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BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.
CRC Press Boca Raton New York
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:
Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.
Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. Over time. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. And then the Babylonian. Mithridates. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. sorting. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. men like Shen Nong. Originally. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. Dioscorides. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. Galen. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. As formulators and purveyors. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. Always wanting to know more. Theophratus.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. to use plants wisely. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. But more than anything. experimenting. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . observing. Chinese. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. and Avicenna. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. always wanting to find a more active plant. Initially. Let it reflect brightly upon us. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day.
Sr. Frank D’Amelio. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry. Inc.. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists.AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. He founded BioBotanica. vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. patience. Special thanks to Professor Dr. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and assistance in editing the manuscript. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript.
......................3.....4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents......1 Botanical Terminology ......................................................................5 Infrared Spectroscopy......................6 Ash Determination ..........................7 Methods of Identification............2 Solubilities ...................................1....................................7 Glycosides .......3.................................................11 2............1 Liquids ...............................................................4 Proteins ..............................3 Physical Constants........................1.....................................1 1.................1................................................................................................2 1..............................CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1...................................................1........................................................................11 2.................................................1............................................................................14 3.................................................................................39 Extraction Terminology...................................11 2..................................................................................28 3......................................................................................................7 Assay Procedures ..................................................................10 2...........1 4...............2 Phenols .10 2.......................................42 Fluid Extracts ........................................2 Some Common Terminology .............................3....................................2 Macromorphology ............................................................................................3............9 Resins and Resin Combinations ...........1 1..........................................................8 Volatile Oils..............................................................4 Ultraviolet Light .5 1......................1...............1 Constituents of Drugs.................................................................................8 Gas Chromatography.........11 References .....9 2...........11 2.................................................................43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ...........1....................5 Preparations of Extracts ...........3 4......13 3...................1.........................11 2........................................................1 1............................1 Plant Identification .............................................................................3 Tannins.................................................................25 3.9 Adulteration of Drugs .................................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3...................2 4...................................30 3...........................................3.......................................................................................................3 Micromorphology..................................5 Alkaloids.......4 4..1..............3 Procedures ...............................................................6 Carbohydrates..............1 Microscopical Techniques........................................26 3..........1 1......................................9 2..........2 1..............................................5 Yield to Solvents ................................5 1.............3..39 Percolation .....................................................................................................................1 Forms 4..........................26 3...........................................................................................................................................35 Chapter 4 4.......6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems.........1........................................1.................1..........................41 Infusions ......................................................................................10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ..................1.23 3...........................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2...................1 1.................40 Decoctions ......1..........................................................................................................................................................................................24 3......................................................................3..................................................................................
.....7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ............................295 References ..........................51 6...............................................................5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+.....1 Marine Algae.................................253 6.1.................................................................................................................................................................................... Properties.....................................2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products.............................299 8..............................4...........................6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table......4.........................6 Spray Moisturizer ..........269 6..........................................307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..............44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ...........1.......302 8......................10 4..........247 6.....................................................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6.................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5........................1.........................................................6 4..............289 7.........................................................................................2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy........7 4...........................................................................8 4....4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil .................................1.....................304 8.........................................................................225 6...........................................................3 Cellulite Gel Base ........................45 Extracts Strengths.................................11 Tinctures ........................................................................303 8............1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table........................................................301 8...............................................9 4............................................................................................5 Indian Botanicals...1................................46 Oleoresins ............................1 Habitat..........4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics .8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC...............3 Botanical Quick Reference Table ............283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7....... and Standardization........229 6..........................1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo............................................... Concentration...........................................1 History ..2 Natural Shampoo......46 Product Strength..................................... Description.......305 Chapter 9 Glossary..................................................... and Constituents .........................................................................................................................................................................7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe ..2 Hair Care Botanicals .......................................................................233 6............................300 8..1..................................................... Range............................................................................304 8..49 5..45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ..............................................................298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8....................
roots. fats. (7) glycosides. and waxes. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. 1. (5) alkaloids. myristyl. fats. they are stored in seeds. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. When applied to living tissues. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. In plants. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. hence. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (2) phenols. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. barks.1. They are widely distributed in plants.1.1. In most cases. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. etc. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. 1. (3) tannins. TS). and waxes (lipids). spores. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. (4) proteins. stems. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. leaves. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. have astringent action. they are also called triglycerides. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs.1.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. They are generally soluble in water. glycerol. (8) volatile oils. (6) carbohydrates. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. ferulic. In the treatment of burns. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. and coumaric acids.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. 1. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms.1 Phytochemistry 1. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature. Recently. palmitic. and usually bitter taste.
Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. and steroidal. isoquinoline. serums. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. antitoxins. pyridine. which end in -in. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity.1. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. (2) polysaccharides. but mostly in fruits. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. (b) obligosaccharides. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. oil-bearing plant seeds.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. brucine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. gymnosperms. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. and cryptogams. imidazole. bark. tropane. hydrogen. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. quinoline. phenanthrene. (a) monosaccharides. purine. indole. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. they form water-soluble salts with acids. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. and (3) derived carbohydrates. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. Whole glandular products. leaves. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. roots.1. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. Being basic in chemical character. carboline. for example: colchicine.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. 1.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. and oxygen. possessing some marked physiological action. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. In fact. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. stems. which are the building units. piperidine. Proteins are derived from amino acids. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. and seeds.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
mucilages. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. 2. It contains both B-1. consisting simply of 1. and tetrasaccharides i. iii. digitalose (these are 2. their sulfate esters. tri-. f. Therapeutically. and apiose.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. stabilizers. sarmentose. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. e. turanose. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. fucose Digitoxose. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). suspending agents. gentiobiose. emulsifiers. gums. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. a. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. Glycogen. L-galactose. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. epimarose. Cellulose. Monosaccharides. lactose. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). or amino sugars. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. transluscent. and Example Rhamnose. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. cymarose. They include hemicellulose. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose).2)-fructofuranose units. and some microbial polysaccharides. b. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. it is formed of amylose. trihalose Reducing: maltose. Pentoses: L-arabinose. g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . True sugars a. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units.6-linkages. Unlike cellulose.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. ii. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. uronic acids.6-linked polyglucan. gelling agents.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1.4. pectins. amorphous substances. 3. galacturonic Glucosamine. galactosamine b. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). which is a straight chain of alpha1. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. D-xylose. melibiose ii.and B-1. cellobiose.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. It is an alpha-1. c. D-fructose (levulose). It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. Inulin. d. diginose. Gums are soluble in water. and thickeners. D-ribose. i. alginates. oleandrose. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. It is a linear polysaccharide.
Lauraceae. and defensive roles. 1. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species.. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. Myrtaceae.. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. salicin is an analgesic.1. representing about 87 families).7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that. for example. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. for example..g. Rutaceae. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). sinigrin) Steroid (e.g.g. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. strophanthin. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e. for example. 2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant. Depending on the plant family. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae). as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). regulating. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. digitoxin) Saponin (e.g.. arbutin) Alcohol (e.g.. or adenosine).g.g.1. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources. There are also C-glycosides (e. 7. Occasionally.g. cascarosides. daphnin) Flavone (e. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures. Phenol (e. Apiaceae. sennosides. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae).. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone.. and Asteraceae. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues.g. as sugar reserves. 3. and barbaloin are laxatives.g. 12. Such glycosides. In N-glycosides (e.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone.g. In S-glycosides (e.g. 6. 10.. for example. occur. 1. In the conifers. 9.. 5.g. The chief families are Pinaceae. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). Lamiaceae... are the most common ones found in nature. 8.g.. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. They are products of plant metabolism. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. digitoxin. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. in the liver of fish. detoxifying. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. sinigrin). however. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1. 4. the sugar component is called the glycone. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e.g... glucosamine. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin. rutin) Anthraquinone (e. crocin and picrocrocin. Other glycosides do. sometimes called O-glycosides. 11..
8. but in few instances. pharmaceuticals. only in the bark and leaves. Undoubtedly. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. cade. etc. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). etc. Ester volatile oils: lavender. however. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. parsley. These substances. etc. 6. tend to resinify on exposure to air. horsemint. 3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . thyme. in cinnamon. in the mints. they are widely used in perfumery. spearmint. etc. themselves. chemical. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. lemongrass. rosemary. cajuput. They can be used for their therapeutic action. are hard. or parasiticides. sweet orange. 1. sandalwood. 9. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. For example. wintergreen. In general. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. 2. In most cases. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). transparent or translucent brittle substances. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. dill. however. lemon. 7. In addition. neroli. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. in umbelliferous fruits. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. confections. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. 4. nutmeg. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. turpentine. etc. However. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. clove. only in the pericarp. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. etc. resulting in less food spoilage. and tobacco. 5. and odor characteristics. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. ajowan. local stimulants. beverages. as a class. geranium. Ethers: anise. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. carminatives. cosmetics. star anise. etc. anthelmentics. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. bitter almond. is rich in camphor. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. chenopodium.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. etc. Classification 1. diuretics. Resins. for example. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. cassia bark. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant.1. and in orange. juniper. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. local irritants. rose. etc. fennel. coriander. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. mild antiseptics. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues.
resins soften and finally melt. in Guaiacum wood. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). On this basis. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). as in case of Pinus. mastic). when freshly powdered. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. forming solutions which. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect.. chloroform. For example. which is called secondary flow. resins occur in different secretory structures. resin alcohols. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. Hemiptera. but do not contain any nitrogen. and glandular hairs (cannabis). On heating at comparatively low temperatures.. viz. without volatilization or decomposition.g. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures.. fibers. and glycosidal resins. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. colophony. and ether. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. shellac). that is.9–1. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. 0. they are of pathological origin. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. esters. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. and medullary rays cells). on evaporation. and resenes. they occur as tyloses. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury.g. they are divided into resin alcohols. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). resin acids. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. In this case. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. as well as in fixed and volatile oils. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e..g.e. with few exceptions (e. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. Laccifer lacca. In plants. Many products (e. Family Coccidae. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. When heated in a closed vessel. They are not pure chemical substances. but when heated in the air. order. resin cells (ginger). they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. wood parenchyma. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances.g.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. gr. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. in the vessels. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. acetone. carbon bilsulfide). resenes (neutral inert compounds).. in rare cases (e. resinotannols. Chemically. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities.25). Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. It is noteworthy to mention here that.
arabinose.. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). they can be incorporated into lotions. fruits. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. that form colloidial. liquid or semi-liquid substances. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. (anywhere soothing is required). balsam of Copaiba. counter irritants. Jalap. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. cough syrups. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. being called glycoresins. they can be separated from resins rather easily. therefore. Another is flax seed. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. and Canada balsam. and Podophyllum. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. which contains no volatile oil. (e. shave creams. for example. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). creams. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). or esters of these acids. they form a mixture of pentoses. nonadhesive solutions with water. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. Balsams.e. etc. and seeds. flowers. parasiticides. in seaweeds. antispasmodic. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). depending on the amount of volatile oil present. etc. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam.. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. Mucilages are viscous. and malva (Malva sylvestris). and anthelmintics. glucose. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. In some cases. cathartics. carminatives. On hydrolysis. on the other hand. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. asafoetida). Guttiferae). the mixtures being called gum-resins. viz. respectively — both contain volatile oil. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. expectorants. barks. mouthwashes. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. leaves. xylose. ointments. copaiba. like most seeds. hexoses. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. Probably.g.) In general. and uronic acids. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. roots. purgatives. These are.
both physical and chemical tests should be performed. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. In pharmacy. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. having a bottom outlet. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. cotton) below. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. gauze. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. ether. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. 2.). the solution commonly known as lye. also referred to as the spent herb. or by chemical or physical means. by traction. distillation. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. etc. suction. acetone. expression.g.. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. As with the raw materials.. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). water. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. or alcohol and water.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. etc. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. by which it is exhausted of potash. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. treatment with a solvent. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh.
one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. its true size is 50 0. 2. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. In the same manner. However. for example.125 mm = 125 µ. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. as well as identification of commercial starches. The diameter of fibers. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. the width of vessels.125 mm. botanical laboratory. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. also known as micrometers. Most of the time.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification. if an object.C.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer. the factors for the other objectives can be determined. By its use. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale. always using a definite tube length. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions. because it is the magnified object. the height of sclerenchymatous cells. Q. Therefore.3.001 mm).0025 mm = 0. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out.3 PROCEDURES 2. the scale of 1 mm.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. that is compared with the scale. and not the object itself.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. 0.0025 mm. That is. both of which are carefully counted. examined with the same objective and tube length as above.
the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent. digitalis and henbane leaves). Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. Other drugs. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. C.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. Pharmacognosy. However. E. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light.3. Some pieces of rhapontic. Trease. 1960. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. 11th ed. oleo-resins. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. especially if they are present in the powdered form..g. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. REFERENCES Wallis. resins. A.. Derris elliptica. G. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. the yield to water of liquorice root. London. W. and similar substances. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article.3. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. For certain drugs. T. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. J. malaccensis. London.3. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration.. 90%.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report.. 2. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. 2. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol.. Bailliere Tindall. such as hydrastis.3. glycosides. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. In this way. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. volatile oil. 2.3. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. optical rotation.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. 2. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. and Evans. 2.. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash. viburnum. E. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. balsams. 4th ed. vitamins. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2.3. viscosity. Similarly. UV light provides very useful information. 1978. they will give a high total ash value. Churchill Ltd.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . for example. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. calumba. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence. D.
percolation. flower. or the entire plant. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. color. odor. then maceration. Fortunately.3 Quality Control 3. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. hexane). etc. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. super critical fluid extraction. i. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. When ordering a botanical. stem. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. etc. This starts with the proper solvent system. counter current extraction.. therefore.. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. and other tests like loss on drying. ash content. leaf. etc. and berberine. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. As seen in the example. distillation. One should start with botanical terminology. fruit. methanol. ask for it by its common name first. canadine. providing that they were dried properly.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. There are many forms of extracts available.e. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. If this is not specified. organic solvents (ethanol. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. For example. lipidic extraction. Many plants have common names and. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. seed. root. identification can be confusing. and microscopy.
Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. 2 is that of an angiosperm. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. Dusting powders: One should be able. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. starches. 3) is a representative example. secondary phloem. 3. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. Fig. to differentiate between mineral powders. Cowhage). pollen grains. Quassia Wood.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. 2. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. Lupulin. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. glands. 1. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. primary phloem. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). and hairs (Kamala.. however. For systematic study. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. viz. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. while Fig.
1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig.
16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. 2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig.
6. frequently. (3) the presence of chlorophyll.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. elder flowers of petals and stamens. mm. and often a raphe. stigmas). Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. red rose and marigold of petals only. and endocarp. fibrous layer of anthers. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. (2) their thinness. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. 5) is an example of the flower. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. the ovary wall develops to form a case. two features that are constant. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. Leaves: Example. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). 7. (Fig. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig.e. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. 6). All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mesocarp.. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. which are a useful identification tool.. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. Flowers: In a commercial sense. 4. in addition. for the seeds. argel leaf. the corolla made of petals. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. i. Achillea millefolium L. 5. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. if there is no stalk. red poppy. viz. Among common drugs. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. leaves may be recognized. In the great majority of plants. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. There are. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. papillosed epidermis of petals. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. however. epicarp. the leaf is termed sessile. the calyx made of sepals. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. styles. thus forming a fruit. micropyle. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. S /(E + S). called the pericarp. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes.
4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig.
Colocynth b. Cardamon ii. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. a. Tamarind. However. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. flowers and fruits. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. Caraway (see Fig. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. 8. Bael. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. Orange. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. Poppy. Compound Fruits Hops In general. Simple Fruits i. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. leaves. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. 5 Achillea millefolium L.
Aframomum melegueta Rosc. 6 Grains of paradise seed. Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig.
require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio.g.. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. 9. beeswax and myrrh). and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. decoction (e. starch.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features.g. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. similarly. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. however. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig.g. 3. or by the trichomes. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. 9). such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. agar). and sclerenchyma. opium). by the stomatal index. expression (e. stage and eyepiece micrometers. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. Clearing agents. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. branches... or are natural secretions (e. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. Fig. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. Therefore. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. which are usually slender and adventitious. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 10. vertically. fibers.g. For example. such as incision (e. Chiretta herb. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. olive oil). 8).22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level... Microscopical techniques.g. mountants. namely.
QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
it rapidly dissolves starch. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. chlorophyll. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. resins. and petroleum ether (pet ether). Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. lactophenol. hexane. 3. or chlorophyll. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. fats. etc. protein. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. absorbance values should be used. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. and resins. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. water. and causes swelling of cell walls. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . volatile oils.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. Other solvents include methanol. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. and expands shrunken cells. ether. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. clove oil. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. starch. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. the presence of coloring matters. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. chromic/nitric is mandatory. alcohol. for bleaching. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. Sometimes. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. tannins. carbolic acid.
Then press under anhydrous conditions. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. unless one has an FTIR.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It can also be used to quantitate. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. depending on solvent and pH. If the substance is in a solid state. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. In addition. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. This will give you a transparent disk. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil).5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer.
(2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent.. 1500. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .g. 1600. 3400-3100 (variable). Other tests like loss on drying. Precoated absorbents on glass plates. or plastic sheets are also commercially available. 1760 (S). Chamomile. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations.7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. 2100–1700 (W). the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. M = medium. 3400–2500 (broad M). Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. 3. one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. 3400 (M). In addition.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. 1455 (S). VS = very strong. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. organic solvents (usually methanol). as one gains experience. odor. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. S = strong. it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. and (4) it is inexpensive. Lavender. then the filter paper can be eliminated. and powder microscopy are also performed. 3. Valerian. sulfuric acid). aluminum.g. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. ash content histology. 3600–2400 (broad). etc. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e.) When development is complete. 2860 (M).. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts..
reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. natural product. hence. antimony chloride UV. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance.5: 8. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
With library search software. photodiode array detector. From these spectra. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. 3.” However. System control. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. it will show up by having less soluble solids. TLC. This system. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. For plant volatiles and essential oils. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. a separation technique. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. rice hulls. the use of the GC will continue to grow. pharmaceutical. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant.) procedures in order to establish its strength. After extraction of the plant material. or chromatographic (GLC. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. spectrometric. give excellent fingerprints for identification. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. spent herb). UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. with expected growth well into the next generation. such as rice hulls or spent herb. information-rich electron ionization spectra. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. etc. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. together with UV and IR spectra. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. However.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. As with the raw materials. HPCL. and cosmetic industries.g. In phytochemistry. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. data acquisition.. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. If there is a diluent added. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard.
photodiode array detector.QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ltd. and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass.
enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). Instrument control. coffee. 3. in the case of powdered drugs. for example. the color and general texture are more important.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. African. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or Provence senna. nutmeg. 2. beeswax. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. such as ergot. Obovate. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. honey. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. etc. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. or Cochin. Hence. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. for example. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. the adulterant can be any kind of material.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. data acquisition.
d.5 ml/min. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin.0 ml/min. mobile phase. sparteine. detection. baptifoline. or 3% SE-30.9 mm x 30 cm). HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. R1. followed by 0. luteolin. flow rate.5. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10). GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.5 ml/min. 3. 15 cm). Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. mobile phase. detection. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid.9 mm 30 cm). distilled water. flow rate. 1 ml/min. 5% DC560. panaxadiol.6 mm i. flow rate. 1. mobile phase. 1.0 M NaC1 gradient. 1. CH3CN-H2O (73:27). HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. 2 ml/min. acetonitrile-water (84:16).5 ml/min. flow rate.2. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7. 2.d. genistein Calenduladiol. spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. mobile phase. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray. xylose. 0.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). 25 mm). 2. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2.1 ml/min.5:0.0–1.5 mm i. 15 psi argon. 0. flow rate.0 ml/min. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27).46. 13-OH sparteine. 0.1) flow rate. mobile phase. detection. acetonitrile-water (83:17). 50°C. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. 0.d. detection. cytisine Anagyrine. acetonitrile-water (83:17). mobile phase. UV 202 nm. flow rate.2 M Pi buffer pH 7.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. thermopsine. rhamnos Ginsenosides. UV 320 nm detection./65 cm). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . UV 202 nm. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection.. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5).9 mm 30 cm).0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. lupanine. galactose. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm. 220–223°C. UV detection (homogencity test).. HPLC: Zorbax CN.8 ml/min for 7 min. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. then 1. Rf 0. 190 nm flow rate.6 50 cm): mobile phase. mobile phase. panaxatriol. mobile phase.4x.
increasing 3%/min). flow rate. 3. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. detection UV 278 nm. vanillin in H2SO4. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2.9 i. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. flow rate. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. detection UV 365 nm. mobile phase. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). mobile phase.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. detection. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. 0. UV 330 nm.d. detection. flow rate. flow rate. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9). vanillin in H2SO4. 6 ml/min. mobile phase. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3.5cm). Merck(. mobile phase. hydrastine Rf 0.5. apigenin. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. methanol-water (50:50). C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. 1 ml/min.d.. introduce sample. 2.7 & 5.. 2 liters phase B and C.4 cm i. flow rate.9. UV 365 nm. detection. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). begin rotation. luteoline. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85).01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5. UV 270 nm.d.1 ml/min. detection. 2 ml/min. w/guard. UV 340 nm. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages). 4. 2 ml/min.5 ml/min. hydrastine Rf 0. flow rate. 25 cm). Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. mobile phase. LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1).d. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. methanol-water (15% to 95%. 66 m capacity 350 ml). spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i..5-methanol (67:33). flow rate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5).1 M phorphoric acid. phase A: water.5 ml/min. berberine. 30 cm). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase. phase B: ethyl acetate.6 mm.5 ml/min. 25 cm at 75°C). 1. 75°C.d. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate. 0. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). canadaline. canadine. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient).05. i. mobile phase. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rf 0. detection. Start w/ 350 ml phase A.0 ml/min. detection. mobile phase. detection. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4).0mm i. UV 340 nm.
