-B2. It also increases T-cell proliferation.3 Furthermore. indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. TNF-X. this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities. Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii). interleukin-1 (IL-1).

isobutylamide of undeca (2E..1%).. These include aliphatic amides. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0. In E. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus. including an essential oil. angustifolia. purpurea (0. • Polysaccharides. angustifolia.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid.4E. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood.5 Furthermore. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . albicans pathogens. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro. pallida. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea.8Z. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan.7% (except in E. purpurea and E.g. pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. purpurea)].4Z-diene8.g. in vivo.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. Present in both E.6–2. arabinoga lactan). chlorogenic acid.3–1. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. which is useful for species identification.10E)-tetraenoic acid). ferulates of tartaric. – The mono. but practically absent in E. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. angustifolia).

Christiane. Holger. O. Steinmueller. B.744. 1991. 669-675. J. 1989. 2787-2794. Intn. (Bethesda).L. I. Loesch. 13(1). 5. 4. Gifford. J. E. Zawatzky. Vet. Natl. 36(5). Luettig. Jurcic. 81(8). Albrecht. R.. R. 3. Arzneim-Forsch.H. 1988. A. J. Puhlmann. H. H. N.345.-L. Immuno Pharmacol. and R. Ser. Bauer. Becker. Cancer Inst. and M. Wagner. Wagner. 27-38.. 353-364. G.. Phytochemistry.. Lohmann-Matthes. 38(2). Lohmann. and H. Klumpp and U. Wuerdinger. J. 27(9). Med. Wagner. Zenk. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and J. Brouillard.E. M. Andreas. Wagner. 6. Schranner. J.. K. H. B.. 1989.Matthes. C. 1989 2. Ger Offen De 3. 276-281. Cheminat.ECHINACEA 99 1. Roesler. K. 1988. S. M.

Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. inflammation. stamens five. having three pores and up to 0. flat or slightly campanulate. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). sterols. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. regularly five-lobed. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . triterpenes (alpha. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree.and beta-amyrin). sambunigrin). rotate. covered with finely punctate markings. tumors. volatile oils. minerals.023 mm in diameter. rutin. soreness. and tannins. yellow. filaments. It is said to reduce swellings.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. south to Florida and Texas. astragalin. ursolic acid. Description Small. taste slightly bitter. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. joint stiffness etc. five-lobed. calyx superior. from 2 to 3 mm in width. slender anthers oblong. mucilage. shriveled. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba.

Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. central Europe. roots cylindrical and tapering. south to North Carolina. wounds. frequently curved or irregularly curled. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. as a bactericide. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone.) strongly lignified wood fibers. and pungent. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. bitter. and rashes. fracture short and horny. asthma. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. and separated by large intercellular spaces. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. west to Missouri. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large.5 cm in diameter. and catarrh. up to 13 cm in length and 1. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. Scabwort. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. naturalized in northeastern North America.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. taste acrid. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. itching skin. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. Odor aromatic. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark.

Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. sterols. isolantolactone. germacrene-D-lactose). inulin. triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. polyacetylene. friedelin).

Description It is an elegant little annual plant. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. broad. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. high. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. always deeply cut-in teeth. Hemostatic. has a bitter and astringent taste. Astringent tonic. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. resin. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. Europe. however. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . their margins. heaths. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. The stem is erect and wiry. woolly beneath. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). odor characteristically aromatic. and at other times pointed and narrow. essential oil. either unbranched in small specimens. sessile. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. small. but sometimes tinged with brown. heads numerous. green above. long and about in.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. 2 to 8 in. It is odorless. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. Description Stems white-woolly. or with many opposite branches. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. Constituents Tannins. febrifuge. 1 ⁄6 to in. The leaves are sometimes almost round. revolute or undulate. and phytosterin. woodland. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. Also has slight Anodyne properties. taste bitter and aromatic. obtuse bracts which are white.

Euphrasia contains glycosides. inflammation of the eyelid. conjunctivitis. Constituents Aucubin. poultices. minerals. caffeic acid. including aucubin. ferulic acid. inflamation of the blood vessels. and various skin conditions. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. and a volatile oil.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. lotions or drops for eye complaints. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. gallotannins. catapol. geniposide. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . luproside.

Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. United States. It is * Formerly CTFA. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. dorsal surface convex. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. south to Florida and Texas. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. Description Mericarps usually separate. composed of polygonal cells. conical stylopod. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts.5 mm in breadth. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . For use in eye washes. New Jersey. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. brown walls. making usually six oil ducts in all. more or less curved. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. strongly lignified fibers. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened.

thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. and flavonoids. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. is strong and spicy. including -pinene. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. the taste is disagreeable and oily. and flattened. the radicle being accumbent. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. the fruits contain a fixed oil. anisaldehyde. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. they are hard.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. Nearly in the center of one of the long. and Turkey. cultivated in India. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. protein. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. especially if powdered. -phellandrene. dark. translucent endosperm. the former appearing as a whitish point. and limonene. 2 to 3 mm wide. there are methylchavicol. Pakistan. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. In addition. yellowish-brown. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . horny. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. However. and 2 mm thick. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. Israel. In addition. organic acids. The odor of Fenugreek. Soaked in water.

diosgenin. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. choline. cystine. Square stalk. hedges. trigonelline. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. choline. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. fenugreakin. Scrofula plant. and various skin irritations. sores. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. yamogenin. tumors. damp copses. wounds. mucilage. It is also used as a galactagogue. glutamic acid. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. Fenugreek contains mucilage. swollen glands. trigofoenoside A-G. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. in woods. aspartic acid. neurosis. Constituents Dioscin. mucin. glycine. A poultice has been employed for gout. histidine. and banks. flowering from July to October.

adnate to the upper side. thyrsoid panicles. veined. rounded. of a deep-green color. and knotty root. on axillary and terminal.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. and circulatory stimulant. Constituents Saponins. forked. sublabiate. with a livid purple lip. 3 to 4 in. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. tuberous. in length. having a green scale or sterile filament. acute. acutish or broadly cordate at base. ovoid. 2 to 4 ft in height. erect. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. quadrangular. sharply and unequally serrated. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. and slightly margined. which are broadly ovate. dark purple. smooth stem. the limb contracted. The flowers are small. slightly drooping. The calyx is in five segments. ovate-oblong. with a leafy. ovate. whitish. long. the corolla of a dull green color. The leaves are opposite. cleansing. obtuse. with paniculate. and 3 to 7 in. and subglobose. anodyne. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alkaloids and flavonoids. hesperetin. petiolate. lecithin. or the upper lanceolate. cardio-active glycosides. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. opposite branches above.

tannins. 2 or 3 lines in width. but are inodorous when dried. numerous and scattered. Calyx 4-toothed. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. astringent. and is hairy at the joints. fatty acids. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). and n-alkanes. in length. Description Galium aparine is an annual. and astringent. coumarins. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. cleansing. tapering to the base. stamens 4 and short. procumbent. and along banks of rivers. succulent plant. corolla rotate and 4-parted. and rough on the margins.or 2-flowered. and flowering from June to September. styles 2. and bitter taste. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. phenolic acids. flavonoids. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. moist thickets. these plants have an unpleasant odor. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. quadrangular. small. with hooked prickles. sevens. and Burdock. In a green state. verticillate in sixes. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. including psoriasis. retrorsely prickled stem. or eights.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. with an acidulous. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Catch-weed. the peduncles are axillary and 1. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. The fruit is large and bristly. GARLIC Allium sativum L. with a weak. mucronate. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. the flowers white. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. growing in cultivated grounds. sterols. and midrib. Stinging Nettle.

thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. g-glutamyl). each bulbil covered by whitish. antiviral. and E. membranaceous. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. cultivated extensively.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia.750 mm in diameter. sores. base truncate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. scordinins. pimples. Garlic is diaphoretic. spasmolytic. peptides. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. promotes leucocytosis. and attached to a flattened circular base. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. expectorant. membranaceous scales. allicin — dialltrisulfide. Italy is a large producer. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. However. (alliin. trace minerals. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. about 0. Description Bulb subglobular. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. antiseptic. for obvious reasons. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. surrounded by whitish. Constituents Sulfur compounds. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. C. The membranaceous scales. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. scale-like leaves. dry leaf. B. It has been applied successfully to swellings. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. compound. and acne. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. Properties Cosmetically. Internally. and fructans. Vitamins A. the outer surface convex. taste intensely pungent and persistent. in place of butter. bacteriostatic. hypotensive and anthelmintic. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. Garlic does not lend itself. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. with 8 to 15 bulbils. apex acute.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is recommended for loss of appetite. sialagogue. phenolic acids. gastric stimulant. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. swertiamarin). and middle western United States. amarogentin. volatile oils. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. but are usually shorter. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. then strongly bitter. cleansing. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. The cambiam zone is dark brown. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. that of the root. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith.5 dm in length. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. polysaccharide. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. anti-inflammatory. These roots measure up to 8. Properties Gentian is an astringent. The taste is first sweet. The odor is aromatic. Cranesbill.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. sweroside. but pliable when it is moist. and to 37 mm in diameter. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. and cholagogue. xanthones. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. and alkaloids (gentiamine). bitter. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America.



Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.

Wild alum

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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome

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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf

Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.


Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.

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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root

Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.

Ginseng root (american) cultivated

Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its

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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.

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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.

GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves

Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.

Golden rod (Solidago)

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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome

Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.

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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.

GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part

Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near

Gotu kola

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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin

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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.

GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit

Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract

Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.

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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf

Green tea

Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.

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which can be used in various sun-care products.. conditioning. gallo catechins). theophylline). lotions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannins (catechins. shampoos. creams. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. and phenolic acids (caffeic. ferulic). theobromine. hair rinses. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. etc.


fatty acids. Externally. phenolic acids. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. and dimeric procyanidin. leaves. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. Description The fruits are small berries. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. and externally wrinkled. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. with five parts. and central and northern Asia. Cosmetically. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. and frost bite. Monogyna (jacq. catechin. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . vitexin glucosides. quercetin and glucosides). Medically.C. purple-brown to brown in color. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. sores. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris.) C. it has been used as a wash for itching. Properties Flowers.

Calendula. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. with occasional stems and brown. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. simple. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. astringent. 4-napthoquinone). l. R. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. It will not impart any color to the hair. glabrous. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. fruit. and decolorized by a special extraction process. often imported in coarse powder. Sci. triangular pitted seeds. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. 319. tapering at the base. et al. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. small. 2 to 3 cm long. fading on the addition of acid. acids destroy its properties. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant.. 51. shortly petiolate. It is also said to be cooling. Chamomile.126 HENNA 1. (2-hydroxy. hair rinses. Description Leaves greenish-brown.. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. oblong or broadly lanceolate. deepening with alkalies. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. as henna. Persia. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. However. mucronate. Arabia. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. It will add body and highlights to hair. 1983. India. however. entire. Pharm. opposite. and conditioners. in an aqueous solution. It can be used in shampoos. brown. etc. Della Loggia. decoction orange-brown. 1 to 2 cm wide.

flavonoids. owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. and New Zealand. Description Honey is a viscid. It becomes partially crystalline. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chile. fatty acids. and semi-solid on keeping. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. (glucosides of apigenin. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. Australia. various parts of Africa. luteolin).HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. and tannins. California. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. orange blossom. Honey obtained from heather. phenolic acid. translucent. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°.4-napthoquinone).

HOPS Humulus lupulus L. formic acid. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). It has been used on crural ulcers. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin). Hops is a sedative. face creams. it will reduce swellings. consisting mainly of humulene. xanthahumol). and alleviates pain and itching. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. bitter principles. volatile oil. The individual bracts are thin and papery. and tannins. Bark Bongay. bactericidal. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. dextrin. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. and pollen grains. In combination with Chamomile. and hair conditioning. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. The taste is pungent and bitter. one margin is flat. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. Hops is a strobulus. The strobiles measure 5. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. Useful in treatment of dandruff. tannins. humulene. and discoloration. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. lupulone. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. sores. wax. hypnotic. It contains small quantities of sucrose. the veins are elevated. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. ringworm. Asia. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. will give body to the hair. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish.brown. The odor is aromatic. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. tetters. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. The nut has a slight. Increases venous tone. is subglobular. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. Description A perennial . phlebitis. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. The aqueous infusion is bitter. yellowish-white in color. stimulates digestion and circulation. varicose veins. large rough leaves. increases circulation. and swellings. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. fawn-colored. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. tendonitis. peculiar odor. The root has antimicrobial properties. The internal portion is starchy. with a shining. vasoconstrictor. is nearly odorless. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. when dry. bitter taste. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. compressed. from 1 to 1 in. chestnut-brown testa. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. lotions. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The bark is thin. Properties Cosmetically. and slimming products. quercetin). Properties Astringent. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. Constituents Saponins (aescin. It has been used in cellulitis. Gaertn et Schert. fleshy roots. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. aesculin). sprains and various sports injuries. phenolic acids. The nut. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. and non-astringent. iron gives a green precipitate. hand creams. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. in diameter. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. The plant has long.25–0. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. The inner bark has a rough. bitter taste. Anti-inflammatory. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. and has an unpleasant.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. and tannin. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. nearly an inch in diameter. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. and hemorrhoids.

