BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.

CRC Press Boca Raton New York

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:

Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper

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DEDICATION
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.

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BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.

Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

PREFACE
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.

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© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. Galen. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. Dioscorides. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. Let it reflect brightly upon us. and Avicenna. But more than anything. sorting. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. As formulators and purveyors. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. Chinese. Always wanting to know more. Originally. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. And then the Babylonian. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. men like Shen Nong. experimenting. Initially. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. to use plants wisely. Theophratus. always wanting to find a more active plant. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . observing. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. Over time. Mithridates.

vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sr. Inc.. He founded BioBotanica. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry. Frank D’Amelio. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists.AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist.

viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. Special thanks to Professor Dr. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. patience. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. and assistance in editing the manuscript. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals.

....................3......14 3...............................................3.............................................................................................................39 Percolation ...............5 Infrared Spectroscopy..........................................................2 Some Common Terminology ...........................40 Decoctions ...23 3...................................................................4 4................................................8 Volatile Oils............................8 Gas Chromatography.......................................................................................1...............................................................1 Liquids ..........1.....................................25 3..............................................................................3.....................................................................................3..............................................................................................3 Procedures .11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3...............................6 Carbohydrates.....30 3...3...............................1......1 Microscopical Techniques..................................................1......CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1..........................................................................................................42 Fluid Extracts ....................5 Yield to Solvents .................................................................................................................................................9 Adulteration of Drugs ......................11 2......11 References ..........................11 2.........1........................................7 Methods of Identification............................................................................11 2.................................24 3..............................................1.......1 1............................................................................9 Resins and Resin Combinations .....26 3..........................6 Ash Determination .......3 4..............5 Preparations of Extracts .........1 1......................................10 2............................................................................................................................................5 1....................28 3.............2 4............7 Assay Procedures ...........................................1 Constituents of Drugs..............................................1................................................5 Alkaloids..35 Chapter 4 4.........1............................1..........................................1..4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents...............9 2..........................2 1.......3..................3 Physical Constants...................1 Forms 4..............10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ........................1 4.........3....................................1.....................................2 Macromorphology ..............3 Micromorphology..............................1 1.............11 2.....4 Proteins ..............1 Plant Identification ........................5 1.................................39 Extraction Terminology...............................1.................................................................................................................................................43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ...............................................................................................................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2..............1..........................................................................................26 3.....................................2 Phenols .............1 Botanical Terminology .............................................................6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems.......................................................4 Ultraviolet Light ........1 1..................9 2.......2 Solubilities .........7 Glycosides .............................................11 2...10 2...............................................................1 1............1.....................................................................................................................................13 3........................................................................................41 Infusions .......................................................................2 1.................................................................................................3 Tannins..................

....................2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy.......4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil ......299 8..............................................253 6................................. Range.........49 5..........................................................51 6.............................................................................................................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table .....................2 Hair Care Botanicals .................................................7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe .........8 4......................................7 4.............1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table...........................1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo...................................................8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC.......................................6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table...........................................................................................................................1....................................................................................................302 8..............................225 6.........11 Tinctures ..........46 Product Strength.3 Cellulite Gel Base ...........................45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ...........9 4...304 8................7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ................... Concentration...........................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6...............................298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8...............................................2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products........................1....................................................289 7............................1.......46 Oleoresins .................1.....5 Indian Botanicals...304 8............................................................45 Extracts Strengths..........305 Chapter 9 Glossary..................... Properties......................................4.................................................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ..................................................... and Constituents ................6 4....................................6 Spray Moisturizer ...............................2 Natural Shampoo...................................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5...1 History ...............................................................................................1 Habitat...................1 Marine Algae.................................................................................................307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .................................................................................................247 6.........................301 8...............303 8...............295 References ........4..................... and Standardization...........................1......................................4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics ...............283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7......................................................................................................................233 6...1..10 4........................................................................... Description......................5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+...............................................269 6.................229 6...............300 8..................................

1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. They are widely distributed in plants. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. they are stored in seeds. fats. have astringent action.1. (2) phenols. Recently.1. ferulic. and waxes. When applied to living tissues. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. TS). They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. fats. They are generally soluble in water. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. hence. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. (6) carbohydrates. 1. palmitic. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. (3) tannins. spores. In the treatment of burns. stems. (4) proteins. and usually bitter taste. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents.1. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins. leaves. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. In most cases. (7) glycosides. and waxes (lipids).4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. and coumaric acids. 1. roots. 1. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. glycerol. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications.1 Phytochemistry 1. (8) volatile oils. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. etc. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus.1. (5) alkaloids. myristyl. barks. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. In plants. they are also called triglycerides. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1.

Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. piperidine. brucine. which are the building units. roots. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. Proteins are derived from amino acids. and cryptogams. (a) monosaccharides. antitoxins. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. pyridine. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. bark. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. leaves. quinoline. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. which end in -in. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. Being basic in chemical character.1. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. and steroidal. phenanthrene. possessing some marked physiological action. (b) obligosaccharides. In fact. and (3) derived carbohydrates. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. stems. and seeds. isoquinoline. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but mostly in fruits. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. gymnosperms. for example: colchicine. and oxygen. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications.1. 1. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. imidazole.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. Whole glandular products. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. serums. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. tropane. carboline. oil-bearing plant seeds. (2) polysaccharides. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. they form water-soluble salts with acids.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. purine. hydrogen. indole.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

which is a straight chain of alpha1. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. Unlike cellulose. galactosamine b. a. Inulin. stabilizers. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives.and B-1. Cellulose. iii. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. diginose. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. b. Monosaccharides. e. transluscent. L-galactose.2)-fructofuranose units. 3. it is formed of amylose. suspending agents. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. sarmentose. Glycogen. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. gums. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. and apiose. uronic acids. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. consisting simply of 1. their sulfate esters. turanose. Pentoses: L-arabinose. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . epimarose.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). gentiobiose. or amino sugars. trihalose Reducing: maltose. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. d. ii. alginates. and Example Rhamnose. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. melibiose ii. digitalose (these are 2. lactose. D-ribose. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). and thickeners. c.6-linked polyglucan. galacturonic Glucosamine. True sugars a. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. emulsifiers. and tetrasaccharides i.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. Therapeutically. amorphous substances. They include hemicellulose.4. oleandrose. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. tri-. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. i. fucose Digitoxose. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. gelling agents. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. 2.6-linkages. Gums are soluble in water. and some microbial polysaccharides. It contains both B-1.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). Polysaccharides (non-sugars). pectins. cellobiose. D-xylose. g. f. It is a linear polysaccharide. It is an alpha-1. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. mucilages. D-fructose (levulose). Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units).6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. cymarose.

g. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae). 9. in the liver of fish. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond.g. for example.. 5. rutin) Anthraquinone (e.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. Occasionally. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. sometimes called O-glycosides. sinigrin). 7..g. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e.g. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae).. Rutaceae. In the conifers.. as sugar reserves.1. 1. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. for example. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). sennosides. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). volatile oils can occur in all the tissues. In S-glycosides (e. or adenosine).g. for example. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e.. occur... There are also C-glycosides (e. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate.g.g.. digitoxin. 2. Such glycosides. They are products of plant metabolism. and Asteraceae.g.. 4. are the most common ones found in nature.. strophanthin. 8. Depending on the plant family. 11. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e.1. glucosamine.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that. Lauraceae. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. crocin and picrocrocin. detoxifying. and barbaloin are laxatives.. representing about 87 families). digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e.g. salicin is an analgesic. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin.g. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. Myrtaceae. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .g.. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources.g. 6. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. In N-glycosides (e. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. 12. regulating.g. arbutin) Alcohol (e..g. Phenol (e. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. daphnin) Flavone (e. sinigrin) Steroid (e. 3. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species. and defensive roles.g. the sugar component is called the glycone. 10. Lamiaceae. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). 1. cascarosides. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant. Apiaceae. however.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1.. The chief families are Pinaceae. digitoxin) Saponin (e.. for example. Other glycosides do. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone.

in cinnamon. They can be used for their therapeutic action. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. however. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. 3. lemon. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. however. Classification 1. etc. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). cajuput. diuretics. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8. However. and in orange. in umbelliferous fruits. pharmaceuticals. mild antiseptics. wintergreen. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. clove. beverages. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. 9. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. transparent or translucent brittle substances. chemical. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. 1. confections. neroli. carminatives. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). etc. local stimulants. dill. they are widely used in perfumery. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. geranium. Undoubtedly. in the mints.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. rosemary. ajowan. etc. For example. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. parsley. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. local irritants. cade. 4. cassia bark. horsemint. coriander. only in the bark and leaves. juniper. These substances. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. Ester volatile oils: lavender. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. etc. rose. fennel. Ethers: anise. for example. turpentine. sandalwood. star anise. Resins. spearmint.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. In most cases. bitter almond. etc. lemongrass. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. only in the pericarp. is rich in camphor. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. 6. 5. are hard. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. 7. or parasiticides. anthelmentics. thyme. etc. and odor characteristics. In addition. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. resulting in less food spoilage. cosmetics. sweet orange. In general. 2. tend to resinify on exposure to air.1. nutmeg. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. etc. chenopodium. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. as a class. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. but in few instances. themselves. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. and tobacco. etc.

they are of pathological origin. Family Coccidae. they occur as tyloses.. acetone. and ether. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. For example. when freshly powdered. Hemiptera. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). forming solutions which. on evaporation. in rare cases (e. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes.g.e. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. resin acids. resin alcohols. wood parenchyma. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. resin cells (ginger). chloroform. with few exceptions (e. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. in Guaiacum wood. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). resenes (neutral inert compounds). Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. gr. as in case of Pinus. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products.g. resins soften and finally melt.9–1. In plants. They are not pure chemical substances.g. It is noteworthy to mention here that. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e.25). that is. esters. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. order. carbon bilsulfide)... Laccifer lacca. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. On heating at comparatively low temperatures. In this case. they are divided into resin alcohols.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. When heated in a closed vessel. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. and resenes. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). fibers. which is called secondary flow. but do not contain any nitrogen. but when heated in the air. resinotannols. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. in the vessels. mastic). owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure.. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities. without volatilization or decomposition. and glandular hairs (cannabis). consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. colophony.. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. Chemically. viz. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i.g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . resins occur in different secretory structures. 0. and medullary rays cells). as well as in fixed and volatile oils. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. On this basis. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. Many products (e. shellac). Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. and glycosidal resins. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping.

Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. barks. in seaweeds. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. arabinose. Another is flax seed. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. and uronic acids. fruits. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. they can be separated from resins rather easily. xylose. (e. parasiticides. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. balsam of Copaiba. hexoses. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. nonadhesive solutions with water. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. These are. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds.g. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). Mucilages are viscous. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. Probably.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. creams. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. etc. asafoetida). usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. shave creams. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). Balsams. and Canada balsam. and anthelmintics. ointments. or esters of these acids. Jalap. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). roots. liquid or semi-liquid substances. cathartics. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. and seeds. cough syrups. the mixtures being called gum-resins. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. that form colloidial. respectively — both contain volatile oil. In some cases. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. viz. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins.e. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. and Podophyllum. purgatives. counter irritants. which contains no volatile oil. and malva (Malva sylvestris). expectorants. carminatives. they can be incorporated into lotions. flowers. being called glycoresins. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. the mixtures being known as oleoresins.) In general. antispasmodic. etc. glucose. therefore. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. they form a mixture of pentoses. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. for example. on the other hand. mouthwashes. like most seeds.. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. Guttiferae). the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. On hydrolysis. copaiba. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. (anywhere soothing is required). Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). leaves.

distillation. having a bottom outlet. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. acetone.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. or alcohol and water. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods..1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time.). 2. by traction. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. etc. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. or by chemical or physical means.g. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. by which it is exhausted of potash. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. treatment with a solvent. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. etc. gauze. expression. cotton) below. also referred to as the spent herb. water. suction. ether. the solution commonly known as lye. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . As with the raw materials. In pharmacy..

because it is the magnified object. always using a definite tube length. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions.001 mm). 2. the scale of 1 mm. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. The diameter of fibers. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out.3. That is.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. Therefore.C.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. and not the object itself. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. the width of vessels. both of which are carefully counted. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . also known as micrometers. Q.125 mm. In the same manner.0025 mm = 0. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens.0025 mm.3 PROCEDURES 2. the factors for the other objectives can be determined. its true size is 50 0. as well as identification of commercial starches.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. botanical laboratory.125 mm = 125 µ.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. Most of the time. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale. 0. that is compared with the scale. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. By its use. the height of sclerenchymatous cells. if an object. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. However. for example.

and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. A. they will give a high total ash value. J. London.g. 2. Similarly. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation.3. 1960.3. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence.3.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. 90%. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. E. London. Some pieces of rhapontic. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs.3.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. REFERENCES Wallis. 11th ed. E. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. Other drugs.3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. volatile oil. digitalis and henbane leaves).4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. Churchill Ltd. glycosides. However. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent. T. the yield to water of liquorice root. 2. Derris elliptica. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume.. vitamins. For certain drugs. Trease. G. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. In this way.. oleo-resins. 4th ed. 2. W.. for example. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. 1978. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e.. UV light provides very useful information. malaccensis. 2. balsams. Bailliere Tindall.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. optical rotation. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity.3. viburnum. calumba.. Pharmacognosy. especially if they are present in the powdered form. resins. and Evans. viscosity. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky. 2. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. and similar substances.. such as hydrastis. D. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. C.

.

color. organic solvents (ethanol. One should start with botanical terminology. When ordering a botanical. and berberine. For example. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. etc. percolation. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. Many plants have common names and. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract.. etc. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. identification can be confusing. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. If this is not specified. ash content. root. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix.3 Quality Control 3. Fortunately.. super critical fluid extraction. stem. i. then maceration. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hexane). therefore. distillation. flower. lipidic extraction. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. seed. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. This starts with the proper solvent system. or the entire plant. methanol. ask for it by its common name first. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. and microscopy. odor. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. canadine. There are many forms of extracts available. counter current extraction. and other tests like loss on drying. fruit. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. As seen in the example. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. leaf. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state.e. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. etc. providing that they were dried properly.

1 is an example of a confierous wood. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. Fig. pollen grains.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. Lupulin. 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). 3. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. viz. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. 2 is that of an angiosperm. 3) is a representative example. Quassia Wood. For systematic study. Dusting powders: One should be able. secondary phloem. while Fig. primary phloem. and hairs (Kamala. 2. Cowhage). starches. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. glands. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels.. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. to differentiate between mineral powders. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. however.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions.

1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig.

2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig.

3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig.

Flowers: In a commercial sense. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. S /(E + S). Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. Leaves: Example. the corolla made of petals. 4. stigmas). All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. epicarp.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. two features that are constant. fibrous layer of anthers. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. the leaf is termed sessile. In the great majority of plants. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. (2) their thinness. the calyx made of sepals. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. the ovary wall develops to form a case. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (3) the presence of chlorophyll. Among common drugs.e. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. 6). (Fig. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. mm. 5) is an example of the flower. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins.. called the pericarp. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. and endocarp. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. red poppy. argel leaf. viz. micropyle. in addition. thus forming a fruit.. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. for the seeds. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. styles. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). which are a useful identification tool. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. red rose and marigold of petals only. There are. elder flowers of petals and stamens. if there is no stalk. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. mesocarp. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. 6. i. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. however. frequently. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. and often a raphe. leaves may be recognized. 7. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. Achillea millefolium L. papillosed epidermis of petals. 5.

4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig.

Caraway (see Fig. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. flowers and fruits. However. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. Orange. Simple Fruits i. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. 5 Achillea millefolium L. 8. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Compound Fruits Hops In general.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. Bael. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Poppy. a. Tamarind. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. Cardamon ii. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. leaves. Colocynth b.

QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. 6 Grains of paradise seed. Aframomum melegueta Rosc. Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

starch. or are natural secretions (e. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. For example. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stage and eyepiece micrometers.. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and. Fig. opium). Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. beeswax and myrrh). The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues.. 8). or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. 3. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio.g.g. Therefore. expression (e.g.g. fibers. or by the trichomes. by the stomatal index. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig.. namely. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle.. 10. and sclerenchyma. olive oil). Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. agar). the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. mountants. such as incision (e.. branches. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. Chiretta herb. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. Clearing agents. vertically. similarly. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. 9. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. which are usually slender and adventitious. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. however. Microscopical techniques. decoction (e. 9). require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material.g.

8 Fig. 9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig.

fats. ether. hexane. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. and expands shrunken cells. Other solvents include methanol. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. 3. chromic/nitric is mandatory. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. carbolic acid. and causes swelling of cell walls. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. volatile oils. chlorophyll. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. and resins. tannins.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. etc. Sometimes. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. protein. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. The most widely used solvent is ethanol.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. it rapidly dissolves starch. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. resins. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. absorbance values should be used. water. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. lactophenol. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. starch. clove oil. the presence of coloring matters. alcohol. for bleaching. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or chlorophyll. and petroleum ether (pet ether). When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection.

finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. It can also be used to quantitate. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. unless one has an FTIR. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. In addition. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. This will give you a transparent disk. If the substance is in a solid state. depending on solvent and pH.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. Then press under anhydrous conditions.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer.

Chamomile. Lavender. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. Other tests like loss on drying.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. aluminum.g. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. 2100–1700 (W). 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. 3. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample.. VS = very strong. 1455 (S). (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. In addition.) When development is complete. 1600. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. Valerian. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained. and powder microscopy are also performed. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. 1760 (S). and (4) it is inexpensive. etc. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance.. one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. or plastic sheets are also commercially available. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. 3400-3100 (variable). odor. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays.g. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. then the filter paper can be eliminated. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. S = strong. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. 1500. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . organic solvents (usually methanol). Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. ash content histology.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. 3400 (M). it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. 3400–2500 (broad M). sulfuric acid). TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound.. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. 2860 (M).7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). 3600–2400 (broad). 3. M = medium. Precoated absorbents on glass plates. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). as one gains experience.

QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. natural product.5: 8. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. hence. antimony chloride UV. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent.

such as rice hulls or spent herb. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. From these spectra. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. information-rich electron ionization spectra. a separation technique. the use of the GC will continue to grow. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. System control. spent herb).. spectrometric. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. etc. rice hulls. With library search software. together with UV and IR spectra. or chromatographic (GLC. and cosmetic industries. After extraction of the plant material.) procedures in order to establish its strength. For plant volatiles and essential oils.” However. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. 3. data acquisition. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. However. HPCL. As with the raw materials. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. with expected growth well into the next generation. In phytochemistry. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. This system. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. pharmaceutical. it will show up by having less soluble solids. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. give excellent fingerprints for identification. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. If there is a diluent added.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents.g. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. TLC. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). photodiode array detector. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard.

photodiode array detector. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass. Ltd.

for example. 3. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. Obovate. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. the color and general texture are more important. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. 2. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the adulterant can be any kind of material. coffee. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. nutmeg. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. or Cochin. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. for example. data acquisition. honey. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. African. or Provence senna. in the case of powdered drugs. such as ergot. Instrument control. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. etc. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). Hence. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. beeswax.

Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. UV 320 nm detection. 220–223°C. genistein Calenduladiol. 1 ml/min. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. 3. 2 ml/min. 50°C. baptifoline.2 M Pi buffer pH 7.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. detection. luteolin. 5% DC560. 1.6 mm i. 2. 15 cm). detection.5 ml/min.5 ml/min. Rf 0.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. UV 202 nm./65 cm). GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60. acetonitrile-water (84:16). or 3% SE-30. 190 nm flow rate.0–1. mobile phase. UV 202 nm. 0. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin.5. flow rate.9 mm 30 cm). mobile phase. flow rate.8 ml/min for 7 min. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. 2. 0.d. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). flow rate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol.5 ml/min.5:0. 0. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i. thermopsine.. 0.0 ml/min. lupanine. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). mobile phase. mobile phase. panaxatriol. sparteine.0 M NaC1 gradient. 13-OH sparteine. rhamnos Ginsenosides.6 50 cm): mobile phase. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7. flow rate.0 ml/min. detection. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray.9 mm x 30 cm). distilled water. mobile phase. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. acetonitrile-water (83:17). HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. followed by 0. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10). 25 mm). detection. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4. xylose. CH3CN-H2O (73:27). UV detection (homogencity test).1) flow rate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. 1. R1.2. galactose. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. mobile phase. then 1. mobile phase.5 mm i.4x. HPLC: Zorbax CN.9 mm 30 cm).46. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250..2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). flow rate.1 ml/min. cytisine Anagyrine. panaxadiol. mobile phase.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. 1.d.d. acetonitrile-water (83:17). flow rate. 15 psi argon.

TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9). detection UV 365 nm. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages). berberine.5 ml/min. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. canadaline. detection. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. hydrastine Rf 0. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. mobile phase. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). mobile phase. UV 330 nm. mobile phase. 66 m capacity 350 ml).0 ml/min. flow rate. UV 270 nm. flow rate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). Start w/ 350 ml phase A. detection.. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. detection. flow rate. luteoline.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. 1 ml/min. Rf 0. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. vanillin in H2SO4. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). detection. UV 340 nm.. mobile phase. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). Merck(. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. 2 ml/min.d. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. hydrastine Rf 0. flow rate. vanillin in H2SO4.. detection. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4).9 i. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase. apigenin. mobile phase. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. methanol-water (50:50). Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2. flow rate. UV 340 nm. detection. 1.0mm i. introduce sample.d. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2.5cm). 0.d. phase A: water.d. LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). 2 liters phase B and C.05. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3.5 ml/min. 3.1 ml/min.9. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. 25 cm at 75°C). phase B: ethyl acetate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). 30 cm). isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). flow rate. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. 6 ml/min. flow rate. 0. increasing 3%/min). 4. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i. methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. 2 ml/min.4 cm i.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5.7 & 5. 75°C. i. ethanol-water gradient containing 0.6 mm.d.1 M phorphoric acid. detection. begin rotation. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate. canadine. 25 cm). 2. detection UV 278 nm.5. mobile phase. UV 365 nm. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient).5 ml/min.5-methanol (67:33). methanol-water (15% to 95%. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . w/guard.