9 mm i.9 mm 30cm). analysis Column (3.1. 0. methanol-water (27:73). mobile phase.5 ml/min. UV 313 nm. daidzein.d. 1. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. flow rate. methanol-water (2. 1.5 ml/min. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid. 30 ml/min. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u.d. 2.. detection. UV 280 & 546 nm. 150 mm). mobile phase.5 10 cm). HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. flow rate. flow rate.5. detection. caprylic acid.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). caproic acid. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18.6 mm i. mobile phase. detection. prunitrin Calycosin.. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2. 25 cm).d. flow rate. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). detection. flow rate.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). flow rate 0. flow rate.0 ml/min. detection. UV 270 nm. mobile phase. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658).8 ml/min. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mobile phase.6 mm i. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. genistein. 30 cm). detection.d. acetonitrile-water (gradient). water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). 1. helium flow. UV 230 nm. water. detection. flow rate. mobile phase. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol.0 ml/min. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. mobile phase. temp. biochanin-A. 2. mobile phase. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min). 300 mm). 50% H2SO4. detection. mobile phase.QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. mobile phase. 25 cm) 2 in series. mobile phase. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. flow rate.0 ml/min.3 ml/min. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray.0) mm i. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). UV 280 nm. capric acid Isoflavones. detection. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient).d. formononetin. photodiode array. 25 mm). HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. detection.5 ml/min. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid.. R1.. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. 4 ml/ min.1:1).d. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i.. mobile phase. UV 280 nm. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide.25m 3 mm). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5.
mobile phase. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. almond shells.6mm i. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. boiler scale. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. stone. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. flow rate. Sometimes. hydrogen flame ionization. mobile phase. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8).1 M phorphoric acid. detection. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. For example. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. 7. detection. 2 connected in series. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). mobile phase.5 ml/min.7 ml/min.8% methanol in hexane. acetonitrile-0. senna. stramonium. conc. UV 254 nm.4 (1:1). 4. etc. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna.d. vitexinine 3. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. Substitution of exhausted drugs. flow rate. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. acetonitrile-0. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). for example.d. 30 cm). UV 254 nm. detection. 1. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. mobile phase. valeranone Vincristine. coconut shells. 2. 0. detection.25 m 4 mm).01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. walnut shells. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. UV 298 nm. GLC: 1. flow rate 10 ml/min. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. such as lobelia. 5.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. valerosidatum. scented bdillium for myrrh. for example. 6. hazelnut shells. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. vitexin.9 mm 30 cm).0 ml/min. detection. powdered olive stones. usually having no relation to the genuine drug. guaiacum wood. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. detection.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). 8. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. methanol-water (60:40). mobile phase. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. detection. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances. 5u Chrompack). acevaltrate. or hamamelis leaves. mentha. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. 250 mm. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. or lead shot. dextrin. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. UV 256 & 206 nm. 2.
palisade cells. however. wood parenchyma. frequently particles of small seeds. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3. fibers. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. cellulose parenchyma. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. consisting of small-sized elements only. 2. starch. papillose surface of the stigma.g. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements.. 6. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. Woods: Structures present: Vessels.. palisade cells. A little vascular tissue. 4. The powder is usually entirely lignified. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. red. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). To be used diluted with equal volume of water. Frequently also delicate yellow. 10. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. Mucilage of: Alkanna. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. Keep for 6 months. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. 7. etc. 9. starch grains.g. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. and aleurone grains. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. stone cells. in powder. 8. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. 5.. pericyclic and phloem fibers. Tincture of: Red with oils. cutinized and suberized walls. sieve tubes. glands. Also epidermis. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. hemicellulose. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. Dilution better done on the slide. calcium oxalate crystals. xylem vessels. tracheids. pine and juniper). 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. gloves. fibrous layer of the anther wall. or oil). Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. Frequently also cork. usually abundant parenchyma. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. Structures absent: Cork. Frequently also trichomes. and aleurone grains. Microscopical examination. which often contains starch in large amounts. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. resins. and medullary rays.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll.) Acacia. protective glasses. fibers. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. masks. especially the diagnostic epidermis. palisade tissue. and crystals of calcium oxalate. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. vessels. which often cross the fibers and vessels. Nut shells and fruit stones.g.
10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. if necessary.I. with continued stirring.I. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. Benzidine. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. To be freshly prepared. through glass wool.I. 0. ligno. suberin. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. protective glasses. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). Add 7. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. Chlorophyll.880). 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. Store in amber bottle. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D.5 ml D. gr. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. killed by steam. cellulose. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. The reaction is better carried out in the dark. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and some mucilages. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. left for some time. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water.0 g sodium iodide and 2. etc. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. Deteriorates on keeping. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. To be freshly prepared. masks. To be freshly prepared. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. etc.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. H2O. filtered. etc. H2O with the aid of heat.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. gloves. starch. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins.
note the coloration and read off from the table. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and 20 ml water. Set aside until clear. 40 g glycerin. gloves. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 1. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. added to a solution of 2. the corresponding approximate pH. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. 1. on the label. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water. 20 g lactic acid.27 g iodine and 0. 1. H2O prior to use. and then diluted to 100 ml with water.g. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water.g. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use.I.I.64 g copper sulfate and 0.. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water. in powder. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. gives yellow with colchicine. filtered. Indicator. 1. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. etc. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. e. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. Solution A: 34.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids. protective glasses. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals. Dilute: Used for mounting. the strong solution will dissolve silk. dextrose). Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water..75 g lead monoxide. masks.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D.
Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. suberin. 5 ml of glycerin added. lignin. 66. 10% alcoholic solution. Caustic: Used for clearing. and 80% by volume. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. dissolving certain cell contents. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). 2% solution in alcohol (90%). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. masks. stains lignified walls red.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%).4% alcoholic solution. 10. Store away from light. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. gloves. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. protective glasses. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. with a dropper or a glass rod. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. Potash. in small pieces. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). and cutin blue. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. 1% solution in water. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. It must be recently prepared. etc. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. 0. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium. and then diluted with equal volume of water. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water.
M. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1.3BG GLY 4. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct.E.01 = 2x 0.F.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. Same as P. 1.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing.G.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. F. 4x.P.E. etc. Serial type dilution and succussion.1. 0. An extract in P. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract. Properties Usually high in alcohol. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today.G.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. Full strength 1:1. Contains no alcohol. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .G. AQU P.E.3BG. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). Same as a solid extract (S. E. 5x. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. P.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form. 60–90%. A molasses consistency.4 Preparations 4. but the solvent is glycerin. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate. 3x. etc. OLEUM N. H. 5:1.G. Same as P.E. but the solvent is 1. of various dilutions: 1:1.
treatment with a solvent. cover the percolator. also referred to as the spent herb. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator.. The packing of the percolator is very important.1. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. When no more actives remain. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. the menstruum will channel.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. ether. expression. the product will not percolate. usually 48 hours.). contained in a suitable vessel. close the lower orifice. or alcohol and water. cotton) below. If packed too tightly. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. etc. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or. and macerate for the prescribed time. giving a weak extract (see diagram).40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. the botanical is considered exhausted. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes.g. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. the solution commonly known as lye. if packed too loosely. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). In pharmacy.. or by chemical or physical means. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. having a bottom outlet. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. suction. acetone. by traction. distillation. gauze. by which it is exhausted of potash. etc. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. 4. water.
3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. These are usually the hard substances. 4. and filter. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. Allow it to cool. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter).1. roots. placed over it. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. barks.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. mix thoroughly. preferably distilled. etc. such as twigs.
Moisten the herb in water. preferably distilled. Therefore. 4. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. In order to prepare an infusion. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. after preparation of an infusion. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. If hot water affects the constituents of the product.1. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. Under refrigeration. it should be placed in a refrigerator. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Refrigerate or preserve.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Refrigerate or preserve. cold water should be used.
5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. 4. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant.1. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. especially in inactivating larvae. which is very effective. bacteria. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. which seems to work well. However. there is also CO2 sterilization. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. However. However.
some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. Therefore. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day. Therefore. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50.* 4. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). as strengths vary widely. as they contain alcohol. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. from either fresh or dry botanicals. i. and the solids are calculated.. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. need preservatives. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths.e. However. At present. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. No vacuum concentration is used.G. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. and usually precipitate on standing.S. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. However. Usual laboratory method. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. and evaporation.00 per pound). The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. Therefore. or a combination thereof. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. are weaker. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. Additionally. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. check with the manufacturers. Maceration is another procedure. berberine.2). However.1. A typical example: 5:1 P. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. percolation. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected.1. and canadine. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. Filter. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine.
8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. Avoid excessive heat. to obtain a clear filtrate. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). while hydrastine is colorless. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. easily dispensed. 2a. dry solid. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders.I. preferably kept in a cool area. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. and add enough D. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. returning the first portions. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. or distilled water. and preserve or use the clear water portion. and contain very little water. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. filtering if necessary. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1. 4. 4. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. age. or distilled water. spray dried. Add 1000 ml D. or distilled water. Separate the excess oil. and pass enough D.1. a sufficient quantity. respectively. or oven dried. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances.I.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. 2. need no preservation.I.I. or other specified volatile substance D. filter through wetted filter paper. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The native extract is usually vacuum dried. Solution: The volatile oil. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. which lowers shipping costs.I. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard.I. Then filter the mixture. if necessary. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes.1. and time of year collected. Their odors and tastes are similar. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes.
Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. 10:1. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. To avoid confusion. Obviously. If it was calculated from fresh weight. etc.10 Product Strength. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Recently. in a cosmetic formulation. in the United States. a 1:1 extract. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. 10:1.1. glycerin. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. However. is always measured on the dry basis. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). 4. This is very controversial. depending on the manufacturer. therefore. etc. Concentration. butylene glycol. bark. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. are often found in the cosmetic literature. In Europe. 1997. etc.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts.). and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. 1. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. would be too concentrated in many instances. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C.3-butylene glycol. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. glycerin. in a true strength extract.* 4. tinctures. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical.1. etc. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color.G. The starting botanical. etc. or roots of plants (see above). The true strength will vary. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. fresh or dried. However. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol.
European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. berberine. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract.5 to 4. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. However.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. which is approximately 20 times less costly). While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. which has been standardized on valepotriates. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. However. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. and starches to be significantly reduced. dark in color.S. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. If the dried plants contain 0. However. Analytical procedures (TLC.. fixed and volatile oils.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine.5% of essential oil. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. This would cause the berberine.0% hydrastine. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. the former designation is becoming the standard. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. that is. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. Thus. standardization can be carried to the extreme. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. and then on valeric acid.15 to 0. and not soluble in most cosmetic products.04%). it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. and canadine. canadine. resins. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. GLC.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract.
followed by evaporation of the solvent.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States.g. either fixed or volatile. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature.1. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0.5% oil. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts. However. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution. consisting of an oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A thick. However. 1997.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e. Therefore. ether. or 1. or other suitable solvent) and filtration.8% essential oil. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations. 4. oily resinous mass remains.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. there are usually losses during extraction.. alcohol.
aphrodisiac. Skin elasticity. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. mental strain. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing.5 Aromatherapy 5. energy imbalance. euphoric. and perfumes. cleanser. antidepressant. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. antidepressant. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . impotence. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. digestive problems. scalp stimulant. Carminative. This. exhaustion. aromatic waters. in turn.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. affects the adrenals. revitalizing. thereby reducing stress. loneliness. Poor memory. soothing. Stimulates scalp. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. Anti-inflammatory. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. 5. For example. hair growth. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. mild stimulant. wrinkles. euphoric. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. Stimulant. Moisturizing. antispasmodic. antispasmodic. nervous fatigue. tonic. digestive problems. aphrodisiac. anxiety. sadness. soothing. Revitalizing. This is the essence of aromatherapy.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. hair growth. calming anger. Cell regeneration. poor memory. Stimulant.
Aging skin. amara) Antidepressant. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. opens psychic centers. euphoric. Nervous tension. Antidepressant. house sprays. VT. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. Danielle. shock. Fabrice. Ryman. Daniel Company. shampoos. Rochester. inflammations. Walden. Aging skin. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. etc. Valnet. antidepressant. bath oils. England. Saffron. The Aromatherapy Handbook. 1982. The Practice of Aromatherapy. uplifting. moisturizes. Therefore. Essential oils are very concentrated. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. wrinkles. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. stimulates metabolism. Essex. C. Jean. anti depressant. 1976. Mood elevating. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs.W. Example: to be effective. 1984. anxiety. uplifting during depression. cell proliferant. calming. mouth ulcers. lotions. grief. very little is needed. Destiny Books. If the reader has further interest. I recommend the following books: Bardeau.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. vaporizers.
high. and 3 or 4 in. spotted near the base. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. perennial herb. pale-green. with purplish or brownish spots. yellow. slender. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . obtuse. RANGE. lanceolate. The flower is single. which is white internally. and fawn-colored externally. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. and involute at the point. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. The scape is naked. long. about 5 in. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. DESCRIPTION. liliaceous. PROPERTIES. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface.1 HABITAT. droping. flowers in April or May. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. subradical. The leaves are two. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate.
de Gruyter. and hematuria. The whole herb and root contains. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and borne in a dense. J. and tapering.. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. in hedges and fields and by ditches. pyrocatechol. Pub. W.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. mild tonic. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. 68. diuretic. nearly smooth beneath. conical. Hoppe. but unpleasant. 1975. Drogenkunde. Heinz. Properties Emollient. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L.. flowering in July and August. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. and covered with a soft. agrimonolide. 1.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. harsh. 8th ed. and phlobaphene. The leaves are alternate. 2332. Chem. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. Ovary obovate. Cavalitto.six. and of reddish-brown color. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. silky pubescence. and three-valved. long. subastringent taste. and surmounted with reddish. between which are interspersed several smaller ones.. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb.. anthers oblong-linear. Its odor is aromatic. longer than the stamens. No further analytical data available. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. fibrous. Am. Berlin. which is somewhat aromatic. et al. with a loose membranous tip. racemose spike. 2. 1946. hooked bristles. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. The capsule is oblongobovate. A. from to 1 foot long. pyrogallic acid. yellow. style club-shaped. filaments flat. producing numerous heads. functional bleeding. The root is long. Soc. and anti-inflammatory. It is much branched at the summit. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. terminating in three undivided stigmas.1. antiscrofulous. interruptedly pinnate. coarsely serrated leaflets. agrimonol (= agrimonine). three-lobed at top. Agrimonia has a bitterish. This taste is strongest in the root. epistaxis.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice.
Dermato-Vernol. which are roundish. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. Rev. tonic. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. Alder also helps to unclog pores. alterative. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. ursolic acid. organic acids. choline. 7-0-B-glucoside. Med. volatile oil. et al. Constituents Tannins. after which a good face cream should be applied. citric acid and silicic acid. and polysaccharides.. glutinous. catechin. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. glycosides. et al. flavonoids. and minerals. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree.. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. fruiting tops. Peter-Horvath. and also to help relieve dandruff. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils.. usually abrupt at the tip. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. United States. Europe. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. 190-193. apigenin. quercitrin. wavy-serrated. 153-157. as do other types of face packs. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. 10(2). Ser.. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. The bark is dark gray and ridged. phytosterin. However. V. 1994. wedge shaped. gum. nicotinic acid. Patrascu. triterpenes. 1.. 1964. luteolin. this should only be done once a week. eupatorin. southwest Asia. 29(2). M.
etc. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. Properties Used in facial steams. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. The size of the pieces is variable. sun poisoning. Alfalfa is also high in minerals. carotene. bath gels. and is employed in skin creams. and tannin. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). and Barbados Islands. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. Aloe contains 99.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. etc. lotions. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. boron. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. The odor is strongly aromatic. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. oils. scratches. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex.50% (5 grams. creams. etc. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. this has not been verified. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. The texture is waxy. saponin. lotions. which would suggest its use in baths. To date. The surface is dull and smooth. irritated skin. ALOE Aloe vera L. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. calcium and trace minerals. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. hair rinses. chrysophanic acid. West Indies. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. cuts.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. insect bites. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. and burns. The fracture is conchoidal. hair treatments. a mild exfoliant in oils. Further reading is recommended.
Delicious. Macintosh. Rome. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and pectin. glucomanine. sugars. It contains malic acid. Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. Granny. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. Constituents Malic acid.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides.
and mucilage. ⁿ in. moles. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. long. tannins. Cones oblong. ARNICA Arnica montana L. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. in height. soft durable wood. and polyps. having pale. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. wax. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. Wolf’s Bane. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. both internally and externally. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. flavonoids. containing thujone. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . shoddy bark and light. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales.
to 12-veined. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. dark green and pubescent. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. three-toothed. Has been used for hematomas. sprains. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. the pappus plumose and sessile. pectolin arigenin). the scales ovate. stearic). Topically. Description This plant is perennial. Sesquiterpene lactones. 7. the cypsella spindle-shaped. patuletin. inflamed insect bite. dark brown. finely striate. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. tubular flowers perfect. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. Note: There can be side effects. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. pinnate. In mouthwashes. pistillate. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. polyacetylenes. northern Mediterranean. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. the receptacle setaceous. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. lauric. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. taste bitter and acrid. the involucre dilated and imbricate. The heads are discoid and homogamous. Arnica tincture DAB 10. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. quercetin. malic). stamens without a tail-like appendage. xanthophylls. and undivided leaves. leaves. about 1 cm long. palmitic. ray flowers yellow. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and the cypsella not beaked. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. with fleshy bases. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). kaempferol. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. 5 to 7 mm long. inflammation of the oral mucosa. edema. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. reddish yellow. fatty acids (fumaric. with subspinose. Odor characteristic and agreeable. receptacle slightly convex. and essential oil. emarginate and pointed. isorhamnetin. and surface phlebitis. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%.
trace minerals. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. and hypocholesterolytic. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. cynadase. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal.e.. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. beta-carotene. Also employed in jaundice. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. ascorbic acid. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. choleretic. Around the holidays. Cosmetically. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. cynarin. bread crumbs. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. garlic. oxydase. vitamins. peroxidase. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. protein.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. tannin. sterols. cholagogue. diuretic. ascorbinase). flavonoids.
The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. Has been used on blemishes. sores. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. Herbalists use it for treating colds. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. The color is reddish brown. resinous substance. and various skin diseases. balm buds Part Used: Buds. These buds are sessile. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. * Formerly CTFA. The odor is balsamic. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. The apex is acute. It is a stimulating expectorant. The base is truncate or depressed. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. The margin has projecting points of scales. cuts. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. The taste is pungent and bitter. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. twigs. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. or in threes occasionally.
oxyacanthine. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. taste distinctive. wood yellow. very bitter. externally light yellowish brown. knotty. 5-0-methylgalangin. Flavonoids. Properties Astringent. Europe. volatile oil. strongly branched. rhamnetin. bervulcine. galangin. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. Berberine. populin. tannic and gallic acids. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. chrysin and apigenin. berbamine. North America. Grecian Laurel. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. bark 1 mm in thickness. salicin. pinocembrin. jateorrhizine. Internally used to treat liver disorders. usually splitting somewhat on drying. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .7-di-o-methyl quercetin. has been used for indolent ulcers. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. 3. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). on chewing. color more pronounced upon wetting. circulatory stimulant. Description Cylindrical. distinctly radiate. fracture hard and tough. Bactericidal. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. easily separable into layers. and the Middle East. sometimes excentric. Odor slight. pith of rhizome small. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. magnoflorine. tinges saliva yellow. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. True Bay. izalpinin. acetophenone. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. gallstones. volatile oil. and showing rings of growth.
quercetin. covered. lotions. margin entire. hyperoside. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. odor slight. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. and plant acids. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. and glossy aromatic foliage. brittle. alkaloids. However. due to its high tannin content. Treating small areas works best. finely reticulate. The leaf also contains germacranolides. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. soaps. petiole about 3 mm in length. phenolcarboxylic acids. upper surface dark green. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. Spr. catechins. texture coriaceous. along with methyl arbutin. and others. slightly pubescent. linalool. summit obtuse. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. Constituents 0. Asia. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. tapering. Uvaursi is astringent. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). -terpineol acetate. shiny black berries. slightly revolute.3 to 3. undersurface yellowish-green. ursolic acid.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. base acute. and detergents. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. and volatile oil. astringent. hydroquinone derivatives. gallic and ellagic acids. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. -pinene. Northern and Central Europe. perfumes. -terpineol. 12 to 30 mm in length. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. Description Leaves obovate. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. spatulate. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. syringic and p-coumaric acids. pale yellow flowers. glabrous. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. taste slightly bitter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
1989. dissolving. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx. 1 to 2% fat. This is taken up in a collection vessel... 9. Properties Astringent for eyecare products.. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW.1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit. 4 mm wide... reducing visual eye fatigue. Michigan.. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones.. Mirkin.. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins. sores. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein. eruptions.... Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits.. British Columbia.. and abscesses. JAMA. 3 to 5 cm long.. and to replace retina purple. leaf-blades thin. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L.. antiseptic... California.. softening. sores.... leaves Habitat and Range Woods.... wounds. enzymes. anti-inflammatory. reduces inflammation. Good for skin ulcers.. 20 to 50 cm high.... clears toxins. and ulcers.. Description Dwarf shrub.. restrains infection... Whortleberry.. 1. Europe.... amino acids...0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries. promotes tissue repair.. tonic.. and Asia. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs... and other compounds identified in bee pollen. boils. about 5 mm long. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry. ovate. scabs.. 55% carbohydrate. only slightly paler beneath. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus... combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees... G... Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva.. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen.. 1854... See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees.. corolla ovoid-lanceolate.1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Restoring.. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter.. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations. 262. minerals. Wyoming..62 BED STRAW. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive.
methyl salicylate. arbutin. fatty acids. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. Bugbane. psoriasis. North Asia. myrtillin. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. peonidin glucosides. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Squaw Root. betulol. White Birch. ascorbic acid. Bugwort. Rattleroot. BANZ No. 4-23-87. New York. Rattleweed. ursolic acid. 1. essential oil. Properties The bark.. gaultherin. Macmillan. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. and eczema. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. Europe. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. 76.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. quinic acid.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. anthocyanosides. BIRCH Betula alba L. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). betuloresnic acid. leaves. R. Mabey. betuloside. 1988. naturalized in northern North America. (trace amount) asperuloside. saponins. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . New Age Herbalist. apigenin dimethyl ether. 1.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. German Commission E Monograph. parts of Arctic Siberia.
particularly depression and hot flushes. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. fatty acids. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). mainly formononetin. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. internally. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy.5 cm in thickness. up to 3 mm thick. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. each of which shows a radiate structure. longitudinally wrinkled. fracture horny. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. and sugar. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. frequently. by deep cup-shaped scars. dyspepsia. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. taste bitter and acrid. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. externally dark brown. It possesses estrogenic activity. bark dark brown. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. externally dark brown. and rheumatism. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. or less frequently by fibrous strands. Rhizome horizontal. fracture short. bark thin. starch. somewhat branched. tannins. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. resins.
Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). leaflets 11 to 23. serrate. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. and Minnesota. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Description A tree up to 50 m high. glabrous above. and trace minerals. and detergent. glabrous. rounded or subcordate at the base. Florida. fruit globose. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. Massachusetts.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. 8 to 10 cm long. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. juglandic acid. anthelmintic. or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). taper-pointed at the apex. bark. fixed and volatile oils. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). lanceolate. Constituents Juglone. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. tannins. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. 5 to 8 cm long. Texas. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. It is an astringent. with thick ridges. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The texture is cartilaginous. cellutitis. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. a prominent midrib. slimming activity. and bruises. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. fucans). probably due to its iodine content. massage for cellulite. The odor is slight. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. as a wash for psoriasis. The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. The thallus is dichotomously branched. Frequently. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. reproductive tissues. sprains. myxoedema. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). It can be added to hair and skin care products. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). trace minerals (mainly iodine). See Chapter 7 for further discussion. Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. steryl glucosides. rheumatism. The color varies from brown to black.
the upper leaves. externally grayish brown.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. It is easily grown from seed.. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains. the crown somewhat annulate.. simple or branched.. of variable length. mostly in the Eastern States... Fruit is ovoid and light brown. Description An annual robust plant. about 2 cm in diameter. sometimes white. leaf. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage. Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. rough. flowers. and minerals. European Burdock. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores.. usually blue..See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. longitudinally wrinkled. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia.. Borage has a cucumber-like odor. flowers from June through September.. rhizomes.. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. sparingly naturalized in the United States. hollow stem.. the lower ones on short petioles.. Constituents Vitamin C.. up to 60 cm high. skin cleansing and lightening. on long stalks. saponins.. fracture somewhat horny. elliptical leaves wrinkled.. Description The root is fusiform. tannins. frequently split or in broken pieces. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe... calyx of five sepals. Bugloss. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids. sessile. Gobo Part Used: Roots.. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L.... five pointed corolla. covered with bristly hairs.. mainly cultivated for commercial use. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock.
eczema. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. gels. and can be used in facial steams. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. anorexia nervosa. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. creams. arctinal etc.. licorice. cutaneous eruption. taste is mucilaginous. fat. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. tannins. Arctinone. acid soils. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yellow-green flowers in spring. in cases of acne. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. including buxine and buxozine C. berries with black seeds. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. It is also used in hair conditioners. and oil. cystitis. centrally hollow or containing a white. fukinanolid. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. volatile oils. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. Odor slight. scaly skin. North America. becoming pyroligneous on milling. sweetish. lignin. inulin. pith-like tissue. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. psoriasis. arctinol. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. abrasions. sterols. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. lotions. shampoos. and slightly bitter. and baths.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. It has been combined with comfrey. gout. fatty acids. polyalkenes.
scale-like. dark green shrub with thick. a globular red berry ca. 5 mm. bushy places. dry hills. ca. Properties Increases circulation. Description A dense. for the treatment of varicose veins. mucilage. Europe. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. sudorific. ribbed. chrysophanic acid. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. diuretic. The extract has been used with success. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. inhibits inflammation. 3 mm across. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. papery ca. 1 cm. rutin. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. Fruit. Emmenagogue. Flowers greenish. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. ruscoside. oval rigid. 2 cm long. Leaves. saponin. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . borne on green.
Description In pieces of varying length.5 to 4 cm in diameter. penduletin.. See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L... at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material..... luteolin.... It has a strong.. CALENDULA. herby odor.. from 1... taste acidulous and mucilaginous.. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments. isorhamnetin-glucoside. Constituents Flavonoids.... healing for sensitive skin.. Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length. and from 5 to 9 angled. quercitrin... piscidic-acids. or Sierra Leone Pepper... and beta-sitosterol.. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear.. kaempferol....... rutin...... Mexican. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length. Mombassa.... Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America.C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia.
The epicarp is thin and tough. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. The odor is aromatic. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. red. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. and brown. The Mexican variety is deep red. and greenish-red. gray. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. The fruits vary greatly in size. The apex is acuminate or acute. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yellow.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. yellow. Capsicum is a berry. the African variety is yellowish-brown. The taste is pungent and warming. The seeds are compressed and pointed. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. or is free from these. the Nyassaland variety is red. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical.
jaborandi. Chittem Bark. and vitamins A and C. Buckthorn. flavonoids. branched. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. lotions. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. carotene capsanthin. fatty acids. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. etc. and others. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. colocynth. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. geranyl acetate. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. and North America. Bear Wood. rubefacient used for neuralgia. is obtained by steam distillation. leaves. and applying to the face for 20 minutes.4%. hairy stem. daucol. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. It has a long tap root. counter-irritant. -pinene. rheumatic pains. segmented. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. Bitter Bark. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . keeping it smooth and soft. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. Sacred Bark. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. geraniol. naturalized in North America. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. Asia. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin.29%).CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. antiseptic. After. CARROT Daucus carota L. and perfumes up to 0. creams. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. detergents.
R = H. 1974. R = H. 2. 1983. B = 10 R = OH. C. curved pieces or quills of variable length. Two aloins. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels.and C-glycosidic linkages. in Pharmacognosy. 444. odor distinct. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. and D. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects.5 to 5 mm thick. It gives red color with ammonia TS. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. it acts as stomach ache treatment. Bailliere Tindall. Various diathrones. Teil C. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. G. including those of emodin. Naturforsch. 4. 1.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. chrysophanol. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. R = OH. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. Wagner et al.. they contain both O. bryophytes. 3. Z. Description The tree is 4. See formula. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. 1974. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. B. The bark occurs in flattened. 1. London. C. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. and emodin in the free state. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1).. W. It is frequently covered with lichen. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is much used as a laxative. C = 10B. aloe-emodin. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. E. In small doses. 5. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). Aloe-emodin. Publ. 267. 12th ed.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. and chrysophanol. emodin oxanthrone. Teil B. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. and Evans. Trease. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. 2. D = 10 .
the upper lip erect and two-cleft. ovate or oblong. CENTELLA. nepetalic acid. petiolate. carvacol. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed.... downy.. Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like.. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache.. citronellal. limb bilabiate. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties.CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L. from 2 to 7 cm long. stems quadrangular. flowers small... curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas.. throat dilated.. Constituents Essential oil.. naturalized in North America... in dense.. thymol). much branched... calyx hairy. pale gray-green. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect. downy beneath. Br..... up to 4 mm in diameter.. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip. bract-like. corolla whitish... margin deeply crenate. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen. leaves opposite.. floral leaves small..... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. methyl-nepetalactone.. Description Top. nepetariaside. dotted with purple. the larger. pungent. rounded or ear-shaped at the base. taste bitter.. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling.... softhairy above... the lower spreading and three-cleft. camphor. tubular. nepetol rosemarinic acid. lower pair shorter. nepetalactone. (geraniol. interrupted spikes. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe.. or crushed and broken.. from 10 to 20 cm long. and aromatic.. crenulate. the middle lobe largest. pointed at the apex..
. Wu. UIO. Patent 5. 1. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. and amoebiasis. Microbiol. The plant also contains diterpenes. Mutat. S. and D. Ebizuka. S. 8(7). 1973–1974. skin infections..L.3 antiprotozoal. 6. D’Amelio.B. 22 g. and rheumatism. 8. F. 54. Lee and J. Y.W. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. cylindrical. simple.. apex acute. Bull. wounds. Aust. Phillipson. July 26–30. Sept. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. T.7.C. 1992. Y.3 to 0.85%). nasal allergies.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant.W. and U. Y. Bull. Leaves. Phytotherapy Res. 1991. Warhurst. oblong.B. Odor characteristic. Iwakami. and Mirhom. beta-gurjunene. G. venation pinate reticulate. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. 1988. Pharm. C.C. triterpenes. and C. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex.. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. Y. Yang. alternate. Y. J.S. 3272. 6. W.50%).76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant.1 In Chinese traditional medicine. diarrhea. Y. Res. 97. the plant has been used to treat colds. Lin. 1997.S.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic. Wu. malaria. Cai.D. and U. isoamyl caproate (1. and alpha-humulene. Y.. Sankawa..6-beta-oside.206. H. myrtenol (5. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. Chem. 1973. 4. Yang. 1196. and flavonoids. J. Stem 0. A.97%). The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23.. 40(5). longitudinally striated. Hu. 7. Compositous glandular hairs are also present. Chin J. and Mirhom. U. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . florilenslin derivatives.T. 894. 1994. plenolin derivatives. 2. F. thymol (1.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes. 1998. asthma. Chem. Lin. 204(2). The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. D’Amelio. 436. Chun.I. Abstr. 39(12). green. internodes short. 5.Y. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1. Yang. Pharm.18%). The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells.23%).C. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. Campbell. Pharm. caryophyllane-2.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities.W. helenalin. margin dentate. green. the apical cell being elongated filamentous. aromatic. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length.6 to 1 cm broad. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. 3. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter..A. florilenalin-angelate. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns. sessile. J. H. J.5 cm in diameter. brevilin A. arnicolides.98%). Wright.804. Kriby.5%). and sternutatory. Ebizuka. Sankawa.
disk-florets tubular. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. chlorogenic acid. farnesol. Odor pleasant. or only a slight membraneous crown. apigenins. pappus none. alpha-bisabolol. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. taste aromatic and bitter.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. three-toothed and four-veined. Constituents Essential oil. anti-inflammatory. see the bibliography at the end of the book. and pubescent scales. longitudinally furrowed. creams. ray-florets from 10 to 20. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. etc. perfect. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. furfural. and without a pappus. involucre hemispherical.to 5-ribbed. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. bisabolene. hollow receptacles. borneol. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. corolla white. Chamomile contains azulene. pistillate. peduncles light green to brownish-green. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains.5 cm. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. New York southward. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. usually reflexed. calendula. healing tonic. and mullein in shampoo rinses. well over one hundred compounds. For further reading. It is a carminative. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. chamazulene. lotions. matricarin. oblanceolate. naturalized in the United States. aromatic.
but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall.A. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. Also used on skin rashes and infections. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. Gobonadorra Greasewood. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico.G. It is native to the southwestern United States. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. Properties Good for softening. long.D. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. The flowers normally occur in January through May. restoring. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs.. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. Chaparral is a source of N. 3/8 in. and stimulating the skin. Description A resinous. Yellow flowers have five petals. The leaves grow in opposite pairs.
). and uneven. 747. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. The taste is astringent and pungent.G.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. The outer surface. this has not been thoroughly investigated. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. p. quercetin). phenolic acids. The fracture is weak. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. However. camphor. 5 cm in width. The odor is aromatic. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. it is finely striated and fissured. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. a powerful antioxidant.CHERRY BARK. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. and unpeeled. 8th ed. is brownish-black. Merck Index. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. bitteralmond-like when moistened. Properties Soothing. brittle.. 1. gossypetin. and 4 mm in thickness. tannins. Constituents Aspartic acid. if unpeeled. granular and slightly fibrous. astringent. sedating. will add body to hair. partially peeled. CHERRY BARK.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. which can be peeled. south to Florida and Texas.A.D. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars.
with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. vulnerary. Properties Antipruritic. with a line of hairs along one side. the uppermost sessile. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. Description A weak. 1⁄6 to 1 in. entire. fatty acids and minerals. rooting at the nodes. swelling. axillary stalks and in terminal. gamma-linolenic acid. For inflammed eyes. stems slender. the lower petioled. lotions. triterpene gyycosides. annual.1 mucilage. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. small. indolent ulcers. Can be used in creams. long. on slender.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. psoriasis. acute. carboxylic acids. high. opposite. leaves ovate. All Europe. satin flower. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. leafy cymes. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. rutin. tocopherols. creeping or ascending. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. baths. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. saponins. redness of face erysipelas. coumarins. and facial steams. emollient. fruit a many-seeded. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. small capsule. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. flowers white. white bird’s eye. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties.
protein. Carophyllus aromaticus L. antiscrofulous properties..) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng.. it is used for dementia. inattentativeness. hedges..... June to August... Caryophyllum. John Wiley & Sons. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. clematine. in lax terminal and axillary clusters. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients.. melissic acid.. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy). sores. sterols. fragrant.. each with long styles with dense. densely hairy on both sides. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. 2nd ed. In 1770. and inflammation. Y.) Bull.... Boca Raton. rubefacient. New York. feather fruit clusters. et Herr. CINCHONA. behenic acid.. 1992. thickets. chlorogenic acid. and conspicuous... Constituents Caffeic acid. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A robust. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L.. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba...See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L. A/B.. CRC Press. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches. FL. Flowers 2 cm. spreading. J... Leung. Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods.. 2. most of Europe..CLOVES 81 1.. white hairs..... grey. Fruit with numerous carpels. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval.... woody. Steven Foster.. said to have antibiotic properties. petals spreading.. indifference.. vitalbiosides. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters. stalked leaflets.. 1996. each 3 to 10 cm. Duke.. mental escape from reality....... Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants.. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands.
Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. vitamins. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. followed by a slight numbness.. J. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. and Tyler. odor strongly aromatic. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. Speedie. style 1. It lowers blood pressure. the odor is agreeable and refreshing.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17.5 mm in length. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. and Thailand. and somewhat four-angled. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Nepal. where it is widely cultivated. afterwards very pungent. ovary twolocular. flavonoids. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. and has carminative properties. Williams & Wilkins. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. carbohydrates. which alternate with the calyx teeth. Robbers. J. crowded. glandular-punctate petals. antispasmodic.. with numerous ovules.E. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. and others. stamens numerous. dark brown. It is native to India. 1.K. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. E. protein.. The buds also contain sterols. taste pungent and aromatic. Burma. Sri Lanka. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. and incurved. lipids. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated.
R. tussilagone and essential oil. screens. floccose beneath. faintly herbaceous. Constituents Tannins. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. banks. Properties Emollient. river gravels. tussillagine. bitter. 1996. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Chevallier. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dorling Kindersley Ltd. Kronenthal. flavonoids. 3. slightly wrinkled. and smoked like tobacco. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth. The younger leaves densely white.to 9-nerved.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. it is said to help relieve asthma. glabrous above. London. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. 1998. 83. Description Petiole long. carotenoids.. minerals.. senkirkine. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. terpene alcohols. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores.. All Europe. mucilage. pubescent. When the leaves are dried. landslides. blade very brittle. ground.L. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. palmately 5. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. A. Odor indistinct. deeply cordate at the base. taste mucilaginous. Personal communication.
very hairy. 944. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. Description The lower. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics.. Mascolo N. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. Most of Europe.. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. Phytotherapy Res.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. Blackwort. long.. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. up to 10 in. and demulcent. B-sitosterol amino cids. It is almost inodorous. douches. a very powerful cell proliferent. and lithospermic acids. feebly astringent taste. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. marshes. antihemorrhagic. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. I. Healing Herb. Bruiswort. anti-inflammatory. salves. fractures. cone flower. Menghini A. on wounds. ointments. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. 1. alkaloids.) Comfrey is also an astringent. chlorogenic. caffeic. hair rinses. phenolics.7%).2–4. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. althea. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. 1987. watersides. Capassa F. lotions. and Fasulo M. shampoos. Fillipendula. radical leaves are very large. aloe. Comfrey can be used in creams. Autoreg. asparagine (1–3%)... The powder is green in color. and has a mucilaginous. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots.P. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. Knitbone Part Used: Root.
79 275.10 19600 10 6 28 0. Nutrients Calc.84 4.01 24.7 0.58 5.92 0.89 0.99 1.51 4.176 0.285 0.624 8.59 2.19 5.26 0. Dig.14 49.50 1101100.0 0.78 7.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.0 3.14 8.208 100.111 1.8 2.86 49. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .72 1.40 0.93 0.93 0.0 0.7 7.92 0.19 0.8 213.8 44.61 0.01 14.0 30.74 0.2 0.0 1200.480 0.142 0.41 0. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.7 0.29 44.47 1.085 0.10 0. energy therms cwt Prod.456 0.795 0.07 100.05 0.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.59 0.1 Dry matter 30. for cattle Maint.73 28.11 25.00 57 34 34 1.0 15.30 1.18 2. A equiv. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.20 0.600 0.0 100 g 4.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.0 5.037 17.0 7.65 0.
(Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey...... horny texture. reduces inflammation and clotting.. externally wrinkled.. branched. creates astringency. Bruiswort. mucilaginous... Blackwort.... It contains a mucilage that is water extractable. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark.. North Africa. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland.5 cm thick and 30 cm long.. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped.... riverbanks. and has a sweetish... and dark color. often more than 2. Good when used in burn creams.. It is almost inodorous. woodland.. Healing Comfrey Herb... internally creamy white. cultivated extensively. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia.See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. Europe. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L. occasionally dark brown in color. CONE FLOWER.. feebly astringent taste. firm. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf. promotes tissue repair.....86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L.
straight. frequently with numerous large. perfumes. tangentially elongated. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. Properties Has been used in body lotions. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. phenolic acids (caffeic. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. chlorogenic. flavonoids (quertcetin. cremocarp nearly globular. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. coumaric. rutin). Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. and flavors. deodorants. toilet waters and after shaves. endocarp of large tabular cells. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. The essential oil is used in massage oils. toothpaste. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. undulate secondary ribs. geraniol and geranyl acetate. ferulic). limonene. -terpinene. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. etc. eliptical oil ducts.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. mericarps easily separated. each mericarp with five prominent. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. fatty acids. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. camphor. tannin. two or three layers of large.). The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. p-cymene.
stem 3 to 7 dm high. floccose. Quebec. and various skin complaints. Description Annual. For aging skin. marginal corollas funnelform. California. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . involucres round-ureolate. scrapes. blue. more or less floccose. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. bracts greenish-yellow. with slender. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. varying to rose or white. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. heads long-peduncled. Virginia. or as a compress for tired eyes. native of Europe. it is soothing and emollient. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. British Columbia. ascending branches. conjunctivitis. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. about 15 mm high.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L.
cyanidin glucoside. minerals. Topically very soothing and softening.2 to 0. potassium. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0.4 mm in diameter. stigmas bifid. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. the upper portion being usually unicellular. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. protein. and temperate Asia. the epidermal cells rectangular. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. segments very slender. and from 0.4 to 3 mm in length. frequently unequal. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. flavonoids (Maysin). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. vitamin C. Europe. polygalacturonic acids.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. CORN SILK Zea mays L. alanine. maizeric acid. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. cnicin. palmitic acid. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. proline. protocyanin.8 m in length. light green. arginine. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. purplish-red. the basal trichomes 50. and 0. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. spiral or annular tracheae. cichorin. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. tocopherols. cultivated extensively. saponins. corn silk. tannin. fixed oil. Constituents Acetanapthene. spherical nucleus. yellow or light brown color. stigmasterol.
. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hydrating. yellow. Plant Drug Analysis. cooling.. five-lobed.. quercetin).. Berlin. broad hairy leaves. cucurbitacins.. wrinkled leaves.... and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory.. about 1 cm in diameter... minerals....90 CRESS.. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis.... hairy perennial. colds. Description This trailing annual has rough stems. and coughs. phenolic acids. fatty acids.. Taste.. and for chapped skin or sunburn... *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India. sunburn... phytosterol. flavonoids (gossypetin.... Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing.. The flowers are tubular.. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties.. According to the German Commission Monograph E... Blatt. and cylindrical.... Constituents Vitamins..SEE WATERCRESS Description A short. slightly curved. CRESS. Zgalinski... Properties Stimulate circulation. and spotted with orange at the throat.. apricot-like. soothing eye compress. volatile oils..M. and refreshing. astringent. Constituents Saponins.. Both the fruit and seeds are employed. Springer-Verlag. sweetish. dark green fruits.See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L. 1.. 176. S. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract. tubular yellow flowers. p. and 3-gentiotrioside. 1984. enzyme (primeverase)...... often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America. in face creams. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging)... campferol dirhamnoside. odor. with oval.. amino acids. H... For blotchiness of skin. Wagner. and E...
dark green or brown-green in color.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad.5 cm wide. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs.5 to 1. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. 0. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. ending in a spherical secreting cell. and for various skin complaints and eczema. Frequent pieces of cut. naturalized in the United States. with a pronounced midrib. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. where it is a common weed. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. Foreign Dandelion. yellow-brown and sometimes purple.0 cm long and 0. approximating 90°. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long.5 cm wide. Stomata are present in both epidermises. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide.S. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. as a diuretic. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). the root has been used to treat inflammation. It is also considered a blood purifier. and is especially high in potassium. The white sap has been used to treat warts. probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. Vitamin B and C.
naturalized in the United States. much shriveled.1% mucilage. vitamins and minerals.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. 1. straight root. where it is a common weed. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). It has no odor. glucoside. Description The root consists of a simple. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. which toward the upper part. also ca. becomes tough when slightly moist. and wrinkled longitudinally. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. brownish concentric rings of sieve. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. The drug. and its derivative taraxacoside. whitish and fleshy within. and sterols. but often divides into several erect branches. the latter sometimes remains simple. flavonoids. porous. which have not been found anywhere else. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It attains a length of about 30 cm. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. a narrow cortex. milky latex exudes. The dried root is dark brown. it tapers but little below. and the eudesmanolides. carotenoids. which is rather hygroscopic. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. the section exhibiting a yellow. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. and a layer of cork externally. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. whitish bark in which numerous.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. surrounded by a thick. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. with concentric rings as in the root. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. but a bitter taste.