5 to 10 mm. 10 to 14 furrowed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . branches 3 to 4 angled. branched. greasy skin. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. as the fresh juice can be irritating. 2 to 4 cm long. which would validate its use on blemished. However. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. thick. high. causing the skin to blister.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. and Eurasia. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. mostly with sterile spores. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate.5 dm. rarely with a few branches. 1 to 3. Greenland. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and.5 dm. Alaska. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. high. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. yields 0. thick. acuminate.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. cones peduncled. South Carolina. However. 2 to 3 mm. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. after crushing and moistening. sterile stems decumbent to erect. California. solid.

The flowers are bluish-purple. Its stems are quadrangular. sunny sites. usually oblong-linear. saponin (equisetonin). and diverging. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. gangrenous ulcers. astringent. and equistetolic acid. The leaves are opposite. kaempferol. with the middle obe larger. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. lower lip trifid. but smaller. protruding. acute. healing. minerals. Will add strength and sheen to hair. anthers with linear divaricating cells. Used for putrid wounds. entire. flat. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. erect. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with the middle of the corolla erect. the branches are rod-like. spreading. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. emarginate. It is diuretic. rather thick. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. second whorls.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. apigenin). sessile. phenolic acids. acute. and borne in racemose. sometimes narrower. woody at the base. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. Upper lip of the corolla. Stamens 4. palustrine alkaloid. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. punctate. and external bleeding. sometimes elliptical. flat. seldom white. silicic acid. southern Europe. or lanceolate. very much branched. and 1 ribbed underneath. and 1 to 2 ft in height. green on each side. scarcely shorter than the calyx. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. spreading. emarginate.

132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. Constituents Volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and resin. marrubin. phenolic acids. ursolic acid. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. gum. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. flavonoid glycosides. Tannin. oleanic acid.

marubiin. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. the upper being the largest. cordatereniform. with a prostrate. crenate. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . luteolin [cynaroside]. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. The flowers are bluish-purple. volatile oil. radicating at base. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. North America. about three together in axillary whorls. villous. forming the appearance of a cross. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. hairy herb. creeping stem. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. phenolic acids. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. hairy. and glaucous on both sides. gray. Also useful in cough preparations. * Formerly CTFA. amino acids. decongesting tonic. The floral leaves are of the same form. Europe to Caucasus. with a varegated throat. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). The calyx is long. though often purplish beneath. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). the limb oblique. curved. opposite. square. The leaves are petiolate. roundish. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells.

it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. However. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. Ivy has been used in face packs. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. control of cellulite. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. molluscicidal. anthelmintic. or Ivy gum). rather fragrant odor. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Europe. This plant is common all over Europe. antimutagenic. It is acrid.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. aromatic odor. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. Properties Anti-fungal. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. sun or shade. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. The former possesses a peculiar. faintly bitter. and when heated emits a pleasant. Description An evergreen climber. exudes from the incised bark. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. and introduced into North America. Scandinavia.

IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . . flavonoids.and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides. hederacoside. phenolic acids. and fatty acids. malic acid. hederacoside C (5%).


The upper surface is yellowish-green. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. smooth. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. The odor is slight. dull. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. and stems. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. The leaves are compound. stalks. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. and the veins are elevated. The blades are asymmetric.5 cm. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. The under surface is yellowish-green. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. The taste is salty and bitter.

conditioners. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. colocynth. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. hair rinses. Leaves opposite. eugenol. pilocarpic acid. calyx linear. It induces salivary. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. Combines well with Nettles. It increases intestinal motility. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. and sweat hypersecretion. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. It can be used in shampoos. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. gels. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hair tonics. Constituents Essential oil. volatile oil. containing benzylacetate. very sweet-scented flowers. isamone. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. skin creams. more than half as long as the corolla tube. and farnesol. isopilocarpine). Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. jaboric acid. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. gastric. antiglaucoma agent. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. the terminal leaflet larger. It contains pilocarpine. and mullein as a hair tonic. and soaps. tincture of Capsicum. jaborino. benzyl alcohol. lotions.

skin care products. algin. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. each bearing an expanded blade.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. benefits the skin. hair products. and many trace minerals and micronutrients. Nourishing. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors. see Chapter 7. (For additional information.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. Constituents Iodine. potassium. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. restoring. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Vesicles large. dissolving. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. softening.


141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antipyretic. and lotions. shampoos. dandruff. Antimicrobial properties. wide. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. analgesic. and similar skin problems. The flowers are in branched panicles. Approximately 30 species have been identified. southern India and Sri Lanka. and antifungal. triterpenoids.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. and alkaloid. creams. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. antioxidant. tropical habitats in dry soil.

skin creams.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. cleanse the skin. Liquorice Root. Constituents Essential oil. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). Russia. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. and Hungary. odor fragrant.) Burman F. Properties Healing antiseptic. Glycyrrhizae Radix. skin bleach. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. Sweet Wood. southern Europe. distinctive.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and cleansers. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. bacteriastatic. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. When taken on an empty stomach. taste aromatic. dilute it with water. giving relief. It is aromatic and astringent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. phenolic acids. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. and close the pores.

antiviral. Externally. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. eczema. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. Internally. longitudinally wrinkled. somewhat tapering. and cysts. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. sometimes split longitudinally. antihepatotoxic. pruritus. Properties Good for skin eruptions. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. anti-infectant. Its odor is distinctive. antiseptic. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. Anti-inflammatory. Internally. its taste is sweetish. it is yellow and radiate. including dermatitis. antiphlogistic. The upper portion is more or less knotty. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. it is externally pale yellow.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. when deprived of the outer corky layer. antibacterial. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. neoisoliquiritin. licoisoflavones A and B. glabrone. licochalcones A and B. amines. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. Basswood.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. lignin. 4’. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. sterols. B-amyrin. White Wood. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). glabronin etc. etc. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. licoisoflavanone. licuraside. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. bracts Flowers. kumatakenin. Linn Tree.). neoliquiritin. bracts N/S Flowers. licoricone. 4-hydroxychalcone. isoglabrolide. coumarins. 2 to 20% starch.7-dihydoxyflavone. bracts N/S Flowers. Europe. isoliquiritin. amino acids. glycyrrhetol. glabrol. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. liquiritin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . liquiritigenin. licoric acid. echinatin. etc. glyzarin. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. gum wax. glabrolide. On hydrolysis. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol.). rhamnoisoliquiritin. glycyrol. formononetin.). limestone.

are oblong or lanceolate. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. When fresh. which are axillary. when dry. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). Emollient. leaf-like bract. linear. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. For bruises and to reduce swelling. Internally. The petals are five and whitish. odor is agreeable. faint. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. or approach yellow.

mucilage. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems.5 to 1. J.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. The fruit is a cremocarp. caffeic). lotions. cultivated in central and southern Europe. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. dark green.0% volatile oil. volatile oil. Coumarins. W. and perfumes. gum. tannins. D. naturalized in North America. creams. Description Lovage has large. high amount of uronic acid. sterols. Smallage. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage. Maggi Herb. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. kaempferol). Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. The rhizome and root are aromatic. and resin are also 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0.

Properties In rinses. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. and with blackish roots. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. Constituents Adiantone. astragalin.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. The odor is slight. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. mucilage. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. blackish. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. quinic acid. The rhizomes are horizontal. They consist of long. and shining frond bases. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. slender. adiantoxide. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and then into several spreading pinnae. phenolic acids and their sulfates. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. first into two recurving. tannin. pedately branching at the summit. primary forks.

blotchiness. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. and slightly elevated. Useful in eye preparations. and fruits. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is not distinct. Properties Soothing and softening. The taste is mucilaginous. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. the veins are palmate. and insect bites. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. niacin. These flowers are oblanceolate. curved peduncle. Relieves itching. mostly ligulate. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. distinct. spasmodic colitis. protective. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. British Columbia to Mexico. Emollient for sensitive skin. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. The individual flowers are yellow. The flower heads have a short. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. naturalized in North America. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. greenish-gray bracts. thick. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. The texture is herbaceous. Medicinally used in cough preparations. flowers. Mary-bud. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. and phenolic acids. The blade is cordate at the base. the veins are elevated. Holligold. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. hairy.



The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root

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yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops

Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.


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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.

MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root

Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.

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Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb

Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)

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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers

Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied

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Mullein (plant)

to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin

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3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. diuretic. powdery. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. sore throats. It is said to promote granulation. bitter. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. diaphoretic. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. The odor is aromatic. Myrrh is used in incense. and acrid. mildly expectorant. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. The fracture is conchoidal. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. Used for halitosis. It is said to bring forth the gods. The taste is pungent. carminative. engler) The surface is dull. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. antifungal. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. for example.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. and anti-inflammatory.

The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. creamy white flowers.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. Constituents Yields 0. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange. and blue-black berries. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds. and nerol). *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. cineole. geraniol.2 to 0. camphene. on bruises and hemorrhoids.

. common to Europe and the United States. (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle. and epistaxis malaena. Stimulates hair growth. beta-carotene. flowering from June to September... and for cutaneous eruptions. sterols. growing in waste places.. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy. by woodsides. minerals (high amount).. Urtica urens L. and in gardens... Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant.N NASTURTIUM . herbaceous. Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant. and isorhamnetin)... dull-green plant. which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed.. kaempferol.... Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic... Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description This plant is a perennial... acetyl choline.. See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll... choline. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles.. Nettles has been used as an astringent... nervous eczema. serotonin).. in hedges. amines (histamine.... formic and citric acids.....


outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. the apex pointed. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. Texas. rarely. up to 1. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. and the Yukon. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . two-veined palet or scale. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. a scar or.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. the base somewhat contracted. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). taste starchy. Florida. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove.O OATS Avena sativa L. within the groove a narrow. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. above the center. thinly membranous. Odor slight. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. tapering toward each end. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle.

hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. elliptical stomata up to about 0. highly refringent and truncate. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. The leaves are opposite. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. shingles. eczema. these are elongated thick-walled. lignified walls. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. subsessile. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. bent here and there. polyphenols. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . partially beaded. the cells filled with protein. The drug tastes bitter. Properties Benefits the skin. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. pointed hairs. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. straight or slightly curved. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. avenacin). rarely over 25 ft in height. lignified. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. sleeplessness. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. Description The tree is small. Medically. some of which give rise to unicellular. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. entire and coriaceous. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. less heavily developed tissue. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. and herpes. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. unicellular hairs with lignified walls.

. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. yellow globe. hypoglycemic. 1. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. 1991. also hollow. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). Planta Med. diuretic. 513. ligustroside. antifungal.. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. M.. hypotensive. Gonzalez. 58. 1992. 2. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. ll-demethyl oleuropein.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . few of them have been studied experimentally. up to about 1. Planta Med. et al. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. Zarzuelo.. 417. 57. 7. et al. ONION Allium cepa L. and antimicrobial. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. and red globe onions. hypoglycemic.2 m high. A.

by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. reddish-orange. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. 7 to 8 cm globular. with bitter rind and sour flesh. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. very sweet-scented. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Description Leaves. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. introduced to Europe. white. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. 2 to 2 cm long. acute. fructans. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). Fruit. Flowers. oblong-oval. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1-propenesulfenic acid. alkyl and alkenylcysteines. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment.

It is often used as a flavor enhancer. neohesperidose (2-0. and bitter substances. short. flavonoids. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. tangeretin. such as hesperidin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cultivated widely in the subtropics. the sugar component of which. furanocoumarins. Constituents Essential oil (ca.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. with limonene as main constituent. It is also given internally.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose.2 to 0. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. more astringent than rose water. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. taste aromatic and bitter. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. with many slight. somewhat curved. minute pits. inner surface whitish.5%). and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. fracture hard. var. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. aromatic wash. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. used for oily skin and acne. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). considerable amounts of pectin. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. 0. conical projections and linear. rutoside. nobiletin. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. odor fragrant and aromatic. non-bitter flavonoids.

and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. skin creams for its flavonoids. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. taste pungently aromatic. sinensis L. Flavonoids. globules of volatile oil. It is also an aromatic. Cultivated in Florida and California. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. bitter and carminative. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. citronellal. sinensis Osbeck. odor fragrant. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. citral. and hesperidin.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. naringin. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. quercetin.

rheumatism.. stipules variable. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. spur short.g. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. impetigo. eczema. tannin. pruritus. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acne. but sometimes up to twice as long. tocopherol. anthocyanidin glycosides. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. gaultherin. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. leafy. antipyretic. magnesium tartrate. Constituents Essential oil. anti-inflammatory. violutoside. mucilage. e. Properties Used as a healing tonic. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. scoparine. very variable in size. flavonoids. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. Leaves variable. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. p-coumaric acid. rutin.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. galacturonic acid. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. Exerpt from German Commission E. meadows. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. and carotenoids. Monograph 6. arabinose. Petals usually longer than the sepals.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. Description Flowers mostly tricolored. but often palmately lobed with a larger. saponins.

vitamins. C14H2502N. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. carpinine (an alkaloid). shampoos. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. edible berry up to about 15 lb. Naturalized in southern Florida. etc. long petioled. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The fruit is a large melon-like. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. which resembles sinigrin. palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. with large. staminate and pistillate flowers. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. and minerals. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). Carpaine.

Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. taste woody and characteristic. kr = individual crystals. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. p = parenchyma. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. q = group of large fibers. m = outer lamella.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Odor faint.F. (After T.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. Veget. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. Vent.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. Regn. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. Kr´ = crystal rosettes. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels.2-benzenediol. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. papyrifora. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . margin dentate to crenate. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. Tabl. and B. ms = latex tubes.