4 ml/ min.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). R1. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2.0) mm i. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. caprylic acid. mobile phase. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3.. flow rate. UV 280 nm. detection. flow rate.QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. mobile phase. flow rate. analysis Column (3. 0.0 ml/min. methanol-water (27:73). 30 cm)..5 10 cm).6 mm i. mobile phase. mobile phase. detection. detection. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol..5 ml/min. flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. detection.. helium flow. mobile phase. flow rate.25m 3 mm). 1. daidzein. detection.1. UV 270 nm.0 ml/min. UV 230 nm. mobile phase. 25 cm). mobile phase.0 ml/min. 2.5 ml/min. photodiode array. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid.8 ml/min. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid. mobile phase.d. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min). 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min. water. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). prunitrin Calycosin. 25 mm). mobile phase.3 ml/min. biochanin-A. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. 2. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). 150 mm).d. detection.5 ml/min. caproic acid.d. flow rate. capric acid Isoflavones. 50% H2SO4. UV 280 nm. genistein.d. mobile phase. methanol-water (2.6 mm i. 30 ml/min. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0.d. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). 300 mm). HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u.1:1). tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658). detection. mobile phase. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. temp. UV 280 & 546 nm. flow rate 0. acetonitrile-water (gradient).d. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents.5.9 mm 30cm). 1. UV 313 nm. mobile phase. 25 cm) 2 in series. 1. detection. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. detection. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. flow rate. water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18.9 mm i. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. detection. formononetin. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. flow rate..

0. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances. boiler scale. for example.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. etc. flow rate. mobile phase. valerosidatum. conc. usually having no relation to the genuine drug. 4. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8). dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. 2 connected in series. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. detection. dextrin.0 ml/min. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. acetonitrile-0.25 m 4 mm). 30 cm). ethanol-water gradient containing 0.7 ml/min. powdered olive stones. flow rate 10 ml/min. senna. mobile phase. stone. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. scented bdillium for myrrh. etc. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. vitexinine 3. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. 1. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. UV 298 nm. valeranone Vincristine. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. For example. UV 256 & 206 nm. walnut shells. Sometimes. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. 2. hazelnut shells. guaiacum wood.4 (1:1). hydrogen flame ionization. detection. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. 2. detection. mentha. detection.8% methanol in hexane. detection. GLC: 1. 5u Chrompack). UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. UV 254 nm. acetonitrile-0. 250 mm. 6. for example. mobile phase. almond shells. such as adding citral to oil of lemon.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. acevaltrate. such as lobelia. methanol-water (60:40).1 M phorphoric acid. Substitution of exhausted drugs. stramonium. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. or hamamelis leaves.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. 8. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25).5 ml/min.d. detection.9 mm 30 cm).6mm i. 7. mobile phase. vitexin. mobile phase.d. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5. coconut shells. UV 254 nm. or lead shot. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. flow rate.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. detection.

g. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. palisade cells.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. Microscopical examination. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e.g. Structures absent: Cork. fibers. Nut shells and fruit stones. 5. especially the diagnostic epidermis. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. xylem vessels. and crystals of calcium oxalate. Frequently also delicate yellow. fibrous layer of the anther wall. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. which often contains starch in large amounts. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Mucilage of: Alkanna. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. tracheids. Keep for 6 months. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. wood parenchyma. frequently particles of small seeds. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. or oil). gloves. Dilution better done on the slide. starch.. palisade cells. red. 6. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. cutinized and suberized walls. Also epidermis. 7. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. which often cross the fibers and vessels. calcium oxalate crystals. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. 2. and medullary rays. 10. in powder. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems.) Acacia. fibers. pine and juniper). Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers.g. 3.. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. vessels. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. 8. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. Tincture of: Red with oils. glands. and aleurone grains. usually abundant parenchyma. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. A little vascular tissue. however. starch grains. papillose surface of the stigma. etc. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. The powder is usually entirely lignified. protective glasses. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . masks. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. and aleurone grains. Frequently also cork.. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. hemicellulose. pericyclic and phloem fibers. consisting of small-sized elements only. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. sieve tubes. palisade tissue. stone cells. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. 4. 9. Frequently also trichomes.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. cellulose parenchyma. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. resins.

1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. protective glasses. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. cellulose. Benzidine. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. Deteriorates on keeping.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood.I.0 g sodium iodide and 2. killed by steam. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. To be freshly prepared. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water.I.5 ml D. Store in amber bottle. Add 7. Chlorophyll. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. with continued stirring. gr. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . suberin.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. starch. 0. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. etc. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. The reaction is better carried out in the dark. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. if necessary.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. etc.I. To be freshly prepared. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. etc. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. H2O with the aid of heat. left for some time. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water.880). 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. masks. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. To be freshly prepared. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. and some mucilages. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. ligno. H2O.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. filtered. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. gloves. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). through glass wool.

1.27 g iodine and 0. e. gloves. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. Solution A: 34. note the coloration and read off from the table. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use. 1. H2O prior to use. added to a solution of 2. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids. Indicator. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. dextrose).. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting. on the label.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. the corresponding approximate pH.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc.g. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. protective glasses. 1.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water. and 20 ml water.I.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water.g. 40 g glycerin. Dilute: Used for mounting. Set aside until clear. masks. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water..) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e.I.75 g lead monoxide. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin.64 g copper sulfate and 0. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid. the strong solution will dissolve silk. filtered. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml. etc. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. 20 g lactic acid. and then diluted to 100 ml with water.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. gives yellow with colchicine. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . in powder. 1. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking.

lignin. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. with a dropper or a glass rod. 5 ml of glycerin added. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. and cutin blue. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%).) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). in small pieces. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. and then diluted with equal volume of water. suberin. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. Potash.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. masks. protective glasses. dissolving certain cell contents. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. stains lignified walls red. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. gloves. 10% alcoholic solution. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. 10. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. 66. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. 1% solution in water. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. It must be recently prepared. Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and.4% alcoholic solution. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. Store away from light. etc. Caustic: Used for clearing. and 80% by volume. 0. Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid.

An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. 1.3BG. A molasses consistency. Contains no alcohol.G. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate. AQU P. but the solvent is 1. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. etc. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum.F. An extract in P.1.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0. F.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. 5:1. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract. Same as a solid extract (S.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical.3BG GLY 4. Properties Usually high in alcohol. 60–90%. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices. Same as P. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1.G. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract.G. but the solvent is glycerin.E. P.E.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength.4 Preparations 4.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today. 5x. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application.E. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). Full strength 1:1.G. 3x. of various dilutions: 1:1. OLEUM N. E. etc.M. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. 4x.01 = 2x 0. Serial type dilution and succussion. H. Same as P. 0.E.P.

close the lower orifice. also referred to as the spent herb. the product will not percolate. cotton) below. distillation. and macerate for the prescribed time. etc. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. by which it is exhausted of potash. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). or by chemical or physical means.g. In pharmacy. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. cover the percolator. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . if packed too loosely. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. If packed too tightly. water..1. or alcohol and water. by traction. etc. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. gauze. When no more actives remain. having a bottom outlet. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. or. ether.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container..). 4. the solution commonly known as lye.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. giving a weak extract (see diagram). When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. the botanical is considered exhausted. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. suction. contained in a suitable vessel. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. acetone. treatment with a solvent. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. the menstruum will channel. usually 48 hours. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. expression. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. The packing of the percolator is very important.

etc. and filter.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. 4. These are usually the hard substances. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water.1. placed over it. roots. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . barks. preferably distilled. Allow it to cool. mix thoroughly. such as twigs.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. Under refrigeration.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. preferably distilled.1.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. In order to prepare an infusion. cold water should be used. after preparation of an infusion. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter. Moisten the herb in water. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. Therefore. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Refrigerate or preserve. 4. Refrigerate or preserve. it should be placed in a refrigerator. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes.

heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. which is very effective. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. However. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. bacteria. However. However. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. which seems to work well. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . there is also CO2 sterilization.1. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. especially in inactivating larvae. 4.

and evaporation.00 per pound). check with the manufacturers. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. i. However. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Therefore. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. as strengths vary widely. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc.S. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. from either fresh or dry botanicals. At present.2). Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day. Maceration is another procedure. as they contain alcohol. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine. and the solids are calculated. However. need preservatives. Therefore. Additionally. are weaker. Filter. berberine.1. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. A typical example: 5:1 P. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. and canadine. Usual laboratory method. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. Therefore. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. or a combination thereof. No vacuum concentration is used.e. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths.. and usually precipitate on standing. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution.G. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. However. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine.1. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris.* 4. percolation. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml.

and add enough D. to obtain a clear filtrate. need no preservation.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses.I. The native extract is usually vacuum dried. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. and time of year collected. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. or distilled water.I. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. Add 1000 ml D.I.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. returning the first portions. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. if necessary. and contain very little water. Their odors and tastes are similar. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes.I. preferably kept in a cool area. filter through wetted filter paper. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. dry solid. 2a. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1. easily dispensed. Solution: The volatile oil. Avoid excessive heat. Then filter the mixture. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. and pass enough D. or distilled water. respectively. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. or other specified volatile substance D.1. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency.1. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. 4.I. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. or distilled water. filtering if necessary. a sufficient quantity. 2. which lowers shipping costs. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders.I.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. and preserve or use the clear water portion. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. age. Separate the excess oil. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. or oven dried. while hydrastine is colorless. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. spray dried. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. 4. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers.

46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. etc.1. bark. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. To avoid confusion. etc.3-butylene glycol.10 Product Strength. glycerin. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. are often found in the cosmetic literature. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. However. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. 1. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. or roots of plants (see above). liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. 1997. in the United States. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. butylene glycol. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. However. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract).G. etc. 4. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia.). as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color. The true strength will vary. The starting botanical. This is very controversial. tinctures. In Europe. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. therefore. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents.* 4. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. Concentration. would be too concentrated in many instances. a 1:1 extract. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. is always measured on the dry basis. Recently. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. etc. in a true strength extract. Obviously. fresh or dried. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. 10:1. in a cosmetic formulation. depending on the manufacturer. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. 10:1.1. etc. glycerin. If it was calculated from fresh weight. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves.

Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. standardization can be carried to the extreme. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. which has been standardized on valepotriates. canadine. and starches to be significantly reduced. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U..0% hydrastine. If the dried plants contain 0. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems.15 to 0. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract. and then on valeric acid. and canadine. GLC. However. This would cause the berberine. fixed and volatile oils. Thus.5 to 4.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. berberine. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. that is. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. Analytical procedures (TLC. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. However. and not soluble in most cosmetic products. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . resins. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. dark in color.04%). A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract.S. However. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract.5% of essential oil. which is approximately 20 times less costly). Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. the former designation is becoming the standard.

. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5% oil.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. 1997. ether. either fixed or volatile. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. 4. alcohol.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. or 1. Therefore.8% essential oil. However. However. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution. A thick. there are usually losses during extraction.g.1.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. consisting of an oil. followed by evaporation of the solvent. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations. oily resinous mass remains.

Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. impotence. Stimulant. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. aphrodisiac. scalp stimulant. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. energy imbalance. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. digestive problems. soothing. antispasmodic. aphrodisiac. and perfumes. Anti-inflammatory. revitalizing. calming anger. Stimulant. hair growth. tonic. Carminative. cleanser. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. euphoric.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. loneliness. nervous fatigue. soothing. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. thereby reducing stress. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anxiety. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. Revitalizing. hair growth. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. 5. Poor memory. affects the adrenals. in turn. euphoric. wrinkles. Moisturizing. exhaustion.5 Aromatherapy 5. aromatic waters. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. mild stimulant. Skin elasticity. This is the essence of aromatherapy. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. Stimulates scalp.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. Cell regeneration. antidepressant. antidepressant. antispasmodic. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. This. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. mental strain. For example. poor memory. sadness. digestive problems.

very little is needed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fabrice. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. If the reader has further interest. stimulates metabolism. Therefore. grief. Walden. Nervous tension. 1976. house sprays. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. 1984. Jean. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. anti depressant. C. mouth ulcers. cell proliferant. Saffron. Aging skin. Rochester. The Practice of Aromatherapy. 1982. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. Mood elevating. The Aromatherapy Handbook. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. etc. inflammations. opens psychic centers. Example: to be effective. bath oils. Danielle. Destiny Books. VT. Valnet.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. shampoos. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. Ryman. uplifting. uplifting during depression. England. euphoric. antidepressant. moisturizes. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. Daniel Company. lotions. Essential oils are very concentrated. Aging skin. Antidepressant. Essex. calming. shock. wrinkles.W. anxiety. vaporizers. amara) Antidepressant.

long. and involute at the point. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. The flower is single. PROPERTIES. the inner ones being bidentate near the base.1 HABITAT. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. DESCRIPTION. The scape is naked. and fawn-colored externally. flowers in April or May. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. obtuse. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. liliaceous. The leaves are two. subradical. yellow. about 5 in. spotted near the base.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. droping. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. RANGE. high. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. with purplish or brownish spots. lanceolate. pale-green. and 3 or 4 in. perennial herb. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. which is white internally. slender.

The root is long. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. interruptedly pinnate. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. filaments flat. but unpleasant. and hematuria. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. 1. flowering in July and August. nearly smooth beneath. racemose spike. 2332. terminating in three undivided stigmas.. coarsely serrated leaflets. The leaves are alternate. which is somewhat aromatic.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. Ovary obovate. et al. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . from to 1 foot long. anthers oblong-linear. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is much branched at the summit. Its odor is aromatic. harsh. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. hooked bristles. mild tonic.six. yellow. 1946. and surmounted with reddish. 68. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. 1975. Hoppe. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. three-lobed at top. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched.. 2. fibrous. de Gruyter. and covered with a soft. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb.. J. Am. antiscrofulous. long.1. Berlin. Pub. No further analytical data available. Soc.. Agrimonia has a bitterish. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. in hedges and fields and by ditches. Properties Emollient. and tapering. The capsule is oblongobovate. silky pubescence. A. The whole herb and root contains. pyrogallic acid. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. and of reddish-brown color. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. with a loose membranous tip. agrimonol (= agrimonine). longer than the stamens.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. conical. epistaxis. functional bleeding. and borne in a dense. diuretic. 8th ed. W. Heinz. and three-valved. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. style club-shaped. This taste is strongest in the root. and phlobaphene. Cavalitto. subastringent taste. Drogenkunde. pyrocatechol. and anti-inflammatory. Chem. agrimonolide. producing numerous heads.

Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. and minerals. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. choline. wedge shaped. quercitrin. 1964.. Med. triterpenes. as do other types of face packs. organic acids. apigenin. However. United States. and polysaccharides. after which a good face cream should be applied. Patrascu. Europe. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. 2. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . usually abrupt at the tip. wavy-serrated.. alterative. V. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. Constituents Tannins. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. volatile oil. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. fruiting tops. Rev. glycosides. this should only be done once a week. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. et al. citric acid and silicic acid. Ser.. phytosterin. and also to help relieve dandruff. 153-157. luteolin.. 190-193. et al. Alder also helps to unclog pores. tonic. eupatorin. catechin. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. nicotinic acid. 1994. 29(2). glutinous. southwest Asia. 1. which are roundish. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. The bark is dark gray and ridged. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. 10(2).ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. Peter-Horvath. gum. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. M. flavonoids. 7-0-B-glucoside. Dermato-Vernol. ursolic acid.

creams. The surface is dull and smooth. and tannin.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. Properties Used in facial steams. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. and Barbados Islands. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. The texture is waxy. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). boron. a mild exfoliant in oils. bath gels. Aloe contains 99.50% (5 grams. oils. ALOE Aloe vera L. Further reading is recommended. lotions. calcium and trace minerals. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sun poisoning. The odor is strongly aromatic. and burns. Alfalfa is also high in minerals. The fracture is conchoidal. and is employed in skin creams. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. insect bites. irritated skin. lotions. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. saponin. etc. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. carotene. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. this has not been verified. hair treatments. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. scratches. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. hair rinses. The size of the pieces is variable. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. chrysophanic acid.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. which would suggest its use in baths. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. To date. etc. etc. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. West Indies. cuts. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds.

Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). sugars. Constituents Malic acid. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glucomanine.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. and pectin. Delicious. Macintosh. Rome. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. Granny. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. It contains malic acid.

soft durable wood. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. tannins. ⁿ in. wax.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. moles. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. Cones oblong. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. shoddy bark and light. Wolf’s Bane. flavonoids. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. long. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. and polyps. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. in height. ARNICA Arnica montana L. containing thujone. both internally and externally. having pale. and mucilage.

Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. the receptacle setaceous. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. kaempferol. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaves. three-toothed. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. Arnica tincture DAB 10. and the cypsella not beaked. receptacle slightly convex. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. 7. northern Mediterranean. lauric. malic). and undivided leaves. the involucre dilated and imbricate. edema. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. ray flowers yellow. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. reddish yellow. 5 to 7 mm long. palmitic.to 12-veined. sprains. emarginate and pointed. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. dark green and pubescent. pectolin arigenin). finely striate. and essential oil. the cypsella spindle-shaped. about 1 cm long. Has been used for hematomas. pinnate. xanthophylls. with subspinose.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. dark brown. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. Sesquiterpene lactones. pistillate. polyacetylenes. Note: There can be side effects. Odor characteristic and agreeable. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. with fleshy bases. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. the pappus plumose and sessile. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. isorhamnetin. tubular flowers perfect. and surface phlebitis. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. Description This plant is perennial. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. The heads are discoid and homogamous. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). In mouthwashes. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. fatty acids (fumaric. inflammation of the oral mucosa. Topically. patuletin. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. taste bitter and acrid. the scales ovate. quercetin. stamens without a tail-like appendage. stearic). Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. inflamed insect bite.

oxydase. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . vitamins.e. bread crumbs. beta-carotene. ascorbinase). Also employed in jaundice. flavonoids. ascorbic acid. Cosmetically.. trace minerals. peroxidase. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. tannin. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. protein. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. garlic. Around the holidays. and hypocholesterolytic. cynadase. choleretic. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. diuretic. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. cynarin. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. sterols. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. cholagogue.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed.

or in threes occasionally. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. It is a stimulating expectorant. The apex is acute. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. Herbalists use it for treating colds. These buds are sessile. balm buds Part Used: Buds. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Aromatic antiseptic. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. twigs. sores. resinous substance. The taste is pungent and bitter. The margin has projecting points of scales. The odor is balsamic. Has been used on blemishes. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. * Formerly CTFA. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The color is reddish brown. The base is truncate or depressed. and various skin diseases. cuts.

True Bay. North America. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. Europe. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. distinctly radiate. berbamine. 5-0-methylgalangin. taste distinctive. fracture hard and tough. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. pith of rhizome small. Properties Astringent.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. Description Cylindrical. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. very bitter. rhamnetin. Flavonoids. strongly branched.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. wood yellow. and the Middle East. sometimes excentric. galangin. magnoflorine. chrysin and apigenin. acetophenone. color more pronounced upon wetting. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. pinocembrin. bark 1 mm in thickness. Odor slight. izalpinin. tinges saliva yellow. Berberine. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. 3. Grecian Laurel. populin. volatile oil. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. knotty. Bactericidal. salicin. and showing rings of growth. externally light yellowish brown. has been used for indolent ulcers. usually splitting somewhat on drying. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). volatile oil. gallstones. jateorrhizine. tannic and gallic acids. bervulcine. on chewing. Internally used to treat liver disorders. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oxyacanthine. circulatory stimulant. easily separable into layers. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol.

Northern and Central Europe. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. syringic and p-coumaric acids. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. along with methyl arbutin. and glossy aromatic foliage. shiny black berries. -terpineol acetate. and volatile oil. Spr. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%).1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). and others. glabrous. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. tapering. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. lotions. odor slight. undersurface yellowish-green. astringent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. -terpineol. perfumes. covered. ursolic acid. However. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small.3 to 3. gallic and ellagic acids. base acute. linalool. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. hyperoside. summit obtuse. spatulate. taste slightly bitter. -pinene. catechins. 12 to 30 mm in length. brittle. hydroquinone derivatives. Asia. texture coriaceous. margin entire. finely reticulate. slightly revolute. quercetin. phenolcarboxylic acids. due to its high tannin content. Description Leaves obovate. Treating small areas works best. soaps. pale yellow flowers. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. slightly pubescent. and detergents. petiole about 3 mm in length. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. alkaloids. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. and plant acids. upper surface dark green. Uvaursi is astringent. Constituents 0. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. The leaf also contains germacranolides.

See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees........ Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva.. sores. British Columbia. Whortleberry. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx. Description Dwarf shrub.. reduces inflammation.. wounds.. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations... tonic.. ovate. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen. and other compounds identified in bee pollen. Europe. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit. and Asia.. 20 to 50 cm high. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW. 1 to 2% fat. minerals. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins. and to replace retina purple...1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins... anti-inflammatory.... combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees. This is taken up in a collection vessel... JAMA. Good for skin ulcers. 4 mm wide. and abscesses. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. only slightly paler beneath. dissolving.. reducing visual eye fatigue. 262. restrains infection. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive. 1989.. 1854.... 1... antiseptic. California.1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . promotes tissue repair... Properties Astringent for eyecare products. Wyoming... corolla ovoid-lanceolate.... G. scabs.. amino acids. about 5 mm long. softening.. sores. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter.. enzymes. eruptions.... 55% carbohydrate.. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones.. Mirkin. leaves Habitat and Range Woods.. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus.. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits.. 9.62 BED STRAW. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive. leaf-blades thin.... Michigan. and ulcers.. Properties Restoring. boils. clears toxins.... 3 to 5 cm long. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein.0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L..