Fracture short. heavily concentric. (oleanolic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... flavonoids. with some fan-shaped pieces. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. Description It has a characteristic large. triterpenes. Xylem radiate.. bitter. et al. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. polysaccharides. M. polyphenols. Planta Med. quinones. Lanhers. claw-like fruit. Antiphlogistic. Odor slight. The plant produces bright red flowers. 1. 58.5 cm thick.-C. light grey-brown.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. procumbide). occasionally with cavities. rheumatism). taste astringent.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. 117. 1992. hooked. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. chlorogenic acid. slightly analgesic. ursolic acid) phytosterols.
) Nutt. Hedgehog Part Used: Root. purpurea. Black Sampson.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. E. pallida. Black Susans. (Nutt. Scurvy Root.. L. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. Part Used: Root. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. E. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Indian head. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. Moench.
followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. For example. When administered orally. fracture short.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. aromatic. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. use for snake bite. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. or purplish-brown. light brown. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. wounds. fibrous. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. boils. sieve tissue in radial rows. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. taste sweetish. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. Odor faint. or poisonous insects. blood purification. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. or furrowed. slightly annulate in the upper portion. bed sores. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. wound healing. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. bark less than 1 mm thick. stings. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. burns.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. bites. ulcers. cylindrical. externally grayish-brown. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. etc.
It also increases T-cell proliferation. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .3 Furthermore. interleukin-1 (IL-1). indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. and Interferon-B2. A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii).ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities. Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. TNF-X.
Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro.. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. purpurea)]. In E.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. These include aliphatic amides. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid.g.6–2. isobutylamide of undeca (2E.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. Present in both E.4E. chlorogenic acid. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E.3–1. angustifolia).. but practically absent in E. arabinoga lactan).10E)-tetraenoic acid). Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus. • Polysaccharides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood.5 Furthermore. purpurea (0. in vivo.1%). – The mono. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan. pyrrolizidine alkaloids.4Z-diene8. pallida. angustifolia. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. ferulates of tartaric. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E. including an essential oil.7% (except in E. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. angustifolia.8Z. which is useful for species identification. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes.g. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. albicans pathogens. purpurea and E. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity.
Holger. H. Brouillard. Luettig.Matthes. M. 1988. 353-364. Roesler. Ser... 81(8). 2787-2794. (Bethesda).. Wuerdinger. Immuno Pharmacol. and R. S. 1989 2.L. Zenk. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and J. 1989. O.. 38(2). Phytochemistry.H. Christiane. 1989. G. Becker. B. J.ECHINACEA 99 1. H. Vet. 27(9). R. Med. Zawatzky. Albrecht. Wagner. K. Wagner. 4. I. Gifford.-L. E. R. J. Intn. B.345. Cheminat. 276-281. 27-38. K.E. A. Bauer. Wagner. N. Steinmueller. 5. Lohmann-Matthes. C. Arzneim-Forsch. Ger Offen De 3. 36(5). 6. Natl. and M. Klumpp and U. Cancer Inst. M. Schranner. Lohmann... H. 669-675. Jurcic. J. 13(1). J. and H. Puhlmann. 3. Loesch. Andreas.744. 1991. Wagner. 1988. J.
slender anthers oblong. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. yellow.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. It is said to reduce swellings. joint stiffness etc. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. filaments. from 2 to 3 mm in width. flat or slightly campanulate. five-lobed. mucilage. rutin. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. sambunigrin). *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. sterols. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. stamens five. having three pores and up to 0. soreness. inflammation. calyx superior.023 mm in diameter. ursolic acid. shriveled. triterpenes (alpha. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. minerals. rotate. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . volatile oils. covered with finely punctate markings. astragalin. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. taste slightly bitter. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. south to Florida and Texas.and beta-amyrin). and tannins. Description Small. tumors. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. regularly five-lobed.
inner or cut surface somewhat concave. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. naturalized in northeastern North America. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . asthma. and pungent. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. as a bactericide. roots cylindrical and tapering. central Europe.) strongly lignified wood fibers. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. west to Missouri. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. bitter. fracture short and horny. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. frequently curved or irregularly curled. taste acrid. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. up to 13 cm in length and 1.5 cm in diameter. and separated by large intercellular spaces. and catarrh. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. wounds. Odor aromatic. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. and rashes. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. south to North Carolina. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. Scabwort. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. itching skin. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone.
102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . friedelin). isolantolactone. inulin. polyacetylene. sterols. triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. germacrene-D-lactose).
and phytosterin. heaths. woodland. woolly beneath. Europe. Hemostatic. obtuse bracts which are white. Constituents Tannins. heads numerous. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. 1 ⁄6 to in. always deeply cut-in teeth. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. essential oil. taste bitter and aromatic. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. febrifuge. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. has a bitter and astringent taste. The stem is erect and wiry. revolute or undulate. their margins. Also has slight Anodyne properties. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. green above. The leaves are sometimes almost round. long and about in. small. but sometimes tinged with brown. Description It is an elegant little annual plant. high. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling).EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. however. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. or with many opposite branches. Astringent tonic. broad. either unbranched in small specimens. sessile. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. and at other times pointed and narrow. Description Stems white-woolly. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. odor characteristically aromatic. resin. It is odorless. 2 to 8 in.
minerals.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. luproside. geniposide. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. including aucubin. ferulic acid. inflamation of the blood vessels. and various skin conditions. conjunctivitis. poultices. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. and a volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Aucubin. caffeic acid. catapol. gallotannins. lotions or drops for eye complaints. inflammation of the eyelid. Euphrasia contains glycosides.
some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. Description Mericarps usually separate. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. New Jersey. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. making usually six oil ducts in all. dorsal surface convex. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. conical stylopod. composed of polygonal cells. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. United States. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. brown walls. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. more or less curved. strongly lignified fibers. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. It is * Formerly CTFA. For use in eye washes. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. south to Florida and Texas. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave.5 mm in breadth.
narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. The odor of Fenugreek. Israel. the radicle being accumbent. there are methylchavicol. anisaldehyde. the former appearing as a whitish point. Soaked in water. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . is strong and spicy. including -pinene. the taste is disagreeable and oily. Nearly in the center of one of the long. In addition. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. especially if powdered. Pakistan. horny. -phellandrene. However. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. they are hard. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. dark. translucent endosperm. and limonene.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. and flavonoids. cultivated in India. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. protein. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. and flattened. and 2 mm thick. In addition. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. organic acids. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. the fruits contain a fixed oil. yellowish-brown. and Turkey. 2 to 3 mm wide.
histidine. in woods. neurosis. Fenugreek contains mucilage. glycine. mucin. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. A poultice has been employed for gout. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. hedges. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. trigofoenoside A-G. flowering from July to October. fenugreakin. choline. It is also used as a galactagogue. damp copses. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . wounds. choline. diosgenin. Constituents Dioscin. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. Scrofula plant. trigonelline. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. cystine. Square stalk. and various skin irritations.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. mucilage. sores. swollen glands. tumors. and banks. glutamic acid. aspartic acid. yamogenin.
long. acutish or broadly cordate at base. and circulatory stimulant. slightly drooping. in length. anodyne. sublabiate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and subglobose. dark purple.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. 2 to 4 ft in height. and 3 to 7 in. of a deep-green color. cardio-active glycosides. The calyx is in five segments. which are broadly ovate. rounded. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. 3 to 4 in. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. adnate to the upper side. having a green scale or sterile filament. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. erect. sharply and unequally serrated. ovate. tuberous. and slightly margined. thyrsoid panicles. cleansing. lecithin. ovoid. the limb contracted. veined. with a livid purple lip. with paniculate. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. acute. smooth stem. whitish. or the upper lanceolate. opposite branches above. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. forked. The flowers are small. alkaloids and flavonoids. ovate-oblong. Constituents Saponins. the corolla of a dull green color. on axillary and terminal. The leaves are opposite. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. and knotty root. hesperetin. with a leafy. obtuse. quadrangular. petiolate.
*INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. tapering to the base. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. procumbent. moist thickets. or eights. these plants have an unpleasant odor. with hooked prickles. in length. numerous and scattered. cleansing. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. Catch-weed. Description Galium aparine is an annual. with an acidulous. stamens 4 and short. and rough on the margins. 2 or 3 lines in width. sterols. coumarins. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. and is hairy at the joints. the flowers white. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but are inodorous when dried. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. and bitter taste. including psoriasis. growing in cultivated grounds. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. In a green state. flavonoids. styles 2. Calyx 4-toothed. Stinging Nettle. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. astringent. phenolic acids. and n-alkanes. The leaves are 1 or 2 in.or 2-flowered. sevens. The fruit is large and bristly. quadrangular. and Burdock. verticillate in sixes. tannins. retrorsely prickled stem. fatty acids. Constituents Iridoid glucosides.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. and astringent. and midrib. GARLIC Allium sativum L. and flowering from June to September. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. succulent plant. with a weak. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. small. corolla rotate and 4-parted. and along banks of rivers. mucronate. the peduncles are axillary and 1.
and acne. the outer surface convex. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. apex acute. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. and E. bacteriostatic. scordinins.750 mm in diameter. membranaceous scales. allicin — dialltrisulfide. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. expectorant. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. and fructans. Vitamins A. spasmolytic. Internally. each bulbil covered by whitish. Description Bulb subglobular. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. (alliin. C. and attached to a flattened circular base. It has been applied successfully to swellings. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. dry leaf. pimples. The membranaceous scales. cultivated extensively. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. with 8 to 15 bulbils. surrounded by whitish. sores. However. base truncate. Garlic does not lend itself. hypotensive and anthelmintic. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. about 0. g-glutamyl). trace minerals. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. promotes leucocytosis. antiseptic. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. membranaceous. taste intensely pungent and persistent. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Italy is a large producer. for obvious reasons. in place of butter. scale-like leaves. peptides. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. Properties Cosmetically. Constituents Sulfur compounds. B. Garlic is diaphoretic. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. compound. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. antiviral. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture.
The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. and alkaloids (gentiamine). The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. amarogentin. cleansing. anti-inflammatory. polysaccharide. It is recommended for loss of appetite. swertiamarin). xanthones. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. sialagogue. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. sweroside. and to 37 mm in diameter. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. The cambiam zone is dark brown. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. but pliable when it is moist. but are usually shorter. and cholagogue. that of the root. The taste is first sweet. bitter. and middle western United States. then strongly bitter. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. phenolic acids. These roots measure up to 8. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. volatile oils. gastric stimulant. The odor is aromatic. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. Cranesbill. Properties Gentian is an astringent.5 dm in length.
Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.
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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome
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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.
Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.
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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root
Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.
Ginseng root (american) cultivated
Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its
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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.
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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.
GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves
Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.
Golden rod (Solidago)
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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome
Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.
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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.
GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part
Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near
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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin
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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.
GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit
Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract
Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.
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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.
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Green tea contains anti-oxidants. theophylline). conditioning. theobromine. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. shampoos. creams..GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannins (catechins. lotions. and phenolic acids (caffeic. etc. hair rinses. ferulic). which can be used in various sun-care products. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. gallo catechins).
) C. and central and northern Asia. catechin. and externally wrinkled. purple-brown to brown in color. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. it has been used as a wash for itching. Cosmetically. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . quercetin and glucosides). berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. and dimeric procyanidin. Description The fruits are small berries. fatty acids.C. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. and frost bite. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. Medically. Monogyna (jacq. leaves. vitexin glucosides. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. sores. with five parts. Properties Flowers. phenolic acids. Externally.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L.
various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. Chamomile. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone.126 HENNA 1. with occasional stems and brown. fruit. 4-napthoquinone). 319. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. acids destroy its properties. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. brown. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. Description Leaves greenish-brown. etc. l. and decolorized by a special extraction process. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. Della Loggia. mucronate. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. It is also said to be cooling. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. in an aqueous solution. Calendula. triangular pitted seeds. It can be used in shampoos.. However. decoction orange-brown. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. 1983. Arabia. et al. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. Pharm. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. and conditioners. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. It will not impart any color to the hair. 2 to 3 cm long. astringent. oblong or broadly lanceolate. entire. 51. often imported in coarse powder. as henna. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. glabrous. deepening with alkalies. Sci. shortly petiolate. opposite. India. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. however.. small. R. It will add body and highlights to hair. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. Persia. (2-hydroxy. fading on the addition of acid. hair rinses. 1 to 2 cm wide. tapering at the base. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. simple.
phenolic acid.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. various parts of Africa. Description Honey is a viscid. It becomes partially crystalline. Honey obtained from heather. fatty acids. (glucosides of apigenin. owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. luteolin). orange blossom. Australia. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. translucent. Chile. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. flavonoids. and semi-solid on keeping.4-napthoquinone). and tannins. and New Zealand. California. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable.
wax. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. ringworm. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). face creams. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. xanthahumol). it will reduce swellings. Hops is a strobulus. The taste is pungent and bitter. formic acid. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. consisting mainly of humulene. tetters. will give body to the hair. one margin is flat. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. Hops is a sedative. and discoloration. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. It has been used on crural ulcers. dextrin.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. and hair conditioning. and pollen grains. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. and tannins. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. Useful in treatment of dandruff. volatile oil. tannins. The strobiles measure 5.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. lupulone. In combination with Chamomile. Bark Bongay. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. bitter principles. bactericidal. hypnotic. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the veins are elevated. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. sores. humulene.brown. The odor is aromatic. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. Asia. The individual bracts are thin and papery. It contains small quantities of sucrose. and alleviates pain and itching. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin).
The leaf has been used to treat eczema. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. Constituents Saponins (aescin. quercetin). infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. iron gives a green precipitate. The nut has a slight. vasoconstrictor. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. The bark is thin. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. fawn-colored. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. The root has antimicrobial properties. hand creams. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. Increases venous tone. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. Anti-inflammatory. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. with a shining.25–0. Description A perennial . Gelatin separates its tannic acid. fleshy roots. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. and non-astringent. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. increases circulation. yellowish-white in color. and hemorrhoids. bitter taste. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. is nearly odorless. Properties Astringent.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. and slimming products. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. bitter taste. The nut. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. and tannin. from 1 to 1 in. aesculin). Gaertn et Schert. varicose veins. stimulates digestion and circulation. sprains and various sports injuries. The aqueous infusion is bitter. and has an unpleasant. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. The plant has long. chestnut-brown testa. nearly an inch in diameter. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. The internal portion is starchy. is subglobular. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. and swellings.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. peculiar odor. large rough leaves. phenolic acids. when dry. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. compressed. tendonitis. The inner bark has a rough. lotions. in diameter. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phlebitis. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. It has been used in cellulitis. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. Properties Cosmetically.
sterile stems decumbent to erect. which would validate its use on blemished. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. causing the skin to blister. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. as the fresh juice can be irritating. 1 to 3.5 dm. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. mostly with sterile spores. thick. Alaska. branches 3 to 4 angled. California. solid. 2 to 4 cm long. after crushing and moistening. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. greasy skin. yields 0. high. Greenland. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it should be used with caution and low concentrations.5 dm. acuminate. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. cones peduncled. However. and Eurasia. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. rarely with a few branches.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. high. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. 5 to 10 mm. 10 to 14 furrowed. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. However. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. thick. branched. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. 2 to 3 mm. South Carolina.
second whorls. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. very much branched. sometimes elliptical. Will add strength and sheen to hair. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. apigenin). emarginate. flat. acute. The flowers are bluish-purple. rather thick. saponin (equisetonin). but smaller. sometimes narrower. palustrine alkaloid. with the middle obe larger. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. Used for putrid wounds. Its stems are quadrangular. acute. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. and equistetolic acid. usually oblong-linear. and 1 to 2 ft in height. protruding. punctate. erect. anthers with linear divaricating cells. entire. kaempferol. woody at the base. emarginate. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. spreading. spreading. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. southern Europe. or lanceolate. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. the branches are rod-like. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. and external bleeding. It is diuretic. silicic acid. scarcely shorter than the calyx. green on each side. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. Upper lip of the corolla. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. phenolic acids. sunny sites. healing. gangrenous ulcers. lower lip trifid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flat. and borne in racemose. and diverging. astringent. and 1 ribbed underneath. Stamens 4. seldom white. with the middle of the corolla erect. minerals.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. The leaves are opposite. sessile.
Tannin. ursolic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . marrubin. oleanic acid. phenolic acids. gum. flavonoid glycosides. and resin.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. Constituents Volatile oil. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers.
*INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. opposite. square. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. Europe to Caucasus. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. phenolic acids. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. forming the appearance of a cross. volatile oil. the limb oblique. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). though often purplish beneath. marubiin. curved. The floral leaves are of the same form. about three together in axillary whorls. * Formerly CTFA. radicating at base. The leaves are petiolate. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. gray. and glaucous on both sides. villous. Also useful in cough preparations.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. cordatereniform. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). crenate. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. the upper being the largest. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . luteolin [cynaroside]. amino acids. roundish. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. The flowers are bluish-purple. decongesting tonic. hairy. The calyx is long. with a varegated throat. hairy herb. creeping stem. with a prostrate. North America.
Europe. It is acrid. This plant is common all over Europe. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. and when heated emits a pleasant. rather fragrant odor. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. The former possesses a peculiar. antimutagenic. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. molluscicidal. anthelmintic. Scandinavia. Properties Anti-fungal. exudes from the incised bark. Description An evergreen climber. and introduced into North America. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. However. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. faintly bitter. aromatic odor. Ivy has been used in face packs. control of cellulite. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. or Ivy gum). sun or shade.
and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides.IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. . flavonoids. hederacoside C (5%). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and fatty acids. phenolic acids. hederacoside. malic acid.
The odor is slight. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. The under surface is yellowish-green. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. The leaves are compound. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. The blades are asymmetric. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. and the veins are elevated. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay. stalks. The upper surface is yellowish-green. The taste is salty and bitter. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated.5 cm. smooth. and stems. dull. The margin is entire and slightly revolute.
Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. and soaps. isamone. benzyl alcohol. and sweat hypersecretion. conditioners. Constituents Essential oil. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. jaborino. gastric. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. hair tonics. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gels. volatile oil. pilocarpic acid. skin creams. tincture of Capsicum. calyx linear. hair rinses. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. containing benzylacetate. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. It induces salivary. eugenol. more than half as long as the corolla tube. It increases intestinal motility. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. the terminal leaflet larger. It can be used in shampoos. antiglaucoma agent. lotions. very sweet-scented flowers. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. Leaves opposite. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. Combines well with Nettles. and mullein as a hair tonic. colocynth. jaboric acid.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. isopilocarpine). and farnesol. It contains pilocarpine. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine.
(For additional information. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. skin care products. potassium. dissolving. Description Vesicles large. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. Constituents Iodine. Nourishing. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. algin. benefits the skin. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. see Chapter 7. restoring. softening. hair products. and many trace minerals and micronutrients. each bearing an expanded blade.
The flowers are in branched panicles. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. and antifungal. and similar skin problems. dandruff. southern India and Sri Lanka. Approximately 30 species have been identified. Antimicrobial properties. tropical habitats in dry soil. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. antipyretic. analgesic. wide.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. triterpenoids. and lotions. creams. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. shampoos. antioxidant. and alkaloid.
dilute it with water. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. and cleansers. Properties Healing antiseptic. cleanse the skin. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). It is aromatic and astringent. Liquorice Root. southern Europe. taste aromatic.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. odor fragrant. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . giving relief. and Hungary. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds.) Burman F. phenolic acids. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. flavonoids. skin bleach. and close the pores. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. Sweet Wood. Glycyrrhizae Radix. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. skin creams. When taken on an empty stomach. bacteriastatic. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. Constituents Essential oil. Russia.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. distinctive.
antiphlogistic. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. Its odor is distinctive. when deprived of the outer corky layer. longitudinally wrinkled. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. antibacterial. sometimes split longitudinally. somewhat tapering. it is yellow and radiate. anti-infectant. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. antiviral. including dermatitis. antiseptic. Anti-inflammatory. Externally. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. pruritus. Properties Good for skin eruptions. it is externally pale yellow. eczema. antihepatotoxic. The upper portion is more or less knotty. Internally. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. Internally. its taste is sweetish. and cysts.