3. apiole (18%). above-ground herb. compound umbels.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). Apium petroselinum. expectorant. hortense. and starch. B-phellandrene (12%). yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. fruit. spasmolytic. ex A. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. Germany. 8-methoxypsoralen. fruit.05 to 0. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. isopimpenillin. p-mentha-1. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. Belgium. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. and Hungary. and imperatorin. France. emmenagogue. aromatic. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil.8-triene (9%). Furocoumarins including bergapten. above-ground herb. apiin. diuretic. and antimicrobial. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown. cylindrical and striated stem about 0.) Nym. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. stout. (Mill. Other parts of the plant contain 0. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. antirheumatic. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. psoralen. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. taste faintly sweet. and others. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. P. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. Odor characteristic. sativum. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. The tap root is fusiform. W. green. extensively cultivated in California.

3 cm in width. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). mildly sedative. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . chlorogenic. triterpenes. phenolic acids (caffeic. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). the internodes are of variable length. and the veins are slightly depressed. They measure up to 9. cultivated in Japan and the United States. The odor is aromatic. The pith is white. carminative. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. The calyx is campanulate. rosemarinic). sitosterols. The cortex and wood are thin. The outline is quadrangular. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. broad.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. menthone (10 to 40%). the leaves are opposite decussate.5 cm in length and to 3. The apex is acute. and the veins are more prominent. as it contains flavonoids. Properties Stimulant. hair tonics. the texture is fibrous. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. The corolla is united and tubular below. and the veins are slightly depressed. its five teeth are subulate. and the color varies from green to purple. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. The blade measures up to 7. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. cholagogue. naturalized in North America. flavonoids (luteolin. large. and solid or hollow. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. four-lobed above. menthofuran. The fracture is tough and incomplete. The flowers are arranged in dense. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. The bracts are lanceolate. south to Florida and Alabama. tonic. its color varies from light to dark purple. spasmolytic. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. The margin is sharply serrate. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. rutin. The stems are simple or branched.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. cineole. The nodes are enlarged. The under surface is light green. hesperidin). and minerals. notably viridoflorol. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. ursolic acid. antiseptic. interrupted spikes. The under surface is light green.

astringent. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. and ursolic acid.5 to 3 cm broad. hypotensive. vulnerary sedative. they are different. the lobes obovate. corolla blue. trailing. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. a standardized extract should be used. flavonoids. tannins. native of Europe. 1 to 6 dm long. as well as Europe. dark green. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. firm. 1. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. shining. Description Stem spreading. vasodilator. Properties Used as a hemostatic. however. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. Minnesota. in Connecticut. truncate. entire. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Has also been used to stop external bleeding. Vinca contains vincamine. hypoglycemic. and Georgia. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. leaves ovate to oblong.

The stamens and styles are long. long. The leaves are ovate. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. Plantago major L. somewhat toothed. growing in rich. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. arising from a fibrous root. which are the medullary rays. in fields. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. moist places. shikimic acid. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual seven-nerved.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. Vessels are absent. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. swellings. pinnicorretin. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. the seeds numerous. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. pinitol. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. and abruptly narrowed into a long. Ripple-grass. and in grass plats. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. it has a density varying from about 0. and applied to sores. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. ferulic acid. Properties Astringent. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . five. It flowers from May to October. Constituents Contains oils. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). quinic acid. raffinose sequoyitol. and insect bites. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. n-nonacosane. dark band of autumn wood. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. The flowers are white. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. dihydroquercetin. and is common in Europe and America. imbricated. parahydroxybenzoic acid. by the roadsides. campesterol. channeled petiole.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color.35 to 0. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. abietic acid. malonic acid. aromatics. In a radial surface. tannins. very small. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. balsamic. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. The medullary rays. leaving smooth surfaces. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. quercetin. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. cuts. numerous. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. smoothish.

allantoin. essential oils. polysaccharides. and phenolic acids. catapol. oleic. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. and palmitic acids). tannins. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. apparently. they both have the same virtues. for healing. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). Constituents Mucilage. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. balcalin. apigenin. aucubin. and for cell proliferation. sterols. fixed oil (linoleic. asperuloside. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants.

antiviral. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. Hiadon B.F. and pinobanksin. essential oils. balsam. 1980. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. 1.. Stickley Co.E. galagin. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture.. 2. The New Honest Herbal. 30(1).. and caffeic acid. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. pollen.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. Dent.2 Constituents Resin. Nihon Univ. 32(1). 1987. 4. 1990. 3. Philadelphia. and pinobanksin). Magro Filboo. de Carvalho Ac. V.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. Sch. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. J.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. wax.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. pinocembrin. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester.. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. G. galangin. Tyler. and anti-inflammatory. ArnzneimittleForschung. fungicidal.. et al. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1847.


Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. these species appear to resemble that of Q. odor slight sternutatory. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. and Peru. taste very acrid and unpleasant. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . conical projections or transverse. coarsely fibrous. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. longitudinally striate. fracture uneven. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. channels. and occasional circular depressions. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. inner surface yellowish-brown. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. finely wrinkled. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. Smegmandermos deC. Historically. Description In flat pieces of variable size. * Formerly CTFA. outer surface nearly white. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. Bolivia. Upon microscopic examination.

triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. Internally. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. are used. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). to 7 cm in width. gypsogenin. quinine and quinidine. quinamine). the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. uronic acids. which is nearly always chip-like. cinchonine. cinchonidine. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. quinidine. or compound quilled. Remineralizing protein. tannins. partially quilled. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. Ecuador. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. shallowly fissured transversely. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. The root. free acids (quinic acid). The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. overlapping quilled. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. and to 6 mm in diameter. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. quilled. its important alkaloids. and volatile oils. a neutral saponin. The odor is not distinct. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent.8 dm in length. The fracture is tough and uneven. calcium oxalate sugars. The bark is flat or chip-like.

with water. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. triangularly compressed. It is also used as a suspending agent. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. ovoid or oblong. being coated with mucilage. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. present in the epidermis of the testa. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia.


Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. and esters. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . petals united into a tube below. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. including methyl salicylate. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. daidzein. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. taste sweetish. phenolic acids. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. Constituents Flavonoids. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. starch. biochanin A. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. calyx teeth subulate. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. purplish and more or less brown from drying. eugenol. then slightly bitter. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). style slender. fatty acids. contains over 40 compounds. genistein. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. phenolic acids. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. Properties Historically. benzyl alcohol. and furfural. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. volatile oil. volatile oil. Medicinally. shriveled. tapering. Mildly anti-spasmodic. sitosterol. * Formerly CTFA.

dark violet claw.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with a short. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. double-serrate. emollient. Quinoline alkaloids. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. when fresh. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside).180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L.15 to 0. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. armed with bristles or weak prickles. such as hand creams. etc. shortacuminate. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. leaving a space about 0. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. thimble-shaped. lotions. finely tomentose when young. mainly rhoeadine. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. and are then employed in the fresh state. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. fruit red. erect. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. The numerous veins run from the base toward. rounded or cordate at the base. doubtfully indigenous to England. Description Stem biennial. hair rinse. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. they are smooth and shining above. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. Maine. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. ovate. inflorescence short-racemose. Rhode Island. They have. Properties Soothing. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. light-colored. and Minnesota. By drying. with an entire margin. somewhat smaller.

A series of tritepenoids.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. fragarine. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. Dried and whole. minerals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . granoderan A. and inflammations. Constituents Ascorbic acid. Happy Herb. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. Constituents Polysaccharides. malic acid. Miraculous chi. succinic acid. and North American coastal rainforests. have been isolated. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. and C. Internally. Ergosterol derivatives. riboflavin. it comes in various sizes and shapes. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. hepatitis. Japan. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. gallic acid. B. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. protein. Auspicious Herb. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. and chest and heart diseases. and antibacterial properties. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. mouth ulcers. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. insomnia. lactic acid. nervousness. antioxidant. Ling-Zhi (Chin. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside.). and beta-carotene. ellagic acid. Note: However. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. China. thiamine. consult a qualified physician before using.

The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. of the wood. The taste is astringent. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. The odor is not characteristic. rough and scaly. that of the wood. of the larger roots. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color.5 cm in diameter at the crown. and P. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. The texture of the cortex is granular. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. dark reddish-brown. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. which has numerous branches. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . of the larger roots. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. fibrous. very tough and hackly. The color is dull reddish-brown. and it tapers into the main root.

which when carefully shaved off. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. immediately within the secondary xylem. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 mm wide by 2 to 2. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. The smoothed. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. and N-methyltyrosine. to give a good appearance. In the periphery of the pith. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. tannins (proanthocyanidines). which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. Constituents Gum. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. Within the cambium is a ring. ratanine). Dark areas may still be found here and there. face creams. officinale. mouth wash. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. If the trimming has been very severe. the cortex has been removed. etc. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. III. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. about 5 mm wide. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. After removing the powder.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. parenchymatous matrix. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. barrel-shaped or conical. each being filled by a number of fine vertical.5 mm long. showing that they are leaf traces. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. after-shave lotions. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. in the form of a fine yellow powder. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. II. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter.

This is applied to the hair and left to dry. also (+)-catechin 5. 2. it is often rhein. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. (+)-afzelechin. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. The predominant aglycone varies. the fractured surface. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. and compact. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. chrysophanol. it is used as a stomachic. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying.Eur. rhein.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). mainly of glycosides based on five 1. of which many aglycones have been identified. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. heavy. astringent taste. when chewed. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. the mechanism is described under Aloes. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. With its high tannin content. A very complex mixture is present. but in one investigation. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. It is then rinsed out. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. and physcion. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). aloeemodin. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. In small amounts. it is very gritty between the teeth. Flavonoids.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. min. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. due to the bitter taste. and (+)-gallocatechin. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones.5% calculated as rhein).and 7-0-glucosides. Barbados. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). In most cases.

Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. it can be prepared by using rose oil. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. filter. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol.0. phenylethyl alcohol. however. l-linalool. French Rose. gallic acid. free and in combined forms with glucose. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. and traces of carvone. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. odor fragrant and rose-like. and procyanidins. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. Minor constituents are citral. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. glycerol. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. 5 to 10%. pink. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. Tannins. approx. taste sweetish. One example would be rose water. slightly bitter. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. and astringent. L. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. catechins.

When combined with various other hair preparations. Description A bushy. they are refrigerant.5 to 3. boron. linolenic acid. evergreen. it will add highlights to light hair. invert sugars. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . isoquercitrin. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. and slightly diuretic. rubixanthin. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. essential oil. succinic acid. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. opposite. kaempferol-3-glucoside. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. tannins. The achenes themselves are hairy. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. pectin. linoleic acid. protein. vanillin. low. malic acid. flavonoids. alpha-tocopherol. catechin-tannins. xanthophyll. leucoanthocyanins. sucrose. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. capric acid. Description The fruit of R.5 cm in length and up to 2. magnesium. lycopene. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. Constituents Ascorbic acid.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. much branched. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. gallocatechin. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. citric acid. epicatechin. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus.2 cm wide. Wild Brier. coriaceous. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. sessile. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. rubidium. mildly astringent. and zeaxanthin.

creams. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. astringent. taste pungently aromatic. diosmin. etc. phenolic acids. lower surface wooly. it is used to increase circulation. The oil is used in fragrances. and showing a prominent midrib. protein. borneol. flavonoids. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. Constituents Essential oil.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. margin revolute. characteristic. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. Topically. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannin. camphor. odor aromatic. rosmarinic acid. diaphoretic. stimulant. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. and bitter. The extract can be used in shampoos. Properties Tonic. lotions. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. hair conditioners. boron. glandular-punctate. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. and triterpenic acids. camphoraceous.


From an underground fibrous root system. 2 to 10 cm in length. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. taste aromatic and bitter. saponins. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). odor strongly aromatic on crushing. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. margin crenulate. midrib and veins prominent. astringent. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. the reticulations being very small. venation pinnate-reticulate. flavonoids. ursolic acid. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. borneol. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. densely pubescent. apex acute or obtuse. In early summer. Constituents Volatile oil. and disinfectant (against inflammations). Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. fungistatic. linalool. Leaves opposite. caryophyllene. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the upper branches bear blue. antiseptic. pinene. stimulating. base rounded or subcordate. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. long petiolate. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. carnosolic acid. petiole up to 4. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. beta-sitosterol. camphors. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. lamina elliptical.6 cm in breadth. salvin. 1 to 2.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. carminative. much branched. Sage Garden Sage. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. there arises a grayish. estrogenic compounds. uneven or lobed. Properties Cosmetically. and tannins. phenolic acids. protein. thujone.5 cm in length. cineole. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. texture velvet-like. It is antibacterial. pubescent stem with branches opposite. to 1 ft high. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage.