76.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. New York. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. BIRCH Betula alba L. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. ursolic acid. ascorbic acid. saponins. leaves. German Commission E Monograph. R. parts of Arctic Siberia. naturalized in northern North America. myrtillin. betuloresnic acid. BANZ No. (trace amount) asperuloside. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). Properties The bark. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. anthocyanosides. 4-23-87. Rattleweed. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. Macmillan. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. and eczema.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. White Birch. quinic acid. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. Mabey. gaultherin. 1988. essential oil. Squaw Root. 1. peonidin glucosides. betulol. psoriasis. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. Bugbane. arbutin. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath.. Rattleroot. Europe. fatty acids. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. North Asia. New Age Herbalist.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. 1. apigenin dimethyl ether. betuloside. methyl salicylate. Bugwort.

taste bitter and acrid. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. It possesses estrogenic activity. fatty acids. bark thin. resins. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays.5 cm in thickness. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. externally dark brown. internally. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. dyspepsia. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. by deep cup-shaped scars. and rheumatism. fracture short. up to 3 mm thick. tannins. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. externally dark brown. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. mainly formononetin. and sugar. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. longitudinally wrinkled. somewhat branched.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. frequently. or less frequently by fibrous strands. each of which shows a radiate structure. particularly depression and hot flushes. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. starch. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). bark dark brown. Rhizome horizontal. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. fracture horny.

or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. glabrous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A tree up to 50 m high. juglandic acid. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. anthelmintic. lanceolate. and trace minerals. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. glabrous above. and detergent. Texas. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. taper-pointed at the apex. serrate. 8 to 10 cm long. and Minnesota. Constituents Juglone. tannins. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. It is an astringent. fruit globose. with thick ridges. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). rounded or subcordate at the base. leaflets 11 to 23. Florida. 5 to 8 cm long. fixed and volatile oils. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. bark. Massachusetts.

a prominent midrib. myxoedema. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. trace minerals (mainly iodine). and bruises. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). reproductive tissues. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. rheumatism. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. The odor is slight. cellutitis. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. slimming activity. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It can be added to hair and skin care products. The texture is cartilaginous. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. The thallus is dichotomously branched. steryl glucosides. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. as a wash for psoriasis. sprains. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. massage for cellulite.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). fucans). Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. The color varies from brown to black. Frequently. probably due to its iodine content. The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity.

Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage.. mostly in the Eastern States. saponins. rhizomes.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. frequently split or in broken pieces.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. longitudinally wrinkled. Description The root is fusiform. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L. five pointed corolla. Borage has a cucumber-like odor. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids.. covered with bristly hairs.. skin cleansing and lightening. European Burdock... rough. simple or branched.. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. Bugloss.. of variable length. sometimes white. leaf. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains. Description An annual robust plant...... tannins. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. about 2 cm in diameter. flowers from June through September.. hollow stem. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. fracture somewhat horny.. Gobo Part Used: Roots.. sparingly naturalized in the United States. flowers. on long stalks. up to 60 cm high. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock. the crown somewhat annulate.. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids... It is easily grown from seed. externally grayish brown. sessile. elliptical leaves wrinkled. the lower ones on short petioles.. usually blue. calyx of five sepals. and minerals. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage. mainly cultivated for commercial use.. Constituents Vitamin C.. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe. the upper leaves.

lotions. fatty acids. It is also used in hair conditioners. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. tannins. arctinal etc. volatile oils. It has been combined with comfrey. abrasions. licorice. in cases of acne. taste is mucilaginous. berries with black seeds. inulin. eczema. polyalkenes. cystitis. gels. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. Arctinone. lignin. psoriasis. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. becoming pyroligneous on milling. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. anorexia nervosa. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. centrally hollow or containing a white. North America. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. acid soils. yellow-green flowers in spring.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. including buxine and buxozine C. fukinanolid. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. creams. pith-like tissue. arctinol. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. Odor slight. and can be used in facial steams. sweetish. gout. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. scaly skin.. sterols. shampoos. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. and baths. fat. and slightly bitter. cutaneous eruption. and oil.

*INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. Europe. bushy places. Fruit.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. ruscoside. dark green shrub with thick. 3 mm across. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. Emmenagogue. 1 cm. scale-like. ca. Flowers greenish. borne on green. ribbed. for the treatment of varicose veins. 5 mm. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a globular red berry ca. mucilage. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. saponin. inhibits inflammation. dry hills. Leaves. The extract has been used with success. oval rigid. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. sudorific. Description A dense. 2 cm long. papery ca. diuretic. rutin. chrysophanic acid. Properties Increases circulation. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm.

.

. quercitrin. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material... See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L.... Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length.......C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia.... or Sierra Leone Pepper.. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . herby odor... luteolin. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present. piscidic-acids... Mombassa.. and beta-sitosterol. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear. Description In pieces of varying length. It has a strong. Mexican.. CALENDULA. healing for sensitive skin.. from 1....... penduletin.. and from 5 to 9 angled... isorhamnetin-glucoside.5 to 4 cm in diameter. Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. taste acidulous and mucilaginous... dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper... rutin.. Constituents Flavonoids.. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments. together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length.. kaempferol.

Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The fruits vary greatly in size. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. the Nyassaland variety is red. and brown. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. gray. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The odor is aromatic. and greenish-red. The taste is pungent and warming. or is free from these. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the Sierra Leone variety is light red. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. Capsicum is a berry. yellow. The apex is acuminate or acute. The epicarp is thin and tough. the African variety is yellowish-brown. yellow. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. The seeds are compressed and pointed. red.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. The Mexican variety is deep red.

-pinene. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. flavonoids. and vitamins A and C. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe.4%. etc. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. carotene capsanthin. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. daucol. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. It has a long tap root. Bear Wood. fatty acids. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. branched. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. rubefacient used for neuralgia. jaborandi. colocynth. leaves. geranyl acetate. keeping it smooth and soft. Buckthorn. lotions. CARROT Daucus carota L. Asia. and perfumes up to 0. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied.29%). Chittem Bark. naturalized in North America. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. is obtained by steam distillation. rheumatic pains. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. After. antiseptic. Sacred Bark. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. detergents. and North America. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. geraniol. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. hairy stem. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. segmented. Bitter Bark. counter-irritant. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. creams. and others.

they contain both O. Naturforsch. Bailliere Tindall. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. It is frequently covered with lichen. 5. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. and D. 267. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. In small doses. See formula. The bark occurs in flattened.. Description The tree is 4. Trease. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). E. bryophytes.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. Publ. and Evans. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives. Aloe-emodin. Various diathrones. 2. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. G. including those of emodin.5 to 5 mm thick. W. 1983. 1. It gives red color with ammonia TS. and chrysophanol. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. 2. C = 10B. 12th ed. Wagner et al. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. emodin oxanthrone. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. Teil B. Z. 1974. 444. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. It is much used as a laxative. in Pharmacognosy. Teil C.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. B = 10 R = OH. D = 10 . odor distinct. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it acts as stomach ache treatment.and C-glycosidic linkages. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. C. London. and emodin in the free state. C. 1. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. Two aloins. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. curved pieces or quills of variable length. B. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. R = OH. chrysophanol.. aloe-emodin. 1974. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. R = H. R = H. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). 3. 4.

rounded or ear-shaped at the base. crenulate. nepetol rosemarinic acid.. camphor. corolla whitish. lower pair shorter.. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed.. stems quadrangular. leaves opposite. calyx hairy. softhairy above. and aromatic.. from 10 to 20 cm long. flowers small.... It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache. from 2 to 7 cm long. up to 4 mm in diameter. floral leaves small.. methyl-nepetalactone. naturalized in North America. carvacol... Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling. tubular. citronellal. the upper lip erect and two-cleft.. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like.. the lower spreading and three-cleft. interrupted spikes.. in dense. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. Constituents Essential oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Br. margin deeply crenate. nepetalic acid..... throat dilated. pale gray-green. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A... much branched.. the middle lobe largest.CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect. (geraniol.. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip. limb bilabiate... ovate or oblong. or crushed and broken. downy. thymol).. nepetariaside..... dotted with purple. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East.. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties... nepetalactone. the larger. pointed at the apex.. petiolate. pungent. downy beneath.. bract-like. CENTELLA...... curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed. Description Top.. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe.. taste bitter.

D’Amelio. Lin. asthma. 1973. and flavonoids.3 to 0.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. S. 1991. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. and U.. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. simple. 7. H. 436. July 26–30.S. Y.804.C. The plant also contains diterpenes.Y. T. S. 204(2). and sternutatory. 1973–1974. Sept. A. Microbiol. alternate. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. 3272. margin dentate. Yang. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . green. Patent 5. 39(12). Y. Yang. arnicolides.. the plant has been used to treat colds.C. and alpha-humulene. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells. 1997. Abstr. florilenslin derivatives. Ebizuka. the apical cell being elongated filamentous. C. Y. F. triterpenes. Y. J. Leaves.W.. G. H. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. 894. brevilin A.B.7. W.85%).3 antiprotozoal. Wright. 8(7). Res. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns. thymol (1. 1196. Y.T. 4. Chin J. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1. Yang. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm.1 In Chinese traditional medicine. UIO..I.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities.W. oblong.B. helenalin. 3. Bull.23%). Sankawa. J. myrtenol (5. Aust.L.6 to 1 cm broad. J. diarrhea. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23.206. 6. Compositous glandular hairs are also present. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. Pharm. cylindrical.5%). Stem 0. nasal allergies. and rheumatism. beta-gurjunene. 54. 5. apex acute. Odor characteristic. longitudinally striated.97%). and Mirhom. Cai. Pharm. 1992. 1988.D. Campbell. U. 1994. venation pinate reticulate.18%). florilenalin-angelate. Warhurst. and Mirhom.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant. sessile.6-beta-oside. aromatic. J.. Y. 8. and C.W. 1. Bull. Pharm. Kriby. Hu. Iwakami. Chem. and U. Lee and J. 97. Wu. skin infections. and amoebiasis. plenolin derivatives. F. Sankawa. wounds.. 22 g. Phillipson. 2. Y. Phytotherapy Res. Chun. Wu..98%).2 The plant also possesses antiallergic.A.S.5 cm in diameter. D’Amelio. Mutat. Ebizuka. 1998.50%).C.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes. 40(5).. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. isoamyl caproate (1. malaria. 6. Lin. and D. caryophyllane-2. Chem. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. green. internodes short.

aromatic.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. three-toothed and four-veined. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. farnesol. naturalized in the United States. Odor pleasant. calendula. borneol. chamazulene. creams. lotions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . matricarin. ray-florets from 10 to 20. see the bibliography at the end of the book. taste aromatic and bitter.5 cm. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. chlorogenic acid. bisabolene. longitudinally furrowed. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. pistillate. or only a slight membraneous crown. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. anti-inflammatory. pappus none. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. apigenins. usually reflexed. Chamomile contains azulene. and mullein in shampoo rinses. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. furfural. well over one hundred compounds. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. healing tonic. perfect. oblanceolate. Constituents Essential oil. involucre hemispherical. etc. For further reading. corolla white. hollow receptacles. New York southward. It is a carminative. alpha-bisabolol. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. disk-florets tubular. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. and pubescent scales. and without a pappus.to 5-ribbed. peduncles light green to brownish-green.

and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. long. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. It is native to the southwestern United States.G.A. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. The leaves grow in opposite pairs. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall. and stimulating the skin. Description A resinous. Gobonadorra Greasewood. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. Chaparral is a source of N. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Yellow flowers have five petals. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. restoring. The flowers normally occur in January through May.. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. 3/8 in. Properties Good for softening. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. Also used on skin rashes and infections.D.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov.

Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. The taste is astringent and pungent. sedating. CHERRY BARK. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF.G. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. Properties Soothing. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The fracture is weak. 8th ed. granular and slightly fibrous. However.). partially peeled. if unpeeled. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. it is finely striated and fissured. 1. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. which can be peeled. is brownish-black. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. Constituents Aspartic acid. The outer surface. this has not been thoroughly investigated. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. camphor.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. phenolic acids.. and 4 mm in thickness. astringent. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N.A. and uneven. a powerful antioxidant. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. Merck Index. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. south to Florida and Texas. will add body to hair. and unpeeled. p. 5 cm in width. gossypetin. tannins. 747. bitteralmond-like when moistened.CHERRY BARK. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. The odor is aromatic. brittle. quercetin).D.

1⁄6 to 1 in. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. vulnerary. lotions. small. white bird’s eye. Description A weak. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. fatty acids and minerals. the lower petioled. tocopherols. rooting at the nodes. with a line of hairs along one side. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. high. baths. creeping or ascending. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. For inflammed eyes. indolent ulcers. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. fruit a many-seeded. leaves ovate. satin flower. rutin. Can be used in creams. axillary stalks and in terminal. acute. and facial steams. annual. redness of face erysipelas.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. long. stems slender. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. coumarins. emollient. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . All Europe. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. carboxylic acids. swelling. opposite. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. psoriasis. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. flowers white. on slender. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. Properties Antipruritic. entire. the uppermost sessile. small capsule. gamma-linolenic acid. leafy cymes.1 mucilage. saponins. triterpene gyycosides.

behenic acid. antiscrofulous properties. Duke.. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval.. said to have antibiotic properties.. mental escape from reality. woody.. New York. 2.. clematine. Constituents Caffeic acid. chlorogenic acid. protein. stalked leaflets. inattentativeness.. Flowers 2 cm.. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. Y... Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants.. sores. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. June to August....) Bull. white hairs. John Wiley & Sons. In 1770. indifference.. spreading. petals spreading. Boca Raton. it is used for dementia. Steven Foster.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng. 1992.See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L. densely hairy on both sides...... Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters... Description A robust. CINCHONA.. each with long styles with dense.. vitalbiosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. A/B.. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba. feather fruit clusters.. in lax terminal and axillary clusters.. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy). grey... sterols. Caryophyllum. and conspicuous.. each 3 to 10 cm... FL. Fruit with numerous carpels. and inflammation.. J. et Herr. thickets.. 1996. melissic acid.. most of Europe.... Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods.. Leung. rubefacient.CLOVES 81 1. Carophyllus aromaticus L... deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches. CRC Press. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard... fragrant. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L. hedges... 2nd ed. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands.

and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene.E. It is native to India. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. taste pungent and aromatic. and Tyler. glandular-punctate petals. which alternate with the calyx teeth. Nepal. antispasmodic. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. Speedie. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. and somewhat four-angled. where it is widely cultivated. The buds also contain sterols. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. style 1.. with numerous ovules. and has carminative properties. stamens numerous. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. J. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. and incurved. J. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. Robbers. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. Properties They are due to the volatile oil.K. Sri Lanka. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. and Thailand. afterwards very pungent. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. E. followed by a slight numbness. flavonoids. 1. dark brown.5 mm in length.. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. protein. vitamins. crowded. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. and others. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. ovary twolocular. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. Burma.. lipids. odor strongly aromatic.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. It lowers blood pressure. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. Williams & Wilkins. carbohydrates.

Kronenthal. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. blade very brittle. When the leaves are dried. All Europe. mucilage. tussillagine. The younger leaves densely white.. 3. it is said to help relieve asthma. 83. senkirkine. carotenoids. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. banks. faintly herbaceous. and smoked like tobacco. Odor indistinct. taste mucilaginous. Chevallier. tussilagone and essential oil.to 9-nerved. palmately 5. Description Petiole long. river gravels. bitter. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. London. terpene alcohols. 1996.L. A. 1998. pubescent. Constituents Tannins. Properties Emollient. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2... Personal communication. flavonoids. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. screens. deeply cordate at the base. R. landslides. glabrous above. minerals. ground. slightly wrinkled. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. floccose beneath.

Knitbone Part Used: Root. I.P. lotions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Capassa F.. long. Bruiswort. radical leaves are very large. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. Description The lower. shampoos. ointments. phenolics. Healing Herb. marshes. watersides. asparagine (1–3%). Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity.. Mascolo N. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. and Fasulo M. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. caffeic. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. It is almost inodorous. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. hair rinses. very hairy. alkaloids.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. and lithospermic acids. anti-inflammatory. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. a very powerful cell proliferent. 944. up to 10 in. althea. B-sitosterol amino cids. The powder is green in color.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. cone flower. Blackwort. douches. Autoreg. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). 1987. on wounds. Most of Europe. and has a mucilaginous. feebly astringent taste.. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). and demulcent. Comfrey can be used in creams.) Comfrey is also an astringent..2–4. aloe. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. antihemorrhagic. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows.7%). Menghini A. chlorogenic.. Phytotherapy Res. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. 1. fractures. Fillipendula. salves.

0 100 g 4.65 0.19 5.61 0.142 0.480 0.0 0.600 0.7 0.93 0.0 7.111 1.0 5.7 7.624 8. energy therms cwt Prod.07 100.59 0.2 0.05 0.50 1101100.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.73 28.11 25.84 4.176 0.0 15.8 44.795 0.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.7 0.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .0 0.29 44.10 0.1 Dry matter 30.58 5.51 4.74 0.0 1200.19 0. Nutrients Calc.92 0.79 275.01 24.20 0.00 57 34 34 1.8 2.037 17.208 100.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.99 1.14 8.18 2.26 0. Dig.01 14.72 1. for cattle Maint.93 0.47 1.89 0. A equiv.0 3.085 0. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.92 0.10 19600 10 6 28 0.30 1.41 0.0 30. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.8 213.40 0.78 7.285 0.59 2.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.456 0.14 49. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.86 49.

Healing Comfrey Herb. firm. North Africa... occasionally dark brown in color. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 cm thick and 30 cm long. often more than 2... internally creamy white.. Bruiswort. horny texture. mucilaginous. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L.. externally wrinkled. and dark color. CONE FLOWER... (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey.. branched. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped. feebly astringent taste. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface... creates astringency. *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark..86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L.. cultivated extensively...... Blackwort. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland... Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf. promotes tissue repair... riverbanks. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia. and has a sweetish. It is almost inodorous..See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L.. reduces inflammation and clotting... Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin. Good when used in burn creams... woodland.... Europe.

geraniol and geranyl acetate.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. perfumes. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. etc. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. camphor. toothpaste. Properties Has been used in body lotions. p-cymene. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. tangentially elongated. deodorants. -terpinene. endocarp of large tabular cells. each mericarp with five prominent. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. straight. frequently with numerous large. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. tannin. rutin). The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. toilet waters and after shaves. flavonoids (quertcetin. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. coumaric. cremocarp nearly globular. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . eliptical oil ducts. The essential oil is used in massage oils. limonene. fatty acids. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. two or three layers of large. mericarps easily separated. and flavors. chlorogenic. ferulic). phenolic acids (caffeic. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. undulate secondary ribs.).

involucres round-ureolate. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. floccose. bracts greenish-yellow. conjunctivitis. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. Description Annual. or as a compress for tired eyes. it is soothing and emollient. marginal corollas funnelform. and various skin complaints. For aging skin. varying to rose or white.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. more or less floccose. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. scrapes. British Columbia. heads long-peduncled. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . California. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. stem 3 to 7 dm high. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. Virginia. native of Europe. with slender. about 15 mm high. Quebec. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. ascending branches. blue.

stigmasterol. tannin. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . CORN SILK Zea mays L. Topically very soothing and softening. stigmas bifid. polygalacturonic acids. cichorin.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. purplish-red.2 to 0. and temperate Asia. spiral or annular tracheae. potassium. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. yellow or light brown color. and from 0. cnicin.8 m in length. proline.4 mm in diameter. fixed oil. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. minerals. palmitic acid. saponins. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. cultivated extensively. the upper portion being usually unicellular. Europe. flavonoids (Maysin). Constituents Acetanapthene. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. segments very slender. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. maizeric acid. and 0. alanine. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. spherical nucleus.4 to 3 mm in length. light green. corn silk. the basal trichomes 50. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. arginine. protein. frequently unequal. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. protocyanin. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. vitamin C. tocopherols. cyanidin glucoside. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. the epidermal cells rectangular. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small.

phenolic acids. colds.. and E. Blatt. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles.. Both the fruit and seeds are employed....... For blotchiness of skin. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America.. and for chapped skin or sunburn. and refreshing.. Description This trailing annual has rough stems. The flowers are tubular. quercetin). Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis. Hydrating. S.. and coughs. hairy perennial. slightly curved. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract... enzyme (primeverase).. yellow... flavonoids (gossypetin.. Springer-Verlag. tubular yellow flowers. Constituents Saponins... in face creams. 176. Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. astringent..... Taste...... campferol dirhamnoside. soothing eye compress..... with oval.. CRESS.See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L.... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Constituents Vitamins.. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties. 1984.. volatile oils... wrinkled leaves.90 CRESS. odor. dark green fruits. five-lobed. and cylindrical. Properties Stimulate circulation. broad hairy leaves.. cucurbitacins. Berlin... and 3-gentiotrioside. *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India... sunburn. about 1 cm in diameter.... apricot-like.. Plant Drug Analysis. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory..SEE WATERCRESS Description A short. H. fatty acids.. Zgalinski... amino acids.M. Wagner. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging). minerals. cooling. phytosterol. and spotted with orange at the throat. 1. According to the German Commission Monograph E. sweetish. p.

0 cm long and 0. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. ending in a spherical secreting cell.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum.5 to 1. naturalized in the United States. Frequent pieces of cut. approximating 90°. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. dark green or brown-green in color. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs. yellow-brown and sometimes purple. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. where it is a common weed. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. and for various skin complaints and eczema. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes.5 cm wide. 0. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long).S. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. Stomata are present in both epidermises.5 cm wide. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. with a pronounced midrib. Foreign Dandelion. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA.

Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also considered a blood purifier. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. and is especially high in potassium. Vitamin B and C. probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. The white sap has been used to treat warts. as a diuretic. the root has been used to treat inflammation. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints.

straight root. brownish concentric rings of sieve. a narrow cortex. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. The drug. 1. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. glucoside. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. and wrinkled longitudinally. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. with concentric rings as in the root.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. It has no odor. Description The root consists of a simple. but a bitter taste. the section exhibiting a yellow. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. vitamins and minerals. porous. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. surrounded by a thick. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. but often divides into several erect branches. milky latex exudes. and sterols. it tapers but little below. where it is a common weed. and its derivative taraxacoside. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1% mucilage. whitish and fleshy within. and a layer of cork externally. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. which toward the upper part. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. which is rather hygroscopic. much shriveled. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. flavonoids. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). The dried root is dark brown. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. It attains a length of about 30 cm. also ca. whitish bark in which numerous. which have not been found anywhere else. the latter sometimes remains simple. naturalized in the United States. and the eudesmanolides. becomes tough when slightly moist. carotenoids.

chlorogenic acid. claw-like fruit.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. hooked. 117. polyphenols.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. procumbide). Fracture short. Lanhers. Planta Med. rheumatism).. with some fan-shaped pieces. (oleanolic acid. slightly analgesic. quinones. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. Odor slight. ursolic acid) phytosterols. 1992.-C. Description It has a characteristic large.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. polysaccharides. taste astringent. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. The plant produces bright red flowers. 1. flavonoids.5 cm thick. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. 58. bitter. light grey-brown. triterpenes. et al. occasionally with cavities. Antiphlogistic. heavily concentric. Xylem radiate. M. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber.

pallida. Part Used: Root. Hedgehog Part Used: Root. (Nutt.) Nutt. Black Susans. E. E. Indian head. Scurvy Root. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. Black Sampson. L. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA.. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. Moench. purpurea. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States.

The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. sieve tissue in radial rows. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. bark less than 1 mm thick. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. taste sweetish. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. or purplish-brown. slightly annulate in the upper portion. aromatic. fibrous. stings. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. light brown.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. Odor faint. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. When administered orally. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. cylindrical. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. burns. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. For example. bed sores. or poisonous insects. fracture short. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. blood purification. wounds. ulcers. use for snake bite. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. or furrowed.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. bites. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. externally grayish-brown. etc. wound healing. boils. are directly related to the immune mechanisms.

ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities. indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. interleukin-1 (IL-1). It also increases T-cell proliferation. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii). this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X).3 Furthermore. Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. TNF-X. Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. and Interferon-B2.

note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes.4E. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus. purpurea)]. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan. angustifolia. angustifolia. including an essential oil. in vivo. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. purpurea and E. In E.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. pyrrolizidine alkaloids. These include aliphatic amides.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro.g. but practically absent in E. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . • Polysaccharides. isobutylamide of undeca (2E. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. purpurea (0. Present in both E. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. which is useful for species identification. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0. pallida. albicans pathogens. arabinoga lactan). angustifolia).10E)-tetraenoic acid).3–1.g.8Z. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. – The mono. chlorogenic acid.5 Furthermore. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea.. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood. These include the following: – Caffeic acid.. Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E.4Z-diene8.6–2.7% (except in E.1%). ferulates of tartaric.

1989. Cancer Inst. Wuerdinger. Schranner. Wagner. Intn. A. B. M. Christiane. Lohmann-Matthes.L. 27-38. (Bethesda). Jurcic. G. Luettig. Puhlmann. 38(2). 4. Immuno Pharmacol.744.E. Loesch. R. M. 669-675.. Phytochemistry. Med. Wagner. K. 5. Andreas. H. J. Cheminat. O. Arzneim-Forsch. Holger. 1989 2. 353-364.ECHINACEA 99 1. 2787-2794. Roesler. 1991. Vet. J.H. Zawatzky. Klumpp and U. H. 13(1). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . J. and M. J.-L. Ger Offen De 3. 276-281. 3.. and H. 6. Becker. J. 1989. I. Bauer. E.. Gifford. Brouillard. B. 1988.Matthes.345. Albrecht. Steinmueller. S. H. and R. 27(9). C. and J. N. 36(5). Zenk... Wagner. Wagner. Ser. 81(8).. Natl. Lohmann. R. 1988. K.

joint stiffness etc. south to Florida and Texas. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. astragalin. inflammation. slender anthers oblong. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. sterols. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. volatile oils. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. regularly five-lobed. having three pores and up to 0. covered with finely punctate markings. soreness.023 mm in diameter. triterpenes (alpha. rotate. Description Small. from 2 to 3 mm in width. sambunigrin). and tannins.and beta-amyrin).100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. mucilage. It is said to reduce swellings. yellow. minerals. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). calyx superior. shriveled. ursolic acid. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. five-lobed. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. stamens five. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. tumors. flat or slightly campanulate. taste slightly bitter. rutin. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . filaments.

fracture short and horny. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. naturalized in northeastern North America. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. asthma. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. and catarrh. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. frequently curved or irregularly curled. and separated by large intercellular spaces. Scabwort. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. south to North Carolina. taste acrid. west to Missouri. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and rashes. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. Odor aromatic. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. as a bactericide. bitter. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. wounds. roots cylindrical and tapering.) strongly lignified wood fibers.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. itching skin.5 cm in diameter. and pungent. central Europe. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. up to 13 cm in length and 1. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia.

friedelin). Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . isolantolactone. polyacetylene. sterols. inulin. germacrene-D-lactose).102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate.

1 ⁄6 to in. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. woolly beneath. Constituents Tannins. heads numerous. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. The stem is erect and wiry. their margins. Europe. febrifuge. or with many opposite branches. Description Stems white-woolly. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is odorless. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. The leaves are sometimes almost round. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. high. Also has slight Anodyne properties. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. odor characteristically aromatic. broad. small. however.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. essential oil. and phytosterin. but sometimes tinged with brown. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. long and about in. has a bitter and astringent taste. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. taste bitter and aromatic. green above. sessile. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. and at other times pointed and narrow. Astringent tonic. Description It is an elegant little annual plant. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. Hemostatic. heaths. woodland. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. always deeply cut-in teeth. revolute or undulate. obtuse bracts which are white. 2 to 8 in. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. either unbranched in small specimens. resin.

Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. including aucubin. Euphrasia contains glycosides. catapol. geniposide. poultices. luproside. inflammation of the eyelid. and various skin conditions. lotions or drops for eye complaints. ferulic acid. minerals. gallotannins. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . caffeic acid. Constituents Aucubin.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. and a volatile oil. conjunctivitis. inflamation of the blood vessels.

from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. For use in eye washes. United States.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. It is * Formerly CTFA. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. strongly lignified fibers. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. dorsal surface convex. conical stylopod. making usually six oil ducts in all. composed of polygonal cells. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. Description Mericarps usually separate. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. south to Florida and Texas. New Jersey. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. more or less curved. brown walls. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short.5 mm in breadth. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas.

horny. cultivated in India. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. yellowish-brown. In addition. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. the former appearing as a whitish point. In addition. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. Israel. and 2 mm thick. they are hard. Soaked in water. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. The odor of Fenugreek. anisaldehyde. and flavonoids. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. the fruits contain a fixed oil.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. -phellandrene. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the taste is disagreeable and oily. protein. However. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. Pakistan. including -pinene. dark. translucent endosperm. especially if powdered. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. organic acids. and limonene. the radicle being accumbent. there are methylchavicol. Nearly in the center of one of the long. 2 to 3 mm wide. and flattened. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. is strong and spicy. and Turkey.

Scrofula plant. A poultice has been employed for gout. and various skin irritations. Constituents Dioscin.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. sores. cystine. glycine. choline. in woods. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. choline. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. neurosis. mucin. trigonelline. mucilage. aspartic acid. damp copses. tumors. fenugreakin. It is also used as a galactagogue. Fenugreek contains mucilage. Square stalk. yamogenin. glutamic acid. and banks. trigofoenoside A-G. wounds. histidine. hedges. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. flowering from July to October. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. swollen glands. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . diosgenin.

It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. erect. with a livid purple lip. and subglobose. and knotty root. ovoid. 2 to 4 ft in height. Constituents Saponins. The flowers are small. opposite branches above. acutish or broadly cordate at base. in length. slightly drooping. tuberous. which are broadly ovate. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. the corolla of a dull green color. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sublabiate. long. and 3 to 7 in. with a leafy. acute. ovate-oblong. The calyx is in five segments. and slightly margined. obtuse. alkaloids and flavonoids. lecithin. whitish.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. with paniculate. having a green scale or sterile filament. adnate to the upper side. sharply and unequally serrated. petiolate. forked. thyrsoid panicles. anodyne. or the upper lanceolate. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. on axillary and terminal. dark purple. 3 to 4 in. of a deep-green color. ovate. smooth stem. hesperetin. veined. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. and circulatory stimulant. cleansing. rounded. the limb contracted. cardio-active glycosides. quadrangular. The leaves are opposite.

*INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. procumbent. small. 2 or 3 lines in width. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. astringent. cleansing. sevens. and midrib. or eights. flavonoids. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. and along banks of rivers. in length. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. Calyx 4-toothed. but are inodorous when dried. Catch-weed. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. and flowering from June to September. quadrangular. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. tapering to the base. with an acidulous. mucronate. stamens 4 and short. and rough on the margins. these plants have an unpleasant odor. growing in cultivated grounds. with a weak. GARLIC Allium sativum L. The fruit is large and bristly. the flowers white. moist thickets. styles 2.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. corolla rotate and 4-parted. numerous and scattered. verticillate in sixes. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. succulent plant. and bitter taste. sterols.or 2-flowered. Stinging Nettle. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Iridoid glucosides. phenolic acids. Description Galium aparine is an annual. the peduncles are axillary and 1. and Burdock. including psoriasis. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. and astringent. fatty acids. In a green state. coumarins. retrorsely prickled stem. tannins. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). and n-alkanes. and is hairy at the joints. with hooked prickles.

cultivated extensively. and E. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. each bulbil covered by whitish. Properties Cosmetically. The membranaceous scales. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. Garlic is diaphoretic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antiviral. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. bacteriostatic. allicin — dialltrisulfide. scordinins. Internally. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. g-glutamyl). expectorant. peptides. taste intensely pungent and persistent. for obvious reasons. with 8 to 15 bulbils. Description Bulb subglobular. However. surrounded by whitish. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. Italy is a large producer. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. membranaceous. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. sores. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. Constituents Sulfur compounds. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. antiseptic. about 0. C. and fructans. dry leaf. promotes leucocytosis. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. spasmolytic.750 mm in diameter. Vitamins A. in place of butter. base truncate. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. apex acute. and acne. B. and attached to a flattened circular base. trace minerals. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. hypotensive and anthelmintic. membranaceous scales. pimples. It has been applied successfully to swellings. (alliin. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. Garlic does not lend itself. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. the outer surface convex. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. scale-like leaves. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. compound.

cleansing. anti-inflammatory. sialagogue. volatile oils. The taste is first sweet. but are usually shorter.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. These roots measure up to 8. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. phenolic acids. and alkaloids (gentiamine). The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. sweroside. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. It is recommended for loss of appetite. xanthones. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. and cholagogue. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. The odor is aromatic. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. amarogentin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. swertiamarin). The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. Properties Gentian is an astringent. gastric stimulant. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices.5 dm in length. and middle western United States. that of the root. and to 37 mm in diameter. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. Cranesbill. then strongly bitter. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. but pliable when it is moist. The cambiam zone is dark brown. bitter. polysaccharide.

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Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.

Wild alum

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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome

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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf

Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.

Ginkgo

Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.

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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root

Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.

Ginseng root (american) cultivated

Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its

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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.

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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.

GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves

Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.

Golden rod (Solidago)

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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome

Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.

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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.

GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part

Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near

Gotu kola

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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin

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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.

GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit

Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract

Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.

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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf

Green tea

Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.

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and phenolic acids (caffeic.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. hair rinses. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. creams. tannins (catechins. gallo catechins). etc. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ferulic). which can be used in various sun-care products. theophylline). lotions.. theobromine. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. conditioning. shampoos.

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it has been used as a wash for itching. with five parts. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. vitexin glucosides. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. and dimeric procyanidin. Properties Flowers. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. leaves. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. phenolic acids. Externally. purple-brown to brown in color. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. and frost bite. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. and central and northern Asia. Description The fruits are small berries. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. and externally wrinkled. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple.C.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. Monogyna (jacq. Cosmetically. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Medically.) C. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. catechin. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. fatty acids. quercetin and glucosides). sores. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries.

126 HENNA 1. small. opposite. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. brown. India. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. often imported in coarse powder. shortly petiolate. decoction orange-brown. and decolorized by a special extraction process. simple. Chamomile.. Arabia.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. tapering at the base. mucronate. It will not impart any color to the hair. Calendula. astringent. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. 51. However. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. with occasional stems and brown. It can be used in shampoos. Pharm. Description Leaves greenish-brown. 4-napthoquinone). hair rinses. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. entire. It is also said to be cooling. deepening with alkalies. 1 to 2 cm wide. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. etc. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. 319. triangular pitted seeds. 1983. oblong or broadly lanceolate. R. fruit. and conditioners. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. 2 to 3 cm long. (2-hydroxy. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. It will add body and highlights to hair. however. as henna. l. glabrous. fading on the addition of acid. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. et al. acids destroy its properties. Sci. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. Persia. in an aqueous solution. Della Loggia.

HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. orange blossom.4-napthoquinone). Honey obtained from heather. flavonoids. and New Zealand. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. (glucosides of apigenin. Australia. Description Honey is a viscid. It becomes partially crystalline. translucent. California. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. phenolic acid. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. various parts of Africa. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. Chile. fatty acids. and semi-solid on keeping. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. and tannins. luteolin).

Hops is a sedative. one margin is flat. formic acid. wax. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. Hops is a strobulus. the veins are elevated. it will reduce swellings. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. tetters. lupulone. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. bitter principles. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. and hair conditioning. xanthahumol). The strobiles measure 5. and tannins. will give body to the hair. hypnotic. tannins. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. and pollen grains. Useful in treatment of dandruff. consisting mainly of humulene. In combination with Chamomile. It has been used on crural ulcers. dextrin. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). volatile oil. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. and discoloration. The taste is pungent and bitter. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. face creams. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. ringworm. bactericidal. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. humulene. and alleviates pain and itching. The individual bracts are thin and papery. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. The odor is aromatic. It contains small quantities of sucrose. sores. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Asia. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin).brown. Bark Bongay.

lotions. iron gives a green precipitate. and swellings. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. The nut. is subglobular. compressed. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. Constituents Saponins (aescin. and slimming products. Increases venous tone. when dry. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. increases circulation. peculiar odor. Anti-inflammatory. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. and hemorrhoids. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity.25–0. in diameter. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. large rough leaves. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. and non-astringent. nearly an inch in diameter. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. phlebitis. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. The root has antimicrobial properties. Properties Cosmetically. It has been used in cellulitis. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. bitter taste. bitter taste. from 1 to 1 in. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. hand creams. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . aesculin). The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. The aqueous infusion is bitter. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. tendonitis. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. The internal portion is starchy. The bark is thin. Description A perennial . and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. and tannin. Gaertn et Schert. phenolic acids. quercetin). The nut has a slight. Properties Astringent. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. fleshy roots. vasoconstrictor. yellowish-white in color. and has an unpleasant. sprains and various sports injuries. is nearly odorless. fawn-colored.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. chestnut-brown testa. varicose veins. The inner bark has a rough. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. The plant has long. with a shining. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. stimulates digestion and circulation. The internal surface is whitish and smooth.

thick. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. greasy skin. rarely with a few branches. South Carolina. 5 to 10 mm. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. yields 0. California. 1 to 3. solid. as the fresh juice can be irritating. causing the skin to blister. acuminate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . branched. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. after crushing and moistening. However. thick. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect.5 dm. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. and Eurasia. Alaska.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. Greenland. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. which would validate its use on blemished. 2 to 3 mm. branches 3 to 4 angled. sterile stems decumbent to erect. high. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. 2 to 4 cm long. However. 10 to 14 furrowed. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth.5 dm. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. mostly with sterile spores. high. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. cones peduncled. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2.

palustrine alkaloid. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. Stamens 4. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. punctate. and equistetolic acid. gangrenous ulcers. scarcely shorter than the calyx. but smaller. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. saponin (equisetonin). The leaves are opposite. acute. lower lip trifid. very much branched. spreading. green on each side. The flowers are bluish-purple. sometimes narrower. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. entire. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. with the middle of the corolla erect. sessile. rather thick. spreading. phenolic acids. emarginate. minerals. It is diuretic. flat. healing. woody at the base. and borne in racemose. sunny sites. anthers with linear divaricating cells. second whorls. with the middle obe larger. astringent. Used for putrid wounds. Will add strength and sheen to hair. and external bleeding. flat. protruding. kaempferol. and 1 to 2 ft in height. seldom white. apigenin). Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. southern Europe. Its stems are quadrangular. silicic acid. usually oblong-linear. emarginate. and 1 ribbed underneath. erect. the branches are rod-like. sometimes elliptical. acute. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Upper lip of the corolla. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. and diverging.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. or lanceolate.

Constituents Volatile oil. gum. and resin. ursolic acid. marrubin. flavonoid glycosides. Tannin. phenolic acids. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. oleanic acid.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

roundish. North America. marubiin. * Formerly CTFA. curved. with a prostrate. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. luteolin [cynaroside]. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. the upper being the largest. The floral leaves are of the same form. The leaves are petiolate. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. phenolic acids. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). opposite. though often purplish beneath. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. decongesting tonic. Europe to Caucasus. gray. villous. radicating at base.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. forming the appearance of a cross. hairy herb. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the limb oblique. volatile oil. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. square. and glaucous on both sides. hairy. cordatereniform. creeping stem. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. about three together in axillary whorls. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. with a varegated throat. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. amino acids. crenate. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). The calyx is long. Also useful in cough preparations. The flowers are bluish-purple.

and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. and introduced into North America. aromatic odor. The former possesses a peculiar. sun or shade. antimutagenic. Scandinavia. and when heated emits a pleasant. rather fragrant odor. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . control of cellulite. Properties Anti-fungal. The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. or Ivy gum). with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. It is acrid. exudes from the incised bark. anthelmintic. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. Description An evergreen climber. However. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. Europe. faintly bitter. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. Ivy has been used in face packs. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. This plant is common all over Europe. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. molluscicidal.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. hederacoside C (5%). hederacoside. phenolic acids. malic acid.IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. . and fatty acids.and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides.

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J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. The upper surface is yellowish-green. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. The under surface is yellowish-green. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. The taste is salty and bitter. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. The blades are asymmetric. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. stalks. smooth. The odor is slight. The leaves are compound. dull. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length.5 cm. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. and stems. and the veins are elevated. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. The margin is entire and slightly revolute.

Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. isamone. It induces salivary. very sweet-scented flowers. jaboric acid. conditioners. volatile oil. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. Constituents Essential oil. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. calyx linear. It contains pilocarpine. Combines well with Nettles. more than half as long as the corolla tube. It can be used in shampoos. and soaps. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. and farnesol. isopilocarpine). Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions. skin creams. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. hair tonics. pilocarpic acid. and mullein as a hair tonic. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. It increases intestinal motility. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. containing benzylacetate. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. jaborino. tincture of Capsicum. the terminal leaflet larger.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. colocynth. hair rinses. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. benzyl alcohol. antiglaucoma agent. eugenol. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. Leaves opposite. gels. and sweat hypersecretion. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. gastric.

hair products. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and many trace minerals and micronutrients. softening. Description Vesicles large. (For additional information. algin. see Chapter 7. dissolving. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. Constituents Iodine.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. potassium. Nourishing. each bearing an expanded blade.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. skin care products. restoring. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. benefits the skin. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors.

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triterpenoids. antipyretic. and similar skin problems. creams. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. Antimicrobial properties. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. The flowers are in branched panicles. and alkaloid. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. wide. shampoos. and lotions. Approximately 30 species have been identified. and antifungal. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. analgesic. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antioxidant. southern India and Sri Lanka. tropical habitats in dry soil. dandruff. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin.

Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. dilute it with water. flavonoids. giving relief. Constituents Essential oil. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. Sweet Wood. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. phenolic acids. skin creams. skin bleach. distinctive. and cleansers. It is aromatic and astringent. odor fragrant.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. Glycyrrhizae Radix. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Russia. taste aromatic. southern Europe. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. Liquorice Root. When taken on an empty stomach. cleanse the skin. and close the pores. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). and Hungary. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. bacteriastatic. Properties Healing antiseptic.) Burman F.

it is externally pale yellow. antiphlogistic. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. antiviral. Properties Good for skin eruptions. eczema. antihepatotoxic. when deprived of the outer corky layer. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. anti-infectant. and cysts. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. its taste is sweetish. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Internally. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. pruritus. Internally.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. Anti-inflammatory. antiseptic. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. it is yellow and radiate. The upper portion is more or less knotty. Its odor is distinctive. longitudinally wrinkled. including dermatitis. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. sometimes split longitudinally. antibacterial. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. somewhat tapering. Externally.

glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. neoliquiritin. White Wood. licoric acid. neoisoliquiritin. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. licoricone. 2 to 20% starch. glabrolide. 4’. coumarins. Europe. gum wax. etc.7-dihydoxyflavone.).). glabronin etc. limestone. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. B-amyrin. On hydrolysis. kumatakenin. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. liquiritigenin. formononetin. licochalcones A and B. bracts Flowers. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . licoisoflavanone. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. isoglabrolide. bracts N/S Flowers. 4-hydroxychalcone. bracts N/S Flowers. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. echinatin. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. isoliquiritin. glabrol. liquiritin. Linn Tree. Basswood. etc. glyzarin. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid.). rhamnoisoliquiritin. glabrone. glycyrol. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. licoisoflavones A and B. glycyrrhetol. amino acids. lignin. amines. licuraside. sterols.