Basswood. glabrol. gum wax. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. licoisoflavones A and B.). On hydrolysis. glyzarin. amino acids. B-amyrin. bracts N/S Flowers. isoglabrolide.). licoisoflavanone.7-dihydoxyflavone. etc. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. glabronin etc. formononetin. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. glycyrrhetol. coumarins. licoricone. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. echinatin. sterols. Europe. 4-hydroxychalcone. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . licuraside. isoliquiritin. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. glabrone. glabrolide. kumatakenin. neoliquiritin. bracts N/S Flowers. lignin. glycyrol. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. limestone. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). liquiritin. amines. Linn Tree. bracts Flowers. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. rhamnoisoliquiritin. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden.). liquiritigenin. 4’. White Wood. etc.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. licoric acid. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. 2 to 20% starch. licochalcones A and B. neoisoliquiritin. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill.
or approach yellow. For bruises and to reduce swelling. When fresh. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. when dry. are oblong or lanceolate. Emollient.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . odor is agreeable. Internally. leaf-like bract. which are axillary. The petals are five and whitish. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. linear. faint. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating).
dark green.5 to 1. tannins. caffeic). Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. sterols. Maggi Herb.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage. W. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. J. Smallage.0% volatile oil. kaempferol). volatile oil. cultivated in central and southern Europe. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and resin are also present. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. gum. The fruit is a cremocarp. high amount of uronic acid. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. The rhizome and root are aromatic. naturalized in North America. Coumarins. creams.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. Description Lovage has large. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. D. mucilage. lotions. and perfumes.
primary forks. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. The odor is slight. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. mucilage. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. The rhizomes are horizontal. and with blackish roots. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. and shining frond bases. slender. Properties In rinses. blackish. tannin. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. and then into several spreading pinnae. pedately branching at the summit. quinic acid. They consist of long. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. first into two recurving. astragalin. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. Constituents Adiantone. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids and their sulfates.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. adiantoxide.
niacin. and slightly elevated. distinct. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. The odor is not distinct. flowers. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. the veins are palmate. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. and insect bites. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. the veins are elevated. The blade is cordate at the base. thick. blotchiness. hairy. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. These flowers are oblanceolate. Emollient for sensitive skin. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. Useful in eye preparations. The texture is herbaceous. and phenolic acids. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. The flower heads have a short. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. Medicinally used in cough preparations. protective. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. naturalized in North America. Holligold. The taste is mucilaginous. Properties Soothing and softening. Relieves itching. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. British Columbia to Mexico. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. spasmodic colitis. curved peduncle. and fruits. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. The individual flowers are yellow. mostly ligulate. greenish-gray bracts. Mary-bud.
The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.
MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root
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yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops
Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.
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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.
MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root
Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.
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Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb
Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)
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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers
Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied
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to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin
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diaphoretic. powdery. mildly expectorant. The odor is aromatic. It is said to promote granulation. sore throats. The fracture is conchoidal. engler) The surface is dull. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. and anti-inflammatory. and acrid. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. bitter. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. carminative. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. for example. diuretic. It is said to bring forth the gods. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. The taste is pungent. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. Myrrh is used in incense. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antifungal. Used for halitosis.
Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange. cineole. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. and nerol). The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. on bruises and hemorrhoids. Constituents Yields 0. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 to 0. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. creamy white flowers.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L. camphene. geraniol. and blue-black berries.
.. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll. in hedges. dull-green plant.. serotonin). common to Europe and the United States... Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant... and in gardens... Stimulates hair growth. which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed... Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant. kaempferol. and isorhamnetin). and epistaxis malaena. Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle... amines (histamine.. minerals (high amount).. nervous eczema. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy.. Description This plant is a perennial..N NASTURTIUM . herbaceous.. acetyl choline. sterols. beta-carotene. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles.. choline.... Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic.... and for cutaneous eruptions. Nettles has been used as an astringent. growing in waste places.. flowering from June to September.. by woodsides. formic and citric acids. Urtica urens L.. See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L.
fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end.O OATS Avena sativa L. within the groove a narrow. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. Odor slight. taste starchy. two-veined palet or scale. the base somewhat contracted. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. a scar or. and the Yukon. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. tapering toward each end. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. the apex pointed. at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. above the center. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. Texas. thinly membranous. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. up to 1. rarely. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. Florida. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar.
Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. bent here and there. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. lignified walls. the cells filled with protein. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. shingles. subsessile. Properties Benefits the skin. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. The drug tastes bitter. these are elongated thick-walled. and herpes. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. polyphenols. pointed hairs. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. some of which give rise to unicellular. rarely over 25 ft in height. entire and coriaceous. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. Medically. The leaves are opposite. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. avenacin). with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. elliptical stomata up to about 0. less heavily developed tissue. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. highly refringent and truncate. sleeplessness. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. eczema. Description The tree is small. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. lignified. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. straight or slightly curved. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. partially beaded. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type).
oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). also hollow.2 m high.. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. ligustroside. Planta Med. diuretic. few of them have been studied experimentally. and red globe onions. 417. ONION Allium cepa L. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside..ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. A... It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antifungal. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. 57. ll-demethyl oleuropein. 2. 1991. hypoglycemic. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. et al. 1992. 58. Zarzuelo. M. 1. hypoglycemic. Planta Med. et al. Gonzalez. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. 513. and antimicrobial. yellow globe. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. up to about 1. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. 7. hypotensive.
by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. with bitter rind and sour flesh. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. Fruit. fructans. 1-propenesulfenic acid. very sweet-scented. white. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. reddish-orange. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. introduced to Europe. acute. oblong-oval. Flowers. 7 to 8 cm globular. Description Leaves. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. alkyl and alkenylcysteines.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. 2 to 2 cm long.
1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. with limonene as main constituent. 0. and bitter substances. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. taste aromatic and bitter. furanocoumarins. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). fracture hard. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. considerable amounts of pectin. somewhat curved.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. conical projections and linear. such as hesperidin. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. with many slight.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. the sugar component of which. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. var.5%). flavonoids. nobiletin. used for oily skin and acne. Constituents Essential oil (ca. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. It is also given internally. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. aromatic wash. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. non-bitter flavonoids. odor fragrant and aromatic. tangeretin.2 to 0. minute pits. short. more astringent than rose water. inner surface whitish. neohesperidose (2-0. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. rutoside.
bitter and carminative. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. sinensis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also an aromatic. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. citral. taste pungently aromatic. odor fragrant. naringin. globules of volatile oil. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. sinensis Osbeck. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. skin creams for its flavonoids. Flavonoids. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. citronellal. Cultivated in Florida and California. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. quercetin.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. and hesperidin.
g. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. spur short. Petals usually longer than the sepals. Exerpt from German Commission E. rutin. Leaves variable.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. Constituents Essential oil.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. tocopherol. galacturonic acid.. acne. Properties Used as a healing tonic. antipyretic. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. saponins. e. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. impetigo. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. rheumatism. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . p-coumaric acid. Description Flowers mostly tricolored. magnesium tartrate. eczema. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. stipules variable. anti-inflammatory. scoparine. but sometimes up to twice as long. arabinose. and carotenoids. violutoside. anthocyanidin glycosides. pruritus. very variable in size. mucilage. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. gaultherin. Monograph 6. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. leafy. meadows. flavonoids. but often palmately lobed with a larger. tannin. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid.
166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. with large. vitamins. etc. The fruit is a large melon-like. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. Carpaine. C14H2502N. which resembles sinigrin. staminate and pistillate flowers. long petioled. carpinine (an alkaloid). Naturalized in southern Florida. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. and minerals. shampoos. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. edible berry up to about 15 lb. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain).
q = group of large fibers. Tabl. (After T. Regn. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. Vent. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. Odor faint.F.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. p = parenchyma. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. Kr´ = crystal rosettes. kr = individual crystals. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. m = outer lamella. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. ms = latex tubes. margin dentate to crenate. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. taste woody and characteristic. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed.2-benzenediol. Veget. and B. papyrifora.
and Hungary. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. France. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. expectorant. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. green. apiin.8-triene (9%). Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. P. 8-methoxypsoralen.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown.05 to 0. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. hortense. W. Other parts of the plant contain 0. and others. sativum. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P.3. extensively cultivated in California.) Nym.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. spasmolytic. Furocoumarins including bergapten. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp. apiole (18%). Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. above-ground herb. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. fruit. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . taste faintly sweet. Belgium. and starch. above-ground herb. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. Odor characteristic. stout. antirheumatic. compound umbels. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. and antimicrobial. p-mentha-1. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. isopimpenillin. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). aromatic. Germany. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. (Mill. emmenagogue. B-phellandrene (12%). and imperatorin. ex A. The tap root is fusiform. diuretic. Apium petroselinum. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. fruit. psoralen.
four-lobed above. its color varies from light to dark purple. The corolla is united and tubular below. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). They measure up to 9. as it contains flavonoids. carminative.5 cm in length and to 3. naturalized in North America. The pith is white. and minerals. and the color varies from green to purple.3 cm in width. the leaves are opposite decussate. cholagogue. menthofuran. rutin. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. The calyx is campanulate. and the veins are slightly depressed. flavonoids (luteolin. broad. menthone (10 to 40%). large. The flowers are arranged in dense. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. south to Florida and Alabama. hair tonics. and the veins are slightly depressed. antiseptic. The blade measures up to 7.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. The cortex and wood are thin. The apex is acute. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. The under surface is light green. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. notably viridoflorol. The stems are simple or branched. cultivated in Japan and the United States. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. sitosterols. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. triterpenes. Properties Stimulant. rosemarinic). The margin is sharply serrate. and solid or hollow. spasmolytic. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). mildly sedative. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. and the veins are more prominent. hesperidin). interrupted spikes. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. The under surface is light green. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). tonic. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. the internodes are of variable length. The bracts are lanceolate. ursolic acid.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. The odor is aromatic. cineole. chlorogenic. phenolic acids (caffeic. The outline is quadrangular. The fracture is tough and incomplete. The nodes are enlarged. the texture is fibrous. its five teeth are subulate.
Description Stem spreading. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. leaves ovate to oblong. dark green. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). tannins. shining. the lobes obovate. native of Europe.5 to 3 cm broad. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. flavonoids. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. in Connecticut. hypotensive. Properties Used as a hemostatic. and ursolic acid. Has also been used to stop external bleeding. trailing. firm. however. a standardized extract should be used. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. 1. Minnesota. corolla blue. as well as Europe. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. entire. truncate. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. Vinca contains vincamine. astringent. vasodilator. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. and Georgia. they are different. 1 to 6 dm long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hypoglycemic. vulnerary sedative.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L.
smoothish. imbricated. Constituents Contains oils. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. campesterol. five. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. moist places. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. Ripple-grass. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . appearing as brownish vertical streaks.to seven-nerved. somewhat toothed. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. aromatics. leaving smooth surfaces. The flowers are white. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. Vessels are absent. numerous. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. it has a density varying from about 0. which are the medullary rays. tannins. swellings. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. ferulic acid. and insect bites. In a radial surface. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). The stamens and styles are long. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. by the roadsides. pinnicorretin. abietic acid. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. parahydroxybenzoic acid. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. dark band of autumn wood. arising from a fibrous root. and applied to sores. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. and in grass plats. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. n-nonacosane. quercetin. in fields. channeled petiole. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. balsamic. Plantago major L. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. dihydroquercetin. growing in rich. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height.35 to 0. malonic acid. and abruptly narrowed into a long. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. cuts. long. the seeds numerous. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. pinitol. Properties Astringent. The medullary rays. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. The leaves are ovate. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. very small. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. raffinose sequoyitol. It flowers from May to October. and is common in Europe and America. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. shikimic acid. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. quinic acid.
and phenolic acids. essential oils.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. sterols. and for cell proliferation. catapol. asperuloside. polysaccharides. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . balcalin. they both have the same virtues. oleic. for healing. fixed oil (linoleic. allantoin. Constituents Mucilage. apigenin. aucubin. and palmitic acids). which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. apparently. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. tannins. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L.
The New Honest Herbal. Magro Filboo. J. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture.. Nihon Univ. pollen. 1. essential oils. 2. and anti-inflammatory. balsam. Philadelphia. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester.. 1847. 32(1). pinocembrin. 30(1).2 Constituents Resin. Stickley Co. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. and pinobanksin. and caffeic acid. de Carvalho Ac. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. galagin.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. galangin. antiviral.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. 1987. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fungicidal.E. Sch.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing.. wax.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro. Tyler. 3. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. et al. ArnzneimittleForschung. Dent. and pinobanksin). 4.. 1980.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. V. 1990.. Hiadon B. G.F.
outer surface nearly white. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. Historically. Upon microscopic examination. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. conical projections or transverse. finely wrinkled. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. fracture uneven. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. * Formerly CTFA. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. Description In flat pieces of variable size. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. longitudinally striate. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. taste very acrid and unpleasant. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. inner surface yellowish-brown. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. odor slight sternutatory. coarsely fibrous. these species appear to resemble that of Q. channels. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. Bolivia. and occasional circular depressions. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. Smegmandermos deC. and Peru.
are used. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. uronic acids. or compound quilled. quilled. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. shallowly fissured transversely. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. Remineralizing protein. and volatile oils. quinine and quinidine.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. which is nearly always chip-like. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. and to 6 mm in diameter. The root. Ecuador. The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. The bark is flat or chip-like. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). Internally. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. overlapping quilled. a neutral saponin. cinchonine. to 7 cm in width. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. partially quilled. free acids (quinic acid). its important alkaloids. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. cinchonidine. tannins. The odor is not distinct. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside).8 dm in length. quinidine. calcium oxalate sugars. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). gypsogenin. The fracture is tough and uneven. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. quinamine).
outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. with water. It is also used as a suspending agent. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. taste mucilaginous and characteristic.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. present in the epidermis of the testa. ovoid or oblong. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. triangularly compressed. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. being coated with mucilage.
the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. calyx teeth subulate. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. Mildly anti-spasmodic. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. shriveled.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. Constituents Flavonoids. starch. volatile oil. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. purplish and more or less brown from drying. petals united into a tube below. * Formerly CTFA. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. phenolic acids. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. and esters. biochanin A. phenolic acids. including methyl salicylate. sitosterol. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. taste sweetish. tapering. Medicinally. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. and furfural. genistein. volatile oil. eugenol. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. Properties Historically. style slender. then slightly bitter. contains over 40 compounds. daidzein. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. fatty acids. benzyl alcohol. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment).
double-serrate. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. light-colored. erect.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. etc. when fresh. with a short. they are smooth and shining above. finely tomentose when young. mainly rhoeadine. rounded or cordate at the base. hair rinse. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. Quinoline alkaloids. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. thimble-shaped.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. Rhode Island. ovate. armed with bristles or weak prickles. and Minnesota. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Properties Soothing. inflorescence short-racemose. such as hand creams. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside).15 to 0. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. and are then employed in the fresh state. The numerous veins run from the base toward. somewhat smaller. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. Maine. emollient. fruit red. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. shortacuminate. with an entire margin. lotions. dark violet claw. By drying. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. Description Stem biennial. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. They have. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. doubtfully indigenous to England. leaving a space about 0. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet.
succinic acid. Internally. have been isolated. thiamine.). and beta-carotene. hepatitis.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. Ling-Zhi (Chin. insomnia. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. riboflavin. granoderan A. lactic acid. gallic acid. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Dried and whole. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. Happy Herb. Japan. antioxidant. Auspicious Herb. Constituents Ascorbic acid. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. mouth ulcers. malic acid. it comes in various sizes and shapes. A series of tritepenoids. protein. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. and chest and heart diseases. B. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. and inflammations. fragarine. ellagic acid. and North American coastal rainforests. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. Note: However. and antibacterial properties. Miraculous chi. consult a qualified physician before using. China. Constituents Polysaccharides. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. Ergosterol derivatives. nervousness. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. and C. minerals.
and it tapers into the main root. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. The color is dull reddish-brown. fibrous. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. which has numerous branches. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. that of the wood. of the larger roots. very tough and hackly. The texture of the cortex is granular. of the wood.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. and P. of the larger roots.5 cm in diameter at the crown. rough and scaly. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. The odor is not characteristic. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. dark reddish-brown. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The taste is astringent.
5 mm long. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. barrel-shaped or conical. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. Within the cambium is a ring. the cortex has been removed. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. face creams. II.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. after-shave lotions. tannins (proanthocyanidines). is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. If the trimming has been very severe. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. showing that they are leaf traces. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. which when carefully shaved off. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. immediately within the secondary xylem. The smoothed. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. III. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. ratanine). Constituents Gum. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. etc. After removing the powder. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. In the periphery of the pith.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. officinale. mouth wash. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. to give a good appearance. in the form of a fine yellow powder. parenchymatous matrix. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. Dark areas may still be found here and there. and N-methyltyrosine. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. about 5 mm wide. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith.
and 7-0-glucosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it is used as a stomachic. The predominant aglycone varies. In small amounts. and physcion. the fractured surface. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal.Eur. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. 2. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. but in one investigation. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. chrysophanol. This is applied to the hair and left to dry. and compact. rhein. it is very gritty between the teeth. the mechanism is described under Aloes. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). A very complex mixture is present. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals.5% calculated as rhein). physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. It is then rinsed out. min. astringent taste. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. it is often rhein. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. also (+)-catechin 5. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. aloeemodin. due to the bitter taste. heavy.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). and (+)-gallocatechin. With its high tannin content. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. of which many aglycones have been identified. (+)-afzelechin. when chewed.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). Flavonoids. In most cases.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. Barbados.
French Rose. Minor constituents are citral. however. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. Tannins.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia.0. and astringent. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. approx. catechins. gallic acid. L. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenylethyl alcohol. pink. taste sweetish. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. 5 to 10%. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. slightly bitter. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. and traces of carvone. l-linalool. free and in combined forms with glucose. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. One example would be rose water. and procyanidins. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. odor fragrant and rose-like. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. it can be prepared by using rose oil. glycerol. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. filter.
capric acid. and slightly diuretic. kaempferol-3-glucoside. coriaceous. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. protein. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. isoquercitrin. linoleic acid. alpha-tocopherol. The achenes themselves are hairy. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. magnesium. malic acid. xanthophyll. tannins. Wild Brier. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. flavonoids. lycopene. linolenic acid. gallocatechin.5 to 3. rubixanthin. essential oil. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. rubidium. epicatechin. succinic acid. they are refrigerant. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus.5 cm in length and up to 2. boron.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. Description A bushy.2 cm wide. pectin. When combined with various other hair preparations. invert sugars. low. Constituents Ascorbic acid. vanillin. Description The fruit of R. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mildly astringent. catechin-tannins. evergreen. sucrose. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. opposite. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. much branched. citric acid. and zeaxanthin. it will add highlights to light hair. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. leucoanthocyanins. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. sessile.
The extract can be used in shampoos. characteristic. borneol. odor aromatic. Properties Tonic. flavonoids. The oil is used in fragrances. Constituents Essential oil. and bitter. and showing a prominent midrib. diaphoretic. astringent. lower surface wooly. margin revolute. camphor. boron. phenolic acids. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. lotions. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. etc. creams. it is used to increase circulation. glandular-punctate. stimulant. camphoraceous. tannin. hair conditioners. diosmin. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. protein. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. rosmarinic acid. and triterpenic acids. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. Topically. taste pungently aromatic. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
uneven or lobed. to 1 ft high. antiseptic. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. carminative. linalool. margin crenulate. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. Properties Cosmetically. pubescent stem with branches opposite. borneol. stimulating. flavonoids. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. thujone. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. the reticulations being very small. taste aromatic and bitter. salvin. Constituents Volatile oil.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. and tannins. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. long petiolate. phenolic acids. pinene. Leaves opposite. estrogenic compounds. midrib and veins prominent. fungistatic. In early summer. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. protein. much branched. saponins. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate.6 cm in breadth.5 cm in length. there arises a grayish. caryophyllene. 1 to 2. From an underground fibrous root system. densely pubescent. ursolic acid. venation pinnate-reticulate. 2 to 10 cm in length. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. petiole up to 4. texture velvet-like. cineole. It is antibacterial. camphors. base rounded or subcordate. Sage Garden Sage. lamina elliptical. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). apex acute or obtuse. beta-sitosterol. the upper branches bear blue. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. and disinfectant (against inflammations). Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. carnosolic acid. astringent. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions.
r. pectoral. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. or as a perfume. carvings. In Yellow Sandal Wood. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. palmately lobed leaves. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . wounds. o. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. Asia Minor. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. gr. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. The taste is slightly bitter.973 to 0. hard. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. the vessels are mostly solitary. and similar articles. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. but easily split. and a stomachic. hemostatic. the odor strong and fragrant. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. and lotions. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. and inflammed skin.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. hemorrhoids. –13° to –21°). L. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. alterative. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. vulnerary. North and South America. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. and dense. heavy. of which it contains over 90%.and -santalols). and erect. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. It is also used in perfumery. 0. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. burns. and for the manufacture of boxes. White Sandal Wood.985. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. depurative. astringent. Black Snakeroot. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol.
saponin. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . essential oil. Mucilage. resin. and a bitter principle.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins.
smooth and somewhat oily.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto. Dark Palmetto. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. from 1. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . occasionally compressed.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid.5 cm in diameter.
.. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity. caproic acid. taste sweetish. and lotions. Ulmus rubra Muhl. Properties Sabal berries.. oleic acid. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers..SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. and to 3 mm in thickness. it is coarsely striated longitudinally. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp.. to 17 cm in width.. Odor pronounced. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp.. ferulic acid.. to 1. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles.. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous. Pharm...7 dm in width. mannitol. apex marked by the scar of the style. lauric acid. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. south to Florida and Texas. enclosing a hard. 41. Constituents Anthranilic acid.1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions.6 dm in thickness. palmitic acid. J. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. and incomplete. Ann.. and stearic acid. and slightly acrid. The odor is distinct. aromatic. 1. a native of the southern United States. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown.. 559.. arabinose... Tarayre. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases.. myristic acid. Franc. SEAWEED. 1983. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. aromatic. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . reddish-brown seed. ellipsoidal or ovoid. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota.. capric acid. and to 1. skin creams.. lipase.. inner layer of endocarp smooth. The fracture is very strong.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich... beta-sitosterol. or as cut and sawed pieces. somewhat flattened. when cork patches are present. tough... beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity.. such as anorexia nervosa. sito sterols..P.. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. which measure up to 3 dm in length.. et al.. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids. They are said to be very nutritious. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled... were eaten by the Indians.... beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside.
