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BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.
CRC Press Boca Raton New York
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:
Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.
Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Dioscorides. Let it reflect brightly upon us. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. men like Shen Nong. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. sorting. experimenting. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. Over time. Chinese. As formulators and purveyors. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. Originally. observing. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. Galen. Always wanting to know more. But more than anything. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. and Avicenna. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. always wanting to find a more active plant. to use plants wisely. Mithridates. Theophratus. Initially. And then the Babylonian.
He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists. Inc.. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. Frank D’Amelio.AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. He founded BioBotanica. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry. vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Sr.
Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. and assistance in editing the manuscript. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. Special thanks to Professor Dr. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. patience.
.............................24 3...6 Carbohydrates......5 Alkaloids...............................................3.1................................................43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..........................1 Forms 4...................................42 Fluid Extracts ........................................................6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems...................................3............................................1............3 4...............3..........................5 1................3 Tannins.....................1.............................................................................2 Solubilities ........................................................................9 2............................................11 2....................................1...9 2...............................11 2............................1.....2 Macromorphology .....................1........................11 2................................................1 Plant Identification ..CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1..........1 1.......................8 Volatile Oils..........4 Ultraviolet Light ....................................1 4........................................................1 1.................................11 2..........................................................................2 Phenols .................1............................................2 4.........35 Chapter 4 4...............................................................4 4.........................................................................................................................................3.....................7 Assay Procedures ............................................................................10 2.................30 3..............................................................26 3..........................9 Resins and Resin Combinations .................1......5 Yield to Solvents .......28 3...1 1..........................................3 Physical Constants........1 1......7 Methods of Identification........39 Extraction Terminology................................4 Proteins .3 Micromorphology..................................1.......26 3.................................................................................................................................39 Percolation ...................................................................................................1 Botanical Terminology ..........................................................................................................................................25 3.....3 Procedures ..................................................................................................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3........................................5 1.40 Decoctions .....................5 Preparations of Extracts ................................................14 3..........................................................................................5 Infrared Spectroscopy..11 References ..................................41 Infusions ..........................................1......................1 Microscopical Techniques.....3......7 Glycosides .......................................1...............................................................................................................1 Constituents of Drugs....................1...........................................................................................2 1................................11 2.............8 Gas Chromatography...........2 1........................................................................................................................10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ..4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents....3.................................................................................................1.............................3...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1...2 Some Common Terminology ..6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2...........................................................13 3............23 3......................................................................................1 1...............................................................................6 Ash Determination ...........................................9 Adulteration of Drugs .........................10 2...................1 Liquids ......
..............................2 Natural Shampoo.............................................3 Cellulite Gel Base ..253 6....9 4.......................................................................................................................4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil .............7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe .............................................................2 Hair Care Botanicals .................................45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures .......................229 6...............................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters .......................302 8...........1.................4........................................................................................2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products.304 8...............6 Spray Moisturizer ............................7 4..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8......5 Indian Botanicals.....1 Habitat...... and Standardization....... Range................................................1.....................1..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics ...............8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC..........7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ............................................................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table ........5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+............................1..............................................283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7....... Properties.....301 8.........48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5..................6 4...........................................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table..................................................1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo.........................1 Marine Algae..........1 History ............303 8........................................................................289 7.295 References .........304 8.................................1......... and Constituents ...................................................49 5.....................................................................................................6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table..................233 6...........1..............................................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6........................46 Oleoresins .........................................8 4...............11 Tinctures .........................51 6......................... Description................299 8.......247 6......307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ....305 Chapter 9 Glossary...2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy..................................................................4.............................. Concentration................................45 Extracts Strengths..........269 6.10 4...300 8..................................................225 6...............................46 Product Strength...
They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. (7) glycosides. When applied to living tissues. (3) tannins. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. (6) carbohydrates.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. (4) proteins. stems. leaves. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. fats. barks. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides.1.1. Recently. 1. They are generally soluble in water. (2) phenols. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. They are widely distributed in plants. fats. (8) volatile oils. In plants. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. they are stored in seeds. myristyl. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. they are also called triglycerides. ferulic. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes. hence. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. have astringent action. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. and usually bitter taste. TS). They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. etc. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. 1. and waxes (lipids). forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place.1. In the treatment of burns. and waxes.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. (5) alkaloids. and coumaric acids. roots. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In most cases. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. 1. palmitic.1 Phytochemistry 1.1. glycerol. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. spores.
The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. Proteins are derived from amino acids. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. Being basic in chemical character. they form water-soluble salts with acids.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. tropane. quinoline. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. indole. and steroidal. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. serums. (a) monosaccharides. and seeds. and oxygen. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. imidazole. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. bark. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. oil-bearing plant seeds. 1. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. Whole glandular products. In fact.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. brucine. isoquinoline. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (2) polysaccharides. roots. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. and (3) derived carbohydrates. pyridine. and cryptogams. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars.1.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine.1. stems.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. but mostly in fruits. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. for example: colchicine. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. piperidine. which are the building units. gymnosperms. which end in -in. carboline. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. purine. antitoxins. possessing some marked physiological action. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. hydrogen. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. leaves. phenanthrene. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. (b) obligosaccharides. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
e. and Example Rhamnose.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. Glycogen. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. suspending agents. their sulfate esters. It is an alpha-1.2)-fructofuranose units. cymarose. and tetrasaccharides i. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. They include hemicellulose. True sugars a.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin.and B-1. L-galactose. stabilizers. 2. digitalose (these are 2. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing). Cellulose. Pentoses: L-arabinose. sarmentose. uronic acids. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. and some microbial polysaccharides.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. Therapeutically. d. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. fucose Digitoxose. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). it is formed of amylose. c. consisting simply of 1. and apiose. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. or amino sugars. It contains both B-1. tri-. amorphous substances. gentiobiose. Inulin. lactose. Unlike cellulose. oleandrose. alginates. i. gums.6-linkages. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. melibiose ii. transluscent. iii. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. pectins. g. emulsifiers. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. ii. It is a linear polysaccharide. f. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. D-xylose. and thickeners. which is a straight chain of alpha1. cellobiose. a. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units).6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . D-ribose. epimarose. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. Monosaccharides. Gums are soluble in water. b. diginose. trihalose Reducing: maltose. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing).4. gelling agents. galactosamine b. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. 3. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses.6-linked polyglucan.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. D-fructose (levulose). Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. galacturonic Glucosamine. turanose. Those occurring naturally are usually di-. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. mucilages.
Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone.g. 4. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae).g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Depending on the plant family. glucosamine. 6. 1.. and defensive roles. daphnin) Flavone (e. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e.. Myrtaceae.g.. Such glycosides. representing about 87 families). Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties.g. 3. arbutin) Alcohol (e. 8. regulating. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures.. occur. cascarosides.. 7. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. crocin and picrocrocin. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). In N-glycosides (e. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin.. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone.. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources. sennosides. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants.g. salicin is an analgesic. the sugar component is called the glycone.g. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. are the most common ones found in nature.. digitoxin) Saponin (e. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis.. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. 5. 11. sometimes called O-glycosides. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant. Other glycosides do. 9. sinigrin). strophanthin.g.. and Asteraceae.g. detoxifying.g. sinigrin) Steroid (e. as sugar reserves. for example.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that. Lauraceae. however. for example. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. Apiaceae.g. There are also C-glycosides (e. rutin) Anthraquinone (e. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. Rutaceae. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. 12. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. 1.. S-glycosides and N-glycosides..g.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species. 2. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond. in the liver of fish. In the conifers. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). digitoxin. Phenol (e. In S-glycosides (e. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. for example. Lamiaceae.1. and barbaloin are laxatives. for example. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). Occasionally. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e.1.. 10.g.g. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae).g. They are products of plant metabolism. or adenosine).PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1..g. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants.. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e. The chief families are Pinaceae.
9. are hard.1. anthelmentics. etc. cosmetics. dill. in umbelliferous fruits. They can be used for their therapeutic action. chenopodium. in cinnamon. Ethers: anise. bitter almond. ajowan. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. geranium.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. wintergreen. For example. coriander. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. chemical. local irritants. star anise. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. is rich in camphor. etc. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). only in the pericarp. 2. etc. carminatives. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. In most cases. in the mints. 8. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. 3. however. for example. spearmint. cassia bark. etc. beverages. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. lemongrass. In general. cajuput. only in the bark and leaves. Ester volatile oils: lavender. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). however. confections. Classification 1. 7. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. horsemint. sweet orange. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. parsley. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. clove. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. lemon. fennel. diuretics. rose. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. juniper. and odor characteristics. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. mild antiseptics. or parasiticides. themselves. However. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. In addition. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. 5. turpentine. sandalwood.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. local stimulants. and in orange. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. but in few instances. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. they are widely used in perfumery. etc. etc. nutmeg. etc. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. etc. transparent or translucent brittle substances. as a class. 4. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 6. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. These substances. cade. rosemary. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. etc. neroli. Undoubtedly. 1. thyme. resulting in less food spoilage. and tobacco. pharmaceuticals. tend to resinify on exposure to air. Resins.
as well as in fixed and volatile oils.g. carbon bilsulfide). On this basis.. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. resins burn readily with a smoky flame. shellac). but do not contain any nitrogen. which is called secondary flow. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. They are not pure chemical substances. resins soften and finally melt. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. in the vessels. Chemically. Many products (e. without volatilization or decomposition. resenes (neutral inert compounds). consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities.. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. when freshly powdered. in rare cases (e. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. gr. resin acids. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. resin cells (ginger). 0. and medullary rays cells). owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. Family Coccidae. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. they occur as tyloses. with few exceptions (e. on evaporation. In plants. they are of pathological origin. acetone. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. Laccifer lacca. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). fibers. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. that is. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable).9–1. resins occur in different secretory structures. resin alcohols. but when heated in the air. When heated in a closed vessel. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. Hemiptera. Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). forming solutions which. in Guaiacum wood. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. order. viz..g. wood parenchyma. forming sticky or adhesive fluids.e. chloroform.g. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. resinotannols. colophony. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees.g. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). and resenes. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film. In this case. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism.. mastic). as in case of Pinus. and glandular hairs (cannabis).. and ether. they are divided into resin alcohols. On heating at comparatively low temperatures. For example. esters. and glycosidal resins.25). but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. It is noteworthy to mention here that.
benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both.e. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. Jalap. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. etc. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. they form a mixture of pentoses. etc. creams. ointments. and Canada balsam. roots. liquid or semi-liquid substances. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). barks. on the other hand. cathartics. like most seeds. hexoses. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. (e. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). and anthelmintics. mouthwashes. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. expectorants. fruits. glucose. cough syrups. therefore. viz. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. Guttiferae). These are. and uronic acids. leaves. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. that form colloidial. purgatives. being called glycoresins. Another is flax seed. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. In some cases. nonadhesive solutions with water. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). On hydrolysis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . shave creams. respectively — both contain volatile oil. for example. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. flowers. Balsams. balsam of Copaiba. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. which contains no volatile oil. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. counter irritants. and seeds. arabinose.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. in seaweeds. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula.. and Podophyllum.) In general. xylose. they can be incorporated into lotions.. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. Mucilages are viscous. antispasmodic. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. parasiticides. Probably.g. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. the mixtures being called gum-resins. they can be separated from resins rather easily. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. and malva (Malva sylvestris). Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. (anywhere soothing is required). the seed contains a bulking cathartic. copaiba. carminatives. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. asafoetida). or esters of these acids.
treatment with a solvent. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. gauze. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. As with the raw materials.).g.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. by traction. etc. or alcohol and water. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. acetone. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). both physical and chemical tests should be performed.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. suction. having a bottom outlet. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e.. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. etc. ether. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. distillation. cotton) below. water. In pharmacy. the solution commonly known as lye. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. also referred to as the spent herb.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. or by chemical or physical means. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. expression.. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. by which it is exhausted of potash. 2. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part.
001 mm). the scale of 1 mm. the width of vessels. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. always using a definite tube length. the height of sclerenchymatous cells.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out.0025 mm = 0.125 mm = 125 µ. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale.3 PROCEDURES 2.3.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. Therefore. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Q. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. By its use. both of which are carefully counted.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. for example. Most of the time. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. and not the object itself.C. The diameter of fibers.0025 mm. that is compared with the scale. also known as micrometers. if an object. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer. In the same manner. as well as identification of commercial starches.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. the factors for the other objectives can be determined. because it is the magnified object.125 mm. 2. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. However. its true size is 50 0. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification. That is. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions. botanical laboratory. 0. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with.
When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. Churchill Ltd. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. malaccensis.. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. calumba.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. viscosity. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. the yield to water of liquorice root. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. D. 2. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol.. 2. A. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity.3. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. E.g. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e. Pharmacognosy. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum. London. 4th ed. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. 11th ed. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash. REFERENCES Wallis. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. resins. For certain drugs. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. such as hydrastis. 90%. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome..7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. for example. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article.3. However. they will give a high total ash value. C.3.3. G. vitamins..5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. UV light provides very useful information. J. 1960. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. viburnum. oleo-resins. especially if they are present in the powdered form. and similar substances. W. glycosides. 2. 1978. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. Some pieces of rhapontic. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence. E. T. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. Trease. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky.. Derris elliptica.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. In this way. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. optical rotation. balsams. Similarly. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. Other drugs. 2. Bailliere Tindall.3.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. and Evans. volatile oil. digitalis and henbane leaves).3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic.. London.
the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard.e. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. flower. One should start with botanical terminology. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. counter current extraction. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. providing that they were dried properly. i. stem.3 Quality Control 3. root. and microscopy. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. super critical fluid extraction.. fruit. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. canadine. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. There are many forms of extracts available. leaf. methanol. organic solvents (ethanol. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. Many plants have common names and. and other tests like loss on drying. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. When ordering a botanical. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. Fortunately. distillation. As seen in the example. If this is not specified. odor. percolation. etc. For example. then maceration. lipidic extraction. etc. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. color. or the entire plant. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. and berberine. seed. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. ash content. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. etc. identification can be confusing. hexane). therefore. This starts with the proper solvent system. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. ask for it by its common name first. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine.
2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. viz. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. For systematic study. Dusting powders: One should be able. pollen grains. to differentiate between mineral powders.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. 3) is a representative example. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. while Fig. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). starches. Cowhage). Fig. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. however. Quassia Wood. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration. 1. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). 2 is that of an angiosperm. secondary phloem. glands. Lupulin. and hairs (Kamala. 2. primary phloem. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg.. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. 3. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium.
1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig.
16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. 2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig. 3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Among common drugs. Flowers: In a commercial sense. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. (Fig. in addition. two features that are constant. red rose and marigold of petals only. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. the ovary wall develops to form a case. In the great majority of plants. Leaves: Example. (3) the presence of chlorophyll.. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. elder flowers of petals and stamens. stigmas). tilia of inflorescences and bracts. Achillea millefolium L. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. S /(E + S). 5. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. which are a useful identification tool. however. the calyx made of sepals. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. mm. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers.. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form.e. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. 5) is an example of the flower. thus forming a fruit. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. and often a raphe.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. 4. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. 6). the corolla made of petals. 7. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). There are. mesocarp. argel leaf. fibrous layer of anthers. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. epicarp. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. and endocarp. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. called the pericarp. if there is no stalk. red poppy. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. viz. for the seeds. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. papillosed epidermis of petals. i. 6. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaves may be recognized. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. the leaf is termed sessile. micropyle. styles. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. (2) their thinness. frequently.
QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig. 4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
leaves. Bael. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Simple Fruits i. However.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. 8. Tamarind. Poppy. 5 Achillea millefolium L. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. Cardamon ii. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. flowers and fruits. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. Colocynth b. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. Compound Fruits Hops In general. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. Caraway (see Fig. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. a. Orange.
6 Grains of paradise seed. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. Aframomum melegueta Rosc. Family: Zingiberacaea Fig.
The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots.g. agar).3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features... Chiretta herb. 9. opium). Therefore. or are natural secretions (e. such as incision (e.. stage and eyepiece micrometers. or by the trichomes. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level.g. similarly. 10. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. by the stomatal index. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. Fig. however. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded.. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction.. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. expression (e.g. starch. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. beeswax and myrrh). The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. olive oil). Clearing agents. which are usually slender and adventitious. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. namely. 8). mountants. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves.g.g. fibers. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . vertically. 9). Microscopical techniques. For example. and sclerenchyma. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. decoction (e. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. branches. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. 3.
9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig. 8 Fig.
Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. and causes swelling of cell walls. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. fats. Sometimes. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. the presence of coloring matters. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. clove oil. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. or chlorophyll. starch. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. and expands shrunken cells. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. water. etc. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. ether. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. 3. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. tannins. chlorophyll. chromic/nitric is mandatory. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. Other solvents include methanol. and resins. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. resins. protein. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. absorbance values should be used. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. volatile oils. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. and petroleum ether (pet ether). Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. hexane. for bleaching.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it rapidly dissolves starch. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. carbolic acid. alcohol. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. lactophenol.
IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. This will give you a transparent disk. Then press under anhydrous conditions. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In addition.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. unless one has an FTIR. It can also be used to quantitate. If the substance is in a solid state. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. depending on solvent and pH.
1600. Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used.g.. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. or plastic sheets are also commercially available.. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. 3. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. S = strong. 1455 (S). it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). as one gains experience. Other tests like loss on drying. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). aluminum.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. In addition. 3400–2500 (broad M). strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. M = medium. 2100–1700 (W). Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). (The exception would be when using water as the solvent.) When development is complete. etc. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. 3. 3400-3100 (variable). sulfuric acid). It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. 2860 (M). (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). 3600–2400 (broad).7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. VS = very strong. Precoated absorbents on glass plates. 1500. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. Valerian. organic solvents (usually methanol). a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). 1760 (S). ash content histology. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). odor.g. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. and (4) it is inexpensive. then the filter paper can be eliminated. and powder microscopy are also performed.. 3400 (M). 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. Chamomile. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lavender. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak.
5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent. natural product. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. antimony chloride UV. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance.5: 8. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hence.
GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard.g. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. give excellent fingerprints for identification. together with UV and IR spectra. the use of the GC will continue to grow. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. information-rich electron ionization spectra. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. with expected growth well into the next generation. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. spectrometric. or chromatographic (GLC. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. This system. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. such as rice hulls or spent herb.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. System control. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. it will show up by having less soluble solids.. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. spent herb). HPCL. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. However. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. and cosmetic industries. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. After extraction of the plant material. As with the raw materials. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized.” However. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). pharmaceutical. From these spectra. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. photodiode array detector. For plant volatiles and essential oils. data acquisition. etc. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained.) procedures in order to establish its strength. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. TLC. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. With library search software. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. If there is a diluent added. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. rice hulls. In phytochemistry. a separation technique.
This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass.QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. Ltd. photodiode array detector.
30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. the adulterant can be any kind of material. coffee. in the case of powdered drugs. Obovate. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. 3. such as ergot. Hence. Instrument control. honey. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Methods used for adulteration include: 1. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. African. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). or Cochin. etc. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. the color and general texture are more important. 2. for example. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. or Provence senna. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. data acquisition. for example. beeswax.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. nutmeg.
mobile phase. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. HPLC: Zorbax CN. 0. CH3CN-H2O (73:27)./65 cm).5:0. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm.1 ml/min. detection.5. acetonitrile-water (84:16). genistein Calenduladiol.6 mm i. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.9 mm 30 cm).6 50 cm): mobile phase. 3. 0.4x.0 ml/min.5 ml/min.0 ml/min. 5% DC560. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 M Pi buffer pH 7. acetonitrile-water (83:17). HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10). detection. mobile phase. UV 320 nm detection.d. 1. lupanine. mobile phase.d. panaxadiol. 13-OH sparteine. 1 ml/min. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7. 190 nm flow rate. 50°C.46. detection. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. distilled water. mobile phase. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). Rf 0. detection.0 M NaC1 gradient. luteolin. flow rate.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). then 1.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. 0. 15 cm).d. baptifoline. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60.5 ml/min. UV detection (homogencity test). panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). R1. 2. spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. 1. 2.5 mm i. UV 202 nm. 220–223°C. followed by 0. 0. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. 25 mm). mobile phase. xylose.2. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2.9 mm x 30 cm). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. acetonitrile-water (83:17). UV 202 nm.9 mm 30 cm). rhamnos Ginsenosides. mobile phase.. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids.8 ml/min for 7 min.. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. galactose. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. or 3% SE-30.1) flow rate. mobile phase.0–1. 15 psi argon. flow rate. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i. flow rate. 2 ml/min. thermopsine. 1. cytisine Anagyrine.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. flow rate. flow rate. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. panaxatriol. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray. sparteine. mobile phase.5 ml/min. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). flow rate.
flow rate. 25 cm). canadine. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase.9. mobile phase. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. luteoline. i. mobile phase. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). UV 340 nm.d. Rf 0.1 M phorphoric acid. 3. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. hydrastine Rf 0. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). detection. vanillin in H2SO4. 66 m capacity 350 ml). phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4).. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1.4 cm i. canadaline. detection UV 365 nm. detection. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase.7 & 5. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). berberine. UV 365 nm. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages).5cm). methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. UV 340 nm. flow rate. Start w/ 350 ml phase A. detection..6 mm.9 i. 0.d. mobile phase. detection. 2 ml/min. 75°C. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. phase A: water. hydrastine Rf 0.5-methanol (67:33). UV 330 nm. flow rate.. apigenin. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. w/guard. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. detection UV 278 nm. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9).5 ml/min.5. flow rate.0 ml/min. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1).32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. vanillin in H2SO4. mobile phase. mobile phase. methanol-water (50:50). 25 cm at 75°C). methanol-water (15% to 95%.1 ml/min. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. 2 liters phase B and C. 1 ml/min. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2. flow rate. Merck(. mobile phase.0mm i. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). introduce sample. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5).01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). phase B: ethyl acetate.05. 0. mobile phase. detection.d.5 ml/min.5 ml/min. increasing 3%/min). spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i. 4. flow rate. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). 2 ml/min. 6 ml/min. detection. 1. 30 cm). UV 270 nm.d. 2. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. flow rate. begin rotation.d. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). ethanol-water gradient containing 0. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. detection.
water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. R1. detection. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. 25 cm).25m 3 mm). 50% H2SO4. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol. mobile phase. mobile phase. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). flow rate.5. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. mobile phase. UV 270 nm.5 ml/min.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8).9 mm i.d. UV 280 nm. analysis Column (3. mobile phase. methanol-water (2. flow rate.d. detection. mobile phase. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. 300 mm). 30 cm). caproic acid. 0. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid. 30 ml/min. UV 230 nm.1.9 mm 30cm).d. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). acetonitrile-water (gradient). tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). 25 cm) 2 in series.d.0) mm i. mobile phase. UV 280 nm.d. photodiode array. detection. water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658). UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. temp. 1. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3.8 ml/min. flow rate. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. helium flow. biochanin-A. 2. prunitrin Calycosin. 25 mm).6 mm i. water.. mobile phase.0 ml/min. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5.QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. caprylic acid. flow rate 0.1:1). flow rate. 1. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. flow rate.. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid.0 ml/min. 4 ml/ min.5 10 cm).0 ml/min. 1.d. 2. mobile phase. mobile phase.5 ml/min. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. mobile phase. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min. detection. flow rate. detection. 150 mm). capric acid Isoflavones..5 ml/min. UV 313 nm. mobile phase. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10).3 ml/min. flow rate. HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. flow rate. formononetin. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. detection.. detection. detection. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min). UV 280 & 546 nm.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). detection. genistein. detection. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. daidzein. mobile phase.6 mm i. methanol-water (27:73).