Emollient. leaf-like bract. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. faint. The petals are five and whitish. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. are oblong or lanceolate. or approach yellow. For bruises and to reduce swelling. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. odor is agreeable. when dry. When fresh. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). which are axillary. Internally.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. linear. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

The rhizome and root are aromatic. W. and resin are also present. Smallage. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. mucilage. Maggi Herb.5 to 1. Description Lovage has large. lotions. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. cultivated in central and southern Europe. kaempferol). LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. gum.0% volatile oil. The fruit is a cremocarp. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. D. and perfumes. volatile oil. high amount of uronic acid. caffeic). creams.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. Coumarins. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. naturalized in North America. tannins. sterols. dark green. J. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage.

The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. primary forks. The rhizomes are horizontal. astragalin. They consist of long. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mucilage. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. adiantoxide. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. and with blackish roots. phenolic acids and their sulfates. quinic acid. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. The odor is slight. Properties In rinses. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. tannin. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. first into two recurving. and then into several spreading pinnae. blackish. pedately branching at the summit. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. and shining frond bases. slender. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. Constituents Adiantone.

and have a maximum length of 26 mm. The taste is mucilaginous. the veins are elevated. The flower heads have a short. niacin. Emollient for sensitive skin. spasmodic colitis. hairy. greenish-gray bracts. Relieves itching. British Columbia to Mexico. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. The individual flowers are yellow. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. Mary-bud. These flowers are oblanceolate. Holligold. protective. blotchiness. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. Useful in eye preparations. and phenolic acids. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. distinct. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. mostly ligulate. The texture is herbaceous. The odor is not distinct. curved peduncle. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. The blade is cordate at the base. Properties Soothing and softening. naturalized in North America. thick. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. Medicinally used in cough preparations. the veins are palmate. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. and slightly elevated. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. and insect bites. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. flowers. and fruits.

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The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root

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MELISSA

yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops

Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.

Melissa

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MIMOSA

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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.

MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root

Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.

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MISTLETOE

Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb

Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)

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MULLEIN

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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers

Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied

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Mullein (plant)

to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin

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diaphoretic. Myrrh is used in incense. antifungal. and acrid. The fracture is conchoidal. Used for halitosis. carminative. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. mildly expectorant. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. It is said to promote granulation. diuretic. It is said to bring forth the gods. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. engler) The surface is dull. sore throats. bitter. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. powdery. The odor is aromatic. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. The taste is pungent. and anti-inflammatory. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. for example.

2 to 0. creamy white flowers. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and blue-black berries. geraniol. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. cineole.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. and nerol). on bruises and hemorrhoids. camphene. Constituents Yields 0.

... sterols. in hedges.. Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant. beta-carotene. Nettles has been used as an astringent.. growing in waste places.. by woodsides...N NASTURTIUM . Description This plant is a perennial... nervous eczema.. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic. which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed.... Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant. (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle. minerals (high amount). and in gardens... See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L.. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll.. formic and citric acids. and isorhamnetin). As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy.... Urtica urens L. common to Europe and the United States. and for cutaneous eruptions.. herbaceous. choline... dull-green plant. Stimulates hair growth. kaempferol.. acetyl choline. amines (histamine... serotonin)... flowering from June to September. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and epistaxis malaena...

.

fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. the base somewhat contracted. within the groove a narrow. taste starchy. rarely. and the Yukon. Texas. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. above the center. two-veined palet or scale. up to 1. at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. Florida. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. tapering toward each end. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. Odor slight. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . thinly membranous. a scar or. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. the apex pointed.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side.O OATS Avena sativa L. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar.

shingles. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). Medically. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. Properties Benefits the skin.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. pointed hairs. lignified walls. subsessile. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. avenacin). hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. polyphenols. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. highly refringent and truncate. partially beaded. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. some of which give rise to unicellular. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. rarely over 25 ft in height. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. The drug tastes bitter. entire and coriaceous. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. bent here and there. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. The leaves are opposite. eczema. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. sleeplessness. the cells filled with protein. lignified. elliptical stomata up to about 0.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. less heavily developed tissue. and herpes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description The tree is small. these are elongated thick-walled. straight or slightly curved. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative.

few of them have been studied experimentally.2 m high. ONION Allium cepa L. 1991. Planta Med. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. Zarzuelo. Gonzalez. yellow globe. up to about 1. M. et al. and red globe onions. 1. antifungal. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia.. hypotensive. 58. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. also hollow. ll-demethyl oleuropein. et al. 7. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. Planta Med.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge.. hypoglycemic. 1992. 57. diuretic.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. hypoglycemic. ligustroside. 417. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). 513. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). A.. and antimicrobial. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. 2..

releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. introduced to Europe. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. reddish-orange. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. 1-propenesulfenic acid. oblong-oval. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fructans. Flowers. Description Leaves.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. alkyl and alkenylcysteines. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. white. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. 7 to 8 cm globular. Fruit. very sweet-scented. with bitter rind and sour flesh. 2 to 2 cm long. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. acute.

neohesperidose (2-0. rutoside. short.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. with many slight. fracture hard. furanocoumarins. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. such as hesperidin. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. used for oily skin and acne. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. considerable amounts of pectin. non-bitter flavonoids. the sugar component of which. flavonoids. 0. minute pits. taste aromatic and bitter. and bitter substances. more astringent than rose water. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. nobiletin. var. somewhat curved. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India.2 to 0. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. tangeretin. odor fragrant and aromatic. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). Cultivated widely in the subtropics. It is also given internally. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. conical projections and linear. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. aromatic wash. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. inner surface whitish. with limonene as main constituent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Essential oil (ca.5%).

parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. It is also an aromatic. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. citral.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. sinensis Osbeck. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. Flavonoids. citronellal. sinensis L. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. and hesperidin. naringin. odor fragrant. skin creams for its flavonoids. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. quercetin. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. bitter and carminative. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. Cultivated in Florida and California. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. globules of volatile oil. taste pungently aromatic.

anti-inflammatory. tannin. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. rheumatism.g. leafy. gaultherin. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. arabinose. very variable in size. eczema. impetigo. antipyretic. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. and carotenoids. scoparine. Properties Used as a healing tonic. magnesium tartrate. Description Flowers mostly tricolored.. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. rutin. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .P PANSY Viola tricolor L. but sometimes up to twice as long. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. pruritus. acne. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. stipules variable. flavonoids. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. Monograph 6. saponins. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. Constituents Essential oil.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. galacturonic acid. Leaves variable. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. e. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. spur short. violutoside. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. p-coumaric acid. mucilage. Petals usually longer than the sepals. but often palmately lobed with a larger. Exerpt from German Commission E. tocopherol. anthocyanidin glycosides. meadows.

Carpaine. vitamins. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. which resembles sinigrin. Naturalized in southern Florida. edible berry up to about 15 lb. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. etc. long petioled. The fruit is a large melon-like. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. and minerals. shampoos. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. carpinine (an alkaloid).166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. staminate and pistillate flowers. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . C14H2502N. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. with large.

PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. q = group of large fibers.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. Tabl.2-benzenediol. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Veget. papyrifora. Kr´ = crystal rosettes. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. p = parenchyma. Vent. and B. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. margin dentate to crenate. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. ms = latex tubes.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. Odor faint. Regn. taste woody and characteristic. kr = individual crystals.F. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. (After T. m = outer lamella. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels.

*INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. fruit. Apium petroselinum. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. France. 8-methoxypsoralen. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. stout. B-phellandrene (12%). extensively cultivated in California. sativum. isopimpenillin. apiole (18%). Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. Belgium. compound umbels. emmenagogue. spasmolytic. above-ground herb. and others. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. The tap root is fusiform. expectorant. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. fruit.) Nym.05 to 0. and imperatorin. apiin. P. (Mill. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. green. Odor characteristic. taste faintly sweet. Other parts of the plant contain 0. p-mentha-1. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . psoralen.8-triene (9%). Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. ex A. and Hungary. aromatic. diuretic. W.3. hortense. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. Furocoumarins including bergapten. and antimicrobial. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp. above-ground herb. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. antirheumatic. and starch. Germany. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region.

rosemarinic). The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. spasmolytic. The apex is acute.5 cm in length and to 3. menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). hesperidin). antiseptic. its five teeth are subulate. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. The calyx is campanulate. the leaves are opposite decussate. sitosterols. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. and minerals. large. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. The blade measures up to 7. and the veins are more prominent. notably viridoflorol. rutin. flavonoids (luteolin. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. The flowers are arranged in dense. interrupted spikes. broad. cholagogue. The pith is white. phenolic acids (caffeic. four-lobed above. and the veins are slightly depressed. the internodes are of variable length. chlorogenic. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. menthofuran. and solid or hollow. the texture is fibrous. cultivated in Japan and the United States. The odor is aromatic. triterpenes. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. menthone (10 to 40%). and the color varies from green to purple. tonic. The stems are simple or branched. The under surface is light green. The corolla is united and tubular below. its color varies from light to dark purple. The under surface is light green. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The cortex and wood are thin.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. The margin is sharply serrate. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. carminative.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. The outline is quadrangular. mildly sedative. The bracts are lanceolate. Properties Stimulant. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). south to Florida and Alabama. cineole. hair tonics. The nodes are enlarged.3 cm in width. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. The fracture is tough and incomplete. as it contains flavonoids. and the veins are slightly depressed. They measure up to 9. ursolic acid. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. naturalized in North America.

entire. tannins. the lobes obovate. shining. Properties Used as a hemostatic. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. hypoglycemic. vasodilator. astringent. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. Has also been used to stop external bleeding.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. they are different. firm. trailing. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. as well as Europe. 1 to 6 dm long. 1. a standardized extract should be used. flavonoids. however. in Connecticut. truncate. hypotensive. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . vulnerary sedative. and ursolic acid. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. dark green.5 to 3 cm broad. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. Minnesota. corolla blue. Description Stem spreading. leaves ovate to oblong. and Georgia. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. Vinca contains vincamine. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. native of Europe. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine).

aromatics. In a radial surface. arising from a fibrous root. raffinose sequoyitol. long. moist places. it has a density varying from about 0. five. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. ferulic acid. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. tannins. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. n-nonacosane. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. malonic acid. quercetin. The stamens and styles are long. growing in rich. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring.35 to 0. dark band of autumn wood. imbricated. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. The leaves are ovate. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. cuts. campesterol. It flowers from May to October. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. and applied to sores. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. and insect bites. and abruptly narrowed into a long. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. parahydroxybenzoic acid. and is common in Europe and America. leaving smooth surfaces. the seeds numerous. and in grass plats. pinnicorretin. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. abietic acid. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. Properties Astringent. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. shikimic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . numerous. smoothish. in fields. channeled petiole. swellings. dihydroquercetin. which are the medullary rays. Vessels are absent. The medullary rays.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous.to seven-nerved. The flowers are white.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. balsamic. quinic acid. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. by the roadsides. Plantago major L. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. very small. somewhat toothed. Ripple-grass. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). Constituents Contains oils. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. pinitol. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid.

Constituents Mucilage. asperuloside. tannins. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and palmitic acids). and for cell proliferation. essential oils. for healing. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. they both have the same virtues. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. fixed oil (linoleic. catapol. and phenolic acids. allantoin. aucubin. apigenin. apparently. sterols. balcalin. polysaccharides. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. oleic.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites.

and pinobanksin. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. Philadelphia.. essential oils. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester. 1.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. 32(1). Tyler. 30(1). Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. Nihon Univ. and caffeic acid. 3. wax. Magro Filboo. et al. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . galagin. 1987. ArnzneimittleForschung.2 Constituents Resin. Dent. Sch.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. 1847. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. V. galangin. de Carvalho Ac.F. G. pollen..E. antiviral. Hiadon B. 1980. pinocembrin. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. and pinobanksin). 2.. and anti-inflammatory..1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. The New Honest Herbal. 4. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. J. Stickley Co. fungicidal. 1990.. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. balsam.

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Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. Bolivia. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. * Formerly CTFA. Historically. and occasional circular depressions. Smegmandermos deC.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. coarsely fibrous. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. conical projections or transverse. channels. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. fracture uneven. longitudinally striate. taste very acrid and unpleasant. Description In flat pieces of variable size. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. finely wrinkled. Upon microscopic examination. and Peru. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . inner surface yellowish-brown. outer surface nearly white. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. these species appear to resemble that of Q. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . odor slight sternutatory.

Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. and volatile oils. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is not distinct. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. The root. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. uronic acids. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. to 7 cm in width. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. The fracture is tough and uneven. or compound quilled. quinamine). The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). overlapping quilled. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. tannins. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. cinchonidine. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. cinchonine. free acids (quinic acid). quinine and quinidine. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. quinidine. Remineralizing protein. Ecuador. Internally. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured.8 dm in length. its important alkaloids. partially quilled. a neutral saponin.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. quilled. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). shallowly fissured transversely. The bark is flat or chip-like. gypsogenin. and to 6 mm in diameter. which is nearly always chip-like. calcium oxalate sugars. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. are used. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine.

but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. It is also used as a suspending agent. with water. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. being coated with mucilage. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. present in the epidermis of the testa. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. triangularly compressed.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. ovoid or oblong.

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benzyl alcohol. and furfural. sitosterol. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. daidzein. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. contains over 40 compounds. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. then slightly bitter. Medicinally. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. tapering. Mildly anti-spasmodic. volatile oil. phenolic acids. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Historically. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. volatile oil.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. Constituents Flavonoids. taste sweetish. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. eugenol. and esters. petals united into a tube below. fatty acids. starch. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. shriveled. including methyl salicylate. * Formerly CTFA. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. style slender. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. phenolic acids. biochanin A. calyx teeth subulate. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. purplish and more or less brown from drying. genistein. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter.

emollient. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. shortacuminate. and Minnesota.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. fruit red. mainly rhoeadine. Quinoline alkaloids. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). By drying. dark violet claw. leaving a space about 0. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. double-serrate. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rhode Island. ovate. such as hand creams.15 to 0. etc. hair rinse. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. erect. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. and are then employed in the fresh state. they are smooth and shining above. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. Description Stem biennial. when fresh. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. with an entire margin. inflorescence short-racemose. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. The numerous veins run from the base toward. rounded or cordate at the base. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. somewhat smaller. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. Properties Soothing. doubtfully indigenous to England. finely tomentose when young. lotions. They have. armed with bristles or weak prickles. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. thimble-shaped. with a short. light-colored. Maine.

fragarine. China. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. Internally. Ergosterol derivatives. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. it comes in various sizes and shapes. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. B. Happy Herb. consult a qualified physician before using. malic acid. antioxidant. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. riboflavin. Auspicious Herb. and C. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. Miraculous chi. granoderan A. A series of tritepenoids. Ling-Zhi (Chin. Japan. gallic acid. have been isolated. hepatitis. Note: However. succinic acid. thiamine. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. minerals. and North American coastal rainforests. and inflammations. and beta-carotene. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. lactic acid. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. protein. insomnia. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. Constituents Polysaccharides. nervousness. Constituents Ascorbic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. Dried and whole. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. ellagic acid.). and antibacterial properties. mouth ulcers. and chest and heart diseases.

These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. very tough and hackly. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The taste is astringent. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. of the wood. of the larger roots. rough and scaly. dark reddish-brown. and P. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. The color is dull reddish-brown. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. fibrous. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. The odor is not characteristic. The texture of the cortex is granular. and it tapers into the main root. of the larger roots. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. that of the wood.5 cm in diameter at the crown. which has numerous branches. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical.

the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. which when carefully shaved off. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . If the trimming has been very severe. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. to give a good appearance. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. Within the cambium is a ring. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. the cortex has been removed. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. and N-methyltyrosine. II. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. parenchymatous matrix. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. In the periphery of the pith. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots.5 mm long. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. ratanine). etc. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. immediately within the secondary xylem. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. III. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. about 5 mm wide. tannins (proanthocyanidines). in the form of a fine yellow powder. after-shave lotions. mouth wash. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. Constituents Gum. showing that they are leaf traces. barrel-shaped or conical. face creams. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. The smoothed. After removing the powder. Dark areas may still be found here and there. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. officinale.

emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. and compact. A very complex mixture is present. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. The predominant aglycone varies. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . chrysophanol. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. but in one investigation.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). This is applied to the hair and left to dry. of which many aglycones have been identified. (+)-afzelechin. astringent taste.Eur. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith.5% calculated as rhein). especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. In small amounts. With its high tannin content.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. and physcion. the fractured surface.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. the mechanism is described under Aloes. In most cases. rhein. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. it is used as a stomachic. 2. also (+)-catechin 5. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. due to the bitter taste. heavy. Barbados. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna.and 7-0-glucosides. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. it is very gritty between the teeth. Flavonoids. when chewed. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. It is then rinsed out. aloeemodin. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. and (+)-gallocatechin. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. min. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. it is often rhein.

Tannins. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. gallic acid. Minor constituents are citral. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. One example would be rose water. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenylethyl alcohol. taste sweetish. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. 5 to 10%. and procyanidins. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. approx. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. pink. however. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type.0. glycerol. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. L. free and in combined forms with glucose. catechins. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. l-linalool. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. odor fragrant and rose-like. it can be prepared by using rose oil. slightly bitter.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. and traces of carvone. and astringent. French Rose. filter. shaking well and allow to stand until cold.

protein. sucrose. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leucoanthocyanins. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. kaempferol-3-glucoside. alpha-tocopherol. and slightly diuretic. they are refrigerant. flavonoids. and zeaxanthin.5 cm in length and up to 2. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. linoleic acid. invert sugars. low.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. Description The fruit of R. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. pectin. Constituents Ascorbic acid. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. malic acid. essential oil. Wild Brier. opposite. lycopene. tannins. succinic acid. magnesium. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. xanthophyll. sessile. boron. rubixanthin. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. catechin-tannins. mildly astringent. Description A bushy. The achenes themselves are hairy. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. isoquercitrin. evergreen. much branched. citric acid. linolenic acid. gallocatechin. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. vanillin. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. it will add highlights to light hair. coriaceous. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. epicatechin. rubidium.5 to 3. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. capric acid. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree.2 cm wide. When combined with various other hair preparations.

camphoraceous. lotions. taste pungently aromatic. camphor.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. diaphoretic. The extract can be used in shampoos. diosmin. protein. lower surface wooly. Properties Tonic. stimulant. flavonoids. creams. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. boron. The oil is used in fragrances. borneol. it is used to increase circulation. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. odor aromatic. and bitter. margin revolute. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. Constituents Essential oil. characteristic. etc. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids. hair conditioners. astringent. tannin. and showing a prominent midrib. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. Topically. rosmarinic acid. and triterpenic acids. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. glandular-punctate.

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long petiolate.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. ursolic acid. astringent. beta-sitosterol. Properties Cosmetically. the upper branches bear blue. From an underground fibrous root system. linalool. texture velvet-like. caryophyllene.6 cm in breadth. borneol. flavonoids. much branched. and disinfectant (against inflammations). It is said that if massaged into the scalp. base rounded or subcordate. lamina elliptical. pubescent stem with branches opposite. estrogenic compounds. camphors. antiseptic. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. the reticulations being very small. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. 1 to 2. there arises a grayish. protein. margin crenulate. petiole up to 4. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Constituents Volatile oil. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. salvin. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and tannins. stimulating. apex acute or obtuse. uneven or lobed. saponins. It is antibacterial. fungistatic. to 1 ft high. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. Leaves opposite. carnosolic acid. thujone. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). 2 to 10 cm in length. densely pubescent. venation pinnate-reticulate. phenolic acids. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. In early summer. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. midrib and veins prominent.5 cm in length. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. pinene. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. carminative. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. Sage Garden Sage. cineole. taste aromatic and bitter.

carvings.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. L. hemorrhoids. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. but easily split. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. o. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. Black Snakeroot. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. or as a perfume. alterative. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . C15H24O (probably a mixture of . The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. The taste is slightly bitter. Asia Minor. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. astringent. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. and erect. of which it contains over 90%. and similar articles. the odor strong and fragrant. In Yellow Sandal Wood. and lotions. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. pectoral.and -santalols). depurative. hemostatic. and dense. –13° to –21°). and for the manufacture of boxes.985.973 to 0. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. the vessels are mostly solitary. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. and a stomachic. White Sandal Wood. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. hard. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. burns. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. vulnerary. 0. gr. and inflammed skin.r. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. It is also used in perfumery. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. heavy. wounds. palmately lobed leaves. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. North and South America.

chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. Mucilage. and a bitter principle. essential oil. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . resin. saponin.

occasionally compressed. from 1. smooth and somewhat oily. externally brownish-black to bluish-black.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid.5 cm in diameter. Dark Palmetto.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

caproic acid. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles.. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled. and incomplete.. to 17 cm in width. ferulic acid. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity. sito sterols. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases. enclosing a hard. reddish-brown seed. arabinose.7 dm in width. ellipsoidal or ovoid. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown.. and slightly acrid. it is coarsely striated longitudinally. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside.... Constituents Anthranilic acid. Properties Sabal berries. The fracture is very strong. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown. or as cut and sawed pieces. such as anorexia nervosa. Tarayre. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota.... These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp. and stearic acid... lauric acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. palmitic acid.. inner layer of endocarp smooth..... The taste is sweet and mucilaginous.. capric acid. which measure up to 3 dm in length.P. when cork patches are present..1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions. and to 3 mm in thickness. Pharm. taste sweetish. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. Franc.. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. to 1. 559.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. lipase... a native of the southern United States. The odor is distinct. mannitol. They are said to be very nutritious.. beta-sitosterol. tough. 41.. apex marked by the scar of the style. myristic acid.. were eaten by the Indians.6 dm in thickness.. Ann.. and lotions. oleic acid. aromatic.. SEAWEED. 1... and to 1.. 1983. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids.. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity. et al. south to Florida and Texas. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar.. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. somewhat flattened. skin creams. J.. Ulmus rubra Muhl.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. Odor pronounced. aromatic.

ulcers. minerals. It can be used to emulsify oil. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. and tannins. Colorado. Description Glabrous perennial. Soap Wort produces a gentle. blades obcordate. polysaccharides. and beta-carotene. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. starch. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. 5 to 8 cm long. North Carolina. lotions. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. and wounds. and tannin. chemicals that foam when added to water. pentosans. and Saskatchewan. native from Europe. New Brunswick. protein. etc. starch. Florida. boils. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. tannin (minute). The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. Can be used in creams. Massachusetts. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. capsule oblong. New Mexico. Nova Scotia. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. Colorado. calyx tubular. hexosan. and other beverages. stem 3 to 6 dm high. hair conditioners. 3 to 5 ribbed.2 cm long. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. petals pink or white. soothing. 1 to 5. d-galacturonic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . L-rhamnose. leaves oval or ovate. healing.

lower leaves petioled. tonics. poultices. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. California. and anodyne. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. leaves. St. British Columbia. disk-florets 15 to 20. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. Constituents Essential oil. corolla 2 to 2. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. ST. choline. quebrachitol. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. leaves linear to oblong. flowers cymose. 10 to 12 mm long. having antibacterial properties. Medically. astringent. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. uterine tonic. Nova Scotia. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. scarious. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. toothed above the middle on one side. slightly tomentose beneath. the outer linear-lanceolate. glandular-punctate. tannin. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. and scopolin. guanine. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. and for skin conditions. Properties Used as a nervine. heads numerous. John’s Wort ing. etc. bracts canescent. Used in aromatic baths. bruises. petals obovate. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. the rest broadly oval. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. emmenagogue. stimulant. ray florets about 10. obtuse. umbelliferone. Colorado. Manitoba. disinfectant. isofraxidin. 5 to 10 dm high. capsule ovoid. conditioners. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. scopoletin.ST. rutin. 1 to 3 cm long. Virginia. acute or acuminate. frostbite. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. with revolute margins. 2 to 10 mm wide.5 cm broad. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and superficial burns. native to Europe. chlorogenic acid. caffeic acid. antiseptic. and anthelmintic. 4 to 6 cm long. uric acid.

hypericin-like substances.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. and Virginia. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. protein. saponin. John’s Wort St. mannitol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. New Mexico. hyperoside. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. Newfoundland. phenolic acids. flavonoids. tannins. resin sitosterol.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. hypericin. Manitoba.