Massachusetts. etc. Colorado. L-rhamnose. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. hexosan. soothing. tannin (minute). It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. Colorado. and Saskatchewan. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. native from Europe. Florida. and tannin. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. hair conditioners. boils. lotions. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. 3 to 5 ribbed. and wounds. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). stem 3 to 6 dm high. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. North Carolina. minerals. Nova Scotia. polysaccharides. Description Glabrous perennial. Can be used in creams. leaves oval or ovate. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. It can be used to emulsify oil. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient.2 cm long. New Brunswick. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. d-galacturonic acid. starch. 1 to 5. petals pink or white. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and other beverages. protein. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. New Mexico. ulcers. capsule oblong. and beta-carotene. blades obcordate. 5 to 8 cm long. starch. Soap Wort produces a gentle. calyx tubular. pentosans. chemicals that foam when added to water. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. and tannins. healing.
caffeic acid. bracts canescent. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. quebrachitol. disk-florets 15 to 20. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. toothed above the middle on one side. conditioners. leaves linear to oblong. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. tonics. acute or acuminate. scarious. uterine tonic. Manitoba. isofraxidin. Properties Used as a nervine. umbelliferone. and scopolin. disinfectant. scopoletin.5 cm broad. obtuse. 1 to 3 cm long. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. slightly tomentose beneath. the rest broadly oval. rutin. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. and superficial burns. uric acid. guanine. lower leaves petioled. petals obovate. Nova Scotia. having antibacterial properties.ST. Colorado. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. native to Europe. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. Used in aromatic baths. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. Constituents Essential oil. 4 to 6 cm long. flowers cymose. leaves. emmenagogue. with revolute margins. St. etc. 2 to 10 mm wide. and anthelmintic. glandular-punctate. Medically. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. capsule ovoid. frostbite. and for skin conditions. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. ST. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and anodyne. 5 to 10 dm high. Virginia. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. the outer linear-lanceolate. 10 to 12 mm long. astringent. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. stimulant. heads numerous. antiseptic. poultices. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. ray florets about 10. tannin. choline. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. chlorogenic acid. California. corolla 2 to 2. bruises. John’s Wort ing. British Columbia.
flavonoids. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. resin sitosterol. phenolic acids. hypericin-like substances. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. Newfoundland. John’s Wort St. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. hyperoside.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. hypericin. mannitol. New Mexico. tannins. Manitoba. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Virginia. protein. saponin.
quercetin). scape slender. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. seldom over 1.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. very thin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . condensed tannins). very soon glabrate on both sides. and phenolic acids. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid.5 dm high.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. 5 to 7. mostly acute. seldom much exceeding the leaves. fruit elongate-ovoid. sharply and deeply serrate. rhombic-obovate. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol.5 cm long. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. fatty acids. ellagitannins. very rarely leafy-bracteate.
sesquiterpenes. * Formerly CTFA. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. somewhat reddish. carminative. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. The leaves and flowering tops. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. Bitter buttons. usually smooth. phenolic acid. flat-topped. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. It has a stout. English Cost. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ginger plant. Scented Fern. and quercetin. and spasmolytic. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. fern-like leaves and yellow. are collected at the time of flowering. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. erect stem. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. 1 to 3 ft high. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. anthelminitic. Parsley Fern. resin. Also said to be an insect repellant. The entire leaf is about 6 in. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. button-like. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. tannin. and branching near the top. button-like flowers. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. The roundish. tanacetin.
*INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. including treatments for sunburn. pimples. It is found in numerous product forms. abrasions. erect. while cineole is low (about 2. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. ringworm. abrasions. streamsides. conical. The trees are now commercially grown in stands.0 ml high. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . burns.5 to 2. cuts. sparingly branched biennial. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. cymene). Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. boils. New South Wales. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. lice. either singly or with other ingredients. with a broad range of health claims. attaining approximately 20 ft in height.5%). bronchial congestion. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. constantly renewable tree. and vaginal infections. and dense. capsule. and the like. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. 0. thickets. Description A stiff. sore throat. stings. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. Over-wintering leaves. lanceolate. in a flattened rosette. terpinene. athlete’s foot. and Australia. Bark. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. scabies.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. fruit. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. oral infections. insect bites. upcurved. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. spongy.
rare in Britain. Also used in homeopathy. St. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. Description Leaves spiny. 1. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. entire or toothed.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. Mary Thistle. stems. Blessed Milk Thistle. Austin. and magnesium. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. TX. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). flavonoids (keampferol. Foster. fatty acids.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. S. Ed. The injection gives better results. both orally and also by intravenous injection. yellow spines. American Botanical Councin. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. 1955. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. It is said to contain saponins.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. purple. and tannins. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). The root and root stock are short and erect. quercetin. Taste and odor. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. taxifolin). Flowerheads rayless. dark green. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glucosides..
gargles. cyclohexanol. styptic. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. sore gums. Florida. lobed. abscisic acid.5 to 10%. Colorado. Description Viscid-pubescent. and from 0.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. brown or blackish externally. conditioners. acne. much branched. vitamins. leaves two-pinnatifid. diarrhea. flavonoids. -hydroxy acids.5 to 8 cm long.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. mouth rinse. and phytosterols. Texas. antihemorrhagic. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. and sore throats. It can be employed in creams. subglobose. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. minerals. to add sheen. fruit through cultivation very variable. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. branching and more or less curved. and dentate. ascorbic acid. Constituents Proteins. glycine. aspartic acid. menstrual disorder. red or yellow. and California. 0. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. glutamic acid. rinses. It can be incorporated into shampoos. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . that can be used for hemorrhoids. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L. somewhat fusiform. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. cystine. 10 to 15 mm broad. hair tonics. Properties Fruit: astringent. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. facial muds. from 2. lycopene. stem 3 to 10 dm high. glucose. and reddish within.5 to 1. sensitive skin. etc. ellipsoid. New York. or pear-shaped. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. lotions. corolla yellow.5 cm thick.
and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. caffeic. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. tormentillin.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). bluntly tapering at each end. and break with a short fracture. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. and other tropical countries. TURMERIC Curuma longa L.. longitudinally wrinkled. Java. China. they bear short knob-like branches. Indian Saffron. a red pigment. Occasionally. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Curcuma. internally. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. They are hard and heavy. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. quinovic. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow.
guaiane. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. monodesmethoxycurcumin. anti-arthritic. ar-turmerone. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. It is also choleretic. is also present. curlone. it colors the saliva yellow. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. 2-7% essential oil. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. comprising mainly bisabolane. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. antifungal. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. and anti-edemic.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. etc. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). zingiberene. and antimutagenic. ukonan A. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. when chewed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. hypotensive. antibacterial. but the coloring matter.
The taste is sweet. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. pungent. central and cylindrical. and valepotriates (valtrate. relaxant. simple or branched. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. and spasmolytic. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. It is sedative. fatty acids. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. actinidine). Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. alkaloids (valerianine. Belgium and England. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. Cortex is thick. isovaltrate. and to 3 mm in diameter. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. Pith is white or grayish-white. * Formerly CTFA. phenolic acids. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acevaltrate. and baldrinal. and to 2 cm in diameter. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. Roots are branched or simple. cultivated in Germany. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. and disagreeable. Wood is small. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. Constituents Essential oil. The rhizome is vertical. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). valerosidatum). However.
206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and against sunburns. volatile oil. aucubin. hastatoside. Wild Hyssop. Description This rather rough. artemitin. contraceptive. in addition to verbenin. 4 to 7 feet high. long. gout remedy. Verbena officinalis L. ursolic acid. anorexic (appetite suppressant). verbenalin. Simpler’s Joy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . straight. four-sided stem. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. caffeic acid. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. meadows. diuretic.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. verbenelol. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. and superficial and limited burns. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). finely haired herb has an erect. tannin. and Arizona. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. Nebraska. False Verbain. Constituents Iridoids. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida.
* Formerly CTFA. eczema. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. and varicose ulcers. rheumatism. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . disinfectant. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. The leaves are alternate. *INCI Name . irritation of the eyelid. vermifuge. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. astringent.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. styes. ophthalmia. gout. open crown. imparipinnate. Used for skin complaints. Properties Tonic restorative. The kernel is sweet. soft and coarse grained. The wood is light brown. blisters. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. deep. The bark varies from nearly smooth. depurative. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. glandular disturbances. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. round-topped. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. scabbing pruritus. Juglans nigra L. and edible. scrofula. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. oily. west to Minnesota and Kansas.
its action being both detergent and healing.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. Externally. cystine. A Cure For All Cancers. hyperin.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . California. 4. spatulate. lymphatic or edematous swellings. leucine. about 2 mm long. beak about 1 mm long. it looks rather yellowish. 5. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets.. tannin. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. destroying most of its active principles. folacin. gluconasturtiin. 1. Rubbing on scalp. South America. tryptophan. threonine. petals white. alanine. sepals oblong. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). histidine. many trace minerals. glycine. protein. glutamic acid. caffeic acid. and kaempferol. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). aspartic acid. it will strengthen and thicken hair. valine. ascorbic acid. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. somewhat curved. fruiting pedicels divaricate. leaves pinnate. biotin. Description Aquatic perennial. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). arginine. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. Mexico. phenylalanine. Virginia. proline. and diastase. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. amino acids. British Columbia. high in protein. methionine.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. 3 mm thick. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). ellagic acid. lysine.g. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. about 4 mm long. -carotene. thiamine. Rheumatism and nervousness. Clark. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. and Europe. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. West Indies. tumors. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. tyrosine.
Quake Grass. sprouts. of young grass. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Durfee Grass.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. Scutch Grass. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. Durfa Grass. Fin’s Grass. Devil’s Grass. Quitch Grass. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. Twitch Grass. Couch Grass. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. Dutch Grass. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. Creeping Wheatgrass.
. creams.. bent and branched. bearing scattered nodular projections. creeping root stock.. are carefully cleaned.. -carotene. and stem scars on the upper surface.. Colic Root.. thin outer layer.. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes. scattered. Its smooth hollow stems. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas. long. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat.. elongated.. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma.. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. afterwards acrid. flavonoids. Description Knotted and woody. amino acids. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer.. more or less detached. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. and dried.... cut into small pieces about in. Odorless.. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached.. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist.See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L. The flowering heads are produced from July to September. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos. eczema. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . taste starchy. fracture short but tough. and phenolic acids. and dermatitis.. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout.. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root... Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled. Over 240 compounds have been identified. and hair conditioners. 1 to 3 ft high. The root stocks.212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse.....See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES. Constituents Vitamins. thickets. fatty acids.... 6 to 20 mm thick. with numerous small. which are thickened at the joints. WHITE NETTLES... often compressed.. collected in the spring. are produced from a long. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath.. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. externally pale brown... lotions. yellowish wood bundles. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous.. insipid.
anti-inflammatory. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . odor slightly aromatic. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. etc. rinses. antiseptic. as it contains salicin. inner surface. dioscin. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. fracture short fibrous. flavonoids. and antipyretic. triandrin. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. greenish-brown. Contains steroid-like substances. endodermis distinct. fragilin. and trace minerals. in older bark dull. it should be standardized for its salicin content. shampoos. White Willow. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. salicortin. naturalized sparsely in North America. yellowish-brown to dark brown. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. populin. outer surface in young bark smooth. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. taste astringent and slightly bitter. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. It can be used in hair conditioners. as this could vary among different manufacturers. ascorbic acid. Constituents Steroidal saponins. However. irregularly wrinkled. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. dioscorin. antirheumatic. longitudinally striated. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. slightly lignified parenchyma. diosgenin. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. vimalin). analgesic. porous slightly lignified parenchyma.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. cortex composed of thin-walled. minerals. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle.
leaves. Winterbloom. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . eastern Canada. and alcohols. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. forking branches with smooth. esters. Wych-hazel. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. Spotted Witch Alder. thick. bark. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. Description Witch Hazel. eastern United States. and borne on short stalks. yellow flowers. Striped Alder.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. saponins. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. flavonoids. Constituents Essential oil. due to its high tannin content. tannin. brown bark. long. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. It has a crooked stem and long. scattering the shining black. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. when it bursts open. and leaves Bark. and polyphenols.
Description This herb has long. to 2 ft in height. The plant has a rather pleasant. Externally. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. and stachyerine. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. Water Bugle. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. Constituents Alkaloids. Sweet Bugleweed. and Nebraska. erect stem from 6 in. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. Gypsyweed. Green Archangel. smooth. which appear from about July to September. Gypsy Herb. Paul’s Betony. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. slender. Carpenter’s Herb. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. American Water Hoarhound. The whitish flowers. in length. Missouri. They are followed by four nutlets. rather narrow. Therefore. mint-like odor. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. are small. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. shady places from Canada to Florida. including betonicine. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. Gypsywort. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. bitter. and bell-shaped. The leaves are about 2 in.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. but a disagreeable bitter taste. tublar. Wolf Foot. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pointed. Purple Archangel.
and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. unbranched. with four petal lobes. Used in aromatherapy. Description A short perennial. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. calming. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. astringent. etc. when dry. tannin. quadrangular. bitters. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. pointed leaves edged with tiny. with slender.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. forwardpointing bristles. antineuralgic. Odor. and the iridoids asperuloside. white. in loose clusters. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. monotropein. anti-arthritic. coumarin. of new-mown hay. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. antiseptic. citric acid. vermouths. wines. soothing to the nerves. anti-inflammatory. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. Flowers small.
approximately 100 identified constituents. Old Woman. taste bitter. aromatic. chamazulene. isovaleric acid. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. camphene. thujyl alcohol. artabsin. Constituents Essential oil. two to three pinnately divided. -carotene. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. and antipyretic. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. Absinth. protein. Flower heads greenish-yellow. Mingwort. Description This shrubby. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. consist of numerous small. which are from 2 to 5 in. especially in Michigan and Indiana. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. tannins. absinthin. Madderwort. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. are divided into small leaflets. Bitter stomachic. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. long. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. choleretic. yellow heads. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. the lower lobe is petiolate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. insignificant. the inner linear with membranous margins. drooping. anthelmintic. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. It is cultivated in some localities. the florets tubular. Also used to clean atonic wounds. and anthelmintic. p-coumaric acid. thujone. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. 2 to 3 mm long. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. used as an external antiseptic. and the grayish-green leaves. Odor aromatic. rutin.
Sanguinary. diuretic. Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in. dark green leaves..... high and has many finely divided. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields... Green Arrow... and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada. Dog Daisy. Closely related forms occur in the western states... pastures.. Soldiers’ Woundwort. antipyretic. Yarrow Milfoil. It * Formerly CTFA. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small.. feathery.... Carpenter Grass... Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing..... *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium... It has a strong odor.. Cammock....... Gordoloba.Y YAM... Nosebleed.... Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic. and is urinary antiseptic.. white flower heads. 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..... Thousand-Leaf Clover.. astringent.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L. hypotensive.. Thousand-leaf. From June to September... Bloodwort.. Old-Man’sPepper.
flavonoids. Broad-leaved Dock Root. spasmolytic. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. Internally. and furrowed stem. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. camphor. bearing numerous. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. in cultivated as well as in waste ground. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. it is stomachic. and cholagogue. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. and along roadsides. and tannin. long. carminative. and varicose ulcers. Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. phenolic acids. among rubbish heaps. Broad-leaved Rumex. It has been used for cuts. angular. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. blue colored chamazulene). attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. injuries. it is also used in hair care preparations. alkaloids (achilleine). Curled Dock Root. achillin).220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing.
They are washed.The root. Consumptive’s Weed. These are followed by the fruits. in length. tapering or spindle shaped. lapathinic acid. and eruptive diseases. with long stalks. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. and pale radially split wood. emodin. As the clusters ripen. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with few or no rootlets. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. they become rusty brown. The root is large and fleshy. only 3 to 6 in. long. yellowish cortex. psoriasis. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. sores. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. usually from 8 to 12 in. in length. swellings. and tannin. Bear’s Weed. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. from 6 to 8 in. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. while the upper leaves are narrower. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. et Tor. nepodin. short stemmed or stemless. Gum Plant. and carefully dried. protein. chrysophanic acid. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The rather showy. eriodictyol. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. tannin. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. Gabon. dark green. Constituents Resin. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. The narrow. essential oil.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. Schum. chrysoeriodictyl.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. cerotic acid. and eriodyctyonine. eriodictyonic acid. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. butyric acid. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. and the Congo. acetic acid.
and protein. the most important of which is yohimbine. tannin. Texas. It also contains corynanthine. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. leaves rigid. samogenin. fleshy. hence its aphrodisiac effect. Constituents Sarsapogenin. pendent. Description Low. Arizona. 1998.5 cm long. allo-. Torr Yucca brevifolia. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. saponin. fruit large. Soap Yucca Root. style slender. 1. and Nevada. R. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. oblong or conical-ovoid. sepals and petals lanceolate. Kansas. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. the major alkaloid. It is also being used for arthritis internally. Roezl. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. is sympatholytic. Colorado. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. minerals. concave. at low doses. tigogenin. about 7.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pseudo-. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches.1 Yohimbine. coarsely filiferous. Personal communication. spreading. YUCCA Yucca baccata. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. L. shagreen roughened. elongate.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. Soap Weed. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. Properties Yucca contains saponins. and epiallo-yohimbine. Kronenthal. however. sometimes 2 dm long. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. smilagenin. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. with narrow brown margins.
224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
The botanical extract. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. See “Folklore” section. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. not essential oil. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. Hemp. Galls Used to dye the hair black. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Lavender See “Folklore” section. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. However. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. Henna Used to dye hair red. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. makes an excellent hair rinse.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. Oak. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. The leaves contain buxine. Hops See “Folklore” section. Dark brown contains juglone. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black.
Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. and linalol. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. Contains a yellow dye. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. leaving it silky and glossy. The extract contains thymol. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. See Stinging Nettle. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. it will darken the hair. See Lichwort. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. Can be used in deodorants. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. The essential oil is used to add sheen. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. A source of potassium and iodine. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. It also helps to remineralize. and some protein. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. Lemony fragrance. It is antiseptic. make it soft and shiny. and mouthwashes. Combined with rosemary. Vitamins A and D. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. borneol. and help keep it free of dandruff.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp. It is said that when blended with rosemary. Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye.
that is. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. 1. White Willow. glycerin. Birch.3-butylene glycol. Lemon. Proanthocyanidins. Quassia. Calendula. Oats. Rosemary.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Garlic. Ginkgo. powders or extracts. ethanol. Artichoke. Lavender.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Chamomile. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Milk Thistle. Thyme. Bayberry. Golden Seal. Arnica. Asparagus. Nasturtium. Wild Alum. White Willow. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Witch Hazel. Raspberry. Burdock. Fenugreek. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Slippery Elm. Burdock. Chaparral. Tomato. Birch. Lemon. Tilia. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. Yarrow. refer to the index). Tormentil. Juniper Berries. Bistort. White Lily. Artichoke. Orange Peel. oil. Hops. Bayberry. Cinnamon Agrimony. Thyme. either when applied topically or taken internally. Rosemary. Myrtle. Violet. Lavender. Myrrh. Balsam Peru. Inc. Eucalyptus. Cardamom Seed. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Sandalwood. Hawthorn Angelica. Orris. Sandal Wood. Horsechestnut Papaya. Lavender. Bladderwrack. Vinca Minor. Corn Flower. Lady’s Mantle. Peppermint. Sage. Onion. Plantain. Althea. Chamomile. in various vehicles as water. Pansy. Bilberry. Oak Bark. Nettles. Hops. Pineapple. Soap Bark. Nettles. Cucumber. Benzoin. Echinacea. Black Walnut. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Uva Ursi Quassia. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Rhatany. Witch Hazel. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Southernwood. etc. Soap Root. Parsley Broom Flowers. Chamomile. Rosemary. Myrrh. Arnica Lemon. Grapefruit. Sage. Calendula. Thyme. Tumeric. Anise. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Horsechestnut. Lemon Grass. Calendula. Rose. Rosemary. Lemon. Comfrey. Yarrow. Rosemary. Papaya. Lemon. Comfrey. Myrrh. propylene glycol. Bay Laurel. Wild Indigo.