White Sandal Wood. Asia Minor. and for the manufacture of boxes. hemorrhoids. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. and lotions.r.and -santalols). In Yellow Sandal Wood. heavy. carvings. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. –13° to –21°). It is said to be anti-inflammatory. gr. o. 0. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood.973 to 0. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. astringent. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . and a stomachic. It is also used in perfumery. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. and similar articles. alterative. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. wounds. but easily split. and erect. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. of which it contains over 90%. pectoral. burns. vulnerary. hemostatic.985. or as a perfume. and inflammed skin. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. the odor strong and fragrant. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. and dense. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. the vessels are mostly solitary. North and South America. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . L. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. palmately lobed leaves. hard. Black Snakeroot. The taste is slightly bitter. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. depurative.

chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. saponin. essential oil.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. Mucilage. resin. and a bitter principle. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto. from 1.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid. smooth and somewhat oily.5 cm in diameter. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. occasionally compressed. Dark Palmetto.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

.. Odor pronounced.. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases... The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled.. oleic acid. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. aromatic. skin creams. Properties Sabal berries. 1.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large.P. SEAWEED.. such as anorexia nervosa.. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp.. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles. Franc. The fracture is very strong. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. and incomplete... 41. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. or as cut and sawed pieces. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. and lotions. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity. They are said to be very nutritious.. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. ellipsoidal or ovoid. sito sterols. capric acid. apex marked by the scar of the style. it is coarsely striated longitudinally... south to Florida and Texas.. ferulic acid.... reddish-brown seed. lipase. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids. to 1.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich.. which measure up to 3 dm in length. Tarayre..7 dm in width. aromatic. taste sweetish. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota.. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous. somewhat flattened. caproic acid. Constituents Anthranilic acid. a native of the southern United States... when cork patches are present. beta-sitosterol. Ann. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lauric acid... enclosing a hard.. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown. and to 1. 559. et al.. myristic acid. The odor is distinct. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. mannitol... as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. 1983. palmitic acid. arabinose. were eaten by the Indians. to 17 cm in width. Ulmus rubra Muhl... inner layer of endocarp smooth.1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions. J.. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar.6 dm in thickness. and slightly acrid... and stearic acid. Pharm. and to 3 mm in thickness. tough. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown.

North Carolina. 1 to 5. hair conditioners. minerals. 5 to 8 cm long.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. starch. polysaccharides. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. capsule oblong.2 cm long. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. New Mexico. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. hexosan. New Brunswick. It can be used to emulsify oil. and tannin. Can be used in creams. d-galacturonic acid. Florida. boils. and beta-carotene. tannin (minute). Colorado. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. petals pink or white. pentosans. healing. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. and Saskatchewan. ulcers. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. Description Glabrous perennial. L-rhamnose. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. chemicals that foam when added to water. lotions. native from Europe. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. starch. etc. and wounds. 3 to 5 ribbed. soothing. blades obcordate. and tannins. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). leaves oval or ovate. Massachusetts. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stem 3 to 6 dm high. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. calyx tubular. and other beverages. protein. Colorado. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Nova Scotia. Soap Wort produces a gentle.

John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. capsule ovoid. having antibacterial properties. John’s Wort ing. Used in aromatic baths. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. 10 to 12 mm long. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. lower leaves petioled. Manitoba. ray florets about 10. conditioners. with revolute margins. ST. petals obovate. 4 to 6 cm long. tonics. caffeic acid.ST. heads numerous. disk-florets 15 to 20. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. acute or acuminate. native to Europe. etc. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. scarious. British Columbia. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. Virginia. flowers cymose. emmenagogue. corolla 2 to 2. guanine. Constituents Essential oil. and anodyne. chlorogenic acid. leaves. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. rutin. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. disinfectant. and anthelmintic. glandular-punctate. Colorado. isofraxidin. Nova Scotia. toothed above the middle on one side. leaves linear to oblong. and scopolin. 5 to 10 dm high. the outer linear-lanceolate. bracts canescent. uterine tonic. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. quebrachitol. poultices. astringent. and superficial burns. stimulant.5 cm broad. antiseptic. St. the rest broadly oval. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . uric acid. 2 to 10 mm wide. Properties Used as a nervine. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. scopoletin. slightly tomentose beneath. choline. 1 to 3 cm long. California. obtuse. tannin. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. bruises. frostbite. Medically. umbelliferone. and for skin conditions. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn.

tannins. and Virginia. hyperoside. saponin.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. resin sitosterol. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. New Mexico. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. phenolic acids. Manitoba. Newfoundland. hypericin-like substances. protein. hypericin. flavonoids.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . John’s Wort St. mannitol.

flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. very rarely leafy-bracteate. very thin. sharply and deeply serrate. seldom over 1. seldom much exceeding the leaves.5 cm long. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. ellagitannins. mostly acute. fruit elongate-ovoid.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. fatty acids.5 dm high. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. very soon glabrate on both sides. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. condensed tannins). and phenolic acids. 5 to 7. scape slender.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. quercetin). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rhombic-obovate.


199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. flat-topped. The leaves and flowering tops. Bitter buttons. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. Ginger plant. resin. Scented Fern. anthelminitic. somewhat reddish. phenolic acid. The roundish. and branching near the top. erect stem. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. fern-like leaves and yellow. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. English Cost. and spasmolytic. The entire leaf is about 6 in. * Formerly CTFA. tannin. It has a stout. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. Also said to be an insect repellant. carminative. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. button-like flowers. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. tanacetin. and quercetin. sesquiterpenes. button-like. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. Parsley Fern. are collected at the time of flowering. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. 1 to 3 ft high. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. usually smooth.

About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. insect bites.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. oral infections. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. stings. sparingly branched biennial. constantly renewable tree. terpinene. conical. athlete’s foot. burns. fruit. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. cymene). flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. while cineole is low (about 2. including treatments for sunburn. erect. abrasions.5%). with a broad range of health claims. and the like. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. bronchial congestion. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. Over-wintering leaves. lanceolate. abrasions. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cuts. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. 0. and Australia. lice. thickets. pimples. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. upcurved. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. capsule. New South Wales. scabies.5 to 2. Description A stiff. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. It is found in numerous product forms.0 ml high. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. and vaginal infections. spongy. in a flattened rosette. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. streamsides. sore throat. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. and dense. boils. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. ringworm. Bark. either singly or with other ingredients.

with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. taxifolin). quercetin.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. Description Leaves spiny. Blessed Milk Thistle. Also used in homeopathy. fatty acids. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. American Botanical Councin. TX. 1955. 1. dark green.. S. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Foster. The injection gives better results. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. yellow spines.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. It is said to contain saponins. entire or toothed. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. Flowerheads rayless.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). rare in Britain. and tannins. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. Ed. Mary Thistle. Taste and odor. and magnesium. flavonoids (keampferol. stems. Austin. both orally and also by intravenous injection. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. glucosides. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. purple. The root and root stock are short and erect. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. St. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin.

styptic. flavonoids. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. much branched. somewhat fusiform. cystine. stem 3 to 10 dm high. Constituents Proteins. sore gums. cyclohexanol. gargles.5 to 1. etc. menstrual disorder. ascorbic acid. ellipsoid.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. leaves two-pinnatifid. or pear-shaped. -hydroxy acids. red or yellow. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne.5 to 10%. mouth rinse.5 to 8 cm long. branching and more or less curved. 0. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L. subglobose. 10 to 15 mm broad. diarrhea.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. glycine. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. glucose. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sensitive skin. Florida. corolla yellow. that can be used for hemorrhoids. It can be employed in creams. conditioners. Properties Fruit: astringent. aspartic acid. vitamins. and reddish within. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. minerals. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. fruit through cultivation very variable. to add sheen. glutamic acid. Colorado. lobed. from 2. It can be incorporated into shampoos. Texas.5 cm thick. New York. facial muds. and California. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. hair tonics. and from 0. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. Description Viscid-pubescent. brown or blackish externally. lotions. acne. lycopene. and phytosterols. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. abscisic acid. rinses. antihemorrhagic. and sore throats. and dentate.

China. a red pigment. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. Java. bluntly tapering at each end. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). Occasionally. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color.. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. Indian Saffron. internally. caffeic. and other tropical countries. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. quinovic. They are hard and heavy. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). longitudinally wrinkled. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. tormentillin. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. Curcuma. they bear short knob-like branches. and break with a short fracture. Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India.

Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). monodesmethoxycurcumin. antibacterial. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. ar-turmerone.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. but the coloring matter. hypotensive. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. ukonan A. comprising mainly bisabolane. curlone. when chewed. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. zingiberene. it colors the saliva yellow. 2-7% essential oil. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste.. and antimutagenic. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. is also present. and anti-edemic. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. It is also choleretic. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. antifungal. anti-arthritic. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. etc. guaiane.

and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. The rhizome is vertical. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. isovaltrate. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. * Formerly CTFA. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. Roots are branched or simple. It is sedative. and to 3 mm in diameter. fatty acids. valerosidatum). Constituents Essential oil. and baldrinal. Cortex is thick. and spasmolytic. Pith is white or grayish-white. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. central and cylindrical. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. phenolic acids. and disagreeable. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. and valepotriates (valtrate. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. cultivated in Germany. The taste is sweet. pungent. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. simple or branched. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . relaxant.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. and to 2 cm in diameter. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. acevaltrate. Belgium and England. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. actinidine). Wood is small. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. alkaloids (valerianine. However.

206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

gout remedy. straight. volatile oil. verbenalin.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. diuretic. and superficial and limited burns. 4 to 7 feet high. and against sunburns. long. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. hastatoside. Constituents Iridoids. aucubin. artemitin. verbenelol. Verbena officinalis L. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. tannin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . finely haired herb has an erect. and Arizona. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. meadows. Wild Hyssop. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). contraceptive. ursolic acid. Simpler’s Joy. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. False Verbain. Nebraska. four-sided stem. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. caffeic acid. in addition to verbenin. Description This rather rough. anorexic (appetite suppressant).


depurative. vermifuge. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. and edible. gout. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. rheumatism. imparipinnate. disinfectant. and varicose ulcers. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. styes. open crown. blisters. glandular disturbances. astringent. ophthalmia. scrofula. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. Used for skin complaints.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. deep. The leaves are alternate. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. *INCI Name . scabbing pruritus. The bark varies from nearly smooth. oily. The wood is light brown. irritation of the eyelid. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. Juglans nigra L. eczema. Properties Tonic restorative. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. * Formerly CTFA. west to Minnesota and Kansas. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. round-topped. soft and coarse grained. The kernel is sweet.

hyperin. sepals oblong.g. amino acids.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. tumors. tryptophan. British Columbia. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. Rheumatism and nervousness. proline. -carotene. and diastase. fruiting pedicels divaricate. glutamic acid. biotin. valine. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. leaves pinnate. Externally. it will strengthen and thicken hair. caffeic acid. it looks rather yellowish. histidine. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. tannin.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. Rubbing on scalp. leucine. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. Virginia. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. high in protein. 4. somewhat curved. methionine. alanine. spatulate. folacin. South America. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). West Indies. 3 mm thick. threonine. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. destroying most of its active principles. its action being both detergent and healing. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). aspartic acid. thiamine. ascorbic acid. protein. beak about 1 mm long. and kaempferol. cystine. phenylalanine. tyrosine. ellagic acid. Description Aquatic perennial. petals white. lysine. Mexico. about 2 mm long. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. about 4 mm long. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. lymphatic or edematous swellings. California. A Cure For All Cancers. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. glycine. many trace minerals. 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . arginine. Clark. gluconasturtiin. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. 5. and Europe.-Trihydroxynaphthalene).. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content).

taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. Devil’s Grass.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. Creeping Wheatgrass. Dutch Grass. sprouts. Couch Grass. Durfa Grass. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. Quake Grass. Twitch Grass. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Quitch Grass. Scutch Grass. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. Fin’s Grass. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. of young grass. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. Durfee Grass.

.. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout.. amino acids... collected in the spring.. Constituents Vitamins. and hair conditioners. externally pale brown. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos. Its smooth hollow stems. are carefully cleaned. are produced from a long. cut into small pieces about in.. and stem scars on the upper surface. taste starchy. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. flavonoids. creams. and dermatitis. fracture short but tough. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached. which are thickened at the joints..212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse.. thickets.. with numerous small.. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish. Odorless. 1 to 3 ft high. bent and branched.. Colic Root.... creeping root stock... afterwards acrid. lotions. more or less detached. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States... The flowering heads are produced from July to September. -carotene.. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled. elongated.. Over 240 compounds have been identified. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous. fatty acids. The root stocks. bearing scattered nodular projections. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer. eczema. often compressed.. scattered. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat.. yellowish wood bundles. insipid...See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L. Description Knotted and woody... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and dried. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath....See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES. long. thin outer layer.. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes.. WHITE NETTLES. and phenolic acids.. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist.. 6 to 20 mm thick.

odor slightly aromatic. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. rinses. in older bark dull. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. endodermis distinct. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. Contains steroid-like substances. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. dioscin. inner surface. anti-inflammatory. and trace minerals. flavonoids. minerals. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. cortex composed of thin-walled. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. fragilin. greenish-brown. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . outer surface in young bark smooth. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. ascorbic acid. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. fracture short fibrous. longitudinally striated. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. diosgenin. analgesic. etc. as it contains salicin. dioscorin. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). Constituents Steroidal saponins. it should be standardized for its salicin content. antirheumatic. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. White Willow. shampoos. taste astringent and slightly bitter. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. It can be used in hair conditioners. populin. yellowish-brown to dark brown. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. slightly lignified parenchyma. naturalized sparsely in North America. However. antiseptic. as this could vary among different manufacturers. salicortin. irregularly wrinkled. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. vimalin). triandrin. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. and antipyretic.

*INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. Description Witch Hazel. Striped Alder. It has a crooked stem and long. flavonoids. forking branches with smooth. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bark. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. esters. eastern Canada. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. and leaves Bark. and polyphenols. thick. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. when it bursts open. scattering the shining black. Winterbloom. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. yellow flowers. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. brown bark. long. Wych-hazel. and borne on short stalks. and alcohols. due to its high tannin content. tannin. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. leaves. Spotted Witch Alder. Constituents Essential oil. saponins.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. eastern United States.