It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. condensed tannins). scape slender. very soon glabrate on both sides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . very rarely leafy-bracteate. fruit elongate-ovoid. fatty acids. 5 to 7. sharply and deeply serrate.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. and phenolic acids. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. very thin. seldom over 1.5 cm long. rhombic-obovate. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. ellagitannins. quercetin). seldom much exceeding the leaves.5 dm high. mostly acute.

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and branching near the top. Parsley Fern. The entire leaf is about 6 in. * Formerly CTFA. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. usually smooth. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. anthelminitic. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. button-like flowers. sesquiterpenes. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. and quercetin. carminative. erect stem. and spasmolytic. The roundish. phenolic acid. somewhat reddish. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. The leaves and flowering tops. tannin. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. It has a stout. are collected at the time of flowering. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. English Cost. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. resin. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. tanacetin. Also said to be an insect repellant. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. Bitter buttons. Scented Fern. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. 1 to 3 ft high. button-like. Ginger plant. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. flat-topped. fern-like leaves and yellow.

spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. fruit.5 to 2. ringworm. athlete’s foot. abrasions. and Australia. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. sparingly branched biennial. lice. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. oral infections. terpinene. lanceolate. It is found in numerous product forms. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. with a broad range of health claims. boils. capsule. sore throat. streamsides. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. pimples. New South Wales.0 ml high. and dense. 0. in a flattened rosette. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. either singly or with other ingredients. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. burns. and vaginal infections. scabies. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. upcurved. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. while cineole is low (about 2. cuts. thickets. spongy. conical. insect bites. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. Description A stiff. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bark. stings.5%). constantly renewable tree. cymene). and the like. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. abrasions.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. erect. bronchial congestion. Over-wintering leaves. including treatments for sunburn. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol.

Ed.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. quercetin. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). both orally and also by intravenous injection. rare in Britain. taxifolin). Foster. It is said to contain saponins. TX. purple. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. and tannins. and magnesium.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. S.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. The injection gives better results. dark green. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. entire or toothed. fatty acids. flavonoids (keampferol. glucosides. The root and root stock are short and erect. St.. Mary Thistle. Flowerheads rayless. Description Leaves spiny. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. American Botanical Councin. stems. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Austin. yellow spines. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. Blessed Milk Thistle. 1. 1955. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. Taste and odor. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. Also used in homeopathy. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant.

antihemorrhagic. Description Viscid-pubescent. 0. and California. minerals. acne. glycine. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. corolla yellow. and phytosterols. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. flavonoids. and dentate. leaves two-pinnatifid. or pear-shaped. lotions. It can be employed in creams. -hydroxy acids. lycopene. to add sheen. rinses. and reddish within. much branched. conditioners. ellipsoid. Constituents Proteins. etc. aspartic acid.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. styptic. vitamins. Properties Fruit: astringent. cystine. Colorado.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. hair tonics. stem 3 to 10 dm high.5 cm thick. sore gums. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . diarrhea. subglobose. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. lobed. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. menstrual disorder. facial muds. red or yellow. Florida. cyclohexanol. New York. gargles. from 2. that can be used for hemorrhoids. glucose. abscisic acid.5 to 1. mouth rinse. and sore throats. fruit through cultivation very variable. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. 10 to 15 mm broad. brown or blackish externally. glutamic acid. Texas.5 to 10%. sensitive skin. branching and more or less curved. ascorbic acid. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. and from 0. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L.5 to 8 cm long. somewhat fusiform. It can be incorporated into shampoos.

Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. China. Java. they bear short knob-like branches. quinovic. and break with a short fracture. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. tormentillin. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). bluntly tapering at each end. Curcuma. They are hard and heavy. Indian Saffron. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. Occasionally. caffeic. internally. a red pigment. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. longitudinally wrinkled. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val.. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. and other tropical countries. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow.

is also present. ukonan A. monodesmethoxycurcumin. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. antifungal. but the coloring matter. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). etc. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. and antimutagenic. 2-7% essential oil. comprising mainly bisabolane. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. zingiberene. anti-arthritic.. and anti-edemic. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. guaiane. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. when chewed. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. hypotensive. curlone. antibacterial. It is also choleretic. it colors the saliva yellow.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. ar-turmerone.

alkaloids (valerianine. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. phenolic acids. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. The rhizome is vertical. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. and spasmolytic. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. and to 2 cm in diameter. However. * Formerly CTFA. Wood is small. and valepotriates (valtrate. pungent. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. Roots are branched or simple. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. central and cylindrical. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. acevaltrate. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. Belgium and England. fatty acids. simple or branched. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. Pith is white or grayish-white. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. and to 3 mm in diameter. The taste is sweet. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. and disagreeable. actinidine). The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is sedative. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. valerosidatum). relaxant. Cortex is thick. and baldrinal. Constituents Essential oil. cultivated in Germany. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. isovaltrate.

206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

*INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. verbenelol. Nebraska. Wild Hyssop. Constituents Iridoids. volatile oil. aucubin. long. meadows. ursolic acid. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. contraceptive. four-sided stem. Description This rather rough. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. anorexic (appetite suppressant). straight.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. Simpler’s Joy. in addition to verbenin. and superficial and limited burns. hastatoside. False Verbain. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. verbenalin. finely haired herb has an erect. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). tannin. diuretic. and against sunburns. caffeic acid. Verbena officinalis L. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. artemitin. gout remedy. 4 to 7 feet high. and Arizona. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

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*INCI Name . The bark varies from nearly smooth. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. irritation of the eyelid. deep. west to Minnesota and Kansas. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. blisters. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. astringent. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. styes. The kernel is sweet. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ophthalmia. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. glandular disturbances. gout. imparipinnate. scabbing pruritus. oily. Used for skin complaints. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. The leaves are alternate. open crown. rheumatism. * Formerly CTFA. scrofula. soft and coarse grained. round-topped. vermifuge. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. The wood is light brown. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. depurative. Juglans nigra L. eczema. and edible.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. disinfectant. and varicose ulcers. Properties Tonic restorative.

Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. fruiting pedicels divaricate. leaves pinnate. leucine. -carotene. ellagic acid. ascorbic acid. and diastase. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile).1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. Description Aquatic perennial. 1. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops.g. 4. Rheumatism and nervousness. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. folacin. and kaempferol. spatulate. petals white. tannin. Mexico. tryptophan. amino acids. British Columbia. phenylalanine. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. gluconasturtiin. proline. sepals oblong. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. thiamine. glutamic acid. Clark. and Europe. threonine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . California. high in protein. cystine.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). valine. many trace minerals. Rubbing on scalp. its action being both detergent and healing.. A Cure For All Cancers. hyperin. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. it looks rather yellowish. Virginia. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). glycine. caffeic acid. aspartic acid. it will strengthen and thicken hair. biotin. beak about 1 mm long. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. West Indies. tyrosine. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. arginine. 3 mm thick. tumors. about 4 mm long. 5. about 2 mm long. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. protein.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). histidine. South America. destroying most of its active principles. lymphatic or edematous swellings. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. Externally. somewhat curved. lysine. alanine. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. methionine.

Fin’s Grass. Devil’s Grass. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. of young grass. Quake Grass. Durfee Grass. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. Quitch Grass. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. Couch Grass.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. sprouts. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. Twitch Grass. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. Creeping Wheatgrass. Scutch Grass. Dutch Grass. Durfa Grass.

Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. fatty acids. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout. creams..... its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.. and stem scars on the upper surface.. more or less detached. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous... insipid.. thin outer layer. taste starchy... It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States. fracture short but tough. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. scattered.. bent and branched... the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . -carotene. 1 to 3 ft high... flavonoids. amino acids. WHITE NETTLES. and phenolic acids. Description Knotted and woody. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist. collected in the spring. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma. cut into small pieces about in.. which are thickened at the joints. lotions. externally pale brown.. eczema. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root. creeping root stock.. Its smooth hollow stems. and dermatitis..See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer.See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES.. are produced from a long.. with numerous small. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached. Odorless.. bearing scattered nodular projections. Colic Root. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. Over 240 compounds have been identified. afterwards acrid..212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat.. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled... are carefully cleaned.. and hair conditioners. Constituents Vitamins... The flowering heads are produced from July to September. The root stocks. thickets. long. 6 to 20 mm thick.. yellowish wood bundles. elongated. often compressed.. and dried... Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos.

inner surface. endodermis distinct. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. in older bark dull. odor slightly aromatic. Contains steroid-like substances. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. antirheumatic. cortex composed of thin-walled. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. and trace minerals. yellowish-brown to dark brown. Constituents Steroidal saponins. It can be used in hair conditioners. slightly lignified parenchyma. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. dioscin. fragilin. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. it should be standardized for its salicin content. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. diosgenin. rinses. and antipyretic. analgesic. greenish-brown. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. White Willow. triandrin. anti-inflammatory. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. taste astringent and slightly bitter. as it contains salicin. longitudinally striated. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. However. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). antiseptic. outer surface in young bark smooth. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. minerals. shampoos. vimalin). ascorbic acid. flavonoids. etc. naturalized sparsely in North America. dioscorin. populin. irregularly wrinkled. salicortin. fracture short fibrous. as this could vary among different manufacturers. cinnamon brown to pale reddish.

Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. long. due to its high tannin content. when it bursts open. Striped Alder. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. leaves. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. thick. forking branches with smooth. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. yellow flowers. scattering the shining black. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. saponins. It has a crooked stem and long. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. and polyphenols. Spotted Witch Alder. Description Witch Hazel. and alcohols. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. brown bark. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. Wych-hazel. and borne on short stalks. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. flavonoids. tannin. eastern Canada. and leaves Bark.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. bark. esters. Constituents Essential oil. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. Winterbloom. eastern United States.

in length. Wolf Foot. Constituents Alkaloids. Gypsyweed. which appear from about July to September. Gypsywort. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. The whitish flowers. Missouri. Sweet Bugleweed. Externally. rather narrow. Paul’s Betony. but a disagreeable bitter taste. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. pointed. Gypsy Herb. erect stem from 6 in. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. Description This herb has long. tublar. to 2 ft in height. Carpenter’s Herb. Purple Archangel. smooth. and stachyerine. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. American Water Hoarhound. including betonicine. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. They are followed by four nutlets. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. The plant has a rather pleasant.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. Water Bugle. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. and bell-shaped. shady places from Canada to Florida. and Nebraska. Therefore. bitter. are small. The leaves are about 2 in. slender. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. mint-like odor. Green Archangel.

antineuralgic. etc. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . calming. with slender. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. vermouths. pointed leaves edged with tiny. antiseptic. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. of new-mown hay. Flowers small. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. astringent. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. when dry. tannin. quadrangular. Used in aromatherapy. in loose clusters. white. coumarin. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. soothing to the nerves. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. unbranched. wines. forwardpointing bristles. anti-arthritic. anti-inflammatory. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. citric acid. with four petal lobes. Odor. and the iridoids asperuloside. Description A short perennial.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. bitters. monotropein.

long. thujyl alcohol. choleretic. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. chamazulene. Old Woman. tannins. anthelmintic. Constituents Essential oil. Mingwort. absinthin. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. the florets tubular. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. and the grayish-green leaves. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. camphene. drooping. Also used to clean atonic wounds. Absinth. thujone. the inner linear with membranous margins. taste bitter. artabsin. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. Odor aromatic. insignificant. p-coumaric acid. aromatic. which are from 2 to 5 in. approximately 100 identified constituents. and anthelmintic. Bitter stomachic. two to three pinnately divided. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. protein. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. Madderwort. used as an external antiseptic. isovaleric acid. and antipyretic. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. Flower heads greenish-yellow. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. yellow heads. especially in Michigan and Indiana. consist of numerous small. the lower lobe is petiolate. It is cultivated in some localities. -carotene. 2 to 3 mm long. Description This shrubby. rutin.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. are divided into small leaflets. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles.

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diuretic. Closely related forms occur in the western states. Yarrow Milfoil. white flower heads.. high and has many finely divided.. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields. From June to September. Thousand-Leaf Clover.......... and is urinary antiseptic. and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada..... Old-Man’sPepper..Y YAM... Cammock. Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in.. Nosebleed. pastures.. astringent.. Thousand-leaf.. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small. hypotensive.. It has a strong odor... Soldiers’ Woundwort... It * Formerly CTFA.. Carpenter Grass. Dog Daisy. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic.. Sanguinary...... Green Arrow. feathery..... antipyretic.. Bloodwort. dark green leaves... 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... Gordoloba.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L. *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium. Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing...

flavonoids. Broad-leaved Dock Root. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. achillin). alkaloids (achilleine). It has been used for cuts. among rubbish heaps. injuries. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. and furrowed stem. and along roadsides. it is stomachic. it is also used in hair care preparations. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. blue colored chamazulene). Broad-leaved Rumex.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. long. bearing numerous. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. and cholagogue. Internally. angular. spasmolytic. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. and tannin. carminative. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. and varicose ulcers. Curled Dock Root. camphor. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. in cultivated as well as in waste ground. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. phenolic acids.

and pale radially split wood. emodin. short stemmed or stemless. with long stalks. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sores. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. et Tor. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. protein. These are followed by the fruits. psoriasis. and tannin. tapering or spindle shaped. They are washed. with few or no rootlets. while the upper leaves are narrower. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. Bear’s Weed. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. usually from 8 to 12 in. only 3 to 6 in. lapathinic acid. yellowish cortex. and eruptive diseases. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. long. Consumptive’s Weed. Gum Plant.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. in length. from 6 to 8 in. swellings. nepodin. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. The root is large and fleshy. As the clusters ripen. chrysophanic acid. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. and carefully dried. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. they become rusty brown.The root. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. in length. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides.

chrysoeriodictyl. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. butyric acid. The rather showy. Gabon. and the Congo. The narrow. tannin. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. Constituents Resin. eriodictyonic acid.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. dark green. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. acetic acid. cerotic acid. essential oil. and eriodyctyonine. eriodictyol. Schum. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe.

Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. sepals and petals lanceolate. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. the most important of which is yohimbine. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. It is also being used for arthritis internally. 1.1 Yohimbine. Soap Yucca Root. with narrow brown margins. is sympatholytic. 1998. YUCCA Yucca baccata.. coarsely filiferous. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. pendent. allo-. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. It also contains corynanthine. Colorado. Arizona. sometimes 2 dm long. oblong or conical-ovoid. shagreen roughened. fleshy.5 cm long. R. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. samogenin. the major alkaloid. fruit large. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. elongate. style slender. hence its aphrodisiac effect. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. Constituents Sarsapogenin. about 7. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. Description Low. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. L. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. Soap Weed. concave. and protein. and Nevada. minerals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Torr Yucca brevifolia. spreading. however. Kansas. tigogenin. saponin. Roezl. pseudo-. Properties Yucca contains saponins. at low doses. Texas. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. and epiallo-yohimbine. Personal communication. smilagenin. tannin. leaves rigid. Kronenthal.

224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

However. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. not essential oil. Dark brown contains juglone. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. The leaves contain buxine. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. makes an excellent hair rinse. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Hops See “Folklore” section. Galls Used to dye the hair black. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. Henna Used to dye hair red. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. Lavender See “Folklore” section. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. Oak. See “Folklore” section. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. The botanical extract. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. Hemp.

A source of potassium and iodine. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. and mouthwashes. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. and linalol. Lemony fragrance. Vitamins A and D. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. and some protein. It is antiseptic. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. and help keep it free of dandruff. borneol. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. The extract contains thymol. leaving it silky and glossy. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. make it soft and shiny. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . See Stinging Nettle. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. It also helps to remineralize. it will darken the hair. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. Combined with rosemary. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. Contains a yellow dye. Can be used in deodorants. The essential oil is used to add sheen. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. See Lichwort. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair.

HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. It is said that when blended with rosemary. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

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Orange Peel. White Willow. 1. Nasturtium. etc. Chaparral. Soap Bark. Lemon Grass. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Black Walnut. Chamomile. Myrtle. Vinca Minor. Lemon. ethanol. Cardamom Seed. Fenugreek. Balsam Peru. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Yarrow. Inc. Comfrey. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Tormentil. Comfrey. Hops. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Benzoin. Grapefruit. Sandalwood. Hawthorn Angelica. Southernwood. Chamomile. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Chamomile. refer to the index). Bistort. Bayberry. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Uva Ursi Quassia. Rosemary. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Althea. Violet. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Artichoke. Soap Root. White Willow. Peppermint. Bayberry. Corn Flower. that is. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Lavender. Calendula. Wild Indigo. Lavender. Myrrh. Calendula. Horsechestnut. oil. propylene glycol. Echinacea. Calendula. Nettles.3-butylene glycol. Ginkgo. Arnica Lemon. White Lily. Artichoke. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Proanthocyanidins. Golden Seal. Asparagus. Eucalyptus. Slippery Elm. Tumeric. Raspberry.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Witch Hazel. Witch Hazel. Yarrow. either when applied topically or taken internally. Rosemary. Sage. Lady’s Mantle. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Thyme. Thyme. Burdock. Lemon. Orris. Garlic. Birch. Bilberry. Pineapple. Burdock. Rose. Anise. Lemon.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Wild Alum. Thyme. Tomato. Lemon. Oak Bark. Rosemary. powders or extracts. Oats. Pansy. Arnica. Rosemary. Plantain. Cucumber. Tilia. Sandal Wood. Horsechestnut Papaya. Rosemary. Sage. Nettles. Papaya. Cinnamon Agrimony. glycerin. Rhatany. Bay Laurel. Onion. Juniper Berries. Quassia. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. Bladderwrack. Lavender. Myrrh. Birch. Myrrh. Parsley Broom Flowers. Hops. in various vehicles as water. Milk Thistle.