Pine Tar. Fenugreek. Citronella. Comfrey. Chamomile. Black or Neutral Henna. Wormwood Chamomile. Lemon Peel. Coriander. Comfrey. Myrrh. Onion. Southernwood. Althea. Fenugreek. Basil.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Quince. Roseberries. Wild Alum. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Comfrey. Cowslip. Seaweed. Broom. to add highlights Marigold. Chamomile. to add sheen Hair. Nettles. Horsetail Grass. Thyme. Comfrey. Golden Seal. Pansy. Melilote. Horsechesnut. various seaweeds. Marigold Golden Seal. Echinacea various oils. Comfrey. to relieve Nails. Lavender. Sarsaparilla. Cucumber. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Chickweed. Elder. Brown Henna Rosemary. Southernwood. Primula Flowers. Patchouli. Mullein Flowers. Rosemary. Purple Loosestrife. Red Henna. Sage. Witch Hazel Bark. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Camphor. Cedar. Yarrow. Echinacea. Yellow Dock. Comfrey. Slippery Elm. Golden Seal.* Centella. Eucalyptus. Elder Flowers. Rosemary. Jaborandi. Bayberry Bark. Tilia. Feverfew. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Figwort. Lavender. Cantharides. Cade. Nettles. Anise Rosemary. Orris Root. to add highlights Black Walnut. Fenugreek. Rosemary. Raspberry. Fennel. Chamomile. White Willow Aloe Vera. Eyebright. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Rose. White Willow Balm of Gilead. White Willow Bark. Alfalfa. Red Poppy. Rosemary. Witch Hazel. Pilewort. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Malva Flowers. Flax. Flax Horsetail Grass. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Dandelion. Olive. Catnip Bayberry. dry Hair. Oak Bark. Yarrow. Tea. to add highlights Hibiscus. Lemon Peel. Golden Seal. Citrus Bioflavonoid. Garlic. Grapefruit. Echinacea. Quince Seed. Cardamon. Arnica. Nettles. Sage. dark Hair. Rosemary. Cucumber. Chamomile. Corn Flower Water. Oats. Chaparral. split ends Scalp. Pansy. Capsicum. Sage. Comfrey Root. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Hops Chamomile. Burdock. Elder. Calendula. Rhatany. Plantain. Witch Hazel. Orange Flowers. Quassia. Capsicum. Southernwood. Horsetail Grass. Phytoplenolin®. Thyme. Orange Flowers. Capsicum Bistort. Raspberry. Red Clover. Peppermint Aloe. Thyme. Quince Seed. Calendula Oil. Capsicum. Oregon Grape. Raspberry. Myrrh Pennyroyal. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sage. Cleavers. conditioners. Basil. Cucumber Chamomile. Capsicum. Jaborandi. rinses. Neem. Southernwood. Parsley. Horseradish. Birch. Rosemary. etc. Sage Jaborandi. Centella. Chamomile. Orange Peel. Red Clover. Pansy. Peach Leaf. Quinine.
Cleavers. Quince. Apples. Lemon. Hawthorn Berries. Cinchona. Cucumber. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Comfrey. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Aloe Vera. Dandelion. Licorice. Echinacea. Sept. Capsicum. Red Clover. however. Althea Root. Golden Seal. Hawthorn. Bistort. Plantain. Calendula. Chamomile. St. Cucumber. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Pine. Evening Primrose. Slippery Elm. John’s Wort. Ginseng Caraway. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Seaweed. dry Botanical Cantharides.Yarrow. Arnica. Elder Flowers. Orange Peel.804. Seaweeds. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Chickweed. Wild Alum Althea. Parsley. Colts Foot. Corn Flower. Jaborandi. Comfrey. Thuja. Meillot. Birch. St. Echinacea. Lavender.Vinegar. Dandelion. Licorice Cleavers. John’s Wort. Chamomile. Witch Hazel. Citrus bioflavonoids. Lemon. Uva ursi Wild Alum. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Nettles. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Rose. Horsechestnut. Dulse. Yarrow flowers. St. Fennel. Passion Flowers. Lemon Grass. Slippery Elm. Fennel. Centella. Croton.) Aloe Vera. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Poke Root. Violets. Calendula. Red Poppy. Yarrow. Slippery Elm bark. Orange Flowers. Capsicum. Comfrey. Capsicum. Oats. Sage. John’s Wort. Lemons. Chamomile. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Witch Hazel. Lavender. Valerian. Bayberry. Wormwood. Grapefruit. Bayberry. Comfrey. Apple. Primula Flowers. Tilia. Capsicum. Tilia. Plantain. St. White Pond Lily. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Pansy. Peach.206 for Centipeda. Arnica. John’s Wort. Althea Root. 1998. Horsetail grass. Comfrey. Oils. Garlic.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Elecampane Skin. Calendula. Mullein. Witch Hazel. Blue Flag.
The powder is used on abscess. wounds.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. The nuts are spherical. and fleshy. which are coriaceous. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. Vitamin A. internally used to blacken hair. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. etc. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled.5 to 2 cm in diameter. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. It grows in fields and ditches. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. and tonifies the heart. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. elongated. etc. nicotine. elliptical shaped. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. Internally. and eyebrows. Licorice root. nourishes the blood. The seeds are also spherical. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 8 stamens. The flowers are polygamous. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. yellowish brown. tannin. short stiff hairs. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high.) STEUD. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. Ginger. Constituents Saponin. yellowish-white. sores. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. it strengthens the spleen. rough. can be found in the main section. aril white. beard. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. The female flowers are white and ligulate. wedeloclactone.5 to 5 cm wide. 1. Common botanicals such as Lotus.
fats. tartaric acid. pruritus. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yeast infections. choline.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose. ringworm. antiparasitic.70. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. adenine. sucrose. protein. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412. vaginal itches. etc. Vitamins A and B.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema.
amino acids. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. Betaine. Constituents Saponins. palmate leaves. It is also said to promote blood production. hypertension. ostol (C15H16O3). It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. It is an astringent. sugars. lack of appetite. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. alloimperatorin. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. cnidiankin. berry-like fruits. edultin. choline. folic acid. columbianadin (C19H20O5). bornyl isovalerate. Astragalin. diabetes. it could nourish. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. ginsenosides. and has red. asthma. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. etc. dyspepsia. L-camphene. insomnia. any citrus and turnips. astragalin-glucose. and arabinose. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. isoborneol). dihydrooroseiol. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. avoid black tea. used as an aphrodisiac. a glucoside C20 H20 011. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . improves circulation in the skin. columbianetin (C14H14O4). and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. dilates the blood vessels. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. xanthotoxol. weak pulse. amino acids. cnidiadin. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. deficiency of energy.) Bge. When using Ginseng internally. isopimpinellin.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. moisturize. B-sitosterol. heart palpitations. imperatorin.
Constituents Triterpenes. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . trichosanic acid.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. trichokaurin. sugar fatty oil. essential oil. These are a few of the constituents. SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. and antifungal properties. tricosanthin. protein. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. antibacterial. saponins (ginsenosides). To list all would take several pages. resin. (C18H30O2). The root has antipyretic.
It is said to heal without leaving scars. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. reduces swelling. traumatic injuries. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Internally. ginsenosides. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. nosebleeds. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. According to Chinese tradition. etc. Constituents Saponins. blood in the stool. this herb can be used safely in large doses.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. dissolves clots. and is analgesic. Rb2-Rb. and Re. it has been used in coughing of blood. both internally and externally. helps to promote circulation.
U. glucose. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). L-typhasterol. glucose. Vitamin A. long. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. palmitic acid. sitosterol. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. essential oil. and arabinose. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. and a slightly bitter taste. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. rhamnose. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. 1/3 in. ziyuglycoside I. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. II. Cones oblong.V. fructose. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. tannin. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. anti-inflammatory. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. xylose. stearic acid. Constituents Flavonoids. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It has almost no odor.
shoddy bark and light. caryophyllene. tannin. obovate-lanceolate shaped. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. and antiviral properties. fenchone. anthelmintic. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vitamin C. reddish-purple. The flowers are tubular. and is said to have antibacterial. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. and pinnatipartite. resin. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb.5 to 1 m high. astringent. and antipyretic. which has hairs on both surfaces. having pale. L. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. in height.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. and hermaphroditic. pinene. soft durable wood. Constituents Thujone. becoming smaller on top. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. It is a hemostatic. The basal leaves are clustered.-fenchone. 5 to 8 cm wide. flavonoids. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. the base tapers into a winged petiole. 15 to 30 cm long. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base.
Their base runs into a long sheath. -amyrin. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. B-amyrin.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. hemostatic. stigmasterol. and 2 to 6 cm wide.F. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. reduces swelling. skin infections. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. antibacterial. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. and in abscesses. starch. The tuber is thick and fleshy. 15 to 30 cm long. Constituents Glucose. 2 to 3 cm long. anti-inflammatory. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. The perianth is in 6 segments. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. essential oil. It is used in traumatic injuries. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. antifungal. and promotes the healing of the flesh. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and antibacterial. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped.
The dark green. having antipyretic properties. Constituents D-borneol. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17.5 mm in length. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. ipterocopal. palmitic acid. glandular-punctate petals. arachidic acid. dark brown. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. One tree can yield as much as pound. stamens numerous. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. caryophyllene. erythrodiol. esculetin. montanic acid. wax. B-caryophyllene. style 1. odor strongly aromatic.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. hydroxydammarone II. and somewhat 4-angled. boils. capillarisin. analgesic. It has been used in ringworm. Antibacterial. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. humulene. caffeic acid. sores. acetyl eugenol). cold sores. followed by a slight numbness. asiatic acid. dryobalanone. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. which alternate with the calyx teeth. linoleic acid. fat. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. oval. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. stearic acid. and incurved. antibacterial. Constituents Scoparone. crowded. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. and antiviral. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. etc. with numerous ovules. chlorogenic acid. tannin. oleic acid. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. essential oil. See “Botanical” section for further description. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. taste pungent and aromatic. antiparasitic. ovary 2-locular. conjunctivitis. and nasal mucositis. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. It has been successfully applied to abscesses.
10 to 20 cm long. 3 to 4 cm long. The stem is erect with many branches. itchy skin. and 1 to 2 cm wide. imparipinnately divided. The stamens are 10 and free. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. The leaves are alternate. sores. flavonoids. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . constricted between the seeds. The corolla is papilionaceous. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. The pods are cylindrical. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. yellowish-white. pruritus. and allergic reactions. The raceme is terminal. Constituents Alkaloids. which are globose and black. It is used for vaginal infections. Excellent remedy for sores. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. and other skin ailments.
fraxetin. jatrorrhizine. ferulic acid. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . red. used as an eye wash for sore. obakulactone. fraxin. obakunone. Constituents Berberine. aching. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. and red eyes. Constituents Aesculin. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. Antiinflammatory. aesculetin. palmatine. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). coptisine. and swollen eyes.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. tannin. columbamine. magnoflorine. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. It is applied externally to swollen. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. It is said to be a natural antibiotic.
The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers.5 cm wide. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. 1 to 3 cm long. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The leaves are opposite.5 to 1. their margins sparsely serrate. The calyx is bilabiate. and 0.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. ovate shaped. Its stem is erect. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high.
There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. 1 to 1. and English consume this plant in salads. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. decumbent or slanting upward. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents GLA. The flower has 2 sepals. boils. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. and often purplish in color.5 cm wide. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. abscesses. It is used to reduce swelling. Its stem is cylindrical. Italians. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. and intestines. French.. stomach. gamma-linolenic acid. The Chinese. betanidini. It is also a good source for GLA. fleshy. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. betanin. snake bites. beta-cyanin. 5 yellow petals. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color.3 cm long. gamma-linolenic acid. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. antiphlogistic. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA.5 to 1. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. Constituents Portulal. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. 8 to 12 stamens. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs.
246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.4. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.
84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6.248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1.
84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
84929-52-2.250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84082-80-4 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4.
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1. 84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1. 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.
Burma. oil. and saponin in the seed coat. simple. starch. Constituents Furanocoumarins. firm. alkaloids. glabrous slightly compressed. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. covered with numerous black dots. Kal-karanj Nuts. Leaves petiolate. Leaflets about 10 pairs. isopsoralidin. Flowers are dense. sharp recurved spines. chalcones. Description Main leaf axis has stout. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. roots. Essential. perianth covered withspines. Fruit small subglobular. and Sri Lanka. sporalidin. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. hairs few. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). Several species grow in the United States. circular. ellipticoblong. Description It is an erect herb. and flavones. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. corylifolean. and gray with thick testa. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. hairy tip acute. Flowers yellow. campesterol group. ovate or oblong and inflated.BENDUC NUT 253 6. globular. shiny. and protein in kernel. etc. pitted black. Seeds are hard. tannin.
Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. Flowers about 2 cm long. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with winged petiole. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. Leaves membranaceous. and citrulline. sessile. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. aspartic acid. However. oblong. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. Few layers of cork cells are present. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. flower head white. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. bluish-purple. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. reducing sugar. upper leaves smaller. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. The endodermis is indistinct. Seeds also contain protein. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. lanceolate. arginine. Constituents Oil. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. sterols. margin toothed. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. basal are large. and skin diseases. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. phytosterol. Leaves opposite. borne on convex flower heads. and for infectious diseases. and sulfurcontaining peptides. arresting hemorrhage. starch.
but white internally. stipulate. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. The oil and root contains camphene. terpene alcohols. mucronate. entire. Leaves simple. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. slightly broader than long. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. slightly recurved. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. Flowers are small. The fruit is subglobular.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. greenish-yellow. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. unisexual. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. arranged densely on the branchlets. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. phyllanthe emblic. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. In old samples. Description A medium tree. Feathery. apex subacute. linear oblong or elliptic.
stamens 4 in 2-pairs. The leaves yield ursolic acid. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. Flowers small. pubescent calyx. smooth and shining. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. krishna tulsi. Leaves are simple. testa light-red. and carvarol. Leaves pinnate. in terminal raceme-like panicle. filament slender. apex thick and blunt. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. antipyretic. sacred basil Leaves. Each flower consists of. antihepatotoxic.& Bpinene. flowers. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. antispasmodic. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. CNS-depressant. antiulcer. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. cotyledons very oily. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. point decurved. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . corolla 2-lipped. bitter. seeds. hairy along the veins. antidiabetic. tulsi. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. decyladehyde. style 2-lobed. antifungal. opposite. taste bitter.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. insecticidal. elliptic-oblong. Sri Lanka. such as antistress. subcoriaceous. antibacterial. pod woody. 2 to 4 inches long. antispermatogenic. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. A. ovate compressed. camphor. and luteolin. odorant. margin serrate. exserted. very short. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. apigenin. antiviral. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. antihistaminic.
sitosterol. The bark contains alkaloids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and as an anthelmintic. the berries are the color of a raisin. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. with a peculiar pungency. pectin. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. the inner membranaceous. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. thick. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. Constituents Saponins. except at the scar. pengaglabrone. each berry is the size of a cherry. kaemferol. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. smooth. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. herpes. Radicle at the base of the seed. the size of large a pea. The seed is black. tough. and other cutaneous diseases. glucose.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. cotyledons unequal. singly. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. the skin is shriveled. The root bark is rustybrown externally. pongamin. leaves. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. yellow within. S. (S. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. rheumatism. the pulp translucent. The oil is used to treat scabies. and translucent. spirally incurvate. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. pointing to lower and inner angle. When dry. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. and butyric acid. where it is woody. Emarginatus. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. firm and fleshy. the testa is double. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. Properties The seeds. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. pongamol. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. . then bitter. the outer very thick and hard. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil.
and tonic. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. Root consists of short stock.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. Properties The roots are astringent. leucoderma. alterative. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. then acrid and bitter. skin diseases such as ulcers. The taste is sweetish at first. gum. fruit long. coloring matter. Description A climbing plant. deobstruent. and discoloration of skin. freckles. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. and sugar. alizarin. Leaves heart shaped. round violet colored and seeds light black. flowers small yellow in color. and xanthine. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. It also has anodyne properties. inflammations. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . garancin. scaly. Constituents Roots contain resins.
valves papery smooth. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. Epidermal hairs are few. and contain obvate.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. starch. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). seeds. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. and bitter extractive matter. which also contains sesquiterpenes. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery.000 to 15. It is a good substitute for valerian. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. and Nepal. nervous headache. slightly curved. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. Roots contain valeranone. Leaves usually in pairs sessile.5% essential oil. is used to dye the hair black. Corolla 5-lobed. and flatulence. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. calarenol. B-sitosterol. oblong or ovate. Flowers in racemes. nardol. Pods broadly oblong. Description An herbaceous plant. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. valeranal. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. Himalaya (11. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. sugar. Rhizomes long. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. Senna is also a safe purgative. resin. mainly in palpitation of heart. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and combined with Henna. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. n-hexaconsanol. dark brown. Bhutan. nardostechone. Tracheids and few fibers.
Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume
Synonyms: Parts Used:
Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.
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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.
Neem (whole plant)
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PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.
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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Southern India.
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Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed
Synonyms: Parts Used:
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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.
WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.
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in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. greenish or yellow flowers. elliptinone. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. For improving sight. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. petiolate and alternate. rheumatism. somniferine. withanine. The dried root is of uniform appearance. and droserone. It is in flower all year long. It bears small. erect. Licorice powder. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. withananine. tapering. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. gastric stimulant. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. somniferinine. loss of memory. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and appetite stimulant. Isolation of nicotine. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. globose. grayish or hoary. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. Leaves simple. fracture short. white internally. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. zeylinone. The root is seldom branched. ovate hair-like branches. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism.3-biplumbagin. Somnifera. brittle. and starchy. It is also cultivated. plump. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. branching perennial. Constituents It contains alkaloids. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. 3. Iso-zeylinone. senile debility. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. as in enlarged glands. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. smooth. loss of muscular energy. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. smooth. and spermatorrhoea. a mixture of W. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. brain lag.
Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. choline. In addition to alkaloids. pseudotropine.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Roots also contain tropine. and cuscohygrine.
These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6.
270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. U. White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel.S. Black Ash. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bitter Orange Peel.
U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.
pale Cinchona. yellow Cinchona. black Cohosh. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. blue Cohosh. pale Cinchona. calisaya Cinchona.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh.
Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara.S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion. U.
U. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula.S. U. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . S.
Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. U. Canadian Hemp. S. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. White Indian Hemp. American Hellebore. Black Hellebore. S. Black Indian Hemp. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp.
276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
S. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. Green Osier. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper.
278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
S. Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica. U.
U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber. S. U. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.
Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Optuntia.F. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Juglans nigra L. Cynara scolymus L. Agrimonia eupatoria L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Betula alba L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Ruscus aculeatus L. Fucus vesiculosus L. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Aloe vera L. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D.
) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Larrea divaricata Cav. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. Geranium maculatum L. Sambucus nigra L. Scrophularia nodosa L. & Aschers. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Br. Symphytum officinale L. Gentiana lutea L. Allium sativum L. Symphytum officinale L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Cucumis sativus L. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Zea mays L. Inula helenium L. purpurea. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Centaurea cyanus L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. spp. See Coleus Galium aparine L. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L.
Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Calendula officinalis L. Centella asiatica L. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Melissa officinalis L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Justicia Adhatoda. Althaea officinalis L. Hedera helix L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Mac Fad. Hydrastis canadensis L. Gaertn. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Solidago Virgaurea L. et. Ocimum sanctum linn. Amoracia rusticana. Schert Equisetum arvense L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Burman F. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Citrus paradis. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Camellia sinensis L. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Pongamia glabra P. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Limm Malva sylvestris L. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
ssp. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Allium cepa L. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Commiphora molmol. Carica papaya L. Regn. Pinus silvestris L. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rubus idaeus L. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Olea europoea L.L. Mentha piperita L. Papaver rhoeas L. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Engler Myrtus communis L. & P. Lythrum salicaria L. Tabl. Vinca minor L. Rheum rhabarbarum L. papyrifora. Veget. Vent. and B. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Trifolium pratense L. Nasturtium officinale R.
) Acacia Concinna. Salvia officinalis L. Juglans regia L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. Juglans nigra L. Salix alba L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Artemisia abrotanum L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St.) Tanacetum vulgare L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Betonica officinalis L.
288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Gentiana lutea L. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Yucca brevifolia.) Perre Yucca baccata. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Torr. Schum. Artemisia absinthium L. Rumex crispus L.
and red pigments. high in carotenoids. body rubs. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. 7. and vitamin content. However. mineral. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. etc). and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. 10. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. weeds. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. cosmetics. and sometimes in seawater. It is said that life started in the seas. mud baths. blue. and have even been used to put a head on beer. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. Seawater. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. as well as vitamins. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. 2. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. sea grasses. including: 1. 5. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. e 8. 9. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. etc. 4. 6. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. ice cream. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. 3. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. Cryptophyta — Contain green. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. bath. The sea holds an endless source of life. They are also used as thickeners in jams. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. Xanthophyta. phytoplanktons. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water.7 Marine Natural Products 7. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. and sterols. sauces. Xanthophylls. Approximately 85% of water is seawater.
One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. fucose polymers. prostaglandins. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. and cosmetic fields. Therefore. emulsions. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. B12. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. second. First. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives.g. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. carotenoids. and imparts slip. such as ursolic acid derivates. For plating microorganisms. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. B2. For example. lipids. and other fruits. cranberry. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. furanoterpenes. growth substances. anthelmintics. Kelp is also the main source for algin.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. and polysaccharides. for example. emulsion stabilizer. steroids). Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. pears. glycine. it is resistant to microorganisms and. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. diterpenes. anticoagulants. polyphenols. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. and lycine). Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. and C. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. mainly from some gelidium species. pharmaceutical. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. and herbicides. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. proteins. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. and vitamins.. marshmallows. prunes. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. and ice cream as a thickening agent. cardiac substances. proline. sulfur compounds. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. acetylenes.
creams. Mn. iron.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. and carbohydrates. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. potassium. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). calcium. potassium. C. protein. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. and antiglaucomic. in combination with Vitamin E. salads. B12. a synergestic effect was exhibited. galactose. particularly fluoride. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. minerals (Zn. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Co. K. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. There are traces of chloride. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. phosphorus. However. which is a polysaccharide. L. Ca). It is said to contain a low-toxicity. broadspectrum. and ointments. iodine. it has a high content of potassium. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. Laminaria longicruris (L. bromide. F. B6. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. oleic. Algin. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. phosphorus. both in vivo and in vitro. palmitic. antioxidant. sodium. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. I. and lauric acids). Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. and glutamic acid. B12. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. B 2. and mannitol. magnesium. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. myristic. fat. B. In addition. Fe. antimicrobial agent. B3. B3. mannitol. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. Cr. including iodine. A). Mg. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. and iodide ions. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). shampoos. B6. lotions. and zinc. etc. B. P. Na. Sargassum contains fructose.
This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10.000). Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55. which means it is a self-sufficient. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. sulfonate. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. rheumatism.1%). F. alginic acid. It is a single-cell protein. and as a massage for cellulite. Eisenia contains a complex polymer. Halidrys siliquosa L.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). mainly iodine (0. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga.02 to 0. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. containing all the essential amino acids.500 IU/100 g 180. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. polar lipids. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. phlorotannins. and the Baltic Sea. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O.8 mg/100 g 1. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. sterols as free fucosterol. fucans. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols.6 Fucus contains trace minerals. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L.3.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids. the Pacific. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. sulfated. Lyngb. single-cell. Echinus esculentus L. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). polysaccharides. a well-known anti-inflammatory. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro.
8 mg 1.80 w/w% 0.8 mg 1. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin. In a controlled study. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll. Dr.38 w/w% 3. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.06 w/w% 0.2% 55. a blue green algae (cyanophyta). It is found in both brackish and fresh water.6% 60. The Emerald Food. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.70 w/w/% 2.500 IU/100g 180. Moreover.8 mg 1...2% 4. Chlorella also contains a growth factor. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.20 w/w% 2.8% 18. Chlorella.64 w/w% 1. et al.9 mcg 15.469 mg 613 mg 1.6 mcg 0.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81.9 mcg 191.1% 0.59 w/w% 3.0% 20.63 w/w% 5.A.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0.46 w/w% 1.7 mg 125. Tests performed by the U.45 w/w% 2. called the Chlorella Growth Factor. Spirulina Spirulina.29 w/w% 3. 14-15.5 mg 4.5% 11.78 w/w% 6. pp.40 w/w% 4. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.64 w/w/% 5.26 w/w% 2.S. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation. B.08 w/w% 0.3 mg 26. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.08 mg Potter.09 w/w% 3.93 w/w% 3.29 w/w% 2. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.
carbohydrates (15 to 25%). Ge.L. lipids (4 to 7%). Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca. as it is high in plant protein. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. minerals.40) B1.L. G. Spirulina. B12 Folacin. B3. Na. and minerals (5 to 10%). etc.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fe.A. Zn. Cr. B2. Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. B6. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. Mg. Biotin.A. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. vitamins. Cu. carotenoids. Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. Mn. P.. K.
such as the curacins. such as those of elevated salinity. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. Related unicellular microorganisms. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. and ascidians. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. kalkitoxin. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . were isolated from marine organisms.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. but no chemical study has been reported. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. antillatoxin. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. barbamide. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. the search is only beginning. Thus. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. bacteristatic. soft corals. as a soothing demulcent.13 6.11 4. which although poorly known. having distinct anti-cancer properties. Unfortunately. pressure. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. Significant compounds. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. the following being some examples: 1. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. anticancer. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas.12 5. penazetidines. Oahu. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. microcolin C. melemeleones. 7.10 3. anti-inflammatory. and marine organisms. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans.9 2. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. are common in marine environments. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. and imidazole disulfides. or temperature. cyanophyta. sponges. the Bacteria. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. bactericidal. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. including phaeophyta. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. plant. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. and chlorophyta. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms).8 The results obtained are quite promising.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi.
One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia.17 10. the eudistomins. the swinholides. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media.19 12. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. fungi.15 8. including corals and sponges. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. and the theonellapeptolides..16 9. actinomycetes. tunicates. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. and cytotoxic activities. A series of B-carboline derivatives. Cyanovirin-N. which display a variety of pharmacological activities. a unique anti-viral protein. including potent antiviral.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and true symbionts from sponges. and gorgonians. which produce anti-tumor compounds.18 11. antimicrobial.
were isolated from the marine sponge. immunopotentiating.24 17. C. Many novel.25 18. Isolation of Dysidiolide. makaluvone. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle.32 25. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.39 32.36 29. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines. cytotoxic natural products.33 26. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum.27 20. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa.22 15. discorhabdin A. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic. Okoadene and Mailidene.34 27.30 23. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp.21 14. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. E. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity. Several new classes of compounds. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. Phorbas sp. and F. Isolation of Microcolin C.38 31.31 24. and anti-tumor promoting properties. Cyclomarin A. a novel.26 19. B.23 16. including makaluvamines A. New antimycotics.29 22.28 21.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges). which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. latrunculin B and swinholide A. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. phorboxazole A and B.37 30. Diamirone B.35 28. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. D.
and Molinski. McCarthy. P. 1993... 32..W. Shoemaker.A. Yoo. M. Wright. 478-488. S. 39.. J. ibid P 28. Linton. 304-313... Can.E. Chem. H. Gulakowski.. Barrows. and Boyd. and Crews. Erim. G. K.. B.A.A. H.K. D.. Meeting. 15.. 25.... July 27-31.. 34. Santa Cruz (UCSC).J. and Thompson.. Shangxiao. 18. Zheng. G. and Harrigan... and Scheuer. T.. B. L.. El-Sayed. D. ibid P 150. and Scheuer. 2441-2446. Blunt. S..A. Mendola. Screening of biological activity. Andersen. G.A.C. and Yavor. pp. W. Clark.E.... ibid P 149.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. Pettit. G.. B. J.P. et al..A. Natural Prod. 38. Crews. Franklin. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy.H. D. Dhyana. 22.. Bewicke...J.E. Pomponi. Duh.. and Cardellina. and Hung.. Allen. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. J.D. Gerwick.K. I. and Ireland. Hamel. O 50. 3. Venables. 1996.. ibid O 10. R. P. Coleman. L.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Kelly. Schumacher. ibid P 155... 37. 11. and Russel G. R. J. J. Baker. F. S.J.-R.J. Westley.... Plubrukarn. 19.. Jayatilake. J.C. 33. and Munro. 20. H. ibid P 19... 16.. K. Searle.. R. ibid O 26. G.. Papers presented at the 37th Annu.F.E. M. 7.. Lidgren. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae..M. Haughey. and Walter. 2.. 8. July 27-31. R. M.-D.. 1990.. J. Harrigan... 401-414. Smith. 29.. B.R. J. S. E. J. Slate.. P. 29. A. K. Lill..J.. N. Green.. Mendola. R. L. J. J. Lassota.. Andersson..M. 14-15. M. 27. and Gerwick. 12.. L. W. ibid O 25. S. J. and Bair.J.A. Suecica.G. Maranda. Xie. C. Ogren.T... Javor.R. 1977. and Joseleau. B. L..-P.. C. ibid O 11. ibid P 36. J. H. and Crews. R... Gerard. C. ibid S 15. and Baker. Mokinski.. Chan. Bohlin. McCombs. 21. J.B. 20(6).. S.A. W. Boyd. 31. and Bauer. P. H. and Wang. The Emerald Food. McKee. Kloareg.P. T. 1975. G. M. 180. 4. P. K. L. W. and Munro. Abstr. and Leahy..W. J. Fernandes... Gulakowski.. A. Cardellina. Lloyd. 1996. Forenza. Fucus Vesiculosus L. Solimabi. L. Ph. 17. Hong... Chlorella. McMahon... D.S. Dunbar. Varoglu. ibid P 25. 56(4).G.. L.T. ibid P 27. M.. M. and Rodriguez. Copp. T. ibid S 9..Y. and Afzelius. C. ibid P 141.. UCSC.H. Lawry... ibid P 154... 28. O’Keefe. Haden.. L.R. M. Heath.. 5. T.. ibid O 36. Goins.W. Perry. K. L. S. and Hamann..A.. R. de Silva...M. J. ibid P 156... T. Pharmaceut. ibid O 49. Wilkins. P.. Potter. Carney. Bringano. P. M. 6. Nakao. Brielmann.. El Sayed. R. Andrew. 9. 64.. Castor. Gerwick.S... and Francis. M. Ragan.. J. R. J... ibid S 14. N.K. A...A. W. B. Sheehan.F. M. O’Keefe.. and Gould. Freyer.. D. 1983... ibid P 30.J.. J.. A. ibid S 22. 30. ibid P 9. D. B. P.J. ibid P 26. Hemling. J. Magni.J. D. Mar. K. S. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae. Beverly A. 40..G.. S. J.T.. ibid P 145. L. D. I. and Hamann. J.J. Ind. B. Kerr.A.. Lam. M... S. G. T.A. Janus. Brzezinski. J..F. Haygood. Janda.-Y. Zhang. D.. D. Dumdei. B.. D.S. 13.. 24... Davidson. ibid P 151. Yoshida. Major. R.A.H.J. Carte’... 36.. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. Al. S..A.. Schmitz. 23. ibid O 38. Ferrante. Hook. J.. O’Sullivan. K. Gush. M.. Blunt... B. Phytochemistry. Mabeau. 63.. T. Gunasekera. 1985. P.P. B. McInnes. 6. S 8. McMahon. and Kelly-Borges. Acta Pharm. M. Chikarmane. Hargraves. Harrison. ibid P 31. Fulton. Beutler.... 35. ibid O 7. Sci. Y. M.. 26. Rea.... M. J. 1258. 14. and Kerr... C.. J. 10. R.R. P... P. J. ibid S 23.. Rodriguez. S. B. J.P. Sci.. Gustafson.
Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.2 (±0.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47.5 (±0.60 21.10 0.00 6. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc. Patterson. 5. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing.10 0./Lipo Chemicals. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products. 8. 5.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC. In main kettle.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq. 3.. 2. PROCEDURE: 1.00 0. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes. Rohm & Haas. 207 19th Avenue. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent.10 q. either alone or in combination with other products. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature.2) with Sequence 5. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. Therefore. Henkel. NJ 07504.00 10.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. 4.s. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used.00 10. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. Adjust pH to 9.s. Inc.10 0.00 q. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. Adjust pH to 5.
sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Henkel. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Rohm & Haas.10 q.10 0. high-foaming. In main kettle.s. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. combine Sequence 1 ingredients. Inc.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.5 (±0.00 0. 10.2 (±0.00 10. 3. Lipo Chemicals.10 q. Procedure: 1.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq. 6. 7. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.00 0. at room temperature. 4. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31.00 20.10 0.00 6. 5.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. 6.s.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq. Adjust pH to 5.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. 2. Amerchol.10 0. Adjust pH to 9. Inc.00 1.50 15.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous.
99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform.FORMULATIONS 301 8. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed.10 0.95 0. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine. 5. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Inc. 4. In main kettle at room temperature. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed.00 0. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch.00 1. 2.(Induchem). B. 6. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform.10 0. Aqualon.F. Procedure: 1.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq.10 5. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens.50 1. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. 3.45 0.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Goodrich Co.50 3. Inc.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65.
At 30°C. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C.10 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cool to 30°C.00 10.10 0.54 5.s.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15.10 0.96 63.00 5. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.10 q. At 25°C. In main kettle. 3. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Inc.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals.00 0. Procedure: 1. Inc. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0. add Sequence 3 to correct shade.10 0. 2.
Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . BASF.FORMULATIONS 303 8. Procedure: 1. Givaudan Corp.00 4.50 0.10 0.10 0. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals.10 0.10 0. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.00 2. Inc.50 0. In main kettle.10 0. Begin cooling. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C .05 6.28 0.10 0. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved. Haarmann & Reimer Corp. Cool to 25°C. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86.02 0.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base. 3. 2. Inc. Fanning Corp.
Inc. Procedure: In main kettle. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform. 3. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .88 45.00 5.00 0. Inc. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4.00 0.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. 8. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1.75 0. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92. 10% sol’n Supplier B.82 0.70 2. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine. 2. Spl Phosphoric acid.00 0. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals.10 g.10 0.05 0.05 20. Cool to 60°C.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31.80 0.s. F. 4.25 0.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant.30 0. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous.10 0.
B. Goodrich. Guardian Chemicals. 99% Hypan SA100H 25. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible.70 1.05 1 2 Triethanolamine.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp. Lipo Chemicals.20 0.10 0. 2.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0.F. 3. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25.00 0. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine.FORMULATIONS 305 8.00 5.00 2.30 0. Procedure: 1. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5. Inc. Lipo (Kingston).00 3 Lubragel MSb 35. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.
Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . indehiscent. one-seeded fruit. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Achaenium. Acerose: Needle-shaped.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. the fecundating material from an antheridium. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. or flower-arrangement. or Akene: A dry. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. Acicular: Needle-shaped. as ferns. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. one-celled. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. with firm pericarp. like the leaves of pines. containing the pollen. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues.
Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. Bacca: A berry.. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Blisters: See Vesicants. the hilum and the chalaza being together. Cardamon). Bulb: An underground discoid stem. Castor seed). Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. stiff hairs. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below.g. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Calcarate: Spurred. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal.. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. Capitate: With globose head. a pulpy. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. as bi-foliate. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck.g. Bristles: Sharp. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears.. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves.g. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. Nutmeg). Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. Atropous: With erect ovule. meristematic cells. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. rare in present times). Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. with two leaves. Axillary: Growing in an axil. Appendages: Superadded parts. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Apetalous: Without petals. Bi-: Signifying double. Capsule: A dry. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. carrying the ovary. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. cinnamic). Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue.. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle.g. Carina: The keel.
g. Coriaceous: Leathery. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. Caulis: The stem. Clavate: Club-shaped. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . one-seeded. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. outer layer. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. indehiscent fruit. Cilia: Marginal hairs. Convolute: Rolled up. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis.. thick. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. one-celled. usually distinct. Cathartic: A purgative. Caudex: The axis. Connate: where two parts. Also a name given to a short. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Cohesion: Attachment. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. upright rhizome. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. Caudale: Having a hairy style. Umbelliferous fruits). Cortex: The bark. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. from which they hang when ripe. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Contorted: Twisted. become joined. tuber-like. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Cespitose: Tufted. Corm: A solid. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Costa: The midrib. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile.
Crispate: Curled. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. Definite: Constant. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Deltoid: Triangular. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Decompound: Many times compound. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. lymphatic. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Deciduous: Falling off. Discoid: With convex face. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Didymous: In pairs. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Didynamous: With four stamens. producing intellectual confusion. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Determinate: Definite. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. etc. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. two long and two short. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. downward throughout the length. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Dichotomous: Forked. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Deflexed: Bent. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. dividing into irregular branches. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. or tending to fall. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Deliquescent: Dissolving.
and pith distinct. wood. Epigynous: Adnate to. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. or borne on. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. E: Signifies deprived of. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. Extrorse: Turned outward. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. nearly parallel. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. wood. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Exogenous: Having bark. Etiolated: Blanched. the ovary.. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Fibrils: Root-hairs. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. and bark. Echinate: Prickly. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Escharotics: See Caustics. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Epidermis: The true skin.g. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. purgation). Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Episperm: The coat of seed. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. the outermost layer. without. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit.
Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Flocculose: Woolly. Globose: Roundish. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. as in the cypress and juniper. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Filiform: Thread-like. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Furcate: Forked. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped.g. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. etc. orange). the point of attachment.. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Fimbriated: Fringed. Flexuose: Wavy. algae. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. as petals and leaves. more swollen on one side than on the other. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Glabrous: Smooth. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. devoid of hairs. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Fid: Cleft. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. as bifid. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther.
Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Causing watery evacuations. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Internode: Interval between nodes. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). Irritant: Any substance causing pain. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Inferior: Growing below another. like shingles. Laxative: A mild purgative. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. two or three times longer than broad. i. layer. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. on the receptacle. rabbits. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form.e. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). Lateral: Attached to the side. Incanescent: Hoary. inflammation.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. Keel: See Carina. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Introrse: Turning toward the axis.. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). or appearing to have. Inarticulate: Not jointed. Innate: Adhering to apex. Lacuna: A space between cells. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. either by mechanical or chemical action. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals.e. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Imbricated: Overlapped. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. the lower petal of an orchid. Involute: Rolled inward. dogs. and irritation. Lacinate: Fringed. Inflexed: Bent inward. Labellum: (Lip). as innate anther. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. cats. i. joints or nodes. Jointed: Having. squirrels. etc. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate..
the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). leaves. Multifid: Many-cleft. with upper lobes largest. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Lobate: Divided into lobes. but with lipclosed (flower). Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Monogynous: Having one carpel. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Monandrous: Having one stamen. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. with parallel sides. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. often caused by fungus infection. Masked: Labiate. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. style. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. and roots. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Monospermous: One-seeded. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Monopetalous: Having petals united. with hard tubercles. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. Muricate: Rough. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Medulla: The pith of exogens. Locusta: The spike of grasses. found at the ends of young stems. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Ligulate: Strap-like. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Linear: Narrow. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. or stigma. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
death. another plant. Obsolete: Suppressed. having tufts of leaves at extremity. Obtuse: Blunt. Nut: A hard. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. the wings. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. and nourished by. with lateral divisions again subdivided. indehiscent. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. with lobes nearly free. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. Offset: A short. Pedate: Palmate. Oblique: Unequal sided. in large doses. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. and the keel. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. Node: Point where the leaf develops. apex broad (leaf). Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Parasitic: Growing upon. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Pedatifid: Pedate. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. thick runner. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. Pedatipartite: Pedate. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. as ergot. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. Orbicular: Circular. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. rounded. as in the pea-flower. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. one-celled fruit. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents.
Peltate: Shield-shaped. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Polygamous: With male. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. Pendulous: Hanging down. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Pubsecent: Downy.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. two or more celled. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. with petiole attached at or near the center. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. few-seeded. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). and perfect flowers on the same plant. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. melon. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. Personate: Masked. Pilose: Hairy. fleshy fruit. Pentandrous: Having five stamens. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. indehiscent. squash. Petaloid: Resembling petals. and the like. usually of family Leguminosae. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Petals: The corolla leaves. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. pointed cells. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Pod: A general name given to dry. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. female. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. resembling a mouth. Pome: An inferior. dehiscent fruits.
Retuse: Obtuse. such as glands. with wide lips (corolla). Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. rooting and budding at nodes. Saccate: Sac-like.. Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. creeping. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with deep notch in middle (leaves). Revolute: Rolled backward. one. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). with reflexed margins (estivation). Runcinate: Jagged margin. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. winged. Radical: Springing from roots. Setae: Stiff. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. indehiscent. and producing pustules. its function being to support the flower organs. and shriveled. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Reclinate: Bent downward. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Retrorse: Directed backward. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp.or two-celled fruit. Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Ringent: Labiate. Runner: A slender. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. Sheath: See Ocrea. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. etc. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). bearing leaves and rootlets. bristly hairs. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Reduplicate: Valvate. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). dry. Recurved: Bent backward. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. prostrate stem. Scarious: Thin. Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors.
Soboles: Slender rhizomes. dehiscing from below upward. and one short pair. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. Sporangium: A spore-case. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Squamose: Scaly. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. bearing the stigma. Suture: A line of junction. Subulate: Awl-shaped. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Tomentose: Pubescent. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). falsely two-celled pod. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. in pairs. Spine: A pointed modified branch. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Stamens: Male organs of flowers. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Tendril: A thread-like. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Ternate: Arranged in threes. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. may be modified leaf or stem. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. spiral branch. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). leafless. with short hairs. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Stipitate: Stalked. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower.
Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. Volute: Rolled up. Valvate: United only by the margins. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Verrucose: Covered with warts. Versatile: Freely swinging. Sayre. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Trichomes: Hairs. 529-536. Uncinate: Hooked. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. few-seeded fruit. one-celled. 1895. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Utricle: A superior. Verticel: A whorl. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. Vexillum: The standard. Zones: Concentric bands. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem.GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Lucius E. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. pp. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Urceolate: Urn-shaped. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder).. Toxic: Poisonous.
Biddles. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance.K. 1994. 1996. British Herbal Medicine Association.. 2nd ed.. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. Merck & Co. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Notes on Parmacognosy. A Modern Herbal. A. 1989. Stuttgart.. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. Vol. CRC Press. 1–7.. Bisset. Merck Research Laboratories. Boca Raton. Ehrhart & Karl. Chicago. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. M. The National Formulary XVIII.. N. Aug. 4. St. New York. 1936. New York. 4th ed.E. 1930. Wallis. 1932.. Rockville.E. 13. J... 1971. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co.. New York. New Jersey. Duke. Robert E. 1902. Tyler. 1996. Leung and S. Biddles. Guenther.. 5. PA. British Herbal Compendum.. Pharmacognosy. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. Huntington. 12th ed. & A. 20. 6. Vol. U. Foter. O. Plant Drug Analysis.K. Natural Products Chemistry. Bladt. Churchill Ltd. 2. 21. Y. The Essential Oils. 23. U. Boca Raton. MD. Herbs of Choice. John Wiley & Sons. 19. Inc. 1993. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Haworth Press. Potter & Clarke. 9. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. A. NY. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Vol. Louis. MO. MIS Publication. 1995. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. T. Washington. I and II. Bailliere Tindall. The Merck Index. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. Philadelphia. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. CRC Press. Grieve. J. 1964. Ltd. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. 1983. V. Dover Publications.A. London. 11.C. 1992. Paris. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. 14.. 8. I and II. 4th ed. Wren. Haworth Press. Wagner and S. FL 1992. J. Duke. New York. 1996. Academic Press. 15. 1995. Blakiston’s Son & Co. 1990. 1960. Bruneton. 22.. 16. 18. 1975. 2nd ed. Lavoisier. IL. G.E. 17. H. E. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. 1992. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. 7. 3.A. 24. 7th ed. Boca Raton.. D. 12.. Bournemouth. Tyler. J. Wall. K. 3rd ed. Berlin. The Honest Herbal. FL. Mack Publishing. Nakanishi et al. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.W. 13th ed.C. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Vol. CRC Press. American Pharmaceutical Association. 1. Ltd. 10.... FL. Youngken. P. 1974. V. London.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1. U.K. H. SpringerVerlag. 1997. Krieger Publishing. R. Tease and Evans. 1994.. Ltd...
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