The whitish flowers. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. slender. shady places from Canada to Florida.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. tublar. pointed. including betonicine. Water Bugle. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. in length. Constituents Alkaloids. smooth. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. to 2 ft in height. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. rather narrow. They are followed by four nutlets. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. and stachyerine. Green Archangel. mint-like odor. and bell-shaped. Paul’s Betony. Description This herb has long. Carpenter’s Herb. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The plant has a rather pleasant. Gypsy Herb. The leaves are about 2 in. bitter. are small. Gypsywort. Therefore. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. Purple Archangel. erect stem from 6 in. and Nebraska. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. Gypsyweed. Externally. American Water Hoarhound. Missouri. which appear from about July to September. Sweet Bugleweed. but a disagreeable bitter taste. Wolf Foot.

soothing to the nerves. unbranched. Flowers small. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. and the iridoids asperuloside.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. astringent. Odor. monotropein. quadrangular. forwardpointing bristles. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. Description A short perennial. in loose clusters. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. calming. tannin. when dry. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. with slender. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. anti-inflammatory. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. pointed leaves edged with tiny. vermouths. wines. coumarin. of new-mown hay. Used in aromatherapy. anti-arthritic. antiseptic. citric acid. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. with four petal lobes. etc. bitters. antineuralgic. white. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head.

absinthin. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. and antipyretic. Also used to clean atonic wounds. and the grayish-green leaves. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rutin. aromatic. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. two to three pinnately divided. especially in Michigan and Indiana. which are from 2 to 5 in. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. Constituents Essential oil. taste bitter. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. and anthelmintic. are divided into small leaflets. thujyl alcohol. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. Description This shrubby. consist of numerous small. anthelmintic. isovaleric acid. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. the florets tubular. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. p-coumaric acid. used as an external antiseptic. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. It is cultivated in some localities. artabsin. approximately 100 identified constituents. drooping. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. Absinth. Old Woman. the lower lobe is petiolate. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. Mingwort.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. -carotene. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. the inner linear with membranous margins. yellow heads. Madderwort. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. camphene. thujone. chamazulene. 2 to 3 mm long. tannins. long. protein. Odor aromatic. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. choleretic. Bitter stomachic. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. Flower heads greenish-yellow. insignificant.


*INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium... Yarrow Milfoil. dark green leaves...... and is urinary antiseptic.. white flower heads.. It * Formerly CTFA... antipyretic. Thousand-Leaf Clover.. astringent...... Closely related forms occur in the western states.. From June to September. Green Arrow. Bloodwort... Cammock. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small. 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... diuretic.. Old-Man’sPepper.. pastures.... Soldiers’ Woundwort.. and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada... Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing. high and has many finely divided....... Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic..See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L... It has a strong odor.. Nosebleed.. Thousand-leaf. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields.Y YAM. Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in. Dog Daisy. hypotensive. Gordoloba.. Carpenter Grass. feathery... Sanguinary.

it is stomachic. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . angular. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. blue colored chamazulene). injuries.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. flavonoids. It has been used for cuts. alkaloids (achilleine). and tannin. Broad-leaved Dock Root. it is also used in hair care preparations. achillin). among rubbish heaps. bearing numerous. and varicose ulcers. and cholagogue. Broad-leaved Rumex. in cultivated as well as in waste ground. spasmolytic. and along roadsides. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. Curled Dock Root. and furrowed stem. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. phenolic acids. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. camphor. long. Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. Internally. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. carminative.

in length. only 3 to 6 in. sores. lapathinic acid. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. Gum Plant. and carefully dried. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. yellowish cortex. while the upper leaves are narrower. and eruptive diseases. with long stalks. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. Consumptive’s Weed. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. and tannin. and pale radially split wood.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem.The root. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. swellings. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . long. from 6 to 8 in. nepodin. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. in length. emodin. psoriasis. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. These are followed by the fruits. protein. et Tor. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. chrysophanic acid. with few or no rootlets. They are washed. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. tapering or spindle shaped. they become rusty brown. Bear’s Weed. usually from 8 to 12 in. As the clusters ripen. The root is large and fleshy. short stemmed or stemless.

The narrow.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. and eriodyctyonine. acetic acid. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. chrysoeriodictyl. essential oil. eriodictyol. Constituents Resin. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. butyric acid. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. cerotic acid. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. The rather showy. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. Gabon. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. and the Congo. Schum. eriodictyonic acid. tannin. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. dark green. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

oblong or conical-ovoid. tannin. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. Kronenthal. Arizona. saponin. minerals. Soap Weed. the major alkaloid. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. leaves rigid. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. 1998. about 7. Roezl. pseudo-. R. sometimes 2 dm long. Properties Yucca contains saponins. Kansas.5 cm long. Personal communication. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. 1. pendent. hence its aphrodisiac effect. smilagenin. spreading. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . allo-. however. Colorado. and epiallo-yohimbine. shagreen roughened. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. Constituents Sarsapogenin. tigogenin. and protein. L. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. fleshy. elongate. It also contains corynanthine.1 Yohimbine. Description Low. YUCCA Yucca baccata. is sympatholytic. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. coarsely filiferous. concave. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. at low doses. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. fruit large.. sepals and petals lanceolate. Texas. the most important of which is yohimbine. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. with narrow brown margins. It is also being used for arthritis internally. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. Soap Yucca Root. Torr Yucca brevifolia. style slender. and Nevada. samogenin.

224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Galls Used to dye the hair black. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. Oak. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. Hemp. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. not essential oil.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. Dark brown contains juglone. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. Henna Used to dye hair red. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Hops See “Folklore” section. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. However. The leaves contain buxine. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. The botanical extract. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. Lavender See “Folklore” section. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. See “Folklore” section. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. makes an excellent hair rinse.

It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. It is antiseptic. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. it will darken the hair. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. make it soft and shiny. The extract contains thymol. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. Vitamins A and D. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. and help keep it free of dandruff. The essential oil is used to add sheen. borneol. Can be used in deodorants. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. Lemony fragrance. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. See Lichwort. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. and mouthwashes. It also helps to remineralize. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. leaving it silky and glossy. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. and linalol. See Stinging Nettle. Contains a yellow dye.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. A source of potassium and iodine. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. and some protein. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. Combined with rosemary. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC .HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. It is said that when blended with rosemary. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp.


Bayberry. that is. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Pansy. Fenugreek. Cinnamon Agrimony. Thyme. Catnip Camellia Sinensis.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. propylene glycol. Nettles. Birch. Onion. Chamomile. White Willow. Balsam Peru. Proanthocyanidins. Milk Thistle. Juniper Berries. Myrtle. Soap Bark. Uva Ursi Quassia. Corn Flower.3-butylene glycol. Sage. Myrrh. Myrrh. Raspberry. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. Lemon. Tumeric. Hops. refer to the index). Tomato. Inc. Calendula. Rosemary. in various vehicles as water. Yarrow. Anise. Rosemary. etc. Burdock. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Ginkgo. Nettles. Burdock. Bay Laurel. Benzoin. oil. Bayberry. Birch. Lavender. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. White Willow. Hops. Lavender. Eucalyptus. Arnica. 1. Lady’s Mantle. Oak Bark. Cucumber. Lavender. Comfrey. Grapefruit. Rosemary. Rosemary. Sandalwood. Tormentil. Plantain. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Wild Indigo. Artichoke. Yarrow. Oats. Chamomile. Black Walnut. Witch Hazel. Bilberry. Lemon. ethanol. Lemon Grass. Bistort. Rose. Althea. Sandal Wood. Thyme. Garlic. Horsechestnut Papaya. Wild Alum. Orange Peel. Orris. Pineapple. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Soap Root. either when applied topically or taken internally. Quassia. Tilia. Horsechestnut. Thyme. Chaparral. glycerin. Sage. Peppermint. Bladderwrack.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Golden Seal. Violet. Hawthorn Angelica. Arnica Lemon. Rhatany. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Lemon. Echinacea. Slippery Elm. Southernwood. Nasturtium. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Witch Hazel. Parsley Broom Flowers. Artichoke. Asparagus. Chamomile. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Calendula. White Lily. Cardamom Seed. Rosemary. Myrrh. powders or extracts. Lemon. Papaya. Calendula. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Vinca Minor. Comfrey.

Seaweed. Golden Seal. to add highlights Hibiscus. Rosemary. Elder. Orris Root.* Centella. Yarrow. Orange Flowers. Lavender. Chamomile. Patchouli. Rose. Brown Henna Rosemary. Cucumber. Chamomile. Rosemary. Red Clover. Hops Chamomile. Slippery Elm. Sage. Calendula. etc. Red Henna. Raspberry. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Olive. Thyme. Capsicum. Fenugreek. Sage Jaborandi. Calendula Oil. Catnip Bayberry. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Mullein Flowers. Echinacea. Basil. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Nettles. Capsicum. Marigold Golden Seal. Comfrey. Rosemary. Red Clover. Capsicum. Althea. Cade. Arnica. split ends Scalp. Eucalyptus. Comfrey. Dandelion. to add highlights Black Walnut. Quince Seed. Thyme. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Horsetail Grass. Onion. Jaborandi. Cleavers. Fenugreek. Flax. Wormwood Chamomile. Burdock. Malva Flowers. Coriander. Raspberry. dark Hair. Chaparral. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Horsechesnut. Plantain. Cedar. Roseberries.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Tilia. Nettles. Chamomile. Pansy. Basil. Southernwood. Neem. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Chickweed. Camphor. dry Hair. Witch Hazel Bark. Raspberry. Horseradish. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Comfrey. Orange Peel. to relieve Nails. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Cardamon. Quassia. Primula Flowers. Nettles. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Cucumber Chamomile. Southernwood. Peach Leaf. Pansy. Southernwood. Figwort. Centella. Oregon Grape. Black or Neutral Henna. Broom. various seaweeds. Fenugreek. Rosemary. rinses. Cowslip. Cucumber. Capsicum. Feverfew. White Willow Aloe Vera. Echinacea. Bayberry Bark. Peppermint Aloe. Sage. Fennel. Anise Rosemary. Golden Seal. Sage. Alfalfa. Witch Hazel. Elder Flowers. to add highlights Marigold. Yarrow. Witch Hazel. Quince. Capsicum Bistort. Purple Loosestrife. Citronella. conditioners. Sage. Yellow Dock. Comfrey. Melilote. Oak Bark. Chamomile. Rosemary. Pine Tar. Pilewort. Wild Alum. Lemon Peel. Southernwood. Eyebright. Myrrh. Flax Horsetail Grass. Comfrey. Citrus Bioflavonoid. Rosemary. to add sheen Hair. Red Poppy. Chamomile. Pansy. Echinacea various oils. Garlic. Thyme. Grapefruit. Elder. Oats. Lavender. Birch. White Willow Bark. Lemon Peel. Sarsaparilla. Comfrey. Orange Flowers. Phytoplenolin®. Quinine. Rhatany. Comfrey Root. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Jaborandi. Quince Seed. Golden Seal. Horsetail Grass. Parsley. Corn Flower Water. Cantharides. Tea.

Yarrow. Passion Flowers. Valerian. Comfrey. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cleavers. Cucumber. Bistort. Garlic. Calendula. Lemon Grass. St. Horsechestnut. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Althea Root. Elecampane Skin. St. Arnica. Thuja. Sept. Blue Flag. Red Poppy.Yarrow. Tilia. Slippery Elm. Grapefruit. Capsicum. Cinchona. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. however. Echinacea. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Golden Seal. St. Plantain. Capsicum. Red Clover. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Colts Foot. Citrus bioflavonoids. Calendula. Oats. Evening Primrose. Licorice Cleavers. Lavender. John’s Wort. dry Botanical Cantharides. John’s Wort. Croton. Licorice. Elder Flowers.804. Chamomile. Orange Peel. Centella. Witch Hazel. Fennel. Orange Flowers. Rose. Fennel.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Corn Flower. Birch. Capsicum. Slippery Elm bark. Dulse. John’s Wort. Wild Alum Althea. Lemons. Nettles. Lavender. Plantain. Mullein. Oils. Dandelion. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Seaweed. Tilia. Slippery Elm. Hawthorn Berries. Bayberry. Chickweed. Echinacea. Primula Flowers. Dandelion. Seaweeds.Vinegar. Calendula. Horsetail grass. Pine. Hawthorn. Peach. Chamomile. Witch Hazel. Comfrey. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Comfrey.) Aloe Vera. Yarrow flowers. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Jaborandi. John’s Wort. White Pond Lily. Capsicum. Quince. Lemon. Bayberry. 1998. Poke Root. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Ginseng Caraway. Comfrey. Althea Root. Aloe Vera. Meillot. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Apples. Violets. Arnica. Parsley. Pansy. Lemon. Chamomile. Comfrey. Wormwood. Witch Hazel. St. Uva ursi Wild Alum. Sage.206 for Centipeda. Cucumber. Apple.


