Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.

CRC Press Boca Raton New York


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:

Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.

Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.


© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Always wanting to know more. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. men like Shen Nong. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. Over time. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. Galen. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. experimenting. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. observing. always wanting to find a more active plant. Mithridates. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. to use plants wisely. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Originally. As formulators and purveyors. the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. And then the Babylonian. sorting. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. But more than anything. and Avicenna. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. Chinese. Dioscorides. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. Theophratus. Let it reflect brightly upon us. Initially. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive.

vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. Sr. He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists. He founded BioBotanica.. Frank D’Amelio. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. Inc. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry.

to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. Special thanks to Professor Dr. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. and assistance in editing the manuscript. patience. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions. to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations.

....................................10 2..39 Percolation ............................30 3................................................9 Resins and Resin Combinations ................................................................3 Procedures ................CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1...............................................8 Gas Chromatography...........................................................11 2.11 2.....................................................................................1 Plant Identification ...............................1 Microscopical Techniques..........1..............43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .......................................3 Micromorphology......................4 Ultraviolet Light ....39 Extraction Terminology...13 3..........6 Ash Determination .............................................................................................................................1 Constituents of Drugs...........................................2 Solubilities ..................................5 1............10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ...........................................................................................................23 3...2 1....................................................................................................................2 Some Common Terminology .........................................................................................2 4................................................................................1 1..........................................................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2..........................................11 2............1.......9 2.3............26 3...........5 Alkaloids....................................................9 2........41 Infusions ........................2 1......................2 Phenols ...............................42 Fluid Extracts ............................1...........................7 Glycosides .......1 Forms 4.......................11 References .........24 3..3....................................................1.....................1 1...........................................................................1.......................................................................................1 Liquids ..............................................................................................5 Preparations of Extracts ............................................11 2.................................................................40 Decoctions ......................................................1........................................................................................2 Macromorphology ..............................1...........9 Adulteration of Drugs ......1.....1 1.....6 Carbohydrates...1.....3........1.................................................................................................................................14 3..................3.........................................................................3.................................................................................................................................................................................................28 3...................................................................................1 Botanical Terminology ..................................................................3...................................................4 Proteins .................1 4......11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3......3......5 Infrared Spectroscopy................................1..................................................................1...................10 2...................................................5 Yield to Solvents .............7 Assay Procedures ....................26 3...................1..........................................1.....3 4....................11 2.......................................35 Chapter 4 4.3 Physical Constants.............................................................................................................25 3......5 1.............................7 Methods of Identification..................4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents.............................1 1...................................1 1..........................................................................................................................3 Tannins.................4 4..........8 Volatile Oils.......................................6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems....................................................

.........................................................301 8..................283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7............................295 References .................................................1...........................5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+......................7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names ........................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5.............................305 Chapter 9 Glossary..........44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ...................................304 8...............................................5 Indian Botanicals....................303 8........................................6 4....................................................................................................................................................................................................299 8...................... Description....269 6......4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil ...........................................229 6.........6 Spray Moisturizer ............................................................................302 8...............9 4..........................1...................289 7......2 Hair Care Botanicals .....................49 5.....................298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8........................... Concentration..45 Extracts Strengths......304 8......................................................1.................................247 6...........................................1 Marine Algae.......2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy...............................10 4...51 6.....................................1......2 Natural Shampoo........................225 6............................11 Tinctures .......................1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo...........45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ......................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table......................4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics ...........................1 History ..............................................................................................7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe ................ Range..................................233 6..............................................................................................................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6.............46 Oleoresins ...................................................................................................................................................... and Constituents ..............4..........................................................................................................................................1 Habitat................1..........................................2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products.....253 6...4........3 Botanical Quick Reference Table ...................................307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .......46 Product Strength............8 4................. and Standardization..............................................................................................300 8..............................................................................................1...........................3 Cellulite Gel Base ........................6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table.....................8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC................7 4................... Properties.............

tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol. and waxes (lipids). In the treatment of burns. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. ferulic. glycerol. They are generally soluble in water. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications. (2) phenols.1. hence. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. They are widely distributed in plants. and usually bitter taste. In most cases. palmitic. spores. fats. Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. TS). leaves. (7) glycosides. (3) tannins. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. Recently. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (8) volatile oils. have astringent action. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. they are also called triglycerides. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride.1. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. and waxes. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl. 1. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. etc. and coumaric acids. 1. barks.1. When applied to living tissues. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. fats. 1.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. (5) alkaloids. (6) carbohydrates. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. (4) proteins. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes. stems. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. they are stored in seeds.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic.1 Phytochemistry 1. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins. In plants. myristyl. roots.1.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. which end in -in. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. oil-bearing plant seeds. Whole glandular products. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. brucine. pyridine. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. antitoxins. and cryptogams. 1. stems. bark. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. Proteins are derived from amino acids. indole.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. and seeds. gymnosperms. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. for example: colchicine. possessing some marked physiological action. tropane. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. purine.1.1. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. (a) monosaccharides. Being basic in chemical character. but mostly in fruits.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. quinoline. which are the building units. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. (2) polysaccharides. isoquinoline. they form water-soluble salts with acids. leaves. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars. (b) obligosaccharides. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. roots. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. imidazole. carboline. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. phenanthrene. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. hydrogen. and (3) derived carbohydrates. piperidine. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. In fact. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities. and steroidal. serums. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like. and oxygen.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1. suspending agents.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units.6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic.4. and apiose.2)-fructofuranose units. trihalose Reducing: maltose. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. iii. tri-. epimarose. True sugars a. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. It is an alpha-1. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. turanose. gelling agents. gums. Pentoses: L-arabinose. and tetrasaccharides i. melibiose ii. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. fucose Digitoxose. their sulfate esters. transluscent. 2. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). which is a straight chain of alpha1. They are natural plant hydrocolloids. e. Therapeutically. ii. b. D-ribose. it is formed of amylose. Glycogen. Monosaccharides. cymarose. Those occurring naturally are usually di-.4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. g. or amino sugars. and some microbial polysaccharides. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. and thickeners.6-linkages. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses.and B-1. Cellulose. mucilages. L-galactose. galacturonic Glucosamine. i. cellobiose. Polysaccharides (non-sugars). It contains both B-1. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. It is a linear polysaccharide. pectins. uronic acids. alginates. oleandrose. Unlike cellulose. galactosamine b. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Example Rhamnose. lactose.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution).6-linked polyglucan. emulsifiers. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. d. a. digitalose (these are 2. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. Inulin. Gums are soluble in water. sarmentose. c. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. stabilizers. consisting simply of 1. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. gentiobiose. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. f. They include hemicellulose. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. D-xylose. amorphous substances. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing).4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. diginose. D-fructose (levulose). 3.

detoxifying. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures. or adenosine). 4. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). Myrtaceae. however. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. 10. 9. Depending on the plant family. occur.. and Asteraceae. and defensive roles. and barbaloin are laxatives. In the conifers. rutin) Anthraquinone (e. Apiaceae. 1. sennosides. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. There are also C-glycosides (e. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). regulating. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. crocin and picrocrocin. daphnin) Flavone (e. are the most common ones found in nature. 7.g. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. in the liver of fish. 2. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides... barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond. sinigrin).1.g. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae). or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides..1. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone.g. In N-glycosides (e. 11. for example.. cascarosides.g. for example.. The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that.g.g.. digitoxin) Saponin (e.g. 3...g. as sugar reserves.. In S-glycosides (e. They are products of plant metabolism. 5. The chief families are Pinaceae. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1. Lamiaceae. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. sinigrin) Steroid (e.. 6.. for example.. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources.g. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). Occasionally. Such glycosides.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. representing about 87 families). the sugar component is called the glycone. Lauraceae. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant. for example. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm.g. strophanthin.g. digitoxin. and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. 8. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e.g.g. glucosamine.g. salicin is an analgesic. 1. Other glycosides do.. 12. sometimes called O-glycosides. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. Rutaceae. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone. Phenol (e.g. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e.. arbutin) Alcohol (e. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate.

1. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). tend to resinify on exposure to air. they are widely used in perfumery. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. Ethers: anise. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. ajowan. 4. cajuput. but in few instances. local irritants. 9. nutmeg. turpentine. cade. carminatives. however. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. resulting in less food spoilage. etc. chemical. Undoubtedly. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. wintergreen. coriander. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. In general. only in the pericarp. cassia bark. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. parsley. In most cases. pharmaceuticals. They can be used for their therapeutic action. local stimulants. Classification 1. are hard. etc. sweet orange. confections. These substances. etc. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. Resins. sandalwood. dill. geranium. 5. and odor characteristics. etc. anthelmentics. juniper. only in the bark and leaves. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. etc. In addition. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. clove. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. 7. star anise. rose. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. thyme. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. in the mints. etc. spearmint. 2. etc. 3. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. transparent or translucent brittle substances. cosmetics. mild antiseptics. etc. lemon. for example. beverages. is rich in camphor. chenopodium. etc. For example. 1. in cinnamon. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). neroli. 8. however. However. bitter almond. and in orange. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. and tobacco. in umbelliferous fruits. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. themselves. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. as a class. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. diuretics.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. fennel. rosemary. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark. lemongrass. or parasiticides. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. 6. Ester volatile oils: lavender. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . horsemint.

they occur as tyloses. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities. mastic). and medullary rays cells). resins burn readily with a smoky flame. Family Coccidae. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. in the vessels.e. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. They are not pure chemical substances. and glandular hairs (cannabis). deposit the resin as a varnish-like film. It is noteworthy to mention here that. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured.g. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. resin cells (ginger). they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. and resenes. in rare cases (e. acetone. as in case of Pinus. forming solutions which. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects.. and ether. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. Hemiptera. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. On this basis. in Guaiacum wood.g. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). In this case. they are of pathological origin. 0. colophony. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. shellac).. Many products (e. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. that is. fibers. unless very large quantities of salt are employed.25). On heating at comparatively low temperatures. but do not contain any nitrogen. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. Laccifer lacca.g. and glycosidal resins. wood parenchyma.9–1. resin acids. When heated in a closed vessel. on evaporation. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt. as well as in fixed and volatile oils. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. they are divided into resin alcohols. without volatilization or decomposition. resins soften and finally melt.. resins occur in different secretory structures. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. carbon bilsulfide). resenes (neutral inert compounds). Chemically. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. gr. resinotannols. which is called secondary flow. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. order. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. In plants. For example.g.. esters. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures.. viz. when freshly powdered. resin alcohols. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. chloroform. with few exceptions (e. but when heated in the air.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps). they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

etc. viz. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. fruits. ointments.. which contains no volatile oil. in seaweeds. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. glucose. mouthwashes. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. (anywhere soothing is required). cough syrups. In some cases. being called glycoresins. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. Another is flax seed. arabinose. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. leaves. asafoetida).8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. and Podophyllum. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. or esters of these acids. (e. on the other hand. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle).. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. purgatives. xylose. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. These are. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. carminatives. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). and seeds. creams. they can be separated from resins rather easily. Guttiferae). The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. expectorants. and anthelmintics. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. parasiticides. counter irritants. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. etc. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. antispasmodic. On hydrolysis. liquid or semi-liquid substances. cathartics. copaiba. that form colloidial. resins and related products are used as rubefacients. hexoses. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis. they form a mixture of pentoses. and Canada balsam. Probably. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. for example. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. barks. the mixtures being known as oleoresins. and uronic acids. the mixtures being called gum-resins.g. balsam of Copaiba. therefore. Mucilages are viscous. Jalap. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). Balsams. nonadhesive solutions with water. and malva (Malva sylvestris).e. they can be incorporated into lotions. like most seeds. flowers.) In general. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. respectively — both contain volatile oil. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. roots. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. shave creams.

9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the solution commonly known as lye. suction. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. ether.g. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. etc. by which it is exhausted of potash. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. In pharmacy. etc. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. cotton) below. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. As with the raw materials. treatment with a solvent.. acetone. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part. gauze. or by chemical or physical means.). or alcohol and water. having a bottom outlet. by traction.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. expression.. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. distillation. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. water. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. also referred to as the spent herb. 