Patchouli.* Centella. Tilia. Eucalyptus. Cedar. to relieve Nails. Orange Flowers. various seaweeds. Myrrh. to add highlights Hibiscus. Eyebright. Capsicum. Capsicum Bistort. Nettles. Horsetail Grass. Slippery Elm. Chamomile. Althea. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Citrus Bioflavonoid. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Rosemary. split ends Scalp. Comfrey. Jaborandi. Camphor. Quince Seed. Fenugreek. Tea. Quince. Pilewort. Figwort. Pansy. Nettles. Comfrey. Red Clover. Fenugreek. Sage. Lavender. Corn Flower Water. Anise Rosemary. Catnip Bayberry. to add highlights Black Walnut. Thyme. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Comfrey. Elder. Elder Flowers. Comfrey Root. Rosemary. Chamomile. Rose. Flax Horsetail Grass. Flax. Southernwood. Cucumber. Broom. conditioners. Pansy. White Willow Bark. Phytoplenolin®. Horseradish. Sage. Hops Chamomile. Rosemary. to add sheen Hair. Sage Jaborandi. Capsicum. Chickweed. Bayberry Bark. Calendula Oil. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Plantain. Calendula. Parsley. Oak Bark. Coriander. Quinine. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Neem. White Willow Aloe Vera. Peach Leaf. Basil. Dandelion. Basil. Golden Seal. Feverfew. Grapefruit. Lavender. Yarrow. Red Clover. Burdock. Rhatany. Elder. Peppermint Aloe. Marigold Golden Seal. Southernwood. Echinacea. Alfalfa. Chamomile. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Quince Seed. Citronella. dry Hair.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Chamomile. Oregon Grape. Raspberry. Malva Flowers. Capsicum. Birch. Yarrow. Raspberry. Pine Tar. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Cantharides. etc. Horsechesnut. Fennel. Witch Hazel Bark. Primula Flowers. Orris Root. Olive. Sage. Comfrey. Thyme. Jaborandi. Black or Neutral Henna. Centella. rinses. Cucumber. Roseberries. Lemon Peel. Golden Seal. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Raspberry. Arnica. to add highlights Marigold. Fenugreek. Southernwood. Lemon Peel. Cowslip. Wormwood Chamomile. Witch Hazel. Orange Flowers. Red Henna. Witch Hazel. Cade. Comfrey. Garlic. Thyme. Melilote. Purple Loosestrife. Pansy. Horsetail Grass. Rosemary. Cardamon. Southernwood. Sarsaparilla. Chamomile. Nettles. Seaweed. Cleavers. Oats. Chaparral. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rosemary. Mullein Flowers. Brown Henna Rosemary. Onion. Capsicum. Golden Seal. Echinacea various oils. Sage. Red Poppy. Cucumber Chamomile. Quassia. Orange Peel. Wild Alum. Echinacea. Rosemary. Yellow Dock. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Comfrey. dark Hair.

Witch Hazel. Yarrow. Dandelion. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . John’s Wort. Plantain. Orange Peel. Sept. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Wild Alum Althea. Calendula. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Colts Foot. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera.Yarrow. Horsetail grass. Peach. Quince. Tilia. Arnica. Oats. Seaweeds. Plantain. Chamomile. Yarrow flowers. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. John’s Wort. Orange Flowers. St. Centella. Calendula. 1998. Licorice. Uva ursi Wild Alum. however.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Nettles. Bayberry. Thuja. Hawthorn. St.206 for Centipeda. Apples. Chickweed. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Arnica. Cucumber. Evening Primrose. Witch Hazel. Cleavers. Sage. Lavender. Birch. Passion Flowers. Rose. Cinchona. Oils. Valerian. Red Poppy. Capsicum. dry Botanical Cantharides. Poke Root. John’s Wort. Horsechestnut. Capsicum. Elder Flowers. Elecampane Skin. Blue Flag. Corn Flower. Pansy. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Croton. Comfrey. Calendula. Slippery Elm. Aloe Vera. Citrus bioflavonoids. Golden Seal. White Pond Lily. Lemons. Lemon. Fennel. Fennel. Bistort. Violets. Parsley. Grapefruit. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Slippery Elm. St. Meillot. Tilia. Capsicum. Comfrey. Comfrey. Capsicum. Echinacea. Wormwood. Primula Flowers. Garlic.) Aloe Vera. Bayberry. Dandelion. Pine. Althea Root. Apple. Lavender. Mullein. Echinacea. Cucumber. Chamomile. Lemon Grass. Comfrey. St. Slippery Elm bark. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds.804. John’s Wort. Hawthorn Berries. Witch Hazel. Seaweed. Ginseng Caraway. Comfrey. Red Clover. Jaborandi.Vinegar. Licorice Cleavers. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Dulse. Chamomile. Althea Root. Lemon.

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) STEUD.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. aril white. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. Licorice root. nicotine. tannin. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. and eyebrows. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. 8 stamens. The powder is used on abscess. etc. Vitamin A. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. and tonifies the heart.5 to 5 cm wide. it strengthens the spleen. The seeds are also spherical. can be found in the main section. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. It grows in fields and ditches. etc. rough. short stiff hairs. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. beard. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. elongated. sores. wedeloclactone. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. The female flowers are white and ligulate. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. The flowers are polygamous. and fleshy. Constituents Saponin. yellowish-white. elliptical shaped. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. internally used to blacken hair. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. yellowish brown. Internally. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs.5 to 2 cm in diameter. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. wounds. 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. nourishes the blood. which are coriaceous. Ginger. Common botanicals such as Lotus. The nuts are spherical.

protein. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. choline. antiparasitic. tartaric acid. Vitamins A and B. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .70. sucrose. adenine. fats. pruritus. vaginal itches. ringworm. etc. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412. yeast infections.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema.

When using Ginseng internally. any citrus and turnips.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Astragalin. isopimpinellin. weak pulse. heart palpitations. deficiency of energy. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. isoborneol). diabetes. asthma. L-camphene. folic acid. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. Constituents Saponins. and has red. a glucoside C20 H20 011. moisturize. cnidiankin. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. Betaine. imperatorin. xanthotoxol. berry-like fruits. lack of appetite. columbianetin (C14H14O4). and arabinose. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. amino acids. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. ginsenosides. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. It is an astringent. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. ostol (C15H16O3). it could nourish. choline. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. bornyl isovalerate. etc. insomnia. B-sitosterol. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. dihydrooroseiol. used as an aphrodisiac. sugars. cnidiadin. dilates the blood vessels. alloimperatorin. dyspepsia. astragalin-glucose. avoid black tea. columbianadin (C19H20O5). It is also said to promote blood production. edultin. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. improves circulation in the skin. hypertension. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. palmate leaves. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. amino acids.) Bge.

trichosanic acid. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. and antifungal properties. tricosanthin. To list all would take several pages.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antibacterial. saponins (ginsenosides). resin. sugar fatty oil. Constituents Triterpenes. The root has antipyretic. trichokaurin. These are a few of the constituents. SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. protein. essential oil. (C18H30O2).

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dissolves clots. traumatic injuries. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. helps to promote circulation. reduces swelling. both internally and externally. and Re. blood in the stool. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. Rb2-Rb. It is said to heal without leaving scars. nosebleeds. According to Chinese tradition. it has been used in coughing of blood. Constituents Saponins. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. ginsenosides. this herb can be used safely in large doses. and is analgesic. etc. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. Internally.

An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. rhamnose.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. stearic acid. sitosterol. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. anti-inflammatory. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. glucose. Cones oblong. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. L-typhasterol. xylose. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. and a slightly bitter taste. palmitic acid. essential oil. long. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. Constituents Flavonoids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. 1/3 in.V. II. and arabinose. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. tannin. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. glucose. ziyuglycoside I. U. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. It has almost no odor. fructose. Vitamin A.

5 to 8 cm wide. resin. pinene. and is said to have antibacterial. and antiviral properties. obovate-lanceolate shaped. in height. flavonoids. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. having pale. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. reddish-purple. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base.5 to 1 m high. which has hairs on both surfaces. It is a hemostatic. L. becoming smaller on top. 15 to 30 cm long. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. The flowers are tubular. Vitamin C. tannin. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. soft durable wood. and hermaphroditic.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .-fenchone. and pinnatipartite. fenchone. The basal leaves are clustered. shoddy bark and light. caryophyllene. the base tapers into a winged petiole. and antipyretic. anthelmintic. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. astringent. Constituents Thujone.

It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. reduces swelling. essential oil. It is used in traumatic injuries. stigmasterol. and promotes the healing of the flesh. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Glucose. 2 to 3 cm long. skin infections. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent.F. and in abscesses. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. and 2 to 6 cm wide. anti-inflammatory. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. and antibacterial. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. The tuber is thick and fleshy. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. antifungal. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. The perianth is in 6 segments. antibacterial. -amyrin. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. hemostatic. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. 15 to 30 cm long. B-amyrin. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. starch. Their base runs into a long sheath. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface.

followed by a slight numbness. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. caffeic acid. and somewhat 4-angled. tannin. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. which alternate with the calyx teeth. B-caryophyllene.5 mm in length. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. essential oil. oleic acid. fat.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. Constituents Scoparone. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. wax. ipterocopal. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. having antipyretic properties. acetyl eugenol). antibacterial. Constituents D-borneol. and antiviral. stearic acid. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. style 1. crowded. conjunctivitis. glandular-punctate petals. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. capillarisin. erythrodiol. linoleic acid. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. stamens numerous. hydroxydammarone II. asiatic acid. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. See “Botanical” section for further description. It has been used in ringworm. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. montanic acid. boils. arachidic acid. esculetin. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. One tree can yield as much as pound. oval. with numerous ovules. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. analgesic. ovary 2-locular. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. antiparasitic. and incurved. cold sores. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . odor strongly aromatic. palmitic acid. dark brown. taste pungent and aromatic. sores. dryobalanone. etc. chlorogenic acid. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. and nasal mucositis. caryophyllene. The dark green. humulene. Antibacterial.

The raceme is terminal. Excellent remedy for sores. and 1 to 2 cm wide. The leaves are alternate. The pods are cylindrical. The corolla is papilionaceous. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. constricted between the seeds. flavonoids. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3 to 4 cm long. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. It is used for vaginal infections. Constituents Alkaloids. imparipinnately divided. and allergic reactions. yellowish-white. itchy skin. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. and other skin ailments.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. sores. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. The stem is erect with many branches. which are globose and black. pruritus. The stamens are 10 and free. 10 to 20 cm long.

red. palmatine. It is applied externally to swollen. coptisine. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. Constituents Berberine. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. Constituents Aesculin. magnoflorine. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . columbamine. ferulic acid.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. and red eyes. fraxetin. aesculetin. and swollen eyes. fraxin. used as an eye wash for sore. aching. tannin. Antiinflammatory. obakunone. obakulactone. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). jatrorrhizine.

Its stem is erect. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. 1 to 3 cm long. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. The calyx is bilabiate.5 cm wide. and 0. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. The leaves are opposite. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. ovate shaped. their margins sparsely serrate. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent.5 to 1.

boils. It is used to reduce swelling. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. beta-cyanin. abscesses. betanidini. Folkloric Use Antipyretic.3 cm long. 1 to 1. snake bites. 8 to 12 stamens. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. The flower has 2 sepals. 5 yellow petals. and intestines. Constituents GLA. Constituents Portulal. Italians. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA.5 to 1. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. Its stem is cylindrical. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. betanin. French. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary.. fleshy. and often purplish in color. The Chinese. and English consume this plant in salads. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. antiphlogistic.5 cm wide. gamma-linolenic acid. It is also a good source for GLA. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. gamma-linolenic acid. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. decumbent or slanting upward. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. stomach. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

4. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.

248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3.

84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3.

84082-80-4 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4. 84929-52-2. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7.

84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1.

252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1. 84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.

sharp recurved spines. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. globular. simple. Burma. Fruit small subglobular. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. Flowers yellow. pitted black. Kal-karanj Nuts. and saponin in the seed coat. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. ellipticoblong.BENDUC NUT 253 6. covered with numerous black dots. Leaves petiolate. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). isopsoralidin. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. glabrous slightly compressed. oil. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. roots. Essential. etc. Several species grow in the United States. ovate or oblong and inflated. firm. tannin. campesterol group. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. shiny.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. and flavones. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. Description It is an erect herb. Seeds are hard. Description Main leaf axis has stout. hairs few. Leaflets about 10 pairs. chalcones. sporalidin. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. circular. and Sri Lanka. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. starch. alkaloids. and protein in kernel. perianth covered withspines. hairy tip acute. and gray with thick testa. corylifolean. Flowers are dense. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Furanocoumarins.

The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. Leaves opposite. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. arginine. sterols. upper leaves smaller. oblong. and for infectious diseases. starch. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. with winged petiole. Description An erect or prostate annual herb.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. borne on convex flower heads. Seeds also contain protein. phytosterol. sessile. Constituents Oil. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. basal are large. bluish-purple. and citrulline. The endodermis is indistinct. lanceolate. reducing sugar. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. aspartic acid. and skin diseases. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. Leaves membranaceous. flower head white. Flowers about 2 cm long. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. However. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. and sulfurcontaining peptides. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. arresting hemorrhage. margin toothed. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. Few layers of cork cells are present.

Description A medium tree. slightly recurved. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mucronate.but white internally. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. apex subacute. The fruit is subglobular. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. greenish-yellow. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. Leaves simple. slightly broader than long. phyllanthe emblic. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. Flowers are small. unisexual. arranged densely on the branchlets. entire. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. The oil and root contains camphene. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. stipulate. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. linear oblong or elliptic. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. In old samples. terpene alcohols.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. Feathery.

antihepatotoxic. and carvarol. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. elliptic-oblong. antidiabetic. seeds.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. very short. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. subcoriaceous. antiulcer. Leaves are simple. Leaves pinnate. 2 to 4 inches long. apex thick and blunt. flowers. sacred basil Leaves. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. antibacterial. antihistaminic. camphor. and luteolin. decyladehyde. opposite. A. apigenin. Flowers small. Each flower consists of. antipyretic. antispasmodic. point decurved. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. filament slender.& Bpinene. Sri Lanka. insecticidal. style 2-lobed. antifungal. The leaves yield ursolic acid. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. exserted. odorant. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. taste bitter. pubescent calyx. cotyledons very oily. corolla 2-lipped. krishna tulsi. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. margin serrate. in terminal raceme-like panicle. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. antiviral. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. testa light-red. tulsi. bitter. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antispermatogenic. smooth and shining. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. hairy along the veins. pod woody. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. CNS-depressant. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. ovate compressed. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. such as antistress.

S. cotyledons unequal. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. pongamin. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. thick. pengaglabrone. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. the outer very thick and hard. the inner membranaceous. Constituents Saponins. where it is woody. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. kaemferol. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. . The seed is black. Emarginatus. the testa is double. glucose. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. yellow within. tough. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. singly. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. each berry is the size of a cherry. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. The oil is used to treat scabies. the berries are the color of a raisin. Radicle at the base of the seed. The bark contains alkaloids. pointing to lower and inner angle. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. the size of large a pea. and other cutaneous diseases. smooth. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. sitosterol. spirally incurvate. rheumatism. firm and fleshy. and translucent. The root bark is rustybrown externally. then bitter. the skin is shriveled. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. and as an anthelmintic. pongamol. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. and butyric acid. Properties The seeds. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. leaves. (S. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. When dry. with a peculiar pungency. the pulp translucent. herpes. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. pectin. except at the scar.

from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. and tonic. inflammations. skin diseases such as ulcers. Properties The roots are astringent. gum. round violet colored and seeds light black. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. deobstruent. Description A climbing plant. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. and discoloration of skin. alizarin. fruit long. Root consists of short stock. then acrid and bitter. scaly. and xanthine. Leaves heart shaped. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. The taste is sweetish at first. It also has anodyne properties. leucoderma. flowers small yellow in color.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. and sugar. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . coloring matter. alterative. freckles. Constituents Roots contain resins. garancin.

and Nepal. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. Description An herbaceous plant. and contain obvate. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. nardol. slightly curved. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. is used to dye the hair black. Tracheids and few fibers. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. It is a good substitute for valerian. Epidermal hairs are few. Roots contain valeranone. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. These layers occurs in the outer cortex.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. starch. oblong or ovate. seeds. Flowers in racemes. nardostechone. mainly in palpitation of heart. Rhizomes long. Bhutan. Corolla 5-lobed. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). B-sitosterol. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. dark brown. valeranal. greenish-brown to dark brown in color.000 to 15. Senna is also a safe purgative. n-hexaconsanol. nervous headache. resin. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells.5% essential oil. calarenol. valves papery smooth. Leaves usually in pairs sessile. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. and bitter extractive matter. Pods broadly oblong. Himalaya (11. and flatulence. sugar. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. and combined with Henna. which also contains sesquiterpenes. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. The paste is also useful for removing pimples.

260

KAVACH

Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume

Synonyms: Parts Used:

Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.

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NEEM

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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.

Neem (leaves)

Neem (whole plant)

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262

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.

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RED SANDAL

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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Southern India.

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264

SIKEKAI

Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed

Synonyms: Parts Used:

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WHITE LEADWORT

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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.

WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.

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Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. branching perennial. greenish or yellow flowers. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. loss of memory. withanine. erect. fracture short. The root is seldom branched. withananine. and spermatorrhoea. brain lag. brittle. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. It bears small. tapering. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. and starchy. 3. as in enlarged glands. Iso-zeylinone. petiolate and alternate. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. Constituents It contains alkaloids. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. plump. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. smooth. rheumatism. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. somniferinine. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. Somnifera. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. ovate hair-like branches.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. somniferine. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. It is also cultivated. and droserone. senile debility. globose. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. Leaves simple. a mixture of W. Licorice powder. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. elliptinone. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. and appetite stimulant. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. gastric stimulant. The dried root is of uniform appearance. Isolation of nicotine. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. It is in flower all year long. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. loss of muscular energy. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. grayish or hoary. zeylinone. white internally. smooth. For improving sight.3-biplumbagin. Fruits 6 mm in diameter.

Roots also contain tropine. choline. and cuscohygrine. In addition to alkaloids. pseudotropine. Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

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6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6. These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. U. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bitter Orange Peel.S.270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. Black Ash.

U.S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

black Cohosh. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. calisaya Cinchona. yellow Cinchona. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. blue Cohosh. pale Cinchona. pale Cinchona.

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion. American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara.S. U. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

S. S. U.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula. U. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum.

White Indian Hemp. U. S. Canadian Hemp.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. Black Indian Hemp. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. U. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. S. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. American Hellebore. Black Hellebore.

276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier. Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. Green Osier. S. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica.S. Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.

S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. U. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . S. U. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber.

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INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Aloe vera L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L. Betula alba L. Optuntia. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Agrimonia eupatoria L.) Juglans nigra L.F. Ruscus aculeatus L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Fucus vesiculosus L. Capsicum annum/frutescens L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. Cynara scolymus L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.

(DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Inula helenium L. & Aschers. purpurea. Scrophularia nodosa L. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. Larrea divaricata Cav. Allium sativum L. Sambucus nigra L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sanguisorba officinalis L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. spp.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Geranium maculatum L. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Br. Gentiana lutea L. See Coleus Galium aparine L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. Cucumis sativus L. Centaurea cyanus L. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Symphytum officinale L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Symphytum officinale L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Zea mays L.

Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Limm Malva sylvestris L. et. Citrus paradis. Centella asiatica L. Althaea officinalis L. Melissa officinalis L.) Burman F. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Mac Fad. Camellia sinensis L. Pongamia glabra P. Amoracia rusticana. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Schert Equisetum arvense L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Solidago Virgaurea L. Ocimum sanctum linn. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Hedera helix L. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Gaertn. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Calendula officinalis L. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Justicia Adhatoda. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Hydrastis canadensis L.

papyrifora. Tabl. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Olea europoea L. Mentha piperita L. Engler Myrtus communis L. Carica papaya L.L. Vinca minor L. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Commiphora molmol. Lythrum salicaria L. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Papaver rhoeas L. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Rheum rhabarbarum L. Allium cepa L. and B. Regn. Nasturtium officinale R. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. ssp. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Rubus idaeus L. Trifolium pratense L. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. & P. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Veget. Pinus silvestris L. Vent.

Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Betonica officinalis L. Salix alba L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Juglans regia L. Artemisia abrotanum L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St. Juglans nigra L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. Salvia officinalis L. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L.) Tanacetum vulgare L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L.) Acacia Concinna.

Rumex crispus L. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Yucca brevifolia. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Gentiana lutea L. Artemisia absinthium L. Schum. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K.) Perre Yucca baccata. Torr.

blue. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. 9. and vitamin content. etc. 3. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. mud baths. weeds. 2. 7.7 Marine Natural Products 7. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. However.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. as well as vitamins. bath. 4. They are also used as thickeners in jams. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. and sterols. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. The sea holds an endless source of life. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. Xanthophylls. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. 6. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. and have even been used to put a head on beer. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. and sometimes in seawater. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. e 8. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. mineral. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. and red pigments. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. phytoplanktons. ice cream. body rubs. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. sea grasses. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. etc). including: 1. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. 10. sauces. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. Seawater. Xanthophyta. 5. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. It is said that life started in the seas. high in carotenoids. Cryptophyta — Contain green. cosmetics.

growth substances. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. pharmaceutical. prostaglandins. and lycine). • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. and polysaccharides. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. Therefore. anticoagulants. furanoterpenes. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and herbicides. proline. steroids). for example. For plating microorganisms. glycine. it is resistant to microorganisms and. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. and ice cream as a thickening agent. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. and vitamins. and imparts slip. and other fruits. proteins. Kelp is also the main source for algin. fucose polymers. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. pears. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. emulsion stabilizer. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. diterpenes. mainly from some gelidium species. second. acetylenes. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. cardiac substances. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. B2. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives.g. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e.. First. and cosmetic fields. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. such as ursolic acid derivates. For example. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. cranberry. marshmallows. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. lipids. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. B12. emulsions. prunes. and C. polyphenols. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. anthelmintics. sulfur compounds. carotenoids.

helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. B12. galactose. protein. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. B3. and mannitol. and antiglaucomic. shampoos. myristic. including iodine. Mn. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. B12. and ointments. Mg. which is a polysaccharide. bromide. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. C. creams. F. B3. K. both in vivo and in vitro. A). B. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. oleic. iodine. a synergestic effect was exhibited. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. calcium. palmitic. potassium. and glutamic acid. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. it has a high content of potassium. fat. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds).MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. Laminaria longicruris (L. phosphorus. Sargassum contains fructose. broadspectrum. minerals (Zn. phosphorus. In addition. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. magnesium. antioxidant. potassium. However. particularly fluoride. Co. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. B6. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. Fe. and zinc. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . B 2. L. etc. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. and iodide ions. P. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). salads. iron. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. mannitol. and carbohydrates. and lauric acids). I. Na. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. There are traces of chloride. in combination with Vitamin E. Algin. B. Ca). sodium. lotions. antimicrobial agent. Cr. B6.