UV 254 nm. such as lobelia. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. acetonitrile-0.7 ml/min. detection. detection. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. detection. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. For example. hazelnut shells. etc. 250 mm. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. 4. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent.25 m 4 mm). hydrogen flame ionization. UV 254 nm. mobile phase. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. 1. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. almond shells. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. 2. mobile phase. 8. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. UV 298 nm. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. for example. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). 6. detection. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. detection. guaiacum wood. valeranone Vincristine. mobile phase.5 ml/min. dextrin. 0. acetonitrile-0.6mm i. 7. vitexinine 3. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. detection. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. for example.9 mm 30 cm). scented bdillium for myrrh. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. stone. GLC: 1. vitexin. flow rate. 2. 5u Chrompack). peach and apricot kernels for almonds. boiler scale. detection. etc. mentha. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8).4 (1:1). acevaltrate. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. methanol-water (60:40). UV 256 & 206 nm. 30 cm). Sometimes. conc. valerosidatum. coconut shells. flow rate 10 ml/min.0 ml/min. mobile phase.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7.d. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances.1 M phorphoric acid. powdered olive stones. stramonium.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25).01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. usually having no relation to the genuine drug.8% methanol in hexane. or hamamelis leaves. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . walnut shells. Substitution of exhausted drugs. or lead shot.d. mobile phase. flow rate. senna. 2 connected in series. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. 5.
sieve tubes.) Acacia. in powder. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes).QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. Tincture of: Red with oils. 4. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood.. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. palisade cells. xylem vessels. glands. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . papillose surface of the stigma. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. 3. or oil). Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. cellulose parenchyma. Nut shells and fruit stones. usually abundant parenchyma. 10. calcium oxalate crystals.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1.. palisade cells. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. etc. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. fibrous layer of the anther wall. especially the diagnostic epidermis. Frequently also trichomes. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. palisade tissue. and medullary rays. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. Microscopical examination. 8. Also epidermis. Frequently also cork. protective glasses. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. 7. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. gloves. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. and aleurone grains.g. tracheids. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. 5. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. A little vascular tissue. 2. and aleurone grains.g. resins. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. vessels. red. which often cross the fibers and vessels. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata.. stone cells. Mucilage of: Alkanna. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. which often contains starch in large amounts. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. cutinized and suberized walls. frequently particles of small seeds. starch grains. and crystals of calcium oxalate. starch. fibers. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. Keep for 6 months. 9. hemicellulose. 6. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. The powder is usually entirely lignified. Dilution better done on the slide.g. pine and juniper). fibers. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. pericyclic and phloem fibers. consisting of small-sized elements only. masks. wood parenchyma. however. Structures absent: Cork. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. Frequently also delicate yellow. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements.
Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. suberin. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins.I. gr. killed by steam. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. Deteriorates on keeping. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water. if necessary. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. with continued stirring. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. To be freshly prepared. Store in amber bottle. protective glasses. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. gloves. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). masks. 0. Add 7. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. left for some time. cellulose.I. starch. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. through glass wool. H2O. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. filtered. Chlorophyll.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min.0 g sodium iodide and 2. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. To be freshly prepared. and some mucilages. etc.880). To be freshly prepared. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. The reaction is better carried out in the dark.I.5 ml D.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . red color of precipitate with alkaloids. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. etc. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. etc. ligno. Benzidine. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. H2O with the aid of heat.
0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals. and 20 ml water. 20 g lactic acid. 1. Set aside until clear. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml. Dilute: Used for mounting. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. and then diluted to 100 ml with water.64 g copper sulfate and 0. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use. filtered. dextrose). H2O prior to use. 1.g.I. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids.. masks. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . added to a solution of 2. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid. gives yellow with colchicine. gloves. on the label. note the coloration and read off from the table. 1.g. in powder. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. the corresponding approximate pH. protective glasses. Indicator. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking.. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water.I.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. the strong solution will dissolve silk. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting.75 g lead monoxide. 40 g glycerin. Solution A: 34.27 g iodine and 0.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. 1.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water. e.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. etc.
dissolving certain cell contents. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. stains lignified walls red. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. gloves. 0. etc. 66. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. 5 ml of glycerin added. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. 1% solution in water. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. and cutin blue. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. masks. Caustic: Used for clearing. 2% solution in alcohol (90%).4% alcoholic solution. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). lignin. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. suberin. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. Store away from light. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. 10% alcoholic solution. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. in small pieces. and then diluted with equal volume of water. and 80% by volume. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. with a dropper or a glass rod. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). 10. It must be recently prepared. protective glasses. Potash.
Same as a solid extract (S. AQU P.3BG GLY 4.01 = 2x 0. Same as P. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. An extract in P. P.E. E. 4x. A molasses consistency.E.3BG. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute. Same as P.G.4 Preparations 4.P. Properties Usually high in alcohol. 1. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. OLEUM N. 5x. usually contains alcohol (20–60%).G. Serial type dilution and succussion.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. but the solvent is glycerin.G. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate. etc.E. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. but the solvent is 1.G. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form. etc.1. 3x.E.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting. Contains no alcohol. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. of various dilutions: 1:1. 0. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing.F. H. 5:1. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices. 60–90%.M. F. Full strength 1:1.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today.
the botanical is considered exhausted. etc. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. or alcohol and water. distillation. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). cover the percolator.1. In pharmacy. expression. cotton) below. the product will not percolate. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. by which it is exhausted of potash. usually 48 hours. 4. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes.. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e.). suction. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. having a bottom outlet.g. or by chemical or physical means. also referred to as the spent herb. water. contained in a suitable vessel. giving a weak extract (see diagram). regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. The packing of the percolator is very important. treatment with a solvent. or. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. the menstruum will channel. the solution commonly known as lye. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. close the lower orifice. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. If packed too tightly. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. if packed too loosely. acetone. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. When no more actives remain. etc.. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. and macerate for the prescribed time. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. ether. by traction.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. gauze.
These are usually the hard substances. preferably distilled. and filter.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. Allow it to cool. roots. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. 4. such as twigs.1. barks. mix thoroughly. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . placed over it. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. etc.
Moisten the herb in water. Refrigerate or preserve. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter.1. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. Refrigerate or preserve. Under refrigeration. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In order to prepare an infusion. Therefore. 4. it should be placed in a refrigerator. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. cold water should be used. after preparation of an infusion. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. preferably distilled. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen.
1. However. which is very effective.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. bacteria. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. However.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. However. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . especially in inactivating larvae. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant. 4. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. there is also CO2 sterilization. which seems to work well. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical.
However.1. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. Additionally. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. as strengths vary widely. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. i. However. Therefore. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. At present. and canadine. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris.. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum.1. and evaporation. percolation. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. from either fresh or dry botanicals.00 per pound). and usually precipitate on standing. or a combination thereof. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). berberine. Maceration is another procedure.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. and the solids are calculated. However. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture. Therefore. as they contain alcohol. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract.G. Filter. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water.e. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. A typical example: 5:1 P. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine.S.2). take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. need preservatives. No vacuum concentration is used. Therefore. check with the manufacturers. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine.* 4. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. Usual laboratory method. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths. are weaker. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present.
or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water.I. Add 1000 ml D. spray dried.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. or oven dried. and contain very little water. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. age. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. Solution: The volatile oil. which lowers shipping costs. 2a. Avoid excessive heat. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. preferably kept in a cool area. and add enough D.I.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. dry solid. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors.I. filter through wetted filter paper. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. respectively. Then filter the mixture. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1.1. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients.I. 2. and pass enough D.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. to obtain a clear filtrate. while hydrastine is colorless. Their odors and tastes are similar. filtering if necessary. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. returning the first portions.I.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D.I. or other specified volatile substance D. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes. 4. or distilled water. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. need no preservation. or distilled water. and time of year collected. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). or distilled water. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. if necessary. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances.1. and preserve or use the clear water portion. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. 4. a sufficient quantity. easily dispensed. Separate the excess oil. The native extract is usually vacuum dried.
Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. Obviously. 10:1. tinctures. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. If it was calculated from fresh weight. bark.). Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. depending on the manufacturer. glycerin. However. a 1:1 extract. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. Recently. etc.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. 1997. therefore. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. etc. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts.* 4. in a true strength extract. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. 10:1. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. is always measured on the dry basis.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glycerin. in a cosmetic formulation. etc. 1. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. would be too concentrated in many instances. these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract).G. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia.10 Product Strength. fresh or dried. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. etc. Concentration. etc. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight. in the United States. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves.3-butylene glycol. The true strength will vary. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical.1. 4. The starting botanical. are often found in the cosmetic literature. However. butylene glycol. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. In Europe. or roots of plants (see above).1. This is very controversial. To avoid confusion.
European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. GLC. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. and starches to be significantly reduced.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. If the dried plants contain 0. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0.. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents. which is approximately 20 times less costly). Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract.5 to 4. However. dark in color. This would cause the berberine. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. berberine. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. and canadine. Analytical procedures (TLC. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. which has been standardized on valepotriates. However.S. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical.0% hydrastine. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. fixed and volatile oils.15 to 0. that is. canadine.5% of essential oil. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used. standardization can be carried to the extreme. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract. the former designation is becoming the standard. and then on valeric acid. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. resins. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients.04%). and not soluble in most cosmetic products. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract. However. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. Thus. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract.
or 1.. oily resinous mass remains. alcohol. Therefore. or other suitable solvent) and filtration. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. 1997. A thick.1. However. However. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution. 4. there are usually losses during extraction. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts.8% essential oil.g. either fixed or volatile. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations. consisting of an oil. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States.5% oil.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. followed by evaporation of the solvent. ether.
digestive problems. antidepressant. Stimulates scalp. exhaustion. aromatic waters. cleanser. Stimulant. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. revitalizing. antispasmodic. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. soothing. energy imbalance.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. antidepressant. Moisturizing.5 Aromatherapy 5. calming anger. poor memory. in turn. anxiety. 5. euphoric. Cell regeneration. This.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. affects the adrenals. wrinkles. Stimulant. Carminative. mild stimulant. This is the essence of aromatherapy. Revitalizing. Anti-inflammatory. hair growth. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. digestive problems. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. soothing. sadness. scalp stimulant. euphoric. loneliness. aphrodisiac. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. hair growth. mental strain. antispasmodic. and perfumes. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. aphrodisiac. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Poor memory. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. For example. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. impotence. tonic. thereby reducing stress. nervous fatigue. Skin elasticity.
mouth ulcers. wrinkles. Rochester. uplifting during depression. etc. Valnet. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. The Aromatherapy Handbook. Saffron. bath oils. Daniel Company. VT. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. cell proliferant. Therefore. Danielle. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. amara) Antidepressant. moisturizes. house sprays. Antidepressant. Destiny Books. 1976. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. Essex. opens psychic centers. uplifting. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. vaporizers. euphoric. C. Essential oils are very concentrated. England. 1984. anti depressant. The Practice of Aromatherapy. 1982. Mood elevating.W. shock. Fabrice. Aging skin. grief. Nervous tension. very little is needed. Jean. Aging skin. lotions. anxiety. shampoos. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . calming. Example: to be effective. antidepressant. Walden. Ryman. stimulates metabolism. If the reader has further interest. inflammations.
with purplish or brownish spots. RANGE. high. which is white internally. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. yellow. PROPERTIES. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . liliaceous. and 3 or 4 in. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. long. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. pale-green. and fawn-colored externally. slender. obtuse. about 5 in. spotted near the base. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. The scape is naked. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. perennial herb. and involute at the point. subradical. lanceolate. DESCRIPTION. droping. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. The leaves are two. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. flowers in April or May. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface.1 HABITAT. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. The flower is single.
and phlobaphene. and tapering.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. long. The root is long. nearly smooth beneath. and surmounted with reddish.. pyrocatechol. 68. silky pubescence. 2. antiscrofulous. and anti-inflammatory. The capsule is oblongobovate. and of reddish-brown color. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. Pub. functional bleeding. in hedges and fields and by ditches. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. but unpleasant. terminating in three undivided stigmas.. hooked bristles. and hematuria. 8th ed. Chem.. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. Heinz.. A. It is much branched at the summit. harsh. and three-valved. Its odor is aromatic. W. Soc. fibrous. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. Hoppe. yellow. epistaxis. 1. Ovary obovate. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. No further analytical data available. Properties Emollient. 2332. with a loose membranous tip. agrimonol (= agrimonine). longer than the stamens. mild tonic. three-lobed at top. pyrogallic acid. racemose spike. This taste is strongest in the root. 1946. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. Agrimonia has a bitterish. agrimonolide. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. filaments flat. and borne in a dense. Cavalitto. which is somewhat aromatic. Drogenkunde.1. subastringent taste. from to 1 foot long. The whole herb and root contains. et al. de Gruyter. The leaves are alternate. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. coarsely serrated leaflets. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Berlin. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. interruptedly pinnate. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. diuretic. 1975. J.six. and covered with a soft. flowering in July and August. conical. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. producing numerous heads. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. anthers oblong-linear. Am. style club-shaped.
southwest Asia. fruiting tops. triterpenes. eupatorin. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. 29(2). glycosides. wedge shaped. catechin. flavonoids. M. Europe. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. Rev. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn.. wavy-serrated. 7-0-B-glucoside. The bark is dark gray and ridged.. Patrascu. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. after which a good face cream should be applied. 10(2). as do other types of face packs. United States. Med. choline. Constituents Tannins.. 153-157.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. phytosterin. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. 1994. tonic. usually abrupt at the tip. Ser. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. ursolic acid. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. organic acids. Alder also helps to unclog pores. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree. Dermato-Vernol. 1. 2. and also to help relieve dandruff. quercitrin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and polysaccharides. this should only be done once a week.. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. apigenin. glutinous. and minerals. Peter-Horvath.. et al. However. V. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. which are roundish. 190-193. citric acid and silicic acid. alterative. 1964. gum. luteolin. et al. volatile oil. nicotinic acid.
scratches. The surface is dull and smooth. Aloe contains 99. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. irritated skin. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. The fracture is conchoidal. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. cuts. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. hair rinses. calcium and trace minerals. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. creams. The texture is waxy. and Barbados Islands. this has not been verified.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. lotions. insect bites. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. etc. sun poisoning. hair treatments. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. chrysophanic acid. etc. The odor is strongly aromatic. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. West Indies.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. and burns. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. lotions. bath gels. and tannin. oils. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. Properties Used in facial steams. which would suggest its use in baths. etc. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. The size of the pieces is variable. Further reading is recommended. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). Alfalfa is also high in minerals. To date. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. and is employed in skin creams. boron. saponin. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. a mild exfoliant in oils.50% (5 grams. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. ALOE Aloe vera L. carotene.
Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). Rome.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. It contains malic acid. and pectin. Macintosh. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Delicious. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. sugars. glucomanine. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. Granny. Constituents Malic acid.
The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. both internally and externally. in height. moles. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. Cones oblong. ⁿ in. tannins. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. Wolf’s Bane. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. long. ARNICA Arnica montana L. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. shoddy bark and light. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. wax. flavonoids.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. soft durable wood. having pale. and polyps. and mucilage. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. containing thujone.
Note: There can be side effects. patuletin. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. reddish yellow. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. palmitic. finely striate. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. the pappus plumose and sessile. edema. taste bitter and acrid. Odor characteristic and agreeable. Description This plant is perennial. isorhamnetin. and surface phlebitis. stamens without a tail-like appendage. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. emarginate and pointed. the involucre dilated and imbricate. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. Sesquiterpene lactones. northern Mediterranean. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. receptacle slightly convex. 7. inflammation of the oral mucosa. and undivided leaves. ray flowers yellow. xanthophylls. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. the scales ovate. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. dark green and pubescent. pectolin arigenin). inflamed insect bite. pinnate. sprains. tubular flowers perfect. three-toothed. the cypsella spindle-shaped. 5 to 7 mm long. fatty acids (fumaric. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. Arnica tincture DAB 10. The heads are discoid and homogamous.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. Topically. kaempferol. and the cypsella not beaked. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. polyacetylenes. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dark brown. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. leaves. stearic). the receptacle setaceous.to 12-veined. and essential oil. quercetin. lauric. with subspinose. about 1 cm long. In mouthwashes. malic). Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. pistillate. Has been used for hematomas. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). with fleshy bases. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles.
and is said to lower cholesterol levels. garlic. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. protein. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. beta-carotene. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. diuretic. trace minerals.e. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. ascorbic acid. vitamins. and hypocholesterolytic. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. flavonoids. ascorbinase)..58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. cynarin. Around the holidays. cynadase. sterols. bread crumbs. peroxidase. cholagogue. Also employed in jaundice. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. Cosmetically. oxydase. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. choleretic. tannin.
Has been used on blemishes. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. The odor is balsamic. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. The taste is pungent and bitter. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The base is truncate or depressed. The color is reddish brown. cuts. * Formerly CTFA. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. The margin has projecting points of scales. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. Herbalists use it for treating colds. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. The apex is acute. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. twigs. balm buds Part Used: Buds. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. and various skin diseases. sores. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. These buds are sessile. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. It is a stimulating expectorant. or in threes occasionally.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. resinous substance. The buds are simple or clustered in twos.
farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. fracture hard and tough. 3. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. very bitter. tannic and gallic acids. pinocembrin. volatile oil. strongly branched. wood yellow. Europe. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. circulatory stimulant. Grecian Laurel. has been used for indolent ulcers. Bactericidal. Description Cylindrical. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. jateorrhizine. and the Middle East.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. usually splitting somewhat on drying. rhamnetin. and showing rings of growth. acetophenone. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. bark 1 mm in thickness. on chewing. pith of rhizome small. oxyacanthine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gallstones. volatile oil. populin.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. 5-0-methylgalangin. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. North America. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. magnoflorine. Flavonoids. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. bervulcine. sometimes excentric. distinctly radiate. salicin. color more pronounced upon wetting. chrysin and apigenin. externally light yellowish brown. izalpinin. easily separable into layers. galangin. knotty. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. True Bay. Berberine. Internally used to treat liver disorders. Properties Astringent. berbamine. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. taste distinctive. tinges saliva yellow. Odor slight.
the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. summit obtuse. quercetin. undersurface yellowish-green.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. linalool. syringic and p-coumaric acids. Constituents 0. finely reticulate. slightly pubescent. margin entire. spatulate. phenolcarboxylic acids. upper surface dark green. gallic and ellagic acids. Spr. and glossy aromatic foliage. and others. Treating small areas works best. base acute. and plant acids.3 to 3. astringent. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. alkaloids. Northern and Central Europe. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. along with methyl arbutin. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The leaf also contains germacranolides. texture coriaceous. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. taste slightly bitter. petiole about 3 mm in length. hydroquinone derivatives. Asia. tapering. lotions. shiny black berries. glabrous. -pinene. Uvaursi is astringent. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. pale yellow flowers. slightly revolute. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. and volatile oil. -terpineol acetate. and detergents. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). 12 to 30 mm in length. -terpineol. due to its high tannin content. However. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. brittle. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. Description Leaves obovate. catechins. ursolic acid. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. odor slight. hyperoside. soaps. covered.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). perfumes.