The seeds are also spherical. nourishes the blood. etc. 8 stamens. The nuts are spherical.) STEUD. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. 1. The female flowers are white and ligulate. Licorice root. It grows in fields and ditches. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. wounds. Internally. etc.5 to 5 cm wide. can be found in the main section. elongated. Vitamin A. and tonifies the heart. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . elliptical shaped. rough. yellowish brown. beard. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. Ginger. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. it strengthens the spleen. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. which are coriaceous. The flowers are polygamous. aril white. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. short stiff hairs. Common botanicals such as Lotus. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. and fleshy. wedeloclactone. The powder is used on abscess. and eyebrows. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. nicotine. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. yellowish-white. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. Constituents Saponin.5 to 2 cm in diameter. sores. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. tannin. internally used to blacken hair. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high.

choline. ringworm. protein.70. yeast infections. adenine.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema. pruritus. Vitamins A and B. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412. tartaric acid. etc. sucrose. fats. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. vaginal itches. antiparasitic. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. a glucoside C20 H20 011. imperatorin. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. folic acid. cnidiadin. lack of appetite. hypertension. ostol (C15H16O3). HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. improves circulation in the skin. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. weak pulse. dyspepsia. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. berry-like fruits. L-camphene. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. heart palpitations. ginsenosides. amino acids. moisturize. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. Constituents Saponins. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. diabetes. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. and arabinose. columbianadin (C19H20O5). etc. It is an astringent. astragalin-glucose. avoid black tea. any citrus and turnips. isopimpinellin. it could nourish. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. insomnia. When using Ginseng internally. It is also said to promote blood production. deficiency of energy. xanthotoxol. sugars.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. bornyl isovalerate. asthma. B-sitosterol. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . isoborneol). palmate leaves. dihydrooroseiol. used as an aphrodisiac. edultin.) Bge. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. amino acids. choline. and has red. columbianetin (C14H14O4). Betaine. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. cnidiankin. alloimperatorin. Astragalin. dilates the blood vessels.

The root has antipyretic. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. sugar fatty oil. These are a few of the constituents. Constituents Triterpenes. resin. (C18H30O2). essential oil. antibacterial.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. tricosanthin. trichosanic acid. SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. trichokaurin. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and antifungal properties. protein. To list all would take several pages. saponins (ginsenosides).

Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it has been used in coughing of blood.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. and Re. According to Chinese tradition. helps to promote circulation. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. this herb can be used safely in large doses. Constituents Saponins. It is said to heal without leaving scars. Rb2-Rb. and is analgesic. dissolves clots. etc. traumatic injuries. both internally and externally. blood in the stool. Internally. ginsenosides. nosebleeds. reduces swelling. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra.

V. and arabinose. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. 1/3 in. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. Constituents Flavonoids. rhamnose. palmitic acid. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. essential oil. U. glucose. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. Vitamin A. sitosterol. Cones oblong. long. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. glucose. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. tannin. ziyuglycoside I. II. It has almost no odor. stearic acid. fructose. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. and a slightly bitter taste. L-typhasterol. anti-inflammatory. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. xylose.

5 to 8 cm wide. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. astringent. pinene. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. and antiviral properties. having pale. anthelmintic. reddish-purple. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. obovate-lanceolate shaped. Vitamin C. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. and hermaphroditic.5 to 1 m high. The flowers are tubular. resin. becoming smaller on top. L. in height. The basal leaves are clustered.-fenchone. Constituents Thujone. shoddy bark and light. tannin. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. and antipyretic. 15 to 30 cm long. and is said to have antibacterial. It is a hemostatic. and pinnatipartite. caryophyllene. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. flavonoids. soft durable wood. fenchone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which has hairs on both surfaces. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. Its stem is erect and white cottonly.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. the base tapers into a winged petiole.

and promotes the healing of the flesh. and 2 to 6 cm wide. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. 2 to 3 cm long. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Constituents Glucose. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. antibacterial. anti-inflammatory. and antibacterial. stigmasterol. It is used in traumatic injuries. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. B-amyrin. reduces swelling. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). essential oil. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. starch. The tuber is thick and fleshy. and in abscesses. hemostatic. It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. 15 to 30 cm long. antifungal. Their base runs into a long sheath. -amyrin.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .F. The perianth is in 6 segments. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. skin infections.

pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. boils. crowded. humulene. Constituents Scoparone. arachidic acid. ovary 2-locular. antibacterial. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. and antiviral. stamens numerous. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. essential oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. which alternate with the calyx teeth. oval.5 mm in length. It has been used in ringworm. with numerous ovules. conjunctivitis. dryobalanone. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. Antibacterial. taste pungent and aromatic. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. hydroxydammarone II. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. sores. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. having antipyretic properties. The dark green. style 1. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. cold sores. montanic acid. chlorogenic acid. One tree can yield as much as pound. analgesic. asiatic acid. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. and nasal mucositis. capillarisin. followed by a slight numbness. linoleic acid. acetyl eugenol). oleic acid. palmitic acid. fat. Constituents D-borneol. etc. esculetin. antiparasitic. stearic acid. dark brown. erythrodiol. See “Botanical” section for further description. wax. and incurved. B-caryophyllene. and somewhat 4-angled. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. caffeic acid. ipterocopal. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. caryophyllene. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. odor strongly aromatic. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. tannin. glandular-punctate petals.

The stem is erect with many branches. and other skin ailments. The leaves are alternate. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. The corolla is papilionaceous. 10 to 20 cm long. The stamens are 10 and free. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. sores. and 1 to 2 cm wide. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and allergic reactions. Constituents Alkaloids. It is used for vaginal infections. The pods are cylindrical. pruritus. 3 to 4 cm long.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. The raceme is terminal. imparipinnately divided. constricted between the seeds. flavonoids. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. yellowish-white. which are globose and black. itchy skin. Excellent remedy for sores. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped.

Constituents Berberine. aesculetin. and swollen eyes.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. aching. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. obakulactone. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. fraxin. tannin. It is applied externally to swollen. magnoflorine. used as an eye wash for sore. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . coptisine. columbamine. and red eyes. palmatine. ferulic acid. Antiinflammatory. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. jatrorrhizine. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. red. fraxetin. obakunone. Constituents Aesculin. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic.

their margins sparsely serrate. 1 to 3 cm long. The calyx is bilabiate. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. ovate shaped. The leaves are opposite. Its stem is erect. and 0. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb.5 to 1.5 cm wide.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes.

Folkloric Use Antipyretic. boils.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA. Constituents GLA. decumbent or slanting upward.5 to 1. antiphlogistic. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb.5 cm wide. 5 yellow petals. fleshy. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. gamma-linolenic acid. beta-cyanin. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. abscesses. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. betanin. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. It is used to reduce swelling. 8 to 12 stamens. betanidini. French. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. and intestines. and often purplish in color. snake bites. The Chinese. The flower has 2 sepals. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. Italians.. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. It is also a good source for GLA. 1 to 1. gamma-linolenic acid. stomach. Constituents Portulal. Its stem is cylindrical.3 cm long. and English consume this plant in salads.

246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

4. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.

97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3. 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6.248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8.

97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6.

84082-80-4 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4.

JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1. 84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2. 84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1.

roots. perianth covered withspines. sporalidin. and Sri Lanka. Seeds are hard. covered with numerous black dots. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. simple. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat.BENDUC NUT 253 6. Kal-karanj Nuts. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. and saponin in the seed coat. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. Leaflets about 10 pairs. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). oil. pitted black. and gray with thick testa. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. shiny. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. sharp recurved spines. Leaves petiolate. Burma. glabrous slightly compressed. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. starch. etc. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. Constituents Furanocoumarins. campesterol group. hairy tip acute. Description It is an erect herb. isopsoralidin. alkaloids. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. Fruit small subglobular. hairs few. Flowers yellow. Description Main leaf axis has stout. and flavones. Flowers are dense. Several species grow in the United States. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . globular. firm. circular. ellipticoblong. chalcones. Essential. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. corylifolean. tannin.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. and protein in kernel. ovate or oblong and inflated.

However. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. aspartic acid. Flowers about 2 cm long. starch. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. reducing sugar. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. and for infectious diseases. Leaves opposite. Leaves membranaceous. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. flower head white. arginine. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and citrulline. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. arresting hemorrhage. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. with winged petiole. and skin diseases. and sulfurcontaining peptides. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. basal are large. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. sterols. phytosterol. lanceolate. oblong. bluish-purple. Constituents Oil. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. Few layers of cork cells are present. Seeds also contain protein. The endodermis is indistinct. borne on convex flower heads. upper leaves smaller. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. margin toothed. sessile.

The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. linear oblong or elliptic. slightly recurved. In old samples. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. arranged densely on the branchlets. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. apex subacute. Leaves simple. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. slightly broader than long. unisexual. greenish-yellow.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . terpene alcohols. mucronate. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp.but white internally. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. Description A medium tree. stipulate. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. entire. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. Flowers are small. The fruit is subglobular. Feathery. The oil and root contains camphene. phyllanthe emblic. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant.

tulsi. antifungal. taste bitter. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. style 2-lobed. antihistaminic. Each flower consists of. hairy along the veins. very short. camphor. antiviral. pod woody. subcoriaceous. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stamens 4 in 2-pairs. antidiabetic.& Bpinene. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. corolla 2-lipped. krishna tulsi. odorant. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. smooth and shining. antiulcer. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. Sri Lanka. The leaves yield ursolic acid. antispermatogenic. antispasmodic. Flowers small. sacred basil Leaves. testa light-red. antibacterial. flowers. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. in terminal raceme-like panicle. margin serrate. elliptic-oblong. pubescent calyx. and luteolin. Leaves are simple.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. cotyledons very oily. apigenin. point decurved. filament slender. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. seeds. ovate compressed. antipyretic. decyladehyde. and carvarol. opposite. Leaves pinnate. A. exserted. apex thick and blunt. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. insecticidal. bitter. such as antistress. 2 to 4 inches long. antihepatotoxic. CNS-depressant. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb.

INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. Radicle at the base of the seed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. rheumatism. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. The root bark is rustybrown externally. The oil is used to treat scabies. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. leaves. the size of large a pea. . taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. where it is woody. singly. each berry is the size of a cherry. and translucent. spirally incurvate. firm and fleshy. and other cutaneous diseases. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. kaemferol. pectin. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. the testa is double. When dry. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. the skin is shriveled. smooth. glucose. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. pointing to lower and inner angle. then bitter. and butyric acid. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. pongamol. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. S. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. Constituents Saponins. (S. and as an anthelmintic. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. Properties The seeds. sitosterol. the pulp translucent. herpes. the inner membranaceous. yellow within. The seed is black. The bark contains alkaloids. pengaglabrone. the outer very thick and hard. pongamin. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. Emarginatus. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. the berries are the color of a raisin. tough. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. cotyledons unequal. with a peculiar pungency. except at the scar. thick.

deobstruent. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. gum. scaly. freckles. Properties The roots are astringent. round violet colored and seeds light black. then acrid and bitter. and sugar. flowers small yellow in color. fruit long. inflammations. Description A climbing plant. alizarin. and tonic. skin diseases such as ulcers. It also has anodyne properties. Constituents Roots contain resins. and xanthine. leucoderma. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. The taste is sweetish at first. garancin. and discoloration of skin. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. coloring matter. alterative. Leaves heart shaped. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. Root consists of short stock. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

These layers occurs in the outer cortex. slightly curved. and Nepal.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. nardostechone. Corolla 5-lobed. starch. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. Epidermal hairs are few. nardol. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. valeranal. valves papery smooth. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. B-sitosterol. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. Himalaya (11. which also contains sesquiterpenes. Tracheids and few fibers. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pods broadly oblong. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. Description An herbaceous plant. It is a good substitute for valerian. Flowers in racemes. seeds. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. resin. n-hexaconsanol. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. Rhizomes long. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood.000 to 15. nervous headache. sugar. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. Bhutan. oblong or ovate.5% essential oil. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. and contain obvate. Senna is also a safe purgative. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. Roots contain valeranone. mainly in palpitation of heart. dark brown. Leaves usually in pairs sessile. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. and flatulence. is used to dye the hair black. and combined with Henna. calarenol. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. and bitter extractive matter. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening.



Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume

Synonyms: Parts Used:

Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.

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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.

Neem (leaves)

Neem (whole plant)

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PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.

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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Southern India.

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Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed

Synonyms: Parts Used:

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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.

WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.

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and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. brain lag. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. fracture short. erect. petiolate and alternate. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. 3. Constituents It contains alkaloids. Isolation of nicotine. The dried root is of uniform appearance. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. globose. rheumatism. The root is seldom branched. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. loss of memory. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. senile debility. greenish or yellow flowers. and spermatorrhoea. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. withananine. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. branching perennial. somniferinine. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. a mixture of W. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. white internally. Leaves simple. elliptinone. as in enlarged glands. Iso-zeylinone. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. and appetite stimulant. tapering. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. ovate hair-like branches. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . grayish or hoary. and droserone. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. gastric stimulant. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. It is also cultivated. smooth. withanine. somniferine. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. loss of muscular energy. It bears small. Description A small or middle-sized shrub.3-biplumbagin.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. plump. zeylinone. and starchy. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. It is in flower all year long. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. For improving sight. Somnifera. Licorice powder. smooth. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. brittle. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people.

WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. pseudotropine. Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. In addition to alkaloids. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Roots also contain tropine. and cuscohygrine. choline.


Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference. These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6.

Bitter Orange Peel. Black Ash. U.S. White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash.

U. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba.

pale Cinchona. blue Cohosh. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. black Cohosh. yellow Cinchona. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. pale Cinchona. calisaya Cinchona. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel.

S. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara.

S. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula. U. U. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . S.

Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. American Hellebore. Black Indian Hemp. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. Canadian Hemp. Black Hellebore. S. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. U. U. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . White Indian Hemp.

276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier. S. U. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. Green Osier. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica. U.S.

S. U. U. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber. S.


Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Fucus vesiculosus L. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Aloe vera L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Betula alba L.) Juglans nigra L. Ruscus aculeatus L. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. Alnus glutinosa L. Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Cynara scolymus L.F.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Optuntia. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.

spp. Gentiana lutea L. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Symphytum officinale L. Sambucus nigra L. Geranium maculatum L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Scrophularia nodosa L. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. purpurea. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. Larrea divaricata Cav. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Allium sativum L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Symphytum officinale L. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Br. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. See Coleus Galium aparine L. Centaurea cyanus L.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Inula helenium L. & Aschers. Cucumis sativus L. Zea mays L.

Mac Fad. Gaertn. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Hedera helix L. Althaea officinalis L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Hydrastis canadensis L. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Calendula officinalis L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Centella asiatica L. Solidago Virgaurea L. et. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Amoracia rusticana. Pongamia glabra P. Camellia sinensis L. Schert Equisetum arvense L.) Burman F. Justicia Adhatoda. Hydrocotyle asiatica. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Citrus paradis. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Limm Malva sylvestris L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Melissa officinalis L. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Ocimum sanctum linn.

Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. & P. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Engler Myrtus communis L. Pinus silvestris L. Mentha piperita L. Allium cepa L. Rheum rhabarbarum L.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Carica papaya L. Lythrum salicaria L. Vent. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. papyrifora. ssp. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Vinca minor L. and B. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rubus idaeus L. Veget. Regn. Commiphora molmol. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. Tabl. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Papaver rhoeas L.L. Nasturtium officinale R. Trifolium pratense L. Olea europoea L.

See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Salvia officinalis L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St. Juglans nigra L. Artemisia abrotanum L.) Tanacetum vulgare L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Salix alba L. Juglans regia L.) Acacia Concinna. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Betonica officinalis L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L.

Rumex crispus L. Schum. Gentiana lutea L.) Perre Yucca baccata. Artemisia absinthium L. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Yucca brevifolia. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Torr.

and vitamin content. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. weeds. etc). and sterols. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. bath. 10.7 Marine Natural Products 7. They are also used as thickeners in jams. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. cosmetics. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. blue. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. 3. mud baths. 7. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. The sea holds an endless source of life. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. high in carotenoids. etc. Cryptophyta — Contain green. However. Xanthophyta. including: 1. e 8. as well as vitamins. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. 5. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. It is said that life started in the seas. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. ice cream. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. Xanthophylls. and sometimes in seawater. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. and have even been used to put a head on beer. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. Seawater. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. 2. 4. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. body rubs. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. and red pigments. sauces. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. sea grasses. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. 9.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. mineral. 6. phytoplanktons.

growth substances. and lycine). • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. and imparts slip. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . for example. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. lipids. it is resistant to microorganisms and. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. anticoagulants. fucose polymers. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. furanoterpenes.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton.g. emulsions. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. emulsion stabilizer. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. For example. First. sulfur compounds. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. B12. marshmallows. prunes. carotenoids. second. steroids). and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. such as ursolic acid derivates. pharmaceutical. diterpenes. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. polyphenols. and herbicides. and C. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples.. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. cranberry. cardiac substances. Kelp is also the main source for algin. Therefore. and vitamins. proline. For plating microorganisms. and polysaccharides. glycine. B2. and cosmetic fields. anthelmintics. pears. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. and other fruits. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. prostaglandins. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. mainly from some gelidium species. proteins. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. acetylenes. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. and ice cream as a thickening agent.

Fe. antimicrobial agent. Co. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. B 2. a synergestic effect was exhibited. in combination with Vitamin E. iron. B6. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. I. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. galactose. C. and iodide ions. There are traces of chloride. both in vivo and in vitro. B. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. protein. mannitol. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. including iodine. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. salads. and antiglaucomic. B3. shampoos. particularly fluoride. potassium. Mn. sodium. F. L. etc. B. A). palmitic. lotions. In addition. magnesium. bromide. Cr. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. iodine. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). B6. antioxidant. K. and ointments. oleic. P. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. B3.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. broadspectrum. Mg. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. minerals (Zn. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. Algin. and carbohydrates. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. fat. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). phosphorus. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. creams. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. and mannitol. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. Na. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. and lauric acids). calcium. phosphorus. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. B12. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. Sargassum contains fructose. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Laminaria longicruris (L. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. B12. and zinc. myristic. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. it has a high content of potassium. Ca). and glutamic acid. potassium. which is a polysaccharide. However.

000). It is a single-cell protein. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues).2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. F. phlorotannins. containing all the essential amino acids. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L.8 mg/100 g 1. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. which means it is a self-sufficient. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus. rheumatism.02 to 0. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols. sterols as free fucosterol. and the Baltic Sea. a well-known anti-inflammatory. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids. Lyngb.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. sulfonate. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O. single-cell. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. polysaccharides. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine.1%).500 IU/100 g 180. sulfated. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms.6 Fucus contains trace minerals.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. Eisenia contains a complex polymer.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. mainly iodine (0. polar lipids. alginic acid. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. Echinus esculentus L. and as a massage for cellulite. Halidrys siliquosa L. the Pacific.3. fucans. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C.

500 IU/100g 180.64 w/w% 1.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81. Tests performed by the U.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3.9 mcg 15. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin.80 w/w% 0.63 w/w% 5.S.0% 20. The Emerald Food. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll.2% 4.64 w/w/% 5. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder. 14-15.38 w/w% 3. Dr.5% 11.45 w/w% 2. B.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0. et al.469 mg 613 mg 1.40 w/w% 4. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella..78 w/w% 6. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.8 mg 1. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.26 w/w% 2.70 w/w/% 2.2% 55. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron.6 mcg 0. Chlorella. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).08 w/w% 0.A. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.8 mg 1.9 mcg 191. Spirulina Spirulina. Moreover. In a controlled study. called the Chlorella Growth Factor.93 w/w% 3.08 mg Potter.8 mg 1.29 w/w% 2.8% 18.29 w/w% 3..20 w/w% 2.59 w/w% 3. It is found in both brackish and fresh water. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.3 mg 26.1% 0. pp.6% 60.7 mg 125. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.5 mg 4.06 w/w% 0.09 w/w% 3.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.46 w/w% 1.

P.L. K. Mn.L. Cr. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. Zn.A.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). Spirulina. lipids (4 to 7%). carotenoids. Na. G.A. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca. Cu. B2.. Biotin. as it is high in plant protein. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. minerals.40) B1. at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . vitamins. and minerals (5 to 10%). B12 Folacin. B3. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. Fe. etc. Ge. B6. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. Mg.

such as the curacins. cyanophyta. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. barbamide. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. and marine organisms. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. soft corals. bacteristatic. 7. and ascidians.12 5. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. and imidazole disulfides. the following being some examples: 1. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands.8 The results obtained are quite promising.11 4. the search is only beginning. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. Unfortunately. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. Related unicellular microorganisms. bactericidal. are common in marine environments. microcolin C.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. melemeleones. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. anti-inflammatory. kalkitoxin. the Bacteria. were isolated from marine organisms. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). Significant compounds. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. plant. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial.10 3. antillatoxin. having distinct anti-cancer properties. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. including phaeophyta. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. such as those of elevated salinity. which although poorly known. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. as a soothing demulcent. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. and chlorophyta. Thus. pressure. sponges. penazetidines. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. but no chemical study has been reported. Oahu. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. or temperature.9 2.13 6. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. anticancer. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula .

the eudistomins. tunicates. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp.15 8. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. and true symbionts from sponges. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum. and gorgonians.. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. which display a variety of pharmacological activities. a unique anti-viral protein. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. A series of B-carboline derivatives. antimicrobial. which produce anti-tumor compounds.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins.18 11. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. actinomycetes. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria. and cytotoxic activities. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum.16 9. the swinholides. and the theonellapeptolides. including potent antiviral.19 12. fungi. Cyanovirin-N. including corals and sponges. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia.17 10.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7.

discorhabdin A. phorboxazole A and B.35 28. makaluvone. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina.24 17. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. New antimycotics. a novel. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. Okoadene and Mailidene. Diamirone B. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.30 23.34 27. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line.27 20. Phorbas sp. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents.22 15. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula .29 22. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges). D. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. and F.39 32. Many novel.28 21. Isolation of Dysidiolide. immunopotentiating. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. including makaluvamines A.33 26. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii.25 18. B. Several new classes of compounds. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus. were isolated from the marine sponge.38 31. and anti-tumor promoting properties. E. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity.26 19.21 14.31 24.23 16.32 25. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. C. Cyclomarin A. latrunculin B and swinholide A. Isolation of Microcolin C. cytotoxic natural products. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13.37 30.36 29.

8.. B.A. T.. B. 23. Carte’. M. Wilkins. Haygood. J.. Ph. J. M. Goins.A.. Fulton. ibid P 156. Gulakowski. M. J. ibid P 9. Mendola. D. Beverly A. G. J. R. H.S. Green. Bohlin... ibid P 149. ibid P 150. 22. P. T. Sheehan.. pp. Ind. ibid S 23.-R.J. ibid P 155.A..298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. Blunt. J. T.C.. ibid S 22. ibid P 151. and Ireland. Abstr. Mokinski... Franklin. C. M. Pomponi.. N. J. S. J. ibid O 26. C..B.. and Cardellina. J. McMahon. Kloareg..M. Zhang. 26. P. ibid P 25. 1996.. J.. 10.J. ibid P 154. M. Janda. 401-414.. 29. B.T. J. 29. A. Hong. G. Harrigan. P. Chikarmane. ibid P 26.. Haughey. and Wang.. 7.. Forenza. and Crews. 40.. Baker. Dunbar. and Bauer.. L. T.G. J.. C.....W. Yoo. and Scheuer. Allen. et al. 180. and Molinski.. T.T....-D.E. Varoglu. B. 36... Lawry.. Plubrukarn.A. 1983. ibid P 145. S. Bringano.. M. 5.. and Hamann. S.. Blunt. Nakao. J. Javor. 27. J. T.M. and Kelly. L. 15.. Schumacher. 478-488. Crews... ibid S 9. 25. R. G. and Leahy. and Bair. 19.. D. Brielmann. C. K. H.J. L.. Lam. 9. D. G. J.. M.. R.C. Duh. W.. Yoshida.J.. P. McMahon..J. Freyer.. Haden.F. 18.R. 34... N. S. Fucus Vesiculosus L. and Boyd.. 33.A.A. 28. Slate. Dhyana..R.. P. B.. R.. Smith. M.E. and Hung. A. Barrows. Hargraves. 21. El Sayed. Mabeau. ibid O 49.J. ibid P 36. Andrew. W. M. and Gerwick. L. Hemling. 14-15. T.E. Chem. Mar. S.. Gunasekera. 37.. 6... Wright. L.G.-Y. Gerwick. K. J.J. 11. Bewicke.. and Munro.. I. Pettit. and Walter. Westley.. J. 3. 14.J. F. D. 39. McKee. Zheng... L.. and Joseleau.. and Crews.. Sci.K. ibid P 28. J. July 27-31.. 20. 1258. 35. L.. B. Suecica. B. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy.A.R.. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. S. S. J.A. P. K.P.F. L. H.P. Hook. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. H. Xie.. J.K. 38.W. K. Ferrante.. Gulakowski..F. 1975. L. K.... R.J.H..E. Maranda. Perry. A. 12. Ogren. S 8. and Baker. UCSC. Rodriguez.. Y. ibid O 11. Lill. 4. G. S. R. and Gould.. M.. and Scheuer.A. Copp. 1996. Ragan. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 6. B. Boyd.. Venables.A. J.. Schmitz... G. July 27-31. Fernandes. D. Lassota. ibid P 19. P. S. ibid O 7. ibid S 15.. Papers presented at the 37th Annu. and Yavor.H. W. ibid O 38... 1977. Natural Prod.. Gustafson.A. O’Keefe. B. M.......S. 20(6). and Kerr..J.. 32.. A. and Rodriguez. J. Andersson. Santa Cruz (UCSC). ibid P 141. and Thompson.P. Janus. 17.P. 13.. 16. D. J. J. Searle. 64........ 63.. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae. 2441-2446. Meeting. R. Can.M.T. L.. D. O’Keefe.. I.. L. P. B... M. Kerr.. Magni.. D. Rea.. and Russel G. D. Jayatilake..H.Y. 1985. de Silva. S.. ibid O 25. Chlorella. Andersen. Brzezinski... Beutler. Pharmaceut. Screening of biological activity. R. M.. M. 30. J. R. Harrison. Shoemaker. B. 2. Castor. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae.A. McInnes. Lloyd. P. H.R. and Hamann.-P... Major. P.A. and Afzelius. S.D... The Emerald Food. Cardellina. D. K. J. Gush. Acta Pharm. Clark..J. O’Sullivan. S. and Kelly-Borges. Linton. P. ibid S 14.. 304-313. K. C. McCarthy.S.W. Phytochemistry. 24. J. Mendola... D. 1990.. M. Carney.. Lidgren. E.. ibid P 30.. B. M. Chan.. R. Dumdei. Davidson....G. W.. 31. J. Coleman. Gerard. Al. Hamel. Potter. O 50. and Francis. El-Sayed.A.K.. R. Sci.. J.. and Munro. Solimabi. 56(4).. ibid P 31. W. G. McCombs. Erim. ibid P 27. ibid O 36. 1993. Gerwick. Heath. ibid O 10.. and Harrigan.. Shangxiao.