Echinus esculentus L. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . F.8 mg/100 g 1. Lyngb. single-cell. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). and the Baltic Sea. sulfated. alginic acid. polar lipids. sterols as free fucosterol. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. sulfonate.3. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. phlorotannins. fucans.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics.02 to 0. which means it is a self-sufficient. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids.500 IU/100 g 180. a well-known anti-inflammatory. Halidrys siliquosa L. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. polysaccharides. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55. the Pacific. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. It is a single-cell protein.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. Eisenia contains a complex polymer. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L.000). in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. rheumatism.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. mainly iodine (0.1%).6 Fucus contains trace minerals.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. and as a massage for cellulite. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols. containing all the essential amino acids.

a blue green algae (cyanophyta).. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.08 w/w% 0. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin.6% 60.09 w/w% 3. pp.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3.26 w/w% 2.70 w/w/% 2.9 mcg 191. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder. 14-15.7 mg 125. In a controlled study. Spirulina Spirulina.64 w/w/% 5.0% 20. Moreover. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation.6 mg less than 1 IU 23. Dr. Chlorella.8 mg 1. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation.08 mg Potter.06 w/w% 0.59 w/w% 3.8 mg 1.9 mcg 15.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81.2% 4. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.5 mg 4.8 mg 1. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.S. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.A. It is found in both brackish and fresh water. B.45 w/w% 2.46 w/w% 1.40 w/w% 4.29 w/w% 3.93 w/w% 3.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0.20 w/w% 2.3 mg 26.8% 18.80 w/w% 0.78 w/w% 6.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.1% 0.6 mcg 0. The Emerald Food.5% 11.29 w/w% 2.. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.64 w/w% 1. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation. called the Chlorella Growth Factor.2% 55. et al.38 w/w% 3.469 mg 613 mg 1. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll. Tests performed by the U.500 IU/100g 180. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .63 w/w% 5.

carotenoids. minerals. K. Ge. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. Mg. B12 Folacin. at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lipids (4 to 7%). Fe. and minerals (5 to 10%). B2. vitamins. P. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. Biotin. Cu. Zn. G. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. Cr. as it is high in plant protein.A.40) B1. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca. Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. B3. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%).L.A. etc. Mn.L. Na. Spirulina. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). B6..

once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. or temperature. having distinct anti-cancer properties. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. were isolated from marine organisms. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. sponges. the Bacteria. microcolin C. the search is only beginning. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. are common in marine environments. such as those of elevated salinity. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. anticancer. melemeleones. and marine organisms. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. barbamide. plant. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula .8 The results obtained are quite promising. Related unicellular microorganisms. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. pressure. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. anti-inflammatory. Thus. as a soothing demulcent.10 3. Oahu. and ascidians.13 6. bacteristatic. kalkitoxin. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. Unfortunately. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cyanophyta. bactericidal. antillatoxin. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. soft corals. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. which although poorly known.9 2. Significant compounds. but no chemical study has been reported. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park.12 5. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. including phaeophyta. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. such as the curacins. the following being some examples: 1. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas. penazetidines. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. 7.11 4. and chlorophyta. and imidazole disulfides.

and cytotoxic activities.17 10. the swinholides.16 9. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia. and the theonellapeptolides. Cyanovirin-N.19 12.15 8. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. including potent antiviral. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria. fungi. and gorgonians.. and true symbionts from sponges.18 11. A series of B-carboline derivatives.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which display a variety of pharmacological activities. antimicrobial. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. including corals and sponges. which produce anti-tumor compounds. tunicates. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. the eudistomins. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum. actinomycetes. a unique anti-viral protein.

immunopotentiating. Okoadene and Mailidene.23 16. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus. cytotoxic natural products.29 22.31 24.37 30. Isolation of Microcolin C. latrunculin B and swinholide A. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. Isolation of Dysidiolide. E. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents.28 21.36 29. C. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. Several new classes of compounds. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . B. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. and F. D. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. a novel. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa.26 19. makaluvone. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins. Phorbas sp. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica.38 31.25 18. discorhabdin A. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges).34 27. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. phorboxazole A and B. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity.35 28.22 15. and anti-tumor promoting properties. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. Many novel. were isolated from the marine sponge. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. Diamirone B.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .39 32.21 14.24 17.30 23. Cyclomarin A. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp.32 25.33 26. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines.27 20. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. including makaluvamines A. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic. New antimycotics.

Bohlin.J... 36.S.R.. P.R. Blunt.E. P. J.Y. ibid P 150. J. D. J.H..A..P.. Baker. Hemling. Beutler. ibid P 151.. Andersson.. Goins.J..H. D. R. Barrows.. ibid P 27.. Fulton. B. P. Chem. ibid P 149. 27. Lloyd. Brielmann. Chlorella.... J. O’Sullivan. Janus. ibid P 36. T. M.A. J. ibid S 14. 31.. W.W. 10. R. D. and Kerr. Ogren. J. ibid O 49.P. J.J.. 18. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae... Harrison. Erim.. Hong. M.. C.A. J. J. L. Wilkins. L. McMahon.H. R. and Gould. S. Mendola.R. ibid S 15. T.. 478-488. 13. J.. 19. 2. P. Hargraves.. P. B.M. B. Nakao.. Haughey.. ibid O 10... Haden.. S...T. Fucus Vesiculosus L. and Wang. Dhyana. J. and Hung. K. The Emerald Food. 56(4). July 27-31. S. Solimabi. K.-Y.. Kerr. L. 4. and Crews. and Gerwick. C. 14-15.. 2441-2446. R.M. and Boyd. ibid P 156. K. Gunasekera. et al. and Scheuer. Gerard... Ind. M.. McMahon.. Acta Pharm. L. Gush..W.. Haygood. 20. A. R. J... D. L.A.. B....G. B. Chan. J. Sheehan. Major. L.. L.E.. Lawry.. Xie. ibid P 154. J. M. J.. and Thompson. M.. Ferrante. Allen. ibid P 141. Pettit.. ibid O 26. Andersen. D. B. C. UCSC. ibid O 7. L. Heath. Fernandes.. G. Franklin. S 8.J. Harrigan. G. ibid P 25. K. C. Carney. G. M... Zhang. T.A. Lassota. Varoglu. ibid P 19. Yoshida. Boyd..K.J. Abstr.A.D. 7.M.A. P. 26. Rodriguez. J. P. J.. 6. M.. McCombs.-P. T.... H. M. M. Andrew. and Bair.-D. S. 20(6).. S. and Scheuer. 30. T. Santa Cruz (UCSC). B. S. I. Gerwick. 1258.S.. B..... Freyer. R. and Munro.. El Sayed. J. M. K. C. M..F.E.. L.A. Bringano. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Leahy. ibid P 155..-R. Venables. 29.. Lidgren.R.. D.. J.. D. N.. ibid P 28.S. Castor.. T. Davidson. 1996. B..A.G. Smith. 1975. Mar.. Wright. 3. Westley. S. 33.A. ibid S 9. Hamel. 180. Linton. and Molinski.. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. Gulakowski.. ibid O 38.. McInnes.. 5.J. 17... N. E. Gulakowski. I. M. Yoo. Shoemaker. Schumacher. L...P. and Hamann. 21.. and Crews.. Plubrukarn.. G.F.T.. P. ibid S 23. Pharmaceut.A. ibid O 36. and Joseleau. and Cardellina. O 50. M. H.. 8.. ibid O 11. and Baker. H. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. 1996.. ibid S 22.A. J. Rea.C.. S. Coleman.... El-Sayed. Gustafson. 32. Javor. ibid P 26.... A. ibid P 9.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1.. Shangxiao. P. 1993. Can... 40. 1977.W. July 27-31. K. M. Lill. Y.C... L. S. McCarthy. D.. Dunbar. Forenza. Mendola. 37. Blunt. Mokinski. Green. G. K. 1983. F. 25. J.. 6.. G. and Kelly-Borges. O’Keefe.K. Phytochemistry... Sci.J. Jayatilake. Zheng. and Yavor. Screening of biological activity. A. P. W. Papers presented at the 37th Annu. Hook. ibid P 31. M. 23. Copp.. T. Cardellina. B. R.. 64. Duh. J. H... and Rodriguez. J... D. 35.J. H. Crews. W. Magni. Slate. Beverly A.P. and Ireland. O’Keefe. Janda.F. S. de Silva. S. ibid O 25.. R. ibid P 145. J. D. Meeting. and Francis. B. Clark. Pomponi.. and Afzelius. R. Bewicke. and Munro.B. J. Schmitz. Carte’. 304-313. W. 12. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy. Ragan... Mabeau...A.. and Harrigan.K.. 24. Potter. McKee. Perry. Maranda. J. and Walter.. B. ibid P 30.. Natural Prod. Sci.. pp. and Russel G.. and Hamann. Ph. J. Suecica. 11. R. 38.T. R. J. Gerwick. A. Kloareg. 16.. P. 401-414. G.J. 28.J. 22. and Bauer. 14. Dumdei... W. 1990....J.. and Kelly. Lam. Al. 34. 63..G.. D. Searle. S. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae..E.. M.A. 39. 29. Brzezinski.. 15... 1985.. 9.. Chikarmane.

299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 (±0. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. either alone or in combination with other products. 2. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products.10 0. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes./Lipo Chemicals. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing.10 0. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47. 5. 8. Henkel.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.s.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC. Patterson. 4. Adjust pH to 5. 5.5 (±0. Inc.s. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc.10 q.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq.2) with Sequence 5. Adjust pH to 9. 3. In main kettle. NJ 07504. PROCEDURE: 1.. Rohm & Haas.00 10.10 0. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.60 21. Therefore. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. 207 19th Avenue.00 6.00 q.00 10. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature.00 0.

Adjust pH to 5.5 (±0.s.10 0. Adjust pH to 9. 5. at room temperature. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. 6.00 6.50 15.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.10 0. Rohm & Haas. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. 2. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq.00 10.00 0.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq. Lipo Chemicals. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31. Inc.s. high-foaming. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Inc.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. 4.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.2 (±0. Procedure: 1. combine Sequence 1 ingredients.10 q.00 20.10 0.00 0. 10. Henkel. 7. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.10 q. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural. In main kettle. 6. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. Amerchol. 3.00 1.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient.

Aqualon.FORMULATIONS 301 8. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine. 2.00 1. Inc. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform. In main kettle at room temperature. Procedure: 1.10 0. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. 6. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch. B.(Induchem). 3.00 0. 4.10 5. Goodrich Co.95 0.10 0.45 0. 5. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22. Inc.F. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed.50 1.50 3. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals.

add Sequence 3 to correct shade.10 0.00 10. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 0.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals. At 30°C. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C.96 63.54 5.00 0. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0. In main kettle. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved. 2.00 5.10 0. Cool to 30°C. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15. 3. Inc. Inc. Procedure: 1.s.10 0.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.10 q. At 25°C.

5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base. In main kettle.28 0.10 0. BASF.50 0. Inc.00 2. Fanning Corp.05 6.10 0.10 0. Haarmann & Reimer Corp. Givaudan Corp. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C . Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Cool to 25°C. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86.10 0.10 0.00 4. Procedure: 1. Inc. 3.FORMULATIONS 303 8. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No. Begin cooling. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved.10 0.02 0.50 0. 2.

10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. F. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel.10 0.10 g. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.00 5. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous. Cool to 60°C. 2.05 0. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform. Spl Phosphoric acid. 10% sol’n Supplier B. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940. Procedure: In main kettle.75 0. 3. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1.10 0. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.30 0.00 0. 8.00 0. Inc. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.00 0. Inc. 4.s.82 0.80 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .70 2.88 45.05 20.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31.25 0.

Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25. Procedure: 1.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35.30 0.70 1.00 0.FORMULATIONS 305 8. 99% Hypan SA100H 25.00 5. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2.00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine. 3.05 1 2 Triethanolamine. Lipo Chemicals.F.00 2. Goodrich. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.20 0. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem).10 0. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity. Lipo (Kingston).00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp. B. Guardian Chemicals.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5. Inc.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0.

.

Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. one-celled. indehiscent. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. the fecundating material from an antheridium. containing the pollen. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. or flower-arrangement. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Achaenium. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. as ferns. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. like the leaves of pines. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. or Akene: A dry. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). answering to the pollen of phaenogams. one-seeded fruit. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. with firm pericarp. Acicular: Needle-shaped. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation.

Castor seed).. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. as bi-foliate. Bi-: Signifying double. Nutmeg). tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Appendages: Superadded parts. Blisters: See Vesicants. Atropous: With erect ovule. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. with two leaves. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. stiff hairs.g. Axillary: Growing in an axil. the hilum and the chalaza being together. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. Carina: The keel. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. Bristles: Sharp.g. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Calcarate: Spurred.. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite.g. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. meristematic cells. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. a pulpy. Bulb: An underground discoid stem. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below.g.. Capsule: A dry. cinnamic).. Capitate: With globose head. carrying the ovary. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. rare in present times). Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Apetalous: Without petals. Cardamon). Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. Bacca: A berry. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart.

outer layer. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Corm: A solid. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Also a name given to a short. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. usually distinct. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. tuber-like. Clavate: Club-shaped. Caudale: Having a hairy style. Contorted: Twisted. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Comose: Having hairs at the summit.. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Convolute: Rolled up. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. Caudex: The axis. thick. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Cespitose: Tufted. Coriaceous: Leathery. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. upright rhizome. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Cilia: Marginal hairs. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. become joined. Cohesion: Attachment. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. one-celled. one-seeded. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. Costa: The midrib. Cathartic: A purgative. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Connate: where two parts. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. indehiscent fruit. Caulis: The stem. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e.g. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. from which they hang when ripe. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. Umbelliferous fruits). Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. Cortex: The bark.

Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. or tending to fall. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Determinate: Definite. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. lymphatic. Didymous: In pairs. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Discoid: With convex face. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Deliquescent: Dissolving. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Decompound: Many times compound. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Didynamous: With four stamens. Deflexed: Bent. Dichotomous: Forked. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Deltoid: Triangular. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. Dentate: With sharp teeth. etc. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. downward throughout the length. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. dividing into irregular branches. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. producing intellectual confusion. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Definite: Constant. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. two long and two short. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Crispate: Curled. Deciduous: Falling off. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities.

Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Echinate: Prickly. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. without. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Exogenous: Having bark. purgation).GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Epidermis: The true skin. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. Epigynous: Adnate to. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. Extrorse: Turned outward. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. the outermost layer. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. wood. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics.g. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever.. Etiolated: Blanched. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. Escharotics: See Caustics. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Distichous: In two opposite rows. Epispastics: See Vesicants. E: Signifies deprived of. or borne on. the ovary. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. Entire: Without marginal divisions. and bark. nearly parallel. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Fibrils: Root-hairs. wood. Episperm: The coat of seed. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. and pith distinct. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx.

Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. the point of attachment. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Globose: Roundish. as bifid. Fimbriated: Fringed. more swollen on one side than on the other. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Furcate: Forked. Filiform: Thread-like. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Glabrous: Smooth. orange). algae. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Flocculose: Woolly. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. devoid of hairs. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta.g. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Fid: Cleft. Gamopetalous: Having petals united.. Flexuose: Wavy. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. as petals and leaves. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. etc. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. as in the cypress and juniper. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle.

Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. inflammation. Lateral: Attached to the side. Internode: Interval between nodes. squirrels. Imbricated: Overlapped. as innate anther. Keel: See Carina. on the receptacle. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Causing watery evacuations. Lacuna: A space between cells. Incanescent: Hoary. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Inflexed: Bent inward. the lower petal of an orchid. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. either by mechanical or chemical action. like shingles. layer. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Innate: Adhering to apex. rabbits. Involute: Rolled inward. Lacinate: Fringed. etc. cats. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). i.. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. dogs. Jointed: Having. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. i. two or three times longer than broad. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. Laxative: A mild purgative. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. Inarticulate: Not jointed. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum.. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Hypogaeous: Subterranean.e.e. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. Inferior: Growing below another. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. or appearing to have. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. Labellum: (Lip). Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. joints or nodes. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. and irritation. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. Irritant: Any substance causing pain.

Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). and roots. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). with upper lobes largest. Lobate: Divided into lobes. Locusta: The spike of grasses. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. leaves. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. with hard tubercles. often caused by fungus infection. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Medulla: The pith of exogens. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. style. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Linear: Narrow. with parallel sides. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. or stigma. Multifid: Many-cleft. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Monospermous: One-seeded. but with lipclosed (flower). Monogynous: Having one carpel. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Masked: Labiate. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Monopetalous: Having petals united.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. found at the ends of young stems. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Monandrous: Having one stamen. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. Muricate: Rough. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Ligulate: Strap-like.

Octandrous: Having eight stamens. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves).GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. apex broad (leaf). Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Pedatipartite: Pedate. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. indehiscent. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. rounded. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. in large doses. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. as ergot. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. Pedate: Palmate. Pedatifid: Pedate. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Obtuse: Blunt. another plant. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. death. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Orbicular: Circular. the wings. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. thick runner. having tufts of leaves at extremity. Oblique: Unequal sided. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. with lateral divisions again subdivided. Obsolete: Suppressed. Offset: A short. one-celled fruit. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. as in the pea-flower. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. Parasitic: Growing upon. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. and the keel. Nut: A hard. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. and nourished by. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. with lobes nearly free. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Pubsecent: Downy. Petaloid: Resembling petals. squash. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Personate: Masked. resembling a mouth. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Peduncle: A flower-stalk. Pod: A general name given to dry. and the like. melon. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Pendulous: Hanging down. fleshy fruit. usually of family Leguminosae. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. Peltate: Shield-shaped. pointed cells. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. indehiscent. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). with petiole attached at or near the center. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. female. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Petals: The corolla leaves. two or more celled. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. few-seeded. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. dehiscent fruits. and perfect flowers on the same plant. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Pilose: Hairy. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Polygamous: With male. Pome: An inferior. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. Pentandrous: Having five stamens.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons.

such as glands. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. one. Reduplicate: Valvate. indehiscent. rooting and budding at nodes. Ringent: Labiate. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Sheath: See Ocrea. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Radical: Springing from roots. Reclinate: Bent downward. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. prostrate stem. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. Runcinate: Jagged margin. with deep notch in middle (leaves). Recurved: Bent backward. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Retuse: Obtuse. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. its function being to support the flower organs. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. with reflexed margins (estivation). Scape: A slender radical peduncle. Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. bearing leaves and rootlets. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. bristly hairs. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). Runner: A slender.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. and producing pustules. etc.. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). dry. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles).or two-celled fruit. with wide lips (corolla). Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. winged. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Setae: Stiff. Saccate: Sac-like. Revolute: Rolled backward. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Retrorse: Directed backward. creeping. Scarious: Thin. Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. and shriveled. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid).

Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. dehiscing from below upward. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. spiral branch. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. in pairs. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. bearing the stigma. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). leafless. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. may be modified leaf or stem. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Ternate: Arranged in threes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). with short hairs. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. and one short pair. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Tendril: A thread-like. Stipitate: Stalked. falsely two-celled pod. Spine: A pointed modified branch. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Suture: A line of junction. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Subulate: Awl-shaped. Squamose: Scaly. Sporangium: A spore-case. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Tomentose: Pubescent. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long.

Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Lucius E. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Toxic: Poisonous. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). 529-536. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. Trichomes: Hairs. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Sayre. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Zones: Concentric bands.GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. few-seeded fruit. 1895. Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla.. one-celled. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Utricle: A superior. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Verticel: A whorl. Uncinate: Hooked. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Versatile: Freely swinging. Volute: Rolled up. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. pp. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Vexillum: The standard. Valvate: United only by the margins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

Youngken. 19. Merck & Co. 4. Plant Drug Analysis.. 24. 1–7. Wall. O. 15. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. N. H. 1994.K. 3rd ed.. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co.K. MO. 2. 1936.C. Paris. Huntington. 1996. Philadelphia. New Jersey.A. Wallis. 1997. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. Grieve. 1996. E. 17. I and II. FL. 1964. Lavoisier. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Wren. 1995. Rockville. Bruneton.C. & A. 4th ed. Washington. CRC Press. 11. 13. 20. Natural Products Chemistry. British Herbal Medicine Association.. Y.E. A. Mack Publishing.. British Herbal Medicine Assoication.. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. M. J. Bournemouth. Vol. R. SpringerVerlag.. 1992. Robert E. Duke. PA. 16. MD. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. 1993. The Merck Index.E. 22. American Pharmaceutical Association. Vol. A.. 1995. 1992. 1960. V. 6. Nakanishi et al. Louis.E. Ltd. I and II. 1974. Vol. 14. Pharmacognosy. Dover Publications.W. London. Stuttgart. 1. 1990.K. H. 1996. Tyler. U. Duke. NY. Haworth Press. 1994. Boca Raton. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. 1989. Foter. 2nd ed. K. Herbs of Choice. Boca Raton. 1932. G. CRC Press. 1902. Bladt.A. U. Inc. Ltd. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients.. 12. IL. 1971. Churchill Ltd.. 4th ed. 18. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. J. 13th ed.. Leung and S. Krieger Publishing. New York. J. MIS Publication. Biddles.. Biddles. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. FL. Merck Research Laboratories.. Haworth Press. Ehrhart & Karl. 7. Berlin. 5.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1. A Modern Herbal. 7th ed. 2nd ed.. 1930. 10. 8. Tease and Evans. The Honest Herbal. Aug. Vol. Wagner and S. 12th ed. New York. The Essential Oils.. 3. St. London. 9. 21. Chicago. Potter & Clarke. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... Academic Press. V. T. John Wiley & Sons. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. The National Formulary XVIII.. New York. Guenther. British Herbal Compendum. Notes on Parmacognosy. U. 23. J. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. P.. CRC Press. 1983. Blakiston’s Son & Co. D... 1975. Bisset. FL 1992.. New York. Ltd. Bailliere Tindall. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. Tyler. Boca Raton. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.

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