4 mm wide. Whortleberry.... Michigan.. 1854...... and abscesses. sores. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW... *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit.. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits. 9. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees.. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx. 1 to 2% fat. anti-inflammatory..0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels. Wyoming. JAMA. 3 to 5 cm long. reduces inflammation.... Properties Restoring. leaf-blades thin. and to replace retina purple. enzymes. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus.. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive. 20 to 50 cm high. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins. 262. reducing visual eye fatigue.. 1..... scabs. California. only slightly paler beneath.. and ulcers..1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sores.. restrains infection.. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L. minerals. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen.. British Columbia.... Description Dwarf shrub... about 5 mm long. and other compounds identified in bee pollen.. tonic. eruptions. leaves Habitat and Range Woods. softening.. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations.....62 BED STRAW.. Properties Astringent for eyecare products. promotes tissue repair. corolla ovoid-lanceolate... G... Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones.. Good for skin ulcers. 1989.. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. clears toxins. boils.1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins. This is taken up in a collection vessel.... and Asia.. Mirkin. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive. amino acids. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries... 55% carbohydrate.. antiseptic.. wounds. Europe.. dissolving... ovate.
leaves. betuloresnic acid. ursolic acid. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. anthocyanosides. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. quinic acid. Europe. 1.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. myrtillin. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. 4-23-87. methyl salicylate. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. New Age Herbalist. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. arbutin. Properties The bark. R. apigenin dimethyl ether. naturalized in northern North America. essential oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1988. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. (trace amount) asperuloside. Rattleweed. Macmillan. North Asia. ascorbic acid. New York. and eczema. psoriasis. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. German Commission E Monograph. parts of Arctic Siberia. Mabey. Rattleroot. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. fatty acids. betulol. Bugbane.. saponins. 1. betuloside. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. Bugwort. gaultherin. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. BIRCH Betula alba L. White Birch. peonidin glucosides. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). Squaw Root. 76. BANZ No.
5 cm in thickness. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. dyspepsia. up to 3 mm thick. bark thin. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. taste bitter and acrid. resins. and sugar. mainly formononetin. Rhizome horizontal. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). somewhat branched. externally dark brown. each of which shows a radiate structure. and rheumatism. externally dark brown. internally. frequently. longitudinally wrinkled. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. fracture short. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. tannins. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. bark dark brown. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. fracture horny. or less frequently by fibrous strands. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. by deep cup-shaped scars. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. It possesses estrogenic activity. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. particularly depression and hot flushes. starch. fatty acids. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith.
or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. glabrous above. lanceolate. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). fixed and volatile oils. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. Description A tree up to 50 m high. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. 5 to 8 cm long. with thick ridges. and trace minerals. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. juglandic acid. Texas. taper-pointed at the apex. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. bark. leaflets 11 to 23. serrate. fruit globose. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. It is an astringent. 8 to 10 cm long. tannins. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). and detergent. and Minnesota. glabrous. Florida. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. Constituents Juglone. rounded or subcordate at the base. anthelmintic. Massachusetts.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L.
massage for cellulite. steryl glucosides. slimming activity. myxoedema. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. fucans). The thallus is dichotomously branched. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and bruises. probably due to its iodine content. Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. Frequently. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). The odor is slight. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. reproductive tissues. sprains. rheumatism. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. It can be added to hair and skin care products. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. trace minerals (mainly iodine). a prominent midrib. cellutitis.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). See Chapter 7 for further discussion. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. as a wash for psoriasis. The color varies from brown to black. The texture is cartilaginous.
the upper leaves.. sessile... simple or branched. saponins. mostly in the Eastern States. of variable length.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. the lower ones on short petioles. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. about 2 cm in diameter... and minerals. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. fracture somewhat horny. frequently split or in broken pieces. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L.. covered with bristly hairs. longitudinally wrinkled. It is easily grown from seed. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage... which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin. mainly cultivated for commercial use. Gobo Part Used: Roots. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock. the crown somewhat annulate. European Burdock.. Description An annual robust plant. rough. Borage has a cucumber-like odor. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains. rhizomes.. Bugloss. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe. up to 60 cm high. five pointed corolla. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. calyx of five sepals. flowers. externally grayish brown. usually blue.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L.. leaf.. flowers from June through September. sometimes white. skin cleansing and lightening... It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. sparingly naturalized in the United States. hollow stem.. on long stalks. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids.... Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage. elliptical leaves wrinkled. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. tannins.. Constituents Vitamin C. Description The root is fusiform..
creams. becoming pyroligneous on milling. It has been combined with comfrey. and baths. lignin. inulin. tannins. Arctinone. eczema. fat. polyalkenes. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. It is also used in hair conditioners. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. including buxine and buxozine C. abrasions. arctinol. centrally hollow or containing a white. gels. shampoos. arctinal etc. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. Odor slight. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. psoriasis. yellow-green flowers in spring. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sterols. licorice.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. North America. sweetish. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. taste is mucilaginous. and slightly bitter. lotions. gout. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. anorexia nervosa. berries with black seeds. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. cystitis. cutaneous eruption. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin.. fatty acids. acid soils. volatile oils. and can be used in facial steams. fukinanolid. and oil. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. pith-like tissue. in cases of acne. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. scaly skin.
borne on green. oval rigid. dark green shrub with thick. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. ruscoside. Flowers greenish. Emmenagogue. mucilage. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. sudorific. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. ca. papery ca. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. inhibits inflammation.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. 2 cm long. a globular red berry ca. 1 cm. Europe. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. 5 mm. rutin. Properties Increases circulation. Leaves. 3 mm across. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A dense. ribbed. Fruit. The extract has been used with success. for the treatment of varicose veins. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. diuretic. scale-like. bushy places. dry hills. saponin. chrysophanic acid.
penduletin. quercitrin.. at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present. taste acidulous and mucilaginous. or Sierra Leone Pepper.... luteolin..... together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length.. kaempferol.. and beta-sitosterol.... rutin.C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia......... Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA.. Description In pieces of varying length. dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper. Mexican.. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear.. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . from 1... See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America... and from 5 to 9 angled.... Constituents Flavonoids.. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length.5 to 4 cm in diameter. healing for sensitive skin. Mombassa.... Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments.. CALENDULA.. herby odor.. It has a strong.. piscidic-acids. isorhamnetin-glucoside.
the Sierra Leone variety is light red. and greenish-red. The apex is acuminate or acute. The taste is pungent and warming. or is free from these. the Nyassaland variety is red. gray. The Mexican variety is deep red. and brown. The seeds are compressed and pointed.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. red. the African variety is yellowish-brown. The epicarp is thin and tough. The fruits vary greatly in size. yellow. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The odor is aromatic. yellow. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. Capsicum is a berry. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter.
and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. rheumatic pains. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. colocynth. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. geraniol. Sacred Bark. Chittem Bark. etc. and others. naturalized in North America.4%. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. daucol.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. antiseptic. Buckthorn. geranyl acetate. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. detergents. After. leaves. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. creams. lotions. flavonoids. carotene capsanthin. keeping it smooth and soft. Bitter Bark. rubefacient used for neuralgia. counter-irritant. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe.29%). Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. and vitamins A and C. and North America. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. branched. CARROT Daucus carota L. jaborandi. Asia. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. It has a long tap root. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. and perfumes up to 0. hairy stem. fatty acids. is obtained by steam distillation. Bear Wood. segmented. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. -pinene. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps.
C = 10B. B = 10 R = OH. See formula. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. Aloe-emodin. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels. 1974.. 4. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A.. Description The tree is 4. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. including those of emodin. bryophytes. and chrysophanol. Bailliere Tindall. W. and emodin in the free state. 5. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. C. 1. In small doses. it acts as stomach ache treatment. R = H. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. The bark occurs in flattened. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. Various diathrones.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. Trease. 1983. G. they contain both O. C. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. aloe-emodin. emodin oxanthrone. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). London. Teil C. It gives red color with ammonia TS. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. in Pharmacognosy. Wagner et al. Teil B. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . chrysophanol.and C-glycosidic linkages. B. curved pieces or quills of variable length. D = 10 . E. 444. 1. 1974. Two aloins. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. 12th ed. 2. Z. and D. and Evans. Naturforsch. It is frequently covered with lichen. It is much used as a laxative. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. Publ. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic.5 to 5 mm thick. 267. R = H. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives. R = OH. 3. odor distinct. 2.
. petiolate. flowers small. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling. tubular. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. interrupted spikes.. (geraniol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... pale gray-green. lower pair shorter.. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip. downy. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed. Constituents Essential oil. rounded or ear-shaped at the base..... Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect... camphor.. stems quadrangular. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen. downy beneath.. in dense.. the lower spreading and three-cleft.. carvacol. bract-like.. nepetalactone. limb bilabiate. much branched. corolla whitish... thymol). methyl-nepetalactone. throat dilated. and aromatic.. calyx hairy.. the middle lobe largest. Description Top.. from 10 to 20 cm long.. nepetol rosemarinic acid. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A... pungent. softhairy above. leaves opposite. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed... nepetalic acid. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties. pointed at the apex.. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe. floral leaves small. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. the upper lip erect and two-cleft. Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like. up to 4 mm in diameter. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. citronellal.. ovate or oblong. dotted with purple. CENTELLA... the larger.. crenulate... naturalized in North America. Br. taste bitter. margin deeply crenate..CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L.. or crushed and broken.. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache.. nepetariaside... from 2 to 7 cm long.
1994. July 26–30.W.S. plenolin derivatives. 8(7).. Patent 5. florilenslin derivatives. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. W. Lin. Iwakami. G. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. 1991. Phillipson.C. the plant has been used to treat colds.85%). Bull. 3272. 39(12). Sankawa. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity.804..2 The plant also possesses antiallergic. C.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes.B. skin infections. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1. Chem.5%).T. Yang. S.18%). F.23%). the apical cell being elongated filamentous. Lee and J. Compositous glandular hairs are also present.. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. Yang. D’Amelio.C. 1988. 1196. thymol (1. Y. Wright. aromatic. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. and Mirhom. triterpenes.6 to 1 cm broad.S. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells. and U. Chem. Leaves. Ebizuka. apex acute. 22 g. sessile. J. J.I.5 cm in diameter. S. Campbell. 204(2). and Mirhom.. Aust. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. UIO. T. 894.B..98%).7. D’Amelio. cylindrical. H. 4. simple. asthma.Y. Warhurst. 6.206. 1997. internodes short. 3. Pharm. 40(5). green. Yang. arnicolides. Chin J.D. H. Cai. 1998.W. Y.A. 54. diarrhea. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Phytotherapy Res. Pharm. florilenalin-angelate.. Stem 0. alternate. 436. 7. and amoebiasis. 1973. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. Res. and sternutatory. caryophyllane-2.. Sankawa. Ebizuka. Mutat. J. A.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. beta-gurjunene. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. 1. 1992.3 to 0. and alpha-humulene. brevilin A. Odor characteristic. isoamyl caproate (1. 6. Abstr. Lin. Chun. wounds. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns.6-beta-oside. 1973–1974. U. and U. and flavonoids. nasal allergies. Sept. and C. malaria. myrtenol (5. longitudinally striated. Y. Y. Kriby.50%). J. margin dentate. Wu. 5.W. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. Microbiol. Pharm.C. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. Wu.3 antiprotozoal. Y. 8. Y.L.97%).. The plant also contains diterpenes. green. oblong. 97. venation pinate reticulate. F. 2.1 In Chinese traditional medicine. Y.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant. and rheumatism. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. and D. Hu. Bull. helenalin.
corolla white. well over one hundred compounds. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. anti-inflammatory. see the bibliography at the end of the book. naturalized in the United States. Chamomile contains azulene. chamazulene. For further reading. Odor pleasant. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. New York southward.to 5-ribbed. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. etc. and without a pappus. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. apigenins. hollow receptacles. lotions. peduncles light green to brownish-green. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. longitudinally furrowed. chlorogenic acid.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. oblanceolate. and mullein in shampoo rinses. aromatic. pistillate.5 cm. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. calendula. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. furfural. disk-florets tubular. farnesol. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. and pubescent scales. pappus none. involucre hemispherical. creams. ray-florets from 10 to 20. Constituents Essential oil. perfect. borneol. taste aromatic and bitter. or only a slight membraneous crown. three-toothed and four-veined. alpha-bisabolol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is a carminative. healing tonic. usually reflexed. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. bisabolene. matricarin.
restoring. Yellow flowers have five petals. Properties Good for softening. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. The flowers normally occur in January through May. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall. and stimulating the skin. Gobonadorra Greasewood. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. 3/8 in. Chaparral is a source of N.A. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra.D. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. It is native to the southwestern United States. Also used on skin rashes and infections. The leaves grow in opposite pairs. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. long. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes.G. Description A resinous.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. astringent.. gossypetin. and uneven. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. Merck Index. if unpeeled. and unpeeled. 747.D. The taste is astringent and pungent. Properties Soothing. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. bitteralmond-like when moistened. CHERRY BARK. a powerful antioxidant. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length.G. will add body to hair.CHERRY BARK. tannins. brittle. camphor. this has not been thoroughly investigated.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors.A. 8th ed. which can be peeled. The outer surface. The odor is aromatic. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. The fracture is weak. 1.). it is finely striated and fissured. Constituents Aspartic acid. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. However. phenolic acids. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. granular and slightly fibrous. and 4 mm in thickness. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5 cm in width. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. quercetin). sedating. is brownish-black. south to Florida and Texas. partially peeled. p.
leaves ovate. entire.1 mucilage. Can be used in creams. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. For inflammed eyes. triterpene gyycosides. leafy cymes. baths. high. carboxylic acids. emollient. long. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. the lower petioled. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. small capsule. the uppermost sessile. redness of face erysipelas. Properties Antipruritic. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. psoriasis. saponins. creeping or ascending. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. tocopherols. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. lotions. rutin. axillary stalks and in terminal. satin flower. white bird’s eye. Description A weak. 1⁄6 to 1 in. indolent ulcers. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. All Europe. and facial steams. fatty acids and minerals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. flowers white. vulnerary. fruit a many-seeded. with a line of hairs along one side.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. acute. gamma-linolenic acid. opposite. swelling. stems slender. annual. rooting at the nodes. on slender. small. coumarins.
and conspicuous. A/B. white hairs.... deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches. mental escape from reality. said to have antibiotic properties... melissic acid. Boca Raton..... Y.. densely hairy on both sides... Flowers 2 cm..... thickets. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters. grey. sterols... In 1770. Steven Foster. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants. inattentativeness. et Herr. and inflammation.. Description A robust. petals spreading.. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1996. it is used for dementia. in lax terminal and axillary clusters. CINCHONA. Leung. Carophyllus aromaticus L. each 3 to 10 cm..... John Wiley & Sons. FL. most of Europe. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. sores.. feather fruit clusters. Constituents Caffeic acid... J. stalked leaflets. 1992. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L.. behenic acid..) Bull.. each with long styles with dense..See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L... protein. chlorogenic acid. June to August. CRC Press. rubefacient. 2. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands. Fruit with numerous carpels. spreading... Caryophyllum. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba. 2nd ed. fragrant. hedges. indifference.. clematine.. woody.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng.... Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods. vitalbiosides. antiscrofulous properties.. Duke.... New York..CLOVES 81 1.
with numerous ovules. stamens numerous.. dark brown. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. J. Burma. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. Nepal. vitamins.K. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. and Tyler. Speedie. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. It is native to India. carbohydrates. antispasmodic. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. crowded. Robbers. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. 1. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. Williams & Wilkins. where it is widely cultivated.5 mm in length. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. followed by a slight numbness. and somewhat four-angled. ovary twolocular. glandular-punctate petals. Sri Lanka. which alternate with the calyx teeth. taste pungent and aromatic. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . protein. The buds also contain sterols. style 1. and incurved. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. and Thailand. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. and has carminative properties. flavonoids. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical.. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. and others. It lowers blood pressure.E. the odor is agreeable and refreshing.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. lipids. E. afterwards very pungent. odor strongly aromatic. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin.. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. J.
minerals. slightly wrinkled. faintly herbaceous. 3. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. London. The younger leaves densely white. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. Properties Emollient. 1998. it is said to help relieve asthma. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. floccose beneath. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . When the leaves are dried. Chevallier. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. carotenoids. 1996. Constituents Tannins. landslides. blade very brittle. ground.to 9-nerved. glabrous above. tussillagine. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. Personal communication. senkirkine. deeply cordate at the base. Odor indistinct. 83. and smoked like tobacco. tussilagone and essential oil. flavonoids. pubescent. taste mucilaginous. banks. A. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth. All Europe. mucilage.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. palmately 5. Kronenthal. Description Petiole long. bitter. R. river gravels. screens. Dorling Kindersley Ltd.. terpene alcohols. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below..L. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green..
1. ointments. The powder is green in color. and has a mucilaginous. Healing Herb. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. Autoreg.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). asparagine (1–3%). Capassa F. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). 944. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. Fillipendula. Menghini A. lotions. fractures. It is almost inodorous. Comfrey can be used in creams. alkaloids. antihemorrhagic. aloe.. a very powerful cell proliferent. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. 1987. Phytotherapy Res. radical leaves are very large. Description The lower. phenolics. and lithospermic acids. Bruiswort. very hairy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. anti-inflammatory. on wounds. marshes. chlorogenic.. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention.P. I. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. Knitbone Part Used: Root. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. shampoos. Mascolo N. caffeic. cone flower. up to 10 in. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva.2–4. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. hair rinses. douches. and Fasulo M. Blackwort. salves.) Comfrey is also an astringent. feebly astringent taste.. althea. B-sitosterol amino cids. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. watersides.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. and demulcent. Most of Europe. long.7%).. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots..
285 0.61 0.07 100. Dig. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.10 0.085 0.58 5.72 1. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.19 0.0 0.40 0.29 44.7 0.14 49.73 28.0 1200.480 0.50 1101100.79 275.92 0.65 0.0 0. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.74 0.624 8.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.20 0.78 7.14 8.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.7 0.51 4.89 0.8 44.0 5.0 15.456 0.18 2.795 0.0 3.26 0.8 2.7 7.0 7.41 0. for cattle Maint.00 57 34 34 1. energy therms cwt Prod. Nutrients Calc.0 30.11 25.05 0.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.2 0.19 5.600 0.142 0.10 19600 10 6 28 0.01 14.30 1.47 1.93 0.208 100.8 213.59 0.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A equiv.59 2.84 4.92 0.176 0.037 17.93 0.86 49.111 1.0 100 g 4.99 1.01 24.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.1 Dry matter 30.
. firm..... externally wrinkled. Europe.. woodland. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey.. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L. branched.... Bruiswort.. internally creamy white. Blackwort.. It is almost inodorous... North Africa.. CONE FLOWER.. cultivated extensively.. riverbanks.. Good when used in burn creams.See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L.. promotes tissue repair. reduces inflammation and clotting. mucilaginous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . feebly astringent taste. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L.5 cm thick and 30 cm long. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf.. occasionally dark brown in color.. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped. horny texture.. creates astringency... Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia. and dark color.... The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface. and has a sweetish. *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable. Healing Comfrey Herb.. often more than 2. Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin....
except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. limonene.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. undulate secondary ribs. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. camphor. endocarp of large tabular cells. rutin). etc. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. geraniol and geranyl acetate. p-cymene. deodorants. perfumes. Properties Has been used in body lotions. two or three layers of large. and flavors. -terpinene. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. each mericarp with five prominent. tangentially elongated. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. fatty acids. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. The essential oil is used in massage oils. ferulic). from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. eliptical oil ducts. frequently with numerous large.). phenolic acids (caffeic. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. straight. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. chlorogenic. toothpaste. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. cremocarp nearly globular. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. mericarps easily separated. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. toilet waters and after shaves. coumaric. flavonoids (quertcetin. tannin.
ascending branches. California. Description Annual. For aging skin. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. Virginia. marginal corollas funnelform. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. native of Europe. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. varying to rose or white. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. conjunctivitis. blue. it is soothing and emollient. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. heads long-peduncled. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. stem 3 to 7 dm high. more or less floccose. and various skin complaints. floccose. or as a compress for tired eyes. Quebec. with slender. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . scrapes. involucres round-ureolate. British Columbia. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. bracts greenish-yellow. about 15 mm high.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L.
Europe. minerals. Constituents Acetanapthene. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. CORN SILK Zea mays L. and temperate Asia. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. corn silk. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . arginine.4 mm in diameter. Topically very soothing and softening.4 to 3 mm in length.8 m in length. the upper portion being usually unicellular. palmitic acid. light green. tocopherols. cnicin. cichorin. spiral or annular tracheae. the basal trichomes 50. segments very slender. cyanidin glucoside. fixed oil.2 to 0. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. cultivated extensively. and 0. vitamin C. and from 0. alanine. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. yellow or light brown color. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. the epidermal cells rectangular. protein. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. tannin. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. flavonoids (Maysin). potassium. stigmasterol. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. spherical nucleus. protocyanin. purplish-red. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. saponins. proline. stigmas bifid. maizeric acid. frequently unequal. polygalacturonic acids.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside.
broad hairy leaves. fatty acids.. Constituents Vitamins.See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L. amino acids. slightly curved. *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India. quercetin). hairy perennial. Blatt. 1984. apricot-like.. Properties Stimulate circulation. five-lobed..... Description This trailing annual has rough stems. Constituents Saponins. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis.. and spotted with orange at the throat.. dark green fruits. Taste.. and cylindrical. phenolic acids. H. cooling.SEE WATERCRESS Description A short. with oval... Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles. about 1 cm in diameter. and refreshing. For blotchiness of skin. in face creams. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. campferol dirhamnoside. tubular yellow flowers... and for chapped skin or sunburn. 176.. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America. Berlin. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract.... CRESS. yellow.90 CRESS. Both the fruit and seeds are employed... and coughs.. and E.... flavonoids (gossypetin. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging). phytosterol. Zgalinski...... Hydrating. p. Springer-Verlag.M. enzyme (primeverase).. minerals. colds.. Wagner. S... The flowers are tubular. wrinkled leaves.. 1. sunburn... soothing eye compress...... According to the German Commission Monograph E..... and 3-gentiotrioside.... Plant Drug Analysis. astringent.. Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... sweetish. volatile oils.. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties... cucurbitacins.. odor.
where it is a common weed. approximating 90°. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide.5 cm wide. with a pronounced midrib. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle.0 cm long and 0. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). 0. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. dark green or brown-green in color. Stomata are present in both epidermises. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple.5 cm wide. Foreign Dandelion. Frequent pieces of cut. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls.5 to 1.S. ending in a spherical secreting cell. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. and for various skin complaints and eczema. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. naturalized in the United States.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum. yellow-brown and sometimes purple.
The white sap has been used to treat warts. and is especially high in potassium. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the root has been used to treat inflammation. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). as a diuretic. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. It is also considered a blood purifier. Vitamin B and C.
13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. whitish and fleshy within. which toward the upper part. glucoside. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. and its derivative taraxacoside. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. surrounded by a thick. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. but a bitter taste. whitish bark in which numerous. and the eudesmanolides. and a layer of cork externally. 1. milky latex exudes. but often divides into several erect branches. Description The root consists of a simple. which is rather hygroscopic. with concentric rings as in the root. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. where it is a common weed. it tapers but little below. the latter sometimes remains simple. and sterols. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). The drug. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. naturalized in the United States. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and wrinkled longitudinally. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. a narrow cortex. vitamins and minerals. flavonoids.1% mucilage. also ca. It attains a length of about 30 cm. much shriveled. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. porous. the section exhibiting a yellow. carotenoids. becomes tough when slightly moist. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. The dried root is dark brown. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. straight root. It has no odor. brownish concentric rings of sieve. which have not been found anywhere else.
117. slightly analgesic. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. Xylem radiate. Antiphlogistic. hooked. polyphenols. et al. Description It has a characteristic large. triterpenes.. polysaccharides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rheumatism). M.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. claw-like fruit..94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. 58. Odor slight. bitter. heavily concentric. flavonoids.5 cm thick. occasionally with cavities. chlorogenic acid. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. (oleanolic acid. ursolic acid) phytosterols. 1992.-C. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. taste astringent.. quinones. The plant produces bright red flowers. Fracture short. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. Lanhers. procumbide). The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. 1. light grey-brown. with some fan-shaped pieces. Planta Med.
E. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. L. Hedgehog Part Used: Root. Moench. purpurea. (Nutt. Indian head. Black Susans. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. pallida.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. E.. Scurvy Root.) Nutt. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Black Sampson. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. Part Used: Root.
central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. or purplish-brown. use for snake bite. externally grayish-brown.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. aromatic. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . slightly annulate in the upper portion. bark less than 1 mm thick. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. wounds. taste sweetish. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. Odor faint. blood purification. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. fracture short. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. etc. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. bed sores. fibrous. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. When administered orally. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. stings. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. burns. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. bites.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. light brown. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. For example. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. boils. cylindrical.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. ulcers. wound healing. or poisonous insects. or furrowed. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. sieve tissue in radial rows.
this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). It also increases T-cell proliferation. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii).ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities. and Interferon-B2. TNF-X. interleukin-1 (IL-1). Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages.3 Furthermore. indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients.
4E. arabinoga lactan). purpurea (0. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. angustifolia..98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro. purpurea and E. pallida. in vivo. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. angustifolia). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. including an essential oil. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan. • Polysaccharides. These include aliphatic amides. purpurea)]. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood.8Z. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea.10E)-tetraenoic acid). ferulates of tartaric.g. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid. angustifolia. In E.3–1. but practically absent in E. pyrrolizidine alkaloids.7% (except in E. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds.5 Furthermore.. which is useful for species identification.1%). Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus.6–2. Present in both E. isobutylamide of undeca (2E. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. – The mono. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0. chlorogenic acid.4Z-diene8.g. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. albicans pathogens. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E.
Roesler.-L.. Lohmann. Cheminat. Lohmann-Matthes. 13(1). Wagner.. 27(9). H. Becker. Intn.. and M. I. J. Bauer. Arzneim-Forsch. 669-675. 3. Cancer Inst. J. C. Ger Offen De 3. Holger. A. J.H. 27-38. and J. B. Vet. Wagner. Gifford. Luettig. Wuerdinger. Immuno Pharmacol.L. M. Zawatzky. Med. B. Schranner. Brouillard. G. S. K. Andreas. H. 276-281. Wagner. Klumpp and U. Jurcic. J.E. 1988. R. 5. 81(8). Ser. K. 6..ECHINACEA 99 1.Matthes. (Bethesda). J.345. Zenk. Christiane. E. 2787-2794. and R. 1988.. 1989. 1991.. N. M. R. 1989 2.744. 38(2). Wagner. and H. Steinmueller. 4. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Phytochemistry. Albrecht. Natl. Puhlmann. 353-364. 1989. Loesch. 36(5). H. O.
ursolic acid. inflammation. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. filaments. shriveled. yellow. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. having three pores and up to 0. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). stamens five. taste slightly bitter. rutin. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. tumors. sambunigrin). corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. from 2 to 3 mm in width. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. joint stiffness etc. slender anthers oblong. It is said to reduce swellings. south to Florida and Texas. flat or slightly campanulate. five-lobed.and beta-amyrin). regularly five-lobed. covered with finely punctate markings.023 mm in diameter.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. sterols. calyx superior. and tannins. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. volatile oils. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. astragalin. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. rotate. soreness. mucilage. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . triterpenes (alpha. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. Description Small. minerals.
longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. up to 13 cm in length and 1.) strongly lignified wood fibers. naturalized in northeastern North America. and catarrh. west to Missouri. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Elecampane (Inula helenium L. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. south to North Carolina. itching skin. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. wounds. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. and rashes. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. inner or cut surface somewhat concave.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. Odor aromatic. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. taste acrid. as a bactericide. asthma. fracture short and horny. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few.5 cm in diameter. roots cylindrical and tapering. frequently curved or irregularly curled. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. and separated by large intercellular spaces. bitter. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. Scabwort. central Europe. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. and pungent. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark.
friedelin). Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . polyacetylene. germacrene-D-lactose). triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. inulin. isolantolactone.102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. sterols.
with deeply cut leaves and numerous. however. or with many opposite branches. It is odorless. The leaves are sometimes almost round. and at other times pointed and narrow. high. broad. resin. green above. Description It is an elegant little annual plant. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. Europe. and phytosterin. but sometimes tinged with brown. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. woolly beneath. Constituents Tannins. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. heads numerous. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. woodland. 1 ⁄6 to in.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. has a bitter and astringent taste. 2 to 8 in. febrifuge. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. their margins. long and about in. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. always deeply cut-in teeth. small. Astringent tonic. sessile. Hemostatic. obtuse bracts which are white. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. revolute or undulate. taste bitter and aromatic. Description Stems white-woolly. odor characteristically aromatic. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. essential oil. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. Also has slight Anodyne properties. The stem is erect and wiry. heaths. either unbranched in small specimens.
104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. including aucubin. minerals. ferulic acid. and a volatile oil. caffeic acid. catapol. luproside. Constituents Aucubin. conjunctivitis. Euphrasia contains glycosides. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. poultices. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. gallotannins. lotions or drops for eye complaints. inflamation of the blood vessels. geniposide. and various skin conditions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . inflammation of the eyelid.
the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. United States. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. composed of polygonal cells. New Jersey. It is * Formerly CTFA. south to Florida and Texas. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root. making usually six oil ducts in all. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. conical stylopod. strongly lignified fibers. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. more or less curved. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. dorsal surface convex. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. For use in eye washes. brown walls. and two oil ducts on the ventral side.5 mm in breadth. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. Description Mericarps usually separate.
they are hard. protein. anisaldehyde. there are methylchavicol. and Turkey. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. Nearly in the center of one of the long. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. In addition. especially if powdered. Israel. yellowish-brown. the fruits contain a fixed oil. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. and 2 mm thick. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. the taste is disagreeable and oily. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. Soaked in water. the former appearing as a whitish point. and flattened. 2 to 3 mm wide. is strong and spicy. dark. translucent endosperm. In addition. horny. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. organic acids. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. -phellandrene. The odor of Fenugreek. cultivated in India.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. However. and flavonoids. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. including -pinene. the radicle being accumbent. Pakistan. and limonene. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
trigonelline. mucin. trigofoenoside A-G. damp copses. swollen glands. glutamic acid. choline. wounds. neurosis. and various skin irritations. hedges. in woods. fenugreakin. choline. Constituents Dioscin. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. tumors. cystine. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. diosgenin. yamogenin. A poultice has been employed for gout. Scrofula plant. flowering from July to October. Fenugreek contains mucilage. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. It is also used as a galactagogue. aspartic acid. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. and banks. mucilage. sores. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glycine. Square stalk. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. histidine.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin.
veined. thyrsoid panicles. opposite branches above. 2 to 4 ft in height. tuberous. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. erect. slightly drooping. dark purple. with paniculate. The flowers are small. Constituents Saponins. The leaves are opposite. with a leafy. and 3 to 7 in. and slightly margined. the limb contracted. quadrangular. alkaloids and flavonoids. or the upper lanceolate. acutish or broadly cordate at base. sharply and unequally serrated. having a green scale or sterile filament. ovate-oblong. on axillary and terminal. anodyne. smooth stem. obtuse. and subglobose. in length. cardio-active glycosides. The calyx is in five segments. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. sublabiate. lecithin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . adnate to the upper side. ovate. the corolla of a dull green color. acute. ovoid. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. of a deep-green color. long. and knotty root. whitish. forked. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. which are broadly ovate. 3 to 4 in. rounded. with a livid purple lip. petiolate. hesperetin. cleansing. and circulatory stimulant. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory.
Stinging Nettle. In a green state. sevens. quadrangular. and is hairy at the joints. numerous and scattered. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. tannins. or eights. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. retrorsely prickled stem. coumarins. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. procumbent. with an acidulous. corolla rotate and 4-parted. tapering to the base. and n-alkanes. these plants have an unpleasant odor. stamens 4 and short. 2 or 3 lines in width. phenolic acids. Catch-weed. Calyx 4-toothed. cleansing. and flowering from June to September. and bitter taste. but are inodorous when dried. GARLIC Allium sativum L.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. moist thickets. small. Description Galium aparine is an annual. mucronate. including psoriasis. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). flavonoids. astringent. in length. with a weak. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. and midrib. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. fatty acids. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. styles 2. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . succulent plant. and astringent. verticillate in sixes. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. and Burdock. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. and along banks of rivers. sterols. the peduncles are axillary and 1. the flowers white. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. with hooked prickles. and rough on the margins. The fruit is large and bristly.or 2-flowered. growing in cultivated grounds.
epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. pimples. each bulbil covered by whitish. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. g-glutamyl). cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. Italy is a large producer. peptides.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. C. compound. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. in place of butter. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. for obvious reasons. and attached to a flattened circular base. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. and acne. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. with 8 to 15 bulbils. The membranaceous scales. Properties Cosmetically. allicin — dialltrisulfide. Vitamins A. the outer surface convex. bacteriostatic. surrounded by whitish. Description Bulb subglobular. (alliin. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. hypotensive and anthelmintic. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. spasmolytic. cultivated extensively. However. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . promotes leucocytosis. B. taste intensely pungent and persistent. membranaceous scales. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. and E. Garlic is diaphoretic. antiseptic. Constituents Sulfur compounds. and fructans. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. antiviral. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. scordinins. apex acute. It has been applied successfully to swellings.750 mm in diameter. dry leaf. Internally. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. scale-like leaves. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. base truncate. membranaceous. Garlic does not lend itself. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. sores. trace minerals. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. expectorant. about 0. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together.
and to 37 mm in diameter. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. sialagogue. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. amarogentin. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. bitter. sweroside. Cranesbill. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations.5 dm in length. then strongly bitter. Properties Gentian is an astringent. but are usually shorter. but pliable when it is moist. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. These roots measure up to 8.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. The odor is aromatic. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. anti-inflammatory. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. phenolic acids. The cambiam zone is dark brown. xanthones. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. The taste is first sweet. gastric stimulant. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. cleansing. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. polysaccharide. and alkaloids (gentiamine). GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. volatile oils. and cholagogue. It is recommended for loss of appetite. and middle western United States. swertiamarin). that of the root.
Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.
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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome
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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.
Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.
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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root
Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.
Ginseng root (american) cultivated
Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its
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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.
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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.
GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves
Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.
Golden rod (Solidago)
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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome
Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.
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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.
GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part
Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near
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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin
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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.
GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit
Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract
Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.
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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.
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lotions. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. which can be used in various sun-care products. and phenolic acids (caffeic. gallo catechins).GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. shampoos. hair rinses. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. etc. ferulic). theobromine. conditioning. tannins (catechins. creams. theophylline)..
Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. and central and northern Asia. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. Monogyna (jacq. fatty acids. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe.C. Description The fruits are small berries. and dimeric procyanidin. purple-brown to brown in color. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. and frost bite. vitexin glucosides. phenolic acids. with five parts.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. Medically.) C. and externally wrinkled. it has been used as a wash for itching. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. Properties Flowers. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. leaves. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. catechin. quercetin and glucosides). 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cosmetically. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. sores. Externally. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers.
Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. It can be used in shampoos. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. India. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. et al. small. however. in an aqueous solution. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. triangular pitted seeds. astringent. entire. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. with occasional stems and brown. deepening with alkalies. Description Leaves greenish-brown. 51. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt.. It will add body and highlights to hair. 1 to 2 cm wide. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 319. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution.126 HENNA 1. fruit. shortly petiolate. glabrous. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. and conditioners. fading on the addition of acid. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. simple. l. Della Loggia. 1983. 2 to 3 cm long. opposite. brown. Chamomile. often imported in coarse powder. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. However. It will not impart any color to the hair. oblong or broadly lanceolate. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. It is also said to be cooling. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. etc. mucronate. tapering at the base. decoction orange-brown. 4-napthoquinone).. Persia. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. Calendula. as henna. Arabia. hair rinses. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. Pharm. Sci. (2-hydroxy. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. and decolorized by a special extraction process. R. acids destroy its properties.
and New Zealand. luteolin). and tannins. Honey obtained from heather. flavonoids.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. Australia. Chile. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. and semi-solid on keeping.4-napthoquinone). The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. orange blossom. phenolic acid. It becomes partially crystalline. fatty acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. Description Honey is a viscid. various parts of Africa. owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. California. translucent. (glucosides of apigenin.
In combination with Chamomile. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. Useful in treatment of dandruff. The taste is pungent and bitter. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. The strobiles measure 5. formic acid. It has been used on crural ulcers. bitter principles. hypnotic. and hair conditioning. Asia. and tannins. Hops is a strobulus. humulene. consisting mainly of humulene. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. dextrin. volatile oil. tannins. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin). Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. and discoloration. face creams. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. Bark Bongay. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. and pollen grains. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. sores. wax. it will reduce swellings.brown. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol).8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. one margin is flat. It contains small quantities of sucrose. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. will give body to the hair. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. ringworm.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. bactericidal. the veins are elevated. The individual bracts are thin and papery. Hops is a sedative. xanthahumol). The odor is aromatic. and alleviates pain and itching. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. lupulone. tetters.
in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. with a shining. and hemorrhoids. sprains and various sports injuries. The internal surface is whitish and smooth.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. Anti-inflammatory.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. and non-astringent. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. and has an unpleasant. The nut has a slight. from 1 to 1 in. iron gives a green precipitate. yellowish-white in color. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. phlebitis. The aqueous infusion is bitter. tendonitis. hand creams. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. Properties Cosmetically. Gaertn et Schert. and swellings. peculiar odor. The plant has long. phenolic acids. nearly an inch in diameter. aesculin). and tannin. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. vasoconstrictor. Increases venous tone. fleshy roots. when dry. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. compressed. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. fawn-colored. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. is subglobular. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. quercetin). and is tough and fibrous in fracture. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. Properties Astringent. and slimming products. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. The inner bark has a rough. stimulates digestion and circulation. lotions. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. Description A perennial . It has been used in cellulitis. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. in diameter. The bark is thin. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. large rough leaves. increases circulation. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole.25–0. chestnut-brown testa. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. Constituents Saponins (aescin. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. The nut. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. is nearly odorless. bitter taste. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. The internal portion is starchy. bitter taste. varicose veins. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. The root has antimicrobial properties.
greasy skin. 1 to 3. mostly with sterile spores. rarely with a few branches. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. acuminate. branches 3 to 4 angled. and Eurasia. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. thick. after crushing and moistening. causing the skin to blister. 10 to 14 furrowed. Greenland. 2 to 3 mm.5 dm. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. branched.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. California. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. solid. sterile stems decumbent to erect. cones peduncled. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. thick. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . high. yields 0. South Carolina. as the fresh juice can be irritating. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. However. However. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. 5 to 10 mm. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. which would validate its use on blemished. high. 2 to 4 cm long. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. it should be used with caution and low concentrations.5 dm. Alaska.
sometimes narrower. kaempferol. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. with the middle of the corolla erect. acute. sometimes elliptical. erect. The leaves are opposite. gangrenous ulcers. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. lower lip trifid. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. and external bleeding. apigenin). rather thick. emarginate. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. and 1 ribbed underneath. acute. green on each side. The flowers are bluish-purple. Used for putrid wounds. very much branched. flat. sunny sites. Upper lip of the corolla. phenolic acids. southern Europe. astringent. emarginate. minerals. woody at the base. protruding. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. the branches are rod-like. It is diuretic. with the middle obe larger. seldom white. flat. and borne in racemose. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and diverging. palustrine alkaloid. punctate. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. entire. silicic acid. and 1 to 2 ft in height. but smaller. Its stems are quadrangular. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. Stamens 4. or lanceolate. sessile. healing.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. spreading. second whorls. scarcely shorter than the calyx. Will add strength and sheen to hair. usually oblong-linear. anthers with linear divaricating cells. and equistetolic acid. saponin (equisetonin). spreading.
132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. flavonoid glycosides. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. oleanic acid. ursolic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and resin. gum. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. marrubin. Tannin. phenolic acids. Constituents Volatile oil.
square. decongesting tonic. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. opposite. Europe to Caucasus. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. with a prostrate. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. Also useful in cough preparations. the limb oblique. volatile oil. hairy. The flowers are bluish-purple. The floral leaves are of the same form. about three together in axillary whorls. and glaucous on both sides. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. gray. marubiin. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. the upper being the largest. phenolic acids.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. radicating at base. roundish. curved. with a varegated throat. creeping stem. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. The calyx is long. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). though often purplish beneath. forming the appearance of a cross. crenate. hairy herb. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. * Formerly CTFA. villous. cordatereniform. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). the teeth lanceolate-subulate. luteolin [cynaroside]. North America. The leaves are petiolate. amino acids.
It is acrid. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. exudes from the incised bark. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. Description An evergreen climber. anthelmintic. Ivy has been used in face packs.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. control of cellulite. aromatic odor. antimutagenic. and introduced into North America. The former possesses a peculiar. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. or Ivy gum). and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. faintly bitter. However. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. Scandinavia. molluscicidal. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. rather fragrant odor. and when heated emits a pleasant. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. sun or shade. Europe. Properties Anti-fungal. This plant is common all over Europe. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae.
IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids. and fatty acids. hederacoside.and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides. malic acid. . hederacoside C (5%). flavonoids.
Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. The blades are asymmetric. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. dull. The upper surface is yellowish-green. and stems. The taste is salty and bitter. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay. stalks. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. and the veins are elevated. tapering and rounded or acute at the base.5 cm. The leaves are compound. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The under surface is yellowish-green. smooth. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. The odor is slight. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets.
Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. It induces salivary. jaborino. hair tonics. skin creams. Combines well with Nettles. and mullein as a hair tonic. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. eugenol. conditioners. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. very sweet-scented flowers. jaboric acid. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. gastric. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. It increases intestinal motility. volatile oil. calyx linear. and soaps.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. isopilocarpine). with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. tincture of Capsicum. Constituents Essential oil. isamone. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. more than half as long as the corolla tube. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. and farnesol. the terminal leaflet larger. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia. It can be used in shampoos. lotions. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. Leaves opposite. pilocarpic acid. gels. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. benzyl alcohol. antiglaucoma agent. and sweat hypersecretion. hair rinses. containing benzylacetate. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. colocynth. It contains pilocarpine.
benefits the skin. hair products. Constituents Iodine. and many trace minerals and micronutrients. softening. skin care products. potassium. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors. Nourishing. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. (For additional information. restoring.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. each bearing an expanded blade. see Chapter 7. Description Vesicles large. algin. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. dissolving.
and similar skin problems. and antifungal.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. analgesic. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antipyretic. shampoos. and lotions. tropical habitats in dry soil. triterpenoids. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. wide. Approximately 30 species have been identified. antioxidant. and alkaloid. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. creams. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. southern India and Sri Lanka. The flowers are in branched panicles. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. dandruff. Antimicrobial properties. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in.
When taken on an empty stomach. skin creams. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). and Hungary. Russia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. and cleansers. Glycyrrhizae Radix. It is aromatic and astringent. bacteriastatic. Sweet Wood.) Burman F.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. taste aromatic. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. and close the pores. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. cleanse the skin. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. phenolic acids. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. distinctive. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. Properties Healing antiseptic. Liquorice Root. Constituents Essential oil. dilute it with water. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. southern Europe.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. giving relief. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. odor fragrant. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. skin bleach.
It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. sometimes split longitudinally. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. somewhat tapering. Its odor is distinctive. Externally. antiphlogistic. longitudinally wrinkled. antibacterial. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. eczema. Internally. its taste is sweetish.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. it is externally pale yellow. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. when deprived of the outer corky layer. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. anti-infectant. antiviral. The upper portion is more or less knotty. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. Anti-inflammatory. including dermatitis. Properties Good for skin eruptions. antiseptic. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. antihepatotoxic. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. and cysts. pruritus. it is yellow and radiate. Internally.
glabrol. White Wood. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid.7-dihydoxyflavone. glabronin etc. kumatakenin. Basswood. glyzarin. sterols. amino acids. etc. bracts N/S Flowers. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. liquiritin. Europe. amines. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . echinatin. liquiritigenin. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. glycyrrhetol. B-amyrin. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. lignin. glycyrol. licoisoflavanone. licoisoflavones A and B.). 4’. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. bracts Flowers. isoliquiritin. gum wax. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. Linn Tree. On hydrolysis. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose).). 2 to 20% starch. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. licuraside. neoliquiritin. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. bracts N/S Flowers. coumarins. licoric acid. glabrolide. isoglabrolide. 4-hydroxychalcone. etc.). neoisoliquiritin. limestone. licoricone. glabrone. formononetin.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. licochalcones A and B. rhamnoisoliquiritin.
The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. The petals are five and whitish. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. or approach yellow. Internally. are oblong or lanceolate. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. When fresh. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. odor is agreeable. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . when dry. faint. leaf-like bract. linear.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. For bruises and to reduce swelling. Emollient. which are axillary.
tannins. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. phenolic acid (chlorogenic. and resin are also present. kaempferol). J. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. W.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. Description Lovage has large. D. dark green. The fruit is a cremocarp.5 to 1. high amount of uronic acid. Coumarins. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage. lotions. The rhizome and root are aromatic. sterols. creams. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. mucilage. Smallage. cultivated in central and southern Europe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and perfumes. Maggi Herb. gum. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. naturalized in North America.0% volatile oil. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. caffeic). volatile oil. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps.
it is known to give body and sheen to hair. slender. The rhizomes are horizontal. mucilage. quinic acid. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. pedately branching at the summit. phenolic acids and their sulfates. adiantoxide. astragalin. The odor is slight. and then into several spreading pinnae. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. and with blackish roots. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. primary forks. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. Properties In rinses. Constituents Adiantone. tannin. blackish. and shining frond bases. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. They consist of long. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. first into two recurving. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent.
the veins are elevated. distinct. and fruits. hairy. niacin. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. The flower heads have a short. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. Useful in eye preparations. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. The blade is cordate at the base. Holligold. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. The texture is herbaceous. protective. and insect bites. spasmodic colitis. Medicinally used in cough preparations. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. and phenolic acids. and slightly elevated. blotchiness. These flowers are oblanceolate. the veins are palmate. The taste is mucilaginous. curved peduncle. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Relieves itching. thick. naturalized in North America. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. The individual flowers are yellow. mostly ligulate. flowers. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. British Columbia to Mexico. Emollient for sensitive skin. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. greenish-gray bracts. The odor is not distinct. Mary-bud. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. Properties Soothing and softening.
The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.
MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root
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yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops
Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.
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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.
MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root
Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.
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Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb
Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)
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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers
Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied
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to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin
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25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. bitter. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. The odor is aromatic. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. engler) The surface is dull. and acrid. carminative. and anti-inflammatory. Myrrh is used in incense.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. mildly expectorant. It is said to promote granulation. for example. Used for halitosis. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. diuretic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The fracture is conchoidal. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. It is said to bring forth the gods. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. diaphoretic. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. The taste is pungent. sore throats. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. antifungal. powdery.
cineole. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. Constituents Yields 0. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. and nerol). creamy white flowers.2 to 0. camphene. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and blue-black berries. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange. on bruises and hemorrhoids.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. geraniol.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene.
.. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy. and for cutaneous eruptions. Urtica urens L.. beta-carotene.... Nettles has been used as an astringent. kaempferol. common to Europe and the United States.. dull-green plant. acetyl choline. nervous eczema. Stimulates hair growth. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll. flowering from June to September.. (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle.. serotonin).... Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant. amines (histamine. and isorhamnetin). which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed. formic and citric acids.N NASTURTIUM . and epistaxis malaena. sterols. choline... armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. minerals (high amount).. in hedges. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic... Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..... by woodsides..... See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L.... herbaceous.. Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant. growing in waste places.. Description This plant is a perennial.. and in gardens.
159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. taste starchy. thinly membranous. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. tapering toward each end. a scar or. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). and the Yukon. Texas.O OATS Avena sativa L. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. above the center. up to 1. within the groove a narrow. Odor slight. the apex pointed. Florida. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. two-veined palet or scale. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. the base somewhat contracted. rarely. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green.
Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. some of which give rise to unicellular. lignified walls. entire and coriaceous. Medically. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. sleeplessness. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. partially beaded. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. subsessile. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. The drug tastes bitter. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. polyphenols. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. highly refringent and truncate. eczema. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. less heavily developed tissue. rarely over 25 ft in height. bent here and there. the cells filled with protein. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. lignified. avenacin). pointed hairs. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. Properties Benefits the skin. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. elliptical stomata up to about 0. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). unicellular hairs with lignified walls. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. The leaves are opposite. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. Description The tree is small. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . shingles. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. these are elongated thick-walled. and herpes. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. straight or slightly curved.
diuretic. 417. hypotensive.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. and antimicrobial. ONION Allium cepa L. et al. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). 58. yellow globe.. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. 57.2 m high. Planta Med. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. 2. Zarzuelo. 1. ligustroside. Planta Med. et al. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . also hollow. A. ll-demethyl oleuropein. hypoglycemic. 513. hypoglycemic. M. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. up to about 1. 1991. few of them have been studied experimentally.. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. antifungal. Gonzalez. 7... and red globe onions. 1992.
The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. Fruit. oblong-oval. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. reddish-orange. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. very sweet-scented. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alkyl and alkenylcysteines. with bitter rind and sour flesh. fructans. 1-propenesulfenic acid. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. introduced to Europe. 2 to 2 cm long. Flowers. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. white. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). Description Leaves. acute. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. 7 to 8 cm globular. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk.
Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. the sugar component of which. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. Constituents Essential oil (ca. 0. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. minute pits. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. furanocoumarins. nobiletin. fracture hard. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. taste aromatic and bitter. non-bitter flavonoids. with many slight. short. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. neohesperidose (2-0. rutoside. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. such as hesperidin. inner surface whitish. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. aromatic wash. used for oily skin and acne. with limonene as main constituent. flavonoids.2 to 0. considerable amounts of pectin. It is also given internally. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. and bitter substances. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. var. odor fragrant and aromatic. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster.5%). somewhat curved. conical projections and linear. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. tangeretin. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). more astringent than rose water.
*INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. bitter and carminative. citral. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. sinensis Osbeck. sinensis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . odor fragrant. naringin. Flavonoids. quercetin. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. globules of volatile oil. It is also an aromatic. citronellal. and hesperidin. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. skin creams for its flavonoids. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. taste pungently aromatic. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. Cultivated in Florida and California. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. Sweet orange peel Description The outer.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid.
scoparine. antipyretic. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. acne. tannin. arabinose. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. very variable in size. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. stipules variable. Description Flowers mostly tricolored.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. pruritus. magnesium tartrate. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. mucilage. Monograph 6. but often palmately lobed with a larger. rheumatism. impetigo. and carotenoids. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. e. anti-inflammatory. saponins. usually little longer than the calyx appendages.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. leafy. flavonoids.. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. p-coumaric acid. Petals usually longer than the sepals. Exerpt from German Commission E. Constituents Essential oil. but sometimes up to twice as long. tocopherol. Properties Used as a healing tonic.g. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. spur short. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. galacturonic acid. anthocyanidin glycosides. gaultherin. violutoside. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions. Leaves variable. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. rutin. eczema. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. meadows.
The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. and minerals. with large. staminate and pistillate flowers. edible berry up to about 15 lb.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). The fruit is a large melon-like. carpinine (an alkaloid). etc. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . shampoos. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. Naturalized in southern Florida. Carpaine. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. C14H2502N. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. which resembles sinigrin. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. vitamins. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. long petioled.
It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. margin dentate to crenate. papyrifora. p = parenchyma. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. (After T. Odor faint. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. Regn. ms = latex tubes. and B.F. taste woody and characteristic. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. m = outer lamella. q = group of large fibers. Veget.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2.2-benzenediol.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels. Kr´ = crystal rosettes. Tabl. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. Vent. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. kr = individual crystals.
(Mill.05 to 0.) Nym. fruit. expectorant. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. antirheumatic. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. compound umbels. and imperatorin. above-ground herb. extensively cultivated in California. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and antimicrobial. green. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. W.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. p-mentha-1.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). spasmolytic. sativum. hortense. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. Other parts of the plant contain 0. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. and others. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. Odor characteristic. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown.3. Furocoumarins including bergapten. France. 8-methoxypsoralen. Apium petroselinum. isopimpenillin. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. fruit. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. above-ground herb. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp. Belgium. stout. The tap root is fusiform. and starch. apiole (18%). Germany. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. apiin. aromatic. emmenagogue. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide.8-triene (9%). ex A. diuretic. psoralen. taste faintly sweet. and Hungary. B-phellandrene (12%). P.
The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. mildly sedative. flavonoids (luteolin. carminative. rutin. large. triterpenes. The outline is quadrangular. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. phenolic acids (caffeic. and minerals. The blade measures up to 7. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). Nova Scotia to Minnesota. the internodes are of variable length. The corolla is united and tubular below. sitosterols. The margin is sharply serrate. its color varies from light to dark purple. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. The flowers are arranged in dense. The calyx is campanulate. Properties Stimulant. and the veins are slightly depressed. menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). its five teeth are subulate. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The odor is aromatic. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. hesperidin).PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. The under surface is light green. spasmolytic.5 cm in length and to 3. menthone (10 to 40%). The nodes are enlarged. notably viridoflorol. The fracture is tough and incomplete. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. cholagogue. chlorogenic. cultivated in Japan and the United States. hair tonics. naturalized in North America. rosemarinic). and solid or hollow. tonic. antiseptic. ursolic acid. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. and the veins are more prominent. The apex is acute.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. The stems are simple or branched. and the veins are slightly depressed. The bracts are lanceolate. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. The cortex and wood are thin. as it contains flavonoids. interrupted spikes. four-lobed above. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. cineole. broad. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. the texture is fibrous. and the color varies from green to purple. south to Florida and Alabama. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. The pith is white. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The under surface is light green. the leaves are opposite decussate. They measure up to 9. menthofuran. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%).3 cm in width.
Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. tannins. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). 1 to 6 dm long. and Georgia. truncate. they are different. dark green. 1. in Connecticut. as well as Europe. hypoglycemic. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. leaves ovate to oblong. Vinca contains vincamine. shining. however. corolla blue. firm. hypotensive. a standardized extract should be used. trailing. and ursolic acid. entire. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. flavonoids. Description Stem spreading. Has also been used to stop external bleeding. the lobes obovate. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. Minnesota. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer.5 to 3 cm broad. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. astringent. native of Europe. vulnerary sedative.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. Properties Used as a hemostatic. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. vasodilator.
In a radial surface. which are the medullary rays. long. abietic acid. The medullary rays. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. balsamic. arising from a fibrous root. shikimic acid. dihydroquercetin. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. dark band of autumn wood. The leaves are ovate. Properties Astringent. Plantago major L. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. aromatics. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. parahydroxybenzoic acid. quinic acid. very small. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. swellings. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. quercetin. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. campesterol. numerous. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. Vessels are absent. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. and abruptly narrowed into a long. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. and insect bites. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. The stamens and styles are long. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. it has a density varying from about 0. pinitol. somewhat toothed. moist places. It flowers from May to October.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. and is common in Europe and America. Ripple-grass. raffinose sequoyitol. smoothish. and in grass plats. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. Constituents Contains oils. and applied to sores. cuts. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. malonic acid. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. growing in rich. tannins. imbricated.35 to 0. The flowers are white.to seven-nerved. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. by the roadsides. channeled petiole. the seeds numerous. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. n-nonacosane. leaving smooth surfaces. in fields. pinnicorretin. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. ferulic acid. five.
polysaccharides. aucubin. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. apparently. and phenolic acids. oleic. they both have the same virtues. apigenin. and for cell proliferation. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. essential oils. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. tannins. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. fixed oil (linoleic. allantoin. balcalin. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). asperuloside. and palmitic acids). Constituents Mucilage. for healing. catapol. sterols.
F. 1.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. Philadelphia. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester.3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro.. 1987. J. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. pollen. Magro Filboo. 30(1). G. and caffeic acid. Tyler.2 Constituents Resin. et al. V. 2.. 4.. and pinobanksin). Sch. 1980.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. galangin. fungicidal. The New Honest Herbal. galagin.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. balsam. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. Hiadon B. and anti-inflammatory. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1990. Stickley Co.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. antiviral.. 1847. Nihon Univ. wax.. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. de Carvalho Ac. pinocembrin. essential oils. and pinobanksin. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. 3. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. Dent.E. ArnzneimittleForschung. 32(1).
It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. channels. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. fracture uneven. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. inner surface yellowish-brown. * Formerly CTFA. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. outer surface nearly white. these species appear to resemble that of Q. and occasional circular depressions. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. Bolivia. finely wrinkled. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. Smegmandermos deC. coarsely fibrous. Upon microscopic examination. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. and Peru. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. odor slight sternutatory. Historically. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. Description In flat pieces of variable size. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . conical projections or transverse. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. taste very acrid and unpleasant. longitudinally striate.
or compound quilled. partially quilled. quilled. and to 6 mm in diameter. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. free acids (quinic acid). calcium oxalate sugars. Ecuador. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. its important alkaloids. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). shallowly fissured transversely. overlapping quilled.8 dm in length. which is nearly always chip-like. cinchonidine. quinamine). or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. quinidine. The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is not distinct. QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. uronic acids. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). to 7 cm in width. The bark is flat or chip-like. Internally. are used. tannins. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. cinchonine. gypsogenin. quinine and quinidine. The fracture is tough and uneven. The root. Remineralizing protein. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). a neutral saponin. and volatile oils. The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent.
taste mucilaginous and characteristic. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. present in the epidermis of the testa. being coated with mucilage.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. with water. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ovoid or oblong. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. It is also used as a suspending agent. triangularly compressed.
mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. purplish and more or less brown from drying. contains over 40 compounds. eugenol. * Formerly CTFA. and esters. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. Mildly anti-spasmodic. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. then slightly bitter.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. Constituents Flavonoids. taste sweetish. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. style slender. benzyl alcohol. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. biochanin A. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. fatty acids. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. starch. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. volatile oil. genistein. Medicinally. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. including methyl salicylate. phenolic acids. volatile oil. calyx teeth subulate. petals united into a tube below. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. tapering. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). daidzein. and furfural. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. sitosterol. shriveled. Properties Historically. phenolic acids.
the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. lotions. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet.15 to 0. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. and Minnesota. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. They have. The numerous veins run from the base toward. ovate. mainly rhoeadine. hair rinse. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. light-colored. thimble-shaped. somewhat smaller. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. with a short. fruit red. doubtfully indigenous to England. rounded or cordate at the base. inflorescence short-racemose. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. erect. leaving a space about 0. shortacuminate. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. By drying. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. Description Stem biennial.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. Properties Soothing. Quinoline alkaloids. finely tomentose when young. when fresh. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. with an entire margin. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). Rhode Island. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. etc. they are smooth and shining above. Maine. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. double-serrate. emollient. such as hand creams. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. and are then employed in the fresh state. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. armed with bristles or weak prickles. dark violet claw.
and beta-carotene. ellagic acid. B. insomnia. it comes in various sizes and shapes. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. lactic acid. and chest and heart diseases. Constituents Ascorbic acid. China. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. and North American coastal rainforests. thiamine.). Miraculous chi. Ergosterol derivatives. Constituents Polysaccharides. consult a qualified physician before using. Japan. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antioxidant. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. granoderan A. hepatitis. and inflammations. Ling-Zhi (Chin. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. nervousness. Internally. mouth ulcers. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. Auspicious Herb. malic acid. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. and C. fragarine. gallic acid. A series of tritepenoids. have been isolated. Happy Herb. minerals. protein. succinic acid. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. riboflavin. Dried and whole. and antibacterial properties. Note: However.
of the wood. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. which has numerous branches. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. very tough and hackly. fibrous. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. rough and scaly. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. and P. The texture of the cortex is granular. and it tapers into the main root. The odor is not characteristic. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. of the larger roots. The taste is astringent. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown.5 cm in diameter at the crown. that of the wood. The color is dull reddish-brown. of the larger roots. dark reddish-brown.
benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. In the periphery of the pith.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. II. parenchymatous matrix. officinale. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. about 5 mm wide. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. tannins (proanthocyanidines). The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. After removing the powder. barrel-shaped or conical. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. and N-methyltyrosine. The smoothed. which when carefully shaved off. face creams. If the trimming has been very severe. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. Constituents Gum. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. after-shave lotions. mouth wash. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines.5 mm wide by 2 to 2.5 mm long. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. etc. Within the cambium is a ring. ratanine). being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. Dark areas may still be found here and there. in the form of a fine yellow powder. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. immediately within the secondary xylem. showing that they are leaf traces. the cortex has been removed. III. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. to give a good appearance. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet.
the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. chrysophanol. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. the fractured surface. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. min. This is applied to the hair and left to dry. aloeemodin.Eur. and compact. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the mechanism is described under Aloes.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. A very complex mixture is present. but in one investigation. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. Barbados. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. and (+)-gallocatechin. It is then rinsed out. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. The predominant aglycone varies.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. (+)-afzelechin. it is used as a stomachic. due to the bitter taste. In most cases. rhein. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. also (+)-catechin 5. In small amounts. heavy. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. it is very gritty between the teeth. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. and physcion. With its high tannin content. it is often rhein. Flavonoids. 2. when chewed. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. astringent taste. of which many aglycones have been identified.5% calculated as rhein). The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms.and 7-0-glucosides. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate.
gallic acid. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. filter. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. pink. taste sweetish. L. catechins. slightly bitter. Minor constituents are citral. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. and traces of carvone. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3.0. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. free and in combined forms with glucose. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. Tannins. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . odor fragrant and rose-like. and astringent. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. One example would be rose water. it can be prepared by using rose oil. l-linalool. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. French Rose. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. however. and procyanidins. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. phenylethyl alcohol. approx. 5 to 10%. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. glycerol. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. shaking well and allow to stand until cold.
perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. The achenes themselves are hairy. magnesium. capric acid. low.5 to 3. linoleic acid. catechin-tannins. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. Description The fruit of R. sucrose. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . isoquercitrin. gallocatechin. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. and zeaxanthin. vanillin.2 cm wide. kaempferol-3-glucoside. leucoanthocyanins. essential oil. flavonoids. rubidium. coriaceous. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. linolenic acid. citric acid. they are refrigerant. lycopene. epicatechin. opposite. When combined with various other hair preparations. evergreen. boron. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. and slightly diuretic. mildly astringent. invert sugars. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain.5 cm in length and up to 2. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. pectin. Constituents Ascorbic acid. rubixanthin. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. sessile. malic acid. alpha-tocopherol. succinic acid. it will add highlights to light hair. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. Description A bushy. protein. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. xanthophyll. much branched. tannins. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. Wild Brier.
flavonoids. diosmin. creams. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. The oil is used in fragrances. characteristic. and triterpenic acids. protein. rosmarinic acid. camphoraceous. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. taste pungently aromatic. astringent. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and showing a prominent midrib. margin revolute. it is used to increase circulation. boron. and bitter. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. lower surface wooly. borneol. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. Constituents Essential oil. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. glandular-punctate. tannin. etc. lotions. Properties Tonic.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. Topically. stimulant. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. diaphoretic. odor aromatic. hair conditioners. camphor. phenolic acids. The extract can be used in shampoos.
an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. long petiolate. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. estrogenic compounds. cineole. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . carnosolic acid. camphors. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. 1 to 2. Leaves opposite. the upper branches bear blue. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. borneol. caryophyllene. It is antibacterial. salvin. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. texture velvet-like. venation pinnate-reticulate. linalool. margin crenulate.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. to 1 ft high. midrib and veins prominent. thujone. much branched. Constituents Volatile oil.6 cm in breadth. petiole up to 4. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. and disinfectant (against inflammations). ursolic acid.5 cm in length. Sage Garden Sage. beta-sitosterol. base rounded or subcordate. and tannins. From an underground fibrous root system. stimulating. densely pubescent. there arises a grayish. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. taste aromatic and bitter. 2 to 10 cm in length. carminative. saponins. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. Properties Cosmetically. the reticulations being very small. apex acute or obtuse. pinene. protein. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. antiseptic. pubescent stem with branches opposite. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. phenolic acids. fungistatic. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. astringent. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. In early summer. flavonoids. uneven or lobed. lamina elliptical.
0. depurative. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. The taste is slightly bitter. hemorrhoids. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. wounds. It is also used in perfumery. alterative. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. and lotions. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. and inflammed skin. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. White Sandal Wood. vulnerary. heavy. gr. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. of which it contains over 90%. and for the manufacture of boxes.985. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. L. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. astringent.973 to 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. North and South America. –13° to –21°).and -santalols). The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. Black Snakeroot. but easily split. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. hemostatic. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. palmately lobed leaves. and similar articles. and erect. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. carvings. Asia Minor. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . the odor strong and fragrant. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. o. and a stomachic.r. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. In Yellow Sandal Wood. the vessels are mostly solitary. hard. burns. pectoral. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. and dense.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. or as a perfume. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter.
Mucilage. and a bitter principle. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. resin. saponin. essential oil.
Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto. from 1. Dark Palmetto.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . externally brownish-black to bluish-black.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. smooth and somewhat oily. occasionally compressed.5 cm in diameter.
. beta-sitosterol... 1983.. enclosing a hard. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside. palmitic acid. Ann.. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich. mannitol. reddish-brown seed.. and stearic acid.. which measure up to 3 dm in length. lipase.. Odor pronounced...P. The fracture is very strong. SEAWEED... Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids.. and lotions. such as anorexia nervosa. Constituents Anthranilic acid. capric acid. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length.. J. caproic acid. Pharm. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown... ferulic acid.. aromatic. and to 3 mm in thickness.. apex marked by the scar of the style. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar.. inner layer of endocarp smooth. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity. skin creams. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled. 41. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous... south to Florida and Texas. a native of the southern United States. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp. tough. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity.. ellipsoidal or ovoid. oleic acid.6 dm in thickness.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. taste sweetish. 559. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases.. Properties Sabal berries. arabinose. lauric acid. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. 1.. and slightly acrid.. Franc. to 17 cm in width. were eaten by the Indians. somewhat flattened. when cork patches are present. it is coarsely striated longitudinally. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown. aromatic. They are said to be very nutritious. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color.. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous.. and incomplete. The odor is distinct.. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota.. et al. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions.7 dm in width.. and to 1.. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles. myristic acid. to 1.. or as cut and sawed pieces. Ulmus rubra Muhl. sito sterols... as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp. Tarayre.
native from Europe. New Mexico. boils. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. etc. petals pink or white. d-galacturonic acid. and tannin. chemicals that foam when added to water. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Nova Scotia. It can be used to emulsify oil. Florida. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. stem 3 to 6 dm high. lotions. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. starch. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. blades obcordate. leaves oval or ovate. capsule oblong. and Saskatchewan. and other beverages. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. New Brunswick. hexosan. pentosans. polysaccharides. 3 to 5 ribbed. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Colorado. Soap Wort produces a gentle. ulcers. and wounds. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. healing. calyx tubular. L-rhamnose. 1 to 5. soothing. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. tannin (minute). starch. Description Glabrous perennial.2 cm long. Colorado. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. Massachusetts. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. protein. North Carolina.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. Can be used in creams. minerals. and tannins. and beta-carotene. 5 to 8 cm long. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. hair conditioners. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L.
St. guanine. poultices. ray florets about 10. California. the outer linear-lanceolate. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. 2 to 10 mm wide. bracts canescent. 10 to 12 mm long. umbelliferone. astringent. isofraxidin. having antibacterial properties. conditioners. petals obovate. native to Europe. Constituents Essential oil. tonics. 5 to 10 dm high. heads numerous. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. obtuse. corolla 2 to 2. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. Medically. toothed above the middle on one side. ST.ST.5 cm broad. 4 to 6 cm long. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. acute or acuminate. chlorogenic acid. caffeic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. lower leaves petioled. the rest broadly oval. leaves. Properties Used as a nervine. and superficial burns. rutin. choline. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. uric acid. Virginia. scopoletin. with revolute margins. stimulant. uterine tonic. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. quebrachitol. 1 to 3 cm long. disk-florets 15 to 20. slightly tomentose beneath. capsule ovoid. scarious. flowers cymose. and anthelmintic. leaves linear to oblong. Manitoba. and scopolin. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. antiseptic. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. British Columbia. etc. emmenagogue. glandular-punctate. bruises. and for skin conditions. Colorado. frostbite. Nova Scotia. disinfectant. and anodyne. John’s Wort ing. tannin. Used in aromatic baths.
flavonoids.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. John’s Wort St. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. Newfoundland. phenolic acids. hyperoside. New Mexico. protein. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . mannitol. saponin. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. hypericin-like substances. hypericin. and Virginia. Manitoba. tannins. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. resin sitosterol.
sharply and deeply serrate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5 to 7. mostly acute.5 cm long. fruit elongate-ovoid. fatty acids. quercetin). It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. seldom over 1. and phenolic acids.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. very soon glabrate on both sides. seldom much exceeding the leaves. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. condensed tannins). ellagitannins. very rarely leafy-bracteate.5 dm high. rhombic-obovate.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. scape slender. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. very thin.
erect stem. button-like. Ginger plant. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. and spasmolytic. resin. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. button-like flowers. Scented Fern. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. are collected at the time of flowering. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. * Formerly CTFA. It has a stout. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. 1 to 3 ft high. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. Parsley Fern. and quercetin. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. The roundish. carminative. flat-topped. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. The leaves and flowering tops. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. phenolic acid. somewhat reddish. The entire leaf is about 6 in. tannin. English Cost. sesquiterpenes. anthelminitic. fern-like leaves and yellow. Also said to be an insect repellant. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. usually smooth. and branching near the top. tanacetin.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. Bitter buttons. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone.
lanceolate. thickets. It is found in numerous product forms. and dense. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. athlete’s foot.0 ml high. streamsides. bronchial congestion. and vaginal infections. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. while cineole is low (about 2. sore throat. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. cuts. either singly or with other ingredients. ringworm. with a broad range of health claims.5 to 2. including treatments for sunburn. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. abrasions. conical. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. Bark. New South Wales. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. Description A stiff.5%). terpinene. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. 0. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. lice. pimples. sparingly branched biennial. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. and the like. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. boils. abrasions. scabies. Over-wintering leaves. and Australia. erect. constantly renewable tree. upcurved. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. capsule. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. burns. in a flattened rosette. spongy. fruit. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oral infections. insect bites. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. stings. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. cymene).
S. taxifolin). 1. and tannins. stems. dark green. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. Flowerheads rayless. yellow spines. Foster. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. quercetin. St. American Botanical Councin. The injection gives better results. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. purple. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. Ed.. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids). Also used in homeopathy. 1955. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. The root and root stock are short and erect.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. entire or toothed. Blessed Milk Thistle. Mary Thistle. flavonoids (keampferol. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. fatty acids. Austin.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. It is said to contain saponins. both orally and also by intravenous injection. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. glucosides. and magnesium.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). TX. rare in Britain. Description Leaves spiny. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. Taste and odor.
hair tonics. sore gums.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. menstrual disorder. mouth rinse. ascorbic acid. stem 3 to 10 dm high. New York. aspartic acid. leaves two-pinnatifid. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . minerals. lobed. sensitive skin. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. flavonoids. and California. fruit through cultivation very variable. and reddish within. styptic. somewhat fusiform. cystine.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. It can be incorporated into shampoos. branching and more or less curved. and from 0. from 2. 10 to 15 mm broad. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. subglobose. vitamins. gargles. or pear-shaped. It can be employed in creams. lotions. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. brown or blackish externally.5 to 1.5 to 10%.5 cm thick. Description Viscid-pubescent. -hydroxy acids. lycopene. and dentate. ellipsoid. Texas. much branched. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. etc. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. Florida. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. antihemorrhagic. corolla yellow. to add sheen. 0. cyclohexanol. diarrhea. glycine. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. Constituents Proteins. acne. rinses. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. abscisic acid. glucose. Colorado. conditioners. Properties Fruit: astringent. and phytosterols. red or yellow.5 to 8 cm long. and sore throats. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L. that can be used for hemorrhoids. glutamic acid. facial muds.
The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. They are hard and heavy. Java. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). they bear short knob-like branches. Curcuma. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. Indian Saffron. quinovic. a red pigment. and other tropical countries. internally. China. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. and break with a short fracture.. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India.TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). TURMERIC Curuma longa L. bluntly tapering at each end. longitudinally wrinkled. Occasionally. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. caffeic. tormentillin. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. but the coloring matter. monodesmethoxycurcumin. antibacterial. etc. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. and anti-edemic. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . comprising mainly bisabolane.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. is also present. antifungal. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. it colors the saliva yellow. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. 2-7% essential oil. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). hypotensive. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. ukonan A.. and antimutagenic. guaiane. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. when chewed. It is also choleretic. curlone. anti-arthritic. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). zingiberene. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. ar-turmerone.
Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. central and cylindrical. Constituents Essential oil. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. However. actinidine). Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. and to 2 cm in diameter. The rhizome is vertical. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. acevaltrate. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. It is sedative. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. and spasmolytic. Cortex is thick. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. relaxant. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and disagreeable. and to 3 mm in diameter. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). The taste is sweet. alkaloids (valerianine. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. Pith is white or grayish-white. fatty acids. and baldrinal. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. phenolic acids. and valepotriates (valtrate. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. * Formerly CTFA. valerosidatum). isovaltrate. Belgium and England. Wood is small. cultivated in Germany. Roots are branched or simple. simple or branched. pungent. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L.
206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
verbenalin. straight. and against sunburns. 4 to 7 feet high. in addition to verbenin. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. artemitin. verbenelol. anorexic (appetite suppressant). Simpler’s Joy. contraceptive. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). Nebraska. Verbena officinalis L. finely haired herb has an erect. Wild Hyssop. False Verbain. and superficial and limited burns. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. ursolic acid. tannin. and Arizona. aucubin. gout remedy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . four-sided stem. diuretic. long. Description This rather rough. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. hastatoside. volatile oil. meadows. Constituents Iridoids. caffeic acid.
Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. depurative. disinfectant. glandular disturbances. soft and coarse grained. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. Properties Tonic restorative. styes. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Juglans nigra L. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. and edible. round-topped. gout. blisters. and varicose ulcers. open crown. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. scabbing pruritus. rheumatism. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. The leaves are alternate. *INCI Name . oily. ophthalmia. * Formerly CTFA. Used for skin complaints. imparipinnate. scrofula. astringent. west to Minnesota and Kansas. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. deep. irritation of the eyelid. vermifuge.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. eczema. The wood is light brown. The bark varies from nearly smooth. The kernel is sweet.
Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. California.. spatulate.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. proline. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). Virginia. Rheumatism and nervousness. it looks rather yellowish. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. Description Aquatic perennial. threonine.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). tumors. -carotene. folacin. its action being both detergent and healing. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. sepals oblong. alanine. 3 mm thick. valine. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. A Cure For All Cancers.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. ascorbic acid. lysine. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. Mexico. aspartic acid. Externally. Clark. leaves pinnate. many trace minerals. about 2 mm long. tyrosine. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. lymphatic or edematous swellings. histidine. tannin. and diastase. gluconasturtiin. leucine. methionine. and kaempferol. destroying most of its active principles. amino acids.g. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. petals white. Rubbing on scalp. high in protein. somewhat curved. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. British Columbia. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). hyperin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . caffeic acid. 4. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). ellagic acid. thiamine. glycine. cystine. and Europe. protein. about 4 mm long. West Indies. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. South America. biotin. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. arginine. 1. phenylalanine. beak about 1 mm long. glutamic acid. 5. tryptophan. fruiting pedicels divaricate. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. it will strengthen and thicken hair. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e.
Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. westward to Minnesota and Missouri.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. Durfee Grass. of young grass. Quake Grass. Couch Grass. Creeping Wheatgrass. Fin’s Grass. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. Twitch Grass. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. Quitch Grass. Devil’s Grass. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. Durfa Grass. Scutch Grass. Dutch Grass. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. sprouts. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South.
lotions.. insipid. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous. are carefully cleaned... creeping root stock. Over 240 compounds have been identified..212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. Odorless... and dermatitis. WHITE NETTLES. 1 to 3 ft high. amino acids. and hair conditioners. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat.. and phenolic acids.. yellowish wood bundles. creams.... and dried.. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes.. collected in the spring... fatty acids... It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States.. fracture short but tough. long. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos. bearing scattered nodular projections. externally pale brown. 6 to 20 mm thick. Its smooth hollow stems.. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. thin outer layer.. an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer... with numerous small.. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. elongated. thickets. more or less detached. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma.. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist. often compressed. which are thickened at the joints. cut into small pieces about in. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES. taste starchy.. bent and branched. The root stocks. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. -carotene. and stem scars on the upper surface. scattered. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout.. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils.. afterwards acrid...... The flowering heads are produced from July to September. are produced from a long. flavonoids. Description Knotted and woody. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled.See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L. Constituents Vitamins. Colic Root. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. eczema.
anti-inflammatory. taste astringent and slightly bitter. rinses. yellowish-brown to dark brown. inner surface. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. diosgenin. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. as this could vary among different manufacturers. It can be used in hair conditioners. in older bark dull. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. greenish-brown. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. White Willow. antiseptic. flavonoids. vimalin). etc. outer surface in young bark smooth.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. as it contains salicin. it should be standardized for its salicin content. dioscin. antirheumatic. endodermis distinct. shampoos. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. odor slightly aromatic. salicortin. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). fragilin. and antipyretic. Constituents Steroidal saponins. longitudinally striated. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. triandrin. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. Contains steroid-like substances. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. ascorbic acid. slightly lignified parenchyma. However. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. naturalized sparsely in North America. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. populin. irregularly wrinkled. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. fracture short fibrous. analgesic. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. minerals. and trace minerals. cortex composed of thin-walled. dioscorin.
Constituents Essential oil. long. flavonoids. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. Wych-hazel. bark. It has a crooked stem and long. and alcohols. esters. Winterbloom. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. scattering the shining black. Spotted Witch Alder. Striped Alder. yellow flowers. forking branches with smooth. thick. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. and polyphenols. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. eastern Canada. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. leaves. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. tannin. and borne on short stalks. brown bark. saponins. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. eastern United States. when it bursts open. Description Witch Hazel. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. due to its high tannin content. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. and leaves Bark. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids.
including betonicine. Gypsyweed. mint-like odor. shady places from Canada to Florida. American Water Hoarhound. erect stem from 6 in. tublar. pointed. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. but a disagreeable bitter taste. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. Water Bugle. rather narrow. Green Archangel. Gypsy Herb. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. Wolf Foot. bitter. which appear from about July to September. Paul’s Betony. and Nebraska. in length. The leaves are about 2 in. Constituents Alkaloids. are small. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. Gypsywort. Carpenter’s Herb. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. Description This herb has long. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. Sweet Bugleweed. Therefore. Missouri. They are followed by four nutlets. The plant has a rather pleasant. to 2 ft in height. smooth. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. and stachyerine. slender. The whitish flowers. Externally. and bell-shaped. Purple Archangel.
with slender. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. antiseptic. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. in loose clusters. coumarin. astringent. pointed leaves edged with tiny. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. Flowers small. Odor. anti-inflammatory. forwardpointing bristles. white. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. of new-mown hay. and the iridoids asperuloside. with four petal lobes. tannin.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. anti-arthritic. calming. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. soothing to the nerves. etc. antineuralgic. unbranched. when dry. Used in aromatherapy. Description A short perennial. wines. citric acid. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. bitters. vermouths. monotropein. quadrangular.
Description This shrubby. Flower heads greenish-yellow. and antipyretic. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. and anthelmintic. tannins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. -carotene. Madderwort. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. approximately 100 identified constituents. choleretic. p-coumaric acid. thujyl alcohol. Bitter stomachic. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. the lower lobe is petiolate. isovaleric acid. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. Mingwort. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. consist of numerous small. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. the inner linear with membranous margins. are divided into small leaflets. chamazulene. Absinth. taste bitter. 2 to 3 mm long. aromatic. Odor aromatic.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. two to three pinnately divided. absinthin. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. long. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. protein. Constituents Essential oil. anthelmintic. rutin. It is cultivated in some localities. which are from 2 to 5 in. Old Woman. camphene. used as an external antiseptic. the florets tubular. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. drooping. and the grayish-green leaves. artabsin. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. thujone. insignificant. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. especially in Michigan and Indiana. Also used to clean atonic wounds. yellow heads.
antipyretic. hypotensive. *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium.... feathery.... and is urinary antiseptic..... From June to September. Sanguinary. Bloodwort... Cammock.. Dog Daisy... Yarrow Milfoil.. high and has many finely divided...Y YAM. Gordoloba... dark green leaves. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic... Old-Man’sPepper.. and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada.... Closely related forms occur in the western states.. Carpenter Grass.. 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... pastures. Soldiers’ Woundwort.. diuretic.. Thousand-Leaf Clover. It * Formerly CTFA. Green Arrow.. astringent.. Thousand-leaf..See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L. Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields. Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing.. Nosebleed.... the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small. Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in.. It has a strong odor.. white flower heads....
camphor. and cholagogue. long. and furrowed stem. Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. injuries. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. it is also used in hair care preparations. angular. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. carminative. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and varicose ulcers. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. in cultivated as well as in waste ground. Broad-leaved Rumex. and tannin. it is stomachic. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. Curled Dock Root. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. Internally. flavonoids. and along roadsides. phenolic acids. Broad-leaved Dock Root. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. achillin). among rubbish heaps. It has been used for cuts. spasmolytic.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. bearing numerous. alkaloids (achilleine). blue colored chamazulene).
they become rusty brown. protein. usually from 8 to 12 in. nepodin. psoriasis. with few or no rootlets. and tannin. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. while the upper leaves are narrower. et Tor. Gum Plant. As the clusters ripen. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. with long stalks. and carefully dried.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. long. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. The root is large and fleshy. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. These are followed by the fruits. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . short stemmed or stemless. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. lapathinic acid. yellowish cortex. Bear’s Weed. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. and pale radially split wood. Consumptive’s Weed.The root. swellings. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. They are washed. only 3 to 6 in. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. sores. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. and eruptive diseases. chrysophanic acid. from 6 to 8 in. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. in length. in length. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. emodin. tapering or spindle shaped.
in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. butyric acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Resin. Gabon. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. eriodictyol. eriodictyonic acid. chrysoeriodictyl. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. The narrow. acetic acid. and the Congo. dark green. tannin. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. cerotic acid. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. essential oil. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. and eriodyctyonine. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. Schum. The rather showy.
samogenin. R. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. however. coarsely filiferous. 1.. sometimes 2 dm long. concave. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. minerals. shagreen roughened.1 Yohimbine. Description Low. Torr Yucca brevifolia. allo-. L.5 cm long. Arizona. 1998. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. Kronenthal. and Nevada.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. elongate. is sympatholytic. pendent. Colorado. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. smilagenin. Soap Weed. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. tigogenin. about 7. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. and protein. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. style slender. pseudo-. Properties Yucca contains saponins. It also contains corynanthine. Kansas. fleshy. leaves rigid. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. with narrow brown margins. YUCCA Yucca baccata. oblong or conical-ovoid. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. Roezl. Soap Yucca Root. hence its aphrodisiac effect. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. Texas. sepals and petals lanceolate. Constituents Sarsapogenin. fruit large. at low doses. saponin. the most important of which is yohimbine. the major alkaloid. spreading. tannin. Personal communication. and epiallo-yohimbine. It is also being used for arthritis internally. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains.
224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. The leaves contain buxine. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. Henna Used to dye hair red. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. makes an excellent hair rinse. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. See “Folklore” section. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . not essential oil. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. Lavender See “Folklore” section. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. Dark brown contains juglone. Hemp. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. The botanical extract. Oak. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Hops See “Folklore” section. Galls Used to dye the hair black. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. However. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts.
The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. Combined with rosemary. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. and mouthwashes. Vitamins A and D. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. and help keep it free of dandruff. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. Contains a yellow dye. borneol. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. and linalol. it will darken the hair. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. See Stinging Nettle. It is antiseptic. See Lichwort. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. leaving it silky and glossy. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. Lemony fragrance. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. Can be used in deodorants. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. The extract contains thymol. and some protein. The essential oil is used to add sheen. It also helps to remineralize. make it soft and shiny. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. A source of potassium and iodine. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp. It is said that when blended with rosemary.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye.
Tomato. Southernwood. glycerin. Comfrey. Arnica Lemon. Quassia. refer to the index). Nettles. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Sage. Papaya. Myrrh. Burdock. Peppermint. Slippery Elm. Sandalwood. Cardamom Seed. propylene glycol. Garlic. Onion. Oats. Chamomile. powders or extracts. Lavender. Sage. Lemon. Anise. Myrrh. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Bayberry. Golden Seal. Althea. Thyme. Parsley Broom Flowers. Inc.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Oak Bark. White Willow. Ginkgo. Milk Thistle. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. that is. Soap Root. Lemon Grass. Arnica. Raspberry. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Comfrey. Uva Ursi Quassia. Rosemary. Witch Hazel.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Balsam Peru.3-butylene glycol. Burdock. Soap Bark. Hops. Tilia. Yarrow. Lemon. Echinacea. Proanthocyanidins. Pineapple. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Thyme. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Cucumber. Calendula. oil. Nettles. Lady’s Mantle. Lemon. Lavender. Wild Indigo. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Plantain. Corn Flower. Tormentil. Vinca Minor. Bayberry. 1. Wild Alum. Eucalyptus. Calendula. Juniper Berries. Cinnamon Agrimony. Rose. Black Walnut. Tumeric. Fenugreek. White Willow. Birch. Hops. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. either when applied topically or taken internally. White Lily. Horsechestnut. Rosemary. Violet. Asparagus. Myrrh. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Bladderwrack. Bay Laurel. Rosemary. Artichoke. Horsechestnut Papaya. Orange Peel. ethanol. Pansy. Bistort. Rhatany. Chamomile. Hawthorn Angelica. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Thyme. Bilberry. Birch. Chamomile. Sandal Wood. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Orris. Lavender. Artichoke. Yarrow. Rosemary. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Chaparral. Benzoin. Myrtle. Lemon. etc. Nasturtium. in various vehicles as water. Calendula. Rosemary. Grapefruit. Witch Hazel.
Roseberries. Sage. Fenugreek. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Alfalfa. White Willow Aloe Vera. Elder. Olive. Yarrow. Mullein Flowers. to add highlights Marigold. Red Clover. Garlic. various seaweeds. Fenugreek. Red Poppy. Rhatany. Cade. Nettles. Basil. White Willow Bark. Nettles. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Sarsaparilla. Cucumber. Quince. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Wormwood Chamomile. Lavender. Horseradish. Rosemary. Raspberry. Melilote. Citrus Bioflavonoid. Eyebright. Cantharides. Thyme. Tilia. Orange Peel. Pansy. Jaborandi. Cardamon. Quince Seed. Red Clover. Comfrey. Quinine. Catnip Bayberry.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Red Henna. Chickweed. Capsicum. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Capsicum Bistort. Echinacea various oils. Witch Hazel Bark. Sage. to add sheen Hair. Bayberry Bark. split ends Scalp. Horsetail Grass. Peppermint Aloe. Dandelion. Rosemary. Cedar. Marigold Golden Seal. Grapefruit. Peach Leaf. Birch. Feverfew. etc. Oregon Grape. Plantain. Pine Tar. Cleavers. Centella. Comfrey.* Centella. Neem. Butchers Broom Chaparral. Orange Flowers. Chamomile. Pansy. Hops Chamomile. Purple Loosestrife. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Rose. Coriander. Witch Hazel. Cowslip. Black or Neutral Henna. Southernwood. Horsetail Grass. Pansy. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Orris Root. Golden Seal. Southernwood. Corn Flower Water. Althea. Malva Flowers. Primula Flowers. Parsley. Flax. Jaborandi. Lemon Peel. Rosemary. Elder Flowers. Horsechesnut. Raspberry. to add highlights Hibiscus. Capsicum. Chamomile. to relieve Nails. Quassia. Sage. Nettles. Echinacea. Camphor. Thyme. Comfrey. Calendula. Cucumber. Orange Flowers. Capsicum. Eucalyptus. Golden Seal. Oak Bark. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Flax Horsetail Grass. Comfrey. Chamomile. Raspberry. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Oats. Lavender. Witch Hazel. Rosemary. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Comfrey. Southernwood. Fenugreek. Sage. Rosemary. Yellow Dock. Echinacea. Golden Seal. Onion. Citronella. Tea. Lemon Peel. to add highlights Black Walnut. dark Hair. Quince Seed. Patchouli. Pilewort. Broom. Yarrow. Elder. Phytoplenolin®. Cucumber Chamomile. Comfrey. Figwort. Brown Henna Rosemary. conditioners. Arnica. Capsicum. Fennel. Rosemary. Chamomile. Comfrey Root. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Basil. Seaweed. Slippery Elm. Calendula Oil. Chaparral. Chamomile. Wild Alum. Thyme. dry Hair. Sage Jaborandi. Burdock. Myrrh. rinses. Anise Rosemary. Southernwood.
Corn Flower. dry Botanical Cantharides. Parsley. Chickweed. Calendula. Violets. Garlic. Witch Hazel. Lemon Grass. Aloe Vera. Chamomile. Fennel. Orange Flowers. Thuja. Valerian. Elecampane Skin. Lemons. Comfrey. Calendula. Yarrow flowers. Licorice. St. Yarrow. Plantain. Oats. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Primula Flowers. Slippery Elm. Plantain. Echinacea. Wild Alum Althea. Capsicum. Apples. Lavender. John’s Wort. Dandelion. John’s Wort. St. Rose. Colts Foot. Althea Root. Uva ursi Wild Alum. Slippery Elm.) Aloe Vera. Hawthorn Berries. Capsicum. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Evening Primrose. St. Bayberry. Lavender. Horsetail grass. Althea Root. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Pine. Capsicum. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Oils. Elder Flowers. Comfrey. Apple. Licorice Cleavers. Quince. Dandelion. Jaborandi. Horsechestnut. Comfrey. Red Clover. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Bayberry. Arnica. Echinacea. 1998. Cleavers. Chamomile. Witch Hazel. Tilia. Sept. Witch Hazel. Lemon. Seaweed.804. Hawthorn. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. White Willow Bark Mistletoe.Vinegar. Dulse. Cinchona. Slippery Elm bark. Centella. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Peach. Croton. White Pond Lily. Nettles. Sage. John’s Wort. John’s Wort. Ginseng Caraway. Cucumber. Poke Root. Meillot.Yarrow. however. Chamomile. Pansy. Tilia. Seaweeds. Orange Peel. Golden Seal. Citrus bioflavonoids. Red Poppy.206 for Centipeda. Arnica.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Wormwood. Cucumber. Blue Flag. Comfrey. Lemon. Fennel. Comfrey. Capsicum. Calendula. Birch. Grapefruit. St. Passion Flowers. Bistort. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Mullein.
Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. short stiff hairs. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. Internally. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. etc. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. The female flowers are white and ligulate. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. Licorice root. and tonifies the heart. aril white. sores. The nuts are spherical. nicotine. Common botanicals such as Lotus. yellowish-white. elliptical shaped. The flowers are polygamous. yellowish brown. etc. it strengthens the spleen. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets. elongated. Vitamin A. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. Constituents Saponin. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. rough. 8 stamens. nourishes the blood.) STEUD. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. can be found in the main section. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties.5 to 2 cm in diameter. 6 to 20 cm long and 2.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. internally used to blacken hair. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The powder is used on abscess.5 to 5 cm wide. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. tannin. which are coriaceous. 1. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. It grows in fields and ditches. Ginger. and fleshy. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. and eyebrows. The seeds are also spherical. wedeloclactone. wounds. beard.
adenine. protein. antiparasitic.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema.70.234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . yeast infections. etc. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412. ringworm. vaginal itches. choline. pruritus. Vitamins A and B. tartaric acid. sucrose. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. fats.
it could nourish. asthma. berry-like fruits. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. insomnia. Constituents Saponins. ginsenosides. imperatorin. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dilates the blood vessels. dihydrooroseiol. columbianadin (C19H20O5). cnidiankin. amino acids. It is also said to promote blood production. amino acids. L-camphene. B-sitosterol. cnidiadin. When using Ginseng internally. It is an astringent. astragalin-glucose. weak pulse. and arabinose. choline. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. ostol (C15H16O3). GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. any citrus and turnips. palmate leaves. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. hypertension. diabetes. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles.) Bge. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. avoid black tea. isopimpinellin. improves circulation in the skin. folic acid. deficiency of energy. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. alloimperatorin. columbianetin (C14H14O4). Astragalin. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. used as an aphrodisiac. heart palpitations. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. dyspepsia. lack of appetite. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. and has red. sugars. isoborneol). The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. etc. edultin. xanthotoxol. moisturize. bornyl isovalerate. a glucoside C20 H20 011. Betaine. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form.
tricosanthin. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . protein. saponins (ginsenosides). essential oil. and antifungal properties. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. To list all would take several pages. antibacterial. resin. sugar fatty oil. (C18H30O2). The root has antipyretic. trichosanic acid. trichokaurin. Constituents Triterpenes.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. These are a few of the constituents. SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim.
blood in the stool. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. Constituents Saponins. nosebleeds. ginsenosides. both internally and externally. dissolves clots. traumatic injuries. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc. reduces swelling. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. it has been used in coughing of blood. Internally. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. According to Chinese tradition. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. helps to promote circulation. and Re. Rb2-Rb. It is said to heal without leaving scars. this herb can be used safely in large doses. and is analgesic.
Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. L-typhasterol. and a slightly bitter taste. anti-inflammatory. rhamnose. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. xylose. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. palmitic acid. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. tannin. Constituents Flavonoids. long. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. U.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1/3 in. fructose. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. glucose. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. essential oil. Vitamin A. It has almost no odor. sitosterol. glucose. and arabinose. ziyuglycoside I.V. II. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. stearic acid. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. Cones oblong.
soft durable wood. having pale. shoddy bark and light. and is said to have antibacterial. Vitamin C. caryophyllene. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. It is a hemostatic. Constituents Thujone. The basal leaves are clustered. fenchone. in height. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. 5 to 8 cm wide. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. pinene. The flowers are tubular. L. and pinnatipartite. reddish-purple. resin. tannin. 15 to 30 cm long. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. Its stem is erect and white cottonly.5 to 1 m high. and antiviral properties. and antipyretic. astringent. becoming smaller on top. flavonoids. the base tapers into a winged petiole. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. which has hairs on both surfaces. and hermaphroditic.-fenchone. anthelmintic. obovate-lanceolate shaped.
and the flowers are rose-violet in color. reduces swelling. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. 2 to 3 cm long. The tuber is thick and fleshy. antifungal. and promotes the healing of the flesh. and 2 to 6 cm wide.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. The perianth is in 6 segments. It is used in traumatic injuries. Constituents Glucose. stigmasterol. It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. hemostatic. B-amyrin. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. 15 to 30 cm long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Their base runs into a long sheath. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. -amyrin. antibacterial. anti-inflammatory. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. and antibacterial. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. its apex acute and the labellum abovate.F. skin infections. essential oil. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). and in abscesses. starch. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high.
analgesic. having antipyretic properties. caffeic acid. Constituents D-borneol. taste pungent and aromatic. capillarisin. etc.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. which alternate with the calyx teeth. esculetin. dark brown. glandular-punctate petals. B-caryophyllene. stearic acid. odor strongly aromatic. tannin. and antiviral. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. antiparasitic. followed by a slight numbness. ovary 2-locular. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. fat. sores. Constituents Scoparone. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. crowded.5 mm in length. cold sores. dryobalanone. chlorogenic acid. acetyl eugenol). conjunctivitis. arachidic acid. oleic acid. palmitic acid. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. See “Botanical” section for further description. ipterocopal. and somewhat 4-angled. erythrodiol. It has been used in ringworm. hydroxydammarone II. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. and incurved. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stamens numerous. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. asiatic acid. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. humulene. The dark green. caryophyllene. One tree can yield as much as pound. Antibacterial. antibacterial. and nasal mucositis. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. oval. style 1. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. montanic acid. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. wax. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. linoleic acid. boils. essential oil. with numerous ovules.
3 to 4 cm long. The leaves are alternate. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pruritus. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. The stem is erect with many branches. 10 to 20 cm long. The stamens are 10 and free. It is used for vaginal infections. and allergic reactions. Excellent remedy for sores.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. which are globose and black. yellowish-white. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. The corolla is papilionaceous. flavonoids. constricted between the seeds. itchy skin. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. sores. The pods are cylindrical. imparipinnately divided. and other skin ailments. The raceme is terminal. and 1 to 2 cm wide. Constituents Alkaloids.
Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). and swollen eyes. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and red eyes. palmatine. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. jatrorrhizine. used as an eye wash for sore. fraxetin. Constituents Aesculin. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. It is applied externally to swollen. tannin. magnoflorine. red. Antiinflammatory. coptisine. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. columbamine. aesculetin. obakunone. ferulic acid.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. fraxin. Constituents Berberine. aching. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. obakulactone.
ovate shaped. The leaves are opposite. and 0.5 to 1. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. their margins sparsely serrate.5 cm wide. Its stem is erect. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. 1 to 3 cm long. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. The calyx is bilabiate.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D.
Its stem is cylindrical. boils. fleshy. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. gamma-linolenic acid. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. betanin. It is used to reduce swelling. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. It is also a good source for GLA.3 cm long. beta-cyanin. The flower has 2 sepals.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. snake bites. and intestines.5 cm wide. stomach. Constituents GLA. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA. and often purplish in color. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. French. and English consume this plant in salads. 1 to 1. abscesses.5 to 1. 5 yellow petals. antiphlogistic. Constituents Portulal. Italians.. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. betanidini. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. gamma-linolenic acid. 8 to 12 stamens. decumbent or slanting upward. The Chinese. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.4. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.
248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0. 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6.
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6.
84082-80-4 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4. 84929-52-2. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7.
84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1.
90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2. 84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1.
Kal-karanj Nuts. Description It is an erect herb. chalcones. hairs few. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. isopsoralidin. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. Burma. simple. corylifolean. starch. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. sporalidin. and gray with thick testa.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. ovate or oblong and inflated. tannin. and flavones. perianth covered withspines. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. glabrous slightly compressed. ellipticoblong. covered with numerous black dots. roots. shiny. Description Main leaf axis has stout. sharp recurved spines. hairy tip acute. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. campesterol group. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. etc. Leaflets about 10 pairs. firm. Leaves petiolate. oil. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alkaloids. Seeds are hard.BENDUC NUT 253 6. Fruit small subglobular. globular. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. Constituents Furanocoumarins. Several species grow in the United States. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. Essential. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. pitted black. and saponin in the seed coat. Flowers are dense. Flowers yellow. and Sri Lanka. and protein in kernel. circular. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen).
Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. lanceolate. Leaves opposite. borne on convex flower heads. starch. and sulfurcontaining peptides. aspartic acid. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. bluish-purple. basal are large. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. and skin diseases. arginine. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. However. Leaves membranaceous. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. Flowers about 2 cm long. arresting hemorrhage. and for infectious diseases. oblong.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. and citrulline. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. margin toothed. phytosterol. The endodermis is indistinct. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. sterols. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). Description An erect or prostate annual herb. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with winged petiole. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. Constituents Oil. upper leaves smaller. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. reducing sugar. sessile. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. Seeds also contain protein. Few layers of cork cells are present. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. flower head white. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases.
entire. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. greenish-yellow. Feathery.but white internally. Flowers are small. unisexual. Description A medium tree. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. Leaves simple. linear oblong or elliptic. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. arranged densely on the branchlets. terpene alcohols. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. In old samples. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. The oil and root contains camphene. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. phyllanthe emblic. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. apex subacute. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow. stipulate. slightly broader than long. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. mucronate. slightly recurved. The fruit is subglobular.
opposite. Leaves pinnate. antifungal. in terminal raceme-like panicle. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. filament slender. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. pubescent calyx. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. CNS-depressant. antibacterial. apigenin. corolla 2-lipped. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. cotyledons very oily. apex thick and blunt. bitter. antihepatotoxic. antiulcer. Each flower consists of. krishna tulsi. The leaves yield ursolic acid. A. antipyretic. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. antiviral. ovate compressed.& Bpinene. taste bitter. Leaves are simple. very short. flowers. and luteolin. decyladehyde. tulsi. insecticidal. antidiabetic. camphor. seeds. such as antistress. odorant. elliptic-oblong. margin serrate. sacred basil Leaves. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P. 2 to 4 inches long. antispasmodic. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. exserted. style 2-lobed. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. hairy along the veins. point decurved. Flowers small. antihistaminic. smooth and shining. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. testa light-red. subcoriaceous.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. antispermatogenic. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. Sri Lanka. and carvarol. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pod woody. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity.
Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. pointing to lower and inner angle. with a peculiar pungency. each berry is the size of a cherry. yellow within. where it is woody. The bark contains alkaloids.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. pongamol. leaves. the outer very thick and hard. singly. and as an anthelmintic. the inner membranaceous. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. sitosterol. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. and translucent. then bitter. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. the skin is shriveled. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. thick. pongamin. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. smooth. pectin. The seed is black. herpes. When dry. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. pengaglabrone. the size of large a pea. S. the berries are the color of a raisin. . A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. and other cutaneous diseases. the testa is double. cotyledons unequal. glucose. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. except at the scar. Properties The seeds. and butyric acid. firm and fleshy. tough. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. kaemferol. the pulp translucent. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rheumatism. The root bark is rustybrown externally. spirally incurvate. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. Constituents Saponins. (S. Radicle at the base of the seed. Emarginatus. The oil is used to treat scabies.
alizarin. scaly. skin diseases such as ulcers. garancin. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A climbing plant. freckles. fruit long. coloring matter. gum. Properties The roots are astringent. Constituents Roots contain resins. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. then acrid and bitter. It also has anodyne properties. and sugar. flowers small yellow in color. The taste is sweetish at first. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. Leaves heart shaped. Root consists of short stock. and discoloration of skin. deobstruent. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. and xanthine. inflammations. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. leucoderma.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. and tonic. alterative. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. round violet colored and seeds light black. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India.
Senna is also a safe purgative. and combined with Henna. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oblong or ovate. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. mainly in palpitation of heart. n-hexaconsanol. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. dark brown. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. Bhutan. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. Corolla 5-lobed. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. resin.000 to 15. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. sugar. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). calarenol.5% essential oil. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. nardol. slightly curved. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. Pods broadly oblong. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. and contain obvate. nardostechone. Flowers in racemes. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. B-sitosterol. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. It is a good substitute for valerian. which also contains sesquiterpenes. valeranal. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. Tracheids and few fibers. Himalaya (11. starch. and Nepal. valves papery smooth. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. Description An herbaceous plant. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. and bitter extractive matter. Rhizomes long. and flatulence. nervous headache. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. Epidermal hairs are few. seeds. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. is used to dye the hair black. Roots contain valeranone. Leaves usually in pairs sessile. The paste is also useful for removing pimples.
Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume
Synonyms: Parts Used:
Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.
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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.
Neem (whole plant)
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PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.
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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Southern India.
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Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed
Synonyms: Parts Used:
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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.
WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.
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It has also been employed in paralytic affections. The dried root is of uniform appearance. It is in flower all year long. Constituents It contains alkaloids. 3. plump. gastric stimulant. senile debility. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. loss of memory. For improving sight. Isolation of nicotine. somniferinine. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. white internally. Leaves simple. petiolate and alternate. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. It is also cultivated. tapering. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. erect. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. withanine. zeylinone. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. greenish or yellow flowers. fracture short. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. loss of muscular energy. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. ovate hair-like branches. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. Licorice powder. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. Somnifera. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. Iso-zeylinone. as in enlarged glands. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. brain lag. withananine. and spermatorrhoea. and appetite stimulant. brittle. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. smooth. a mixture of W. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. smooth. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas.3-biplumbagin. rheumatism. The root is seldom branched. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. somniferine. branching perennial. It bears small. and droserone. elliptinone. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. globose. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. and starchy. grayish or hoary.
and cuscohygrine. choline. Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. pseudotropine. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. In addition to alkaloids. Roots also contain tropine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported.
6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6. These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Bitter Orange Peel. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. U. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Black Ash.S.270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum.
U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba.S. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
yellow Cinchona. pale Cinchona. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. calisaya Cinchona. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . blue Cohosh. black Cohosh.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. pale Cinchona.
S. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion. American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara. U.
U. S.S. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum. U. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula.
Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. S. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. U. American Hellebore. Canadian Hemp. Black Hellebore. S. Black Indian Hemp. White Indian Hemp. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. U.
276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. Green Osier. S. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier.
278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.S.280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica.
Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. U. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber. S.S.
Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Alnus glutinosa L. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Cynara scolymus L. Aloe vera L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D.F. Ruscus aculeatus L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. Betula alba L. Fucus vesiculosus L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L.) Juglans nigra L. Optuntia. Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L.
Centaurea cyanus L. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Inula helenium L. Symphytum officinale L. Scrophularia nodosa L. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. Br. purpurea. Symphytum officinale L. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Cucumis sativus L. & Aschers. Larrea divaricata Cav. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Allium sativum L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. Gentiana lutea L. Geranium maculatum L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. spp. Zea mays L. See Coleus Galium aparine L.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Sambucus nigra L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Sanguisorba officinalis L.
Althaea officinalis L. Limm Malva sylvestris L. Hydrastis canadensis L. Camellia sinensis L. Pongamia glabra P. Schert Equisetum arvense L.) Burman F. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Melissa officinalis L. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Hedera helix L. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Justicia Adhatoda. et. Centella asiatica L. Calendula officinalis L. Citrus paradis. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Solidago Virgaurea L. Ocimum sanctum linn. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Mac Fad.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Amoracia rusticana. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Gaertn.
Vinca minor L. Pinus silvestris L. Commiphora molmol. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Olea europoea L. Papaver rhoeas L. Trifolium pratense L. papyrifora.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Rubus idaeus L. Veget. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Tabl. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. and B. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L. Rheum rhabarbarum L. Regn. ssp. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. Lythrum salicaria L. Nasturtium officinale R.L. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Carica papaya L. Allium cepa L. & P. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Vent. Engler Myrtus communis L. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Mentha piperita L. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L.
Artemisia abrotanum L. Juglans regia L. DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Salvia officinalis L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Juglans nigra L. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L.) Acacia Concinna.) Tanacetum vulgare L. Betonica officinalis L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Salix alba L.
Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rumex crispus L. Torr. Schum. Yucca brevifolia. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L.) Perre Yucca baccata. Artemisia absinthium L. Gentiana lutea L. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L.
Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. 5. 9. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. phytoplanktons. However. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. sea grasses. 3. They are also used as thickeners in jams. weeds. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. bath. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. Cryptophyta — Contain green. etc). 2. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. and red pigments. blue. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. body rubs. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. The sea holds an endless source of life. Seawater. 10. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. e 8. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. cosmetics. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. sauces. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. and vitamin content. as well as vitamins. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. 7. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. and sometimes in seawater. high in carotenoids. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. ice cream.7 Marine Natural Products 7. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. It is said that life started in the seas. including: 1. mineral. mud baths. and sterols. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Xanthophyta. 6. and have even been used to put a head on beer. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. Xanthophylls. 4. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. etc.
First.. glycine. emulsions. and ice cream as a thickening agent. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . cranberry. anticoagulants. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. prostaglandins. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. cardiac substances. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. Therefore. and herbicides. B12. carotenoids. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. diterpenes. polyphenols. B2.g. sulfur compounds. For plating microorganisms. pears. and other fruits. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. for example. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. pharmaceutical. growth substances. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. marshmallows.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. furanoterpenes. mainly from some gelidium species. acetylenes. Kelp is also the main source for algin. and lycine). and cosmetic fields. lipids. For example. steroids). prunes. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. second. emulsion stabilizer. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. proteins. such as ursolic acid derivates. proline. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. it is resistant to microorganisms and. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. and C. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. anthelmintics. fucose polymers. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. and imparts slip. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. and vitamins. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. and polysaccharides. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A.
Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. iodine. and antiglaucomic. B3. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. However. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. phosphorus. Algin. C. A). which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. magnesium. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. iron. and lauric acids). B. salads. Co. B. mannitol. Mg. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. etc. Fe. B3. fat. Na. B6. particularly fluoride. phosphorus. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. which is a polysaccharide. and mannitol. lotions. In addition. galactose. and ointments. B 2. B6. shampoos. Ca). potassium. sodium. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. Sargassum contains fructose. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. and zinc. palmitic. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). P.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. Laminaria longicruris (L. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. and glutamic acid. antioxidant. B12. potassium. I. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. bromide. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). minerals (Zn. There are traces of chloride. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. broadspectrum. a synergestic effect was exhibited. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . myristic. Mn. calcium. protein. K. and iodide ions. B12. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. both in vivo and in vitro. in combination with Vitamin E. creams. oleic. F. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. it has a high content of potassium. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. Cr. antimicrobial agent. L. and carbohydrates. including iodine. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals.
292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. single-cell. containing all the essential amino acids. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C.6 Fucus contains trace minerals. sterols as free fucosterol. polar lipids. Eisenia contains a complex polymer. rheumatism.02 to 0. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids. and as a massage for cellulite. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. mainly iodine (0. polysaccharides. sulfated.500 IU/100 g 180. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. the Pacific.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125.3. Echinus esculentus L.8 mg/100 g 1. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme.000). and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. a well-known anti-inflammatory. fucans. Halidrys siliquosa L. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. and the Baltic Sea. alginic acid. Lyngb. F. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55.1%). or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols. It is a single-cell protein. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain). sulfonate. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. which means it is a self-sufficient. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. phlorotannins. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O.
46 w/w% 1. Moreover. called the Chlorella Growth Factor.6 mcg 0.93 w/w% 3.A. Chlorella.S.63 w/w% 5.9 mcg 191. pp.70 w/w/% 2. 14-15.80 w/w% 0.08 w/w% 0. Dr.29 w/w% 2. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation.64 w/w% 1.29 w/w% 3. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.78 w/w% 6. Spirulina Spirulina.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3.469 mg 613 mg 1.64 w/w/% 5. et al.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.8 mg 1.500 IU/100g 180.8 mg 1.2% 55.8 mg 1. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron.20 w/w% 2. In a controlled study. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation.08 mg Potter. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.40 w/w% 4.1% 0. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.8% 18.38 w/w% 3. B.26 w/w% 2. It is found in both brackish and fresh water. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.45 w/w% 2.7 mg 125..6% 60.3 mg 26. Tests performed by the U. The Emerald Food.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81.2% 4.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0..0% 20.5% 11.6 mg less than 1 IU 23. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 mg 4.59 w/w% 3.09 w/w% 3.9 mcg 15.06 w/w% 0. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).
.A. Na. Cu. Ge. K.L. Spirulina. at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . carbohydrates (15 to 25%). minerals. B6. and minerals (5 to 10%). G. B12 Folacin.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. etc. Mn.L. as it is high in plant protein. B3. carotenoids. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989.40) B1. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. lipids (4 to 7%). Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. Cr. Fe. Mg. vitamins. Biotin. P. B2.A. Zn. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca.
where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. plant. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. and chlorophyta.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. which although poorly known. including phaeophyta. the following being some examples: 1. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. or temperature.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . microcolin C. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. as a soothing demulcent. the Bacteria. Related unicellular microorganisms. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. anti-inflammatory. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. antillatoxin.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial.8 The results obtained are quite promising. and imidazole disulfides. Oahu. 7. and ascidians. such as those of elevated salinity. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. Significant compounds. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms. the search is only beginning. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. Unfortunately. Thus. were isolated from marine organisms. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. melemeleones. soft corals.13 6. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. having distinct anti-cancer properties. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. cyanophyta.9 2. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated.10 3.12 5. anticancer. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. pressure. bactericidal.11 4. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . but no chemical study has been reported. penazetidines. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. sponges. such as the curacins. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. kalkitoxin. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. and marine organisms. barbamide. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. are common in marine environments. bacteristatic.
19 12. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. and the theonellapeptolides. actinomycetes. A series of B-carboline derivatives. a unique anti-viral protein. which display a variety of pharmacological activities. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum.15 8. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia. fungi. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. antimicrobial. and cytotoxic activities. including potent antiviral. the eudistomins.. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum. tunicates. the swinholides. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria.17 10. and gorgonians. and true symbionts from sponges.16 9.18 11. Cyanovirin-N. including corals and sponges. which produce anti-tumor compounds.
They have shown remarkable antineoplastic.36 29.35 28.27 20. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa. Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. phorboxazole A and B.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani. and F. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. New antimycotics. including makaluvamines A. Isolation of Dysidiolide. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica.22 15. B. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. Several new classes of compounds.25 18.31 24. E. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges). Diamirone B. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria.34 27. and anti-tumor promoting properties. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula .30 23. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp.23 16. Phorbas sp. a novel. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines.32 25.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13. D. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. makaluvone. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins.21 14. immunopotentiating. discorhabdin A.28 21.24 17. were isolated from the marine sponge. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.38 31. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. cytotoxic natural products.37 30. latrunculin B and swinholide A. Okoadene and Mailidene. Cyclomarin A. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle.33 26. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum.39 32. Many novel. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina.26 19. C. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. Isolation of Microcolin C.29 22. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents.
Bewicke.. 304-313. ibid P 145. 31.J. McCombs. Phytochemistry.-P. Duh..A. D. T.D. ibid O 7. D.. and Crews. P.A. J. D.A.A.. L. Hamel. and Hung. Rea. Acta Pharm. M. Coleman.W. Bringano. 29. 40. Ferrante. Jayatilake.A. 16.J.. 23... ibid O 36. Lassota. 29. 12. Dhyana. Beverly A.P..F. 2441-2446.. and Rodriguez. Fucus Vesiculosus L... Hargraves. Maranda.. B. 1975.. 15. 2... Cardellina. ibid O 49. McInnes. J.. Ph. 33. J.. ibid P 26... 30.. J. McKee.. and Cardellina.. 1996. J.-D. ibid P 9.. L. and Hamann. K.P. 1258.F. 180. Wright. Hemling. M.. and Kelly-Borges. G.. 17.. ibid O 11. T. S. and Baker. Kerr. Zheng. M. L.R. Chan. J. and Kerr. Westley. and Bauer. and Afzelius. C.. Lam. ibid P 156...... ibid P 19. 63. H. A. Haden. L.. P. Abstr. 1993. K. Venables. and Francis. 6.T.S.T. S. Screening of biological activity. P..K. Yoshida. R.. T. J. Fulton. B. and Munro... R.J. 1990. 37. Sci. 18.. 1996.G.. S. J.A. ibid P 30. July 27-31. Pettit. ibid S 9. P. M.. 9.. M. K. and Gould.H. pp.W. 20.. B. and Kelly...E. S. Mendola. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy. Al. T.. D.. and Yavor. 27.. J. R. Dumdei. J.M. I. B..H.. Schumacher. G.M. Davidson. 64... L.J. Ogren. Shoemaker.... UCSC. 1983. D. S. O’Keefe. and Bair. M...... T. 13. S. Suecica. and Leahy. and Walter. B. R... Green. Linton. Chlorella.J. and Munro.J. A. L.A. et al. L. Heath. McCarthy. N. 8. McMahon.. 7.. K. H. H. Gush.-Y..H. ibid P 36. Mokinski. 39.. ibid O 25. Hook. Goins.. and Crews. 26... July 27-31. L. ibid O 26. 38. Santa Cruz (UCSC).A.. Mar. Yoo. B. and Hamann. B. B. Andrew.. P..R. A.. and Gerwick.. T. J. M.. J.S. 10. 4. and Scheuer.. Janda. Y... El-Sayed. Meeting.. J. Smith. J. J..J. Chem.. Gerwick. J. Gerwick. Forenza. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. D. L. Nakao. S.A.. Harrison. Ragan..B. G. ibid P 151.. Carte’. S 8. Varoglu. 6.A...P.R.W. N.. 20(6). Shangxiao. Fernandes. Beutler. E..C. Pomponi.A. H. B. O’Sullivan.. M. 56(4)..G. Brzezinski. J.G. S. L. McMahon. D.E. 24.. Gulakowski. P. Slate. de Silva. and Molinski. F... Kloareg. and Harrigan.. ibid P 31. Lloyd. Copp.. ibid S 22.. M. C.-R. W. Pharmaceut. Blunt. Mabeau..J. ibid S 15. Freyer. G. K.. W. Natural Prod.T. 14-15. Rodriguez. Searle.. K.. Zhang. Bohlin. Erim.. ibid P 141.E. S.. J. Blunt. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae. 19. W. W. Andersen.. ibid P 28. El Sayed.A. Allen. Potter.. Can. R. M. 3. 1985. Lidgren. Magni. R. M.. K..Y.. Major. Ind. G. G.. R. and Russel G.. P. Schmitz.C.J. and Joseleau.. D. ibid P 27. and Ireland. Baker. M.K. B.. Crews. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. P. J. L. Haughey. S..P. 25. ibid P 154. Gerard. 22.. B. ibid O 10.. ibid S 23.. P. 401-414. Mendola.M. Castor. 28. Boyd. Haygood. Hong. and Wang. Gunasekera. D.E.. M. S. Papers presented at the 37th Annu. S. Sci. D.. ibid P 155. Xie.R. Chikarmane. 478-488. I. 34. R...A. Javor. and Boyd.F. T. R. J.A. P.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. J.. C. Andersson. J...S. 21. M. G.. 14. C. Gulakowski.. J. J. A. Solimabi. Sheehan.. Lill. P. J. Carney. M. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae. and Scheuer. Lawry. The Emerald Food... ibid S 14. Wilkins.J. B.. Janus. Brielmann. 1977. 5. 36.. O 50. Gustafson. Perry. R. ibid P 150.. C. H.. Dunbar... J. O’Keefe. and Thompson..J.. Franklin.. Barrows. Harrigan. D. Clark. J... 35. ibid P 25... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ibid O 38. M.K. W. ibid P 149.. 11. J.. R. Plubrukarn. 32...
being sure polymer is completely dispersed. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature. Rohm & Haas. 5.2) with Sequence 5. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC.60 21. Patterson. 3.5 (±0. Inc.10 0. NJ 07504. In main kettle.s.10 0. 5.00 q. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used./Lipo Chemicals. Adjust pH to 5.00 6. 207 19th Avenue. PROCEDURE: 1. Henkel.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47.00 0. Therefore.s. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing.00 10. 2. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.2 (±0. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc.00 10. Adjust pH to 9. either alone or in combination with other products.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes.10 q. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous..10 0. 8.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq. 4.
In main kettle.00 0.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq.10 q. combine Sequence 1 ingredients. high-foaming. Lipo Chemicals. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq. Rohm & Haas. 10.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. 6. Amerchol.s. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.00 20. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc.00 10. 4. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31. 6.00 0. 5.5 (±0.10 0. Adjust pH to 5. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 0. Inc. Henkel. 7. Procedure: 1. 3.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1.00 6.s. Adjust pH to 9.10 q.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient.50 15. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. 2.2 (±0.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.10 0.00 1. at room temperature. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Inc.
Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens.10 0. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals.95 0.00 0.50 1. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. Goodrich Co.10 0.FORMULATIONS 301 8. 3. 5.45 0.00 1.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine. Inc. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq. In main kettle at room temperature. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. 4. Aqualon. B.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22. 2.50 3.F. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .(Induchem). Procedure: 1. Inc. 6. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch.10 5.
In main kettle. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 0.10 0.s.10 q.54 5. At 30°C.96 63.10 0.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. 3. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. 2. Inc. add Sequence 3 to correct shade. Cool to 30°C.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals.00 5.10 0. Inc. At 25°C. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0. Procedure: 1.00 0.00 10.
Procedure: 1. Fanning Corp.50 0.02 0. Givaudan Corp. 3.50 0. BASF. Inc. Cool to 25°C. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved. In main kettle.10 0.10 0.00 4.FORMULATIONS 303 8.10 0. Haarmann & Reimer Corp. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86. Inc.10 0.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base. Begin cooling.10 0.10 0.05 6. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C . 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals.00 2. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.28 0.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.
25 0.82 0. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous.75 0. 3.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31.10 g. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1.00 5.10 0.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. 8.10 0. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.30 0. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.00 0.05 20. Procedure: In main kettle. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. 4. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92.00 0. Cool to 60°C. Inc.05 0. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940.s. 10% sol’n Supplier B.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant. F. Inc. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext. 2. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .80 0. Spl Phosphoric acid.00 0.88 45.70 2.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals.
00 3 Lubragel MSb 35.30 0. 3. Goodrich. 2.05 1 2 Triethanolamine.00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5.00 0.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0. Inc. Lipo Chemicals.FORMULATIONS 305 8. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 99% Hypan SA100H 25. Procedure: 1. Guardian Chemicals.00 2. Lipo (Kingston).10 0. B.70 1. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin.00 5. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.F.20 0. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem).
Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. the fecundating material from an antheridium. like the leaves of pines. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. or Akene: A dry. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. one-celled. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. indehiscent. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. or flower-arrangement. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. as ferns. containing the pollen. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Acicular: Needle-shaped. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. with firm pericarp. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. one-seeded fruit. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Achaenium. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing.
Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Nutmeg). meristematic cells. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. a pulpy. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. rare in present times). Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. as bi-foliate. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. Castor seed). Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. Axillary: Growing in an axil. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues... cinnamic). Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms.. Appendages: Superadded parts. Bristles: Sharp. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Bi-: Signifying double. the hilum and the chalaza being together. Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. Apetalous: Without petals. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. with two leaves. Atropous: With erect ovule. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary. Carina: The keel. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Calcarate: Spurred. Blisters: See Vesicants. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. stiff hairs. Bacca: A berry..g. Bulb: An underground discoid stem.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .g. Cardamon).g. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Capsule: A dry. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Capitate: With globose head.g. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. carrying the ovary.
indehiscent fruit. outer layer. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. Corm: A solid. Caulis: The stem. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. Contorted: Twisted. become joined. one-celled. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Cohesion: Attachment. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. Connate: where two parts. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. Cathartic: A purgative. Caudex: The axis. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. Costa: The midrib. tuber-like. Clavate: Club-shaped. Cortex: The bark. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. thick. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. one-seeded. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. Convolute: Rolled up. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. Caudale: Having a hairy style.g. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers.. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. Umbelliferous fruits). with the dry pericarp united with the testa. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Coriaceous: Leathery. upright rhizome. Cilia: Marginal hairs. usually distinct. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Also a name given to a short. Cespitose: Tufted. Cordate: Heart-shaped. from which they hang when ripe. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation.
Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. Determinate: Definite. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Crispate: Curled. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Didymous: In pairs. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Dichotomous: Forked. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Definite: Constant. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. downward throughout the length. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Deciduous: Falling off. two long and two short. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Discoid: With convex face. Deflexed: Bent. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. or tending to fall. producing intellectual confusion. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Didynamous: With four stamens. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. etc. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Decompound: Many times compound. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Deltoid: Triangular. dividing into irregular branches. lymphatic. Deliquescent: Dissolving. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts.
Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Episperm: The coat of seed. Epigynous: Adnate to. and pith distinct. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. purgation). Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. Echinate: Prickly. wood. E: Signifies deprived of. Exogenous: Having bark. Extrorse: Turned outward. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Escharotics: See Caustics. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. and bark. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Farinaceous: Resembling flour. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. the outermost layer. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. the ovary. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. wood. Epidermis: The true skin. without. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or borne on. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. nearly parallel.GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree.g. Fibrils: Root-hairs. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever.. Etiolated: Blanched. Epispore: Outer integument of spore.
Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. as petals and leaves. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. as in the cypress and juniper. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther.g. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. etc. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Fid: Cleft. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Flexuose: Wavy. more swollen on one side than on the other. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Filiform: Thread-like. Flocculose: Woolly. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. devoid of hairs. Fimbriated: Fringed. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. the point of attachment. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. as bifid. Glabrous: Smooth. Furcate: Forked.. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Globose: Roundish. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. algae. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. orange). Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae.
. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. layer. rabbits. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). Lacinate: Fringed. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. as innate anther. Inferior: Growing below another. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. cats.e. Keel: See Carina. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Involute: Rolled inward. inflammation. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Incanescent: Hoary. Lacuna: A space between cells. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). and irritation. Labellum: (Lip). Internode: Interval between nodes. on the receptacle. joints or nodes. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. Causing watery evacuations. Jointed: Having. dogs. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). the lower petal of an orchid. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. or appearing to have. Laxative: A mild purgative. Lateral: Attached to the side. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Irritant: Any substance causing pain.e. Imbricated: Overlapped. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. Inflexed: Bent inward. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. etc. Inarticulate: Not jointed. like shingles. i. either by mechanical or chemical action. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). Innate: Adhering to apex. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. squirrels. two or three times longer than broad.. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. i. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward.
Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Muricate: Rough. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). style. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. or stigma. Monogynous: Having one carpel. Monandrous: Having one stamen. Multifid: Many-cleft. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). with upper lobes largest. and roots. Ligulate: Strap-like. often caused by fungus infection.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. but with lipclosed (flower). Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. with hard tubercles. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Monopetalous: Having petals united. with parallel sides. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Locusta: The spike of grasses. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. leaves. Linear: Narrow. Lobate: Divided into lobes. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Monospermous: One-seeded. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Medulla: The pith of exogens. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Masked: Labiate. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. found at the ends of young stems. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina.
Pedate: Palmate. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Pedatipartite: Pedate. Nut: A hard. and the keel. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. with lateral divisions again subdivided. one-celled fruit. with lobes nearly free. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Oblique: Unequal sided. rounded. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). in large doses. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. as ergot. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Parasitic: Growing upon. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Offset: A short. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. as in the pea-flower. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. another plant. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. apex broad (leaf). Obsolete: Suppressed. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). Orbicular: Circular. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. Obtuse: Blunt. the wings. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. thick runner. death. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. having tufts of leaves at extremity. indehiscent. Pedatifid: Pedate. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. and nourished by. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins.
lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. melon. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Pubsecent: Downy. Pilose: Hairy. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. female. pointed cells. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Pome: An inferior. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. Personate: Masked. and the like. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. squash. Petaloid: Resembling petals. few-seeded. Petals: The corolla leaves. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. two or more celled. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Pentandrous: Having five stamens. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. indehiscent.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. Polygamous: With male. usually of family Leguminosae. fleshy fruit. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. and perfect flowers on the same plant. Pod: A general name given to dry. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Peduncle: A flower-stalk. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. dehiscent fruits. resembling a mouth. with petiole attached at or near the center. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. Pendulous: Hanging down. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. Peltate: Shield-shaped. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants.
Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. prostrate stem. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity.or two-celled fruit. Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . winged. Runner: A slender. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Sheath: See Ocrea. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. Retuse: Obtuse. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). bearing leaves and rootlets. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. Reclinate: Bent downward. Setae: Stiff. its function being to support the flower organs. and producing pustules. etc. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). with wide lips (corolla). Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. Runcinate: Jagged margin. with deep notch in middle (leaves). with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Recurved: Bent backward. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. Retrorse: Directed backward. and shriveled. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. one. dry. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. rooting and budding at nodes. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Ringent: Labiate. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. such as glands. Reduplicate: Valvate. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Scarious: Thin. indehiscent. Radical: Springing from roots. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). bristly hairs. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. Revolute: Rolled backward. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves.. Saccate: Sac-like.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. creeping. with reflexed margins (estivation).
Soboles: Slender rhizomes. Spine: A pointed modified branch. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Suture: A line of junction. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. Squamose: Scaly. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . in pairs. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). falsely two-celled pod.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Tendril: A thread-like. Ternate: Arranged in threes. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Stipitate: Stalked. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Subulate: Awl-shaped. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. Sporangium: A spore-case. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. bearing the stigma. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. may be modified leaf or stem. with short hairs. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. and one short pair. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. dehiscing from below upward. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. spiral branch. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Tomentose: Pubescent. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. leafless. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation).
Versatile: Freely swinging. one-celled. Volute: Rolled up. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder).GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. Urceolate: Urn-shaped.. pp. Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Toxic: Poisonous. Trichomes: Hairs. Verticel: A whorl. Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). few-seeded fruit. 529-536. Valvate: United only by the margins. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Utricle: A superior. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1895. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Verrucose: Covered with warts. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Uncinate: Hooked. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Vexillum: The standard. Lucius E. Sayre. Zones: Concentric bands.
. Aug.. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. 12th ed. 14. Vol. 8. Pharmacognosy. 1996.. Louis. British Herbal Medicine Association. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1. The Honest Herbal. MO. British Herbal Compendum. I and II.A. 13th ed. P. Dover Publications. Tyler.. Philadelphia. 1996. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. 1997. Plant Drug Analysis. Biddles. FL. 1971.K. Boca Raton.. U. Ltd. I and II. Wall. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants.E. Bailliere Tindall. NY. V. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. Notes on Parmacognosy. Haworth Press. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1994. FL 1992. 3rd ed. Bruneton. FL. Paris.. & A. 1. 9. Duke... Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. CRC Press. 4th ed. Ltd. Ehrhart & Karl. 1993... 22. 1990. Duke. K. D. St.. Huntington. J. J. Churchill Ltd. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Tyler. CRC Press.. 1960. 15. New Jersey.E. 6. The Merck Index. The Essential Oils. Haworth Press. Robert E. Natural Products Chemistry. 1992. Biddles.A. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. 4. Merck Research Laboratories. Academic Press. Inc. U. 19. Berlin. G. Youngken. Krieger Publishing. 24. R. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. Tease and Evans.. 1902. London. Chicago.C. Ltd. T. 1975. 1932. 20. 2nd ed. Wren. Rockville. MIS Publication. PA. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. 1964.W. V. J.. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Bournemouth. 1989. J. Boca Raton. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. O. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. Boca Raton. IL. Foter. The National Formulary XVIII. 1936. John Wiley & Sons. 1994. 1983. 11. H. Potter & Clarke. M. MD. New York. 3. A. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. London. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. Lavoisier. Vol. 1995. 1995. New York.. American Pharmaceutical Association. Nakanishi et al. Merck & Co. 13. N. Wallis. Washington. Grieve.K. 17. Stuttgart..K. 16.C. Herbs of Choice. 4th ed. U. 1992. 1–7. H. Wagner and S. SpringerVerlag.. Leung and S.. Y. E. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. 7. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. 23.. 12. Bisset. 10. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. New York. Mack Publishing. Blakiston’s Son & Co.E. 1974. 1930. Guenther.. A Modern Herbal. 5. 18. New York. Bladt. Vol. CRC Press. 7th ed.. A. 21. 1996.