In main kettle. Adjust pH to 9. PROCEDURE: 1. NJ 07504. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. 4. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. Adjust pH to 5. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes. 207 19th Avenue. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.00 0.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq. Inc.00 10.10 q. Patterson. 2./Lipo Chemicals.5 (±0. Therefore.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used.10 0.2) with Sequence 5.2 (±0.10 0.s. 5. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature.60 21.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. either alone or in combination with other products.s. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.00 q. 8. 3. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 0. 5. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products. Henkel.00 10. Rohm & Haas.00 6..

Adjust pH to 5. 7.s.00 1.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. combine Sequence 1 ingredients. 6. at room temperature. high-foaming. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.10 0. Adjust pH to 9. 6. Amerchol. 5. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.50 15.10 0. Lipo Chemicals.2 (±0.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.00 0.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous.10 q. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Inc. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.00 10.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq.00 6. 2. 10. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural. Henkel. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient.5 (±0.10 q. Inc. Procedure: 1. Rohm & Haas. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1.00 20. 4.10 0.00 0.s. In main kettle.

Aqualon.00 0.10 0. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.50 3.10 5. Inc. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens.00 1.50 1. 5. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq. 2. Inc. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.(Induchem).10 0. Goodrich Co.45 0. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform. 6. B. 4. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine. Procedure: 1. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch.95 0. In main kettle at room temperature.FORMULATIONS 301 8. 3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .F.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22.

combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved. Inc. At 30°C.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15.s. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .96 63.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals. Procedure: 1.00 10. Inc.10 0. 3.54 5.00 5. Cool to 30°C. At 25°C. In main kettle.10 q. 2.10 0.10 0. add Sequence 3 to correct shade.00 0.10 0. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0.

10 0.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No. Inc. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86.28 0.02 0. Haarmann & Reimer Corp.10 0. 2. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. Givaudan Corp. BASF.FORMULATIONS 303 8.10 0.10 0. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Cool to 25°C. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C .00 4.50 0.50 0. Fanning Corp.05 6. Begin cooling. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved.10 0. In main kettle. 3.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base.00 2. Procedure: 1.10 0. Inc. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

10 0.10 0.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals.00 0.s. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous.10 g. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Inc.00 0. Procedure: In main kettle. 2. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext. 4. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.70 2.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31. Cool to 60°C.05 0.05 20. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.30 0. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940.80 0. Spl Phosphoric acid.25 0.75 0. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4.00 0.88 45. F. 3.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92. 8.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant. 10% sol’n Supplier B.82 0. Inc.00 5.

00 3 Lubragel MSb 35. Lipo (Kingston).8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin.00 2. Guardian Chemicals. 2.F.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0.00 0.10 0. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible.20 0.00 5.00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine. 3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25.30 0.05 1 2 Triethanolamine. Procedure: 1. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous. Goodrich. 99% Hypan SA100H 25. B. Inc. Lipo Chemicals.70 1. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.FORMULATIONS 305 8.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem).)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5.


Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Achaenium. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. as ferns. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Acicular: Needle-shaped. containing the pollen. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. or Akene: A dry. or flower-arrangement. indehiscent. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. with firm pericarp. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. one-celled. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. one-seeded fruit. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. the fecundating material from an antheridium. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . like the leaves of pines. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms.

Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Capitate: With globose head. Cardamon). Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Blisters: See Vesicants. Carina: The keel. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. stiff hairs. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e.. Bacca: A berry. Calcarate: Spurred.g.g. rare in present times). Attenuate: Tapering to a point.g. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. a pulpy. Apetalous: Without petals. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. Castor seed). Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. Campanulate: Bell-shaped.. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms.. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bristles: Sharp. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. as bi-foliate. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Atropous: With erect ovule. carrying the ovary. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Bracteate: Possessing bracts.g.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. the hilum and the chalaza being together. Bulb: An underground discoid stem. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. with two leaves. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. Axillary: Growing in an axil. Nutmeg). cinnamic). Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. meristematic cells. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. Bi-: Signifying double. Capsule: A dry. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary.. Appendages: Superadded parts.

Cordate: Heart-shaped. Caulis: The stem. Clavate: Club-shaped. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. tuber-like. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. Cilia: Marginal hairs. Cohesion: Attachment. Caudale: Having a hairy style. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. usually distinct. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. Umbelliferous fruits). Contorted: Twisted. thick. Corm: A solid. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level.g. Caudex: The axis. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Coriaceous: Leathery. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cortex: The bark. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. Cathartic: A purgative.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. from which they hang when ripe. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. upright rhizome. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Connate: where two parts. one-celled. Costa: The midrib. outer layer. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. Cespitose: Tufted. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. indehiscent fruit. Convolute: Rolled up. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. become joined. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. Also a name given to a short. Condiment: A substance used to season food. one-seeded. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants.

Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. or tending to fall. Crispate: Curled. Determinate: Definite. Deflexed: Bent. dividing into irregular branches. Dichotomous: Forked. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Deltoid: Triangular. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Didynamous: With four stamens. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. two long and two short. Definite: Constant. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Didymous: In pairs. etc. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. Discoid: With convex face. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. lymphatic. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Decompound: Many times compound. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Deciduous: Falling off. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Deliquescent: Dissolving. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. downward throughout the length. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. producing intellectual confusion. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts.

Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. Escharotics: See Caustics. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. wood. purgation). the outermost layer. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. E: Signifies deprived of. and bark. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Fibrils: Root-hairs. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Exogenous: Having bark. Epidermis: The true skin.. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. Epigynous: Adnate to. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Extrorse: Turned outward. without. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Episperm: The coat of seed. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith.g. or borne on. the ovary. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Echinate: Prickly. wood. nearly parallel. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Etiolated: Blanched. and pith distinct.

Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Globose: Roundish.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. as petals and leaves. Flocculose: Woolly. etc. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta.g. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Filiform: Thread-like. algae. as in the cypress and juniper. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. devoid of hairs. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Fid: Cleft. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Fimbriated: Fringed. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Genus: A group of closely allied species. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. Furcate: Forked. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Foliaceous: Leaf-like.. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. the point of attachment. orange). more swollen on one side than on the other. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Flexuose: Wavy. as bifid. Glabrous: Smooth. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united.

Lamina: A leaf-blade. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. two or three times longer than broad. Inflexed: Bent inward. as innate anther.. Labellum: (Lip).e. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. on the receptacle. Internode: Interval between nodes. Incanescent: Hoary. Inarticulate: Not jointed. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Inferior: Growing below another.e. inflammation. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. like shingles. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. Lateral: Attached to the side. the lower petal of an orchid. squirrels. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. rabbits. Innate: Adhering to apex. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Irritant: Any substance causing pain. cats. Jointed: Having. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. Lacinate: Fringed. Causing watery evacuations. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. Laxative: A mild purgative. Involute: Rolled inward. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens).GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. joints or nodes. Imbricated: Overlapped. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture.. etc. i. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Keel: See Carina. layer. either by mechanical or chemical action. dogs. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. i. Lacuna: A space between cells. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. and irritation. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. or appearing to have.

Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. leaves. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. with upper lobes largest. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Multifid: Many-cleft. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Monogynous: Having one carpel. with hard tubercles. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Monospermous: One-seeded. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Medulla: The pith of exogens. often caused by fungus infection. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Masked: Labiate. Monandrous: Having one stamen. Locusta: The spike of grasses.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. and roots. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. style. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. or stigma. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. but with lipclosed (flower). Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. with parallel sides. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. Ligulate: Strap-like. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Monopetalous: Having petals united. Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Lobate: Divided into lobes. found at the ends of young stems. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. Muricate: Rough. Linear: Narrow. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Napiform: Turnip-shaped.

Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Pedatipartite: Pedate. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. Offset: A short. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Oblique: Unequal sided. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. Obsolete: Suppressed. as ergot. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. death. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. rounded. Pedatifid: Pedate. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Obtuse: Blunt. another plant. Nut: A hard. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. one-celled fruit. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). apex broad (leaf). Pedate: Palmate. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. having tufts of leaves at extremity. and the keel. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. indehiscent. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. the wings. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. with lobes nearly free. and nourished by. Orbicular: Circular. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. Parasitic: Growing upon. as in the pea-flower. thick runner. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. in large doses. with lateral divisions again subdivided.

Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Pentandrous: Having five stamens. Personate: Masked. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. and perfect flowers on the same plant. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. female. Pilose: Hairy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with petiole attached at or near the center. Polygamous: With male. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Petals: The corolla leaves. Pod: A general name given to dry. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. usually of family Leguminosae. pointed cells. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. dehiscent fruits. indehiscent. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. Peltate: Shield-shaped. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Pubsecent: Downy. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. few-seeded. and the like. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. Pendulous: Hanging down. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Peduncle: A flower-stalk. Pome: An inferior. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. resembling a mouth. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. fleshy fruit. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Petaloid: Resembling petals. two or more celled.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. melon. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. squash. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many.

or two-celled fruit. with deep notch in middle (leaves). Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). Saccate: Sac-like. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. Sheath: See Ocrea. rooting and budding at nodes. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. such as glands. Sclariform: Barred or striated. etc. Ringent: Labiate. Retrorse: Directed backward. indehiscent. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. dry. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. Scarious: Thin. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. Runner: A slender. with reflexed margins (estivation). Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Scape: A slender radical peduncle.. Retuse: Obtuse. and shriveled. creeping. Runcinate: Jagged margin. Revolute: Rolled backward. prostrate stem. Recurved: Bent backward. Reclinate: Bent downward. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Reduplicate: Valvate. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. winged. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). and producing pustules. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with wide lips (corolla). Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Setae: Stiff. bearing leaves and rootlets. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). its function being to support the flower organs. Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Radical: Springing from roots. one. bristly hairs.

Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Subulate: Awl-shaped. Stipitate: Stalked. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. may be modified leaf or stem. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. Style: The prolongation of ovary. spiral branch. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Spine: A pointed modified branch. dehiscing from below upward. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. and one short pair. falsely two-celled pod. Sporangium: A spore-case. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Tomentose: Pubescent. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. leafless. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Tendril: A thread-like.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Squamose: Scaly. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. bearing the stigma. with short hairs. Ternate: Arranged in threes. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . in pairs. Suture: A line of junction. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Stipe: Petiole of Fern.

Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. Valvate: United only by the margins. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. Vexillum: The standard. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Tricostate: Three-ribbed. few-seeded fruit. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Zones: Concentric bands. 529-536. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. pp. Lucius E. Trichomes: Hairs. Uncinate: Hooked. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Volute: Rolled up.. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. one-celled. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Sayre. Toxic: Poisonous. Verticel: A whorl. Utricle: A superior. Versatile: Freely swinging. 1895. Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder).GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition.

12th ed. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 16.. Bailliere Tindall.. J. 13th ed. Foter. O. Tyler. Guenther. Tyler. Biddles. D. FL. K. 1932. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. 4. Louis. New York. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. 2nd ed. Bournemouth.. V. Wren. E. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. 13. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants.. U. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.. 9. Nakanishi et al. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. MD. Dover Publications. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. The National Formulary XVIII. P. SpringerVerlag. 1996. Merck & Co. J. New York. Berlin. T. FL. Ltd. MO. 1997. H. Biddles. Paris. I and II. British Herbal Compendum. 1995. & A. Rockville. Bisset.E. Plant Drug Analysis. A Modern Herbal. Pharmacognosy. Leung and S. Bruneton. M. J. New York. 3.E. Wall. A. Boca Raton. Churchill Ltd.. Academic Press. Ltd. A. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. 1992.K. Youngken. Notes on Parmacognosy.. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. Haworth Press.C. Vol. Robert E. I and II.E. 22. PA. 12. Blakiston’s Son & Co. MIS Publication. Inc. 18.. Krieger Publishing.A. Aug. Duke. 1974... FL 1992. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. CRC Press. R. 7. Wallis. U. Wagner and S. Grieve. Duke. Medpharm Scientific Publishers.. NY. British Herbal Medicine Association. 3rd ed.. The Merck Index. H. Vol. 1902. 24. Stuttgart. CRC Press. 5. Tease and Evans. 8.. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis.C. IL. 1960. Merck Research Laboratories. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 14. London.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1. 1. 2nd ed. 20. 4th ed.. 21. 10.. Lavoisier. Bladt. The Essential Oils. Chicago. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy.. V. 1990. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Mack Publishing. 1989.K. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. Y. 15. 1964.. St. 1971. 11. London. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .W. 23. 1995. 1996. 2. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants.. Herbs of Choice. Ltd. Vol. Vol. 1930. The Honest Herbal. N. 7th ed. Natural Products Chemistry.. J. 1975. 19. Potter & Clarke. Boca Raton. 1–7. 1994. Haworth Press.A. 1996. 1983.. CRC Press. American Pharmaceutical Association. Ehrhart & Karl. Philadelphia. 17. John Wiley & Sons. Washington. 1992. Boca Raton. G. Huntington. 1993. New Jersey.K.. U. 1994. 1936. 4th ed. 6. New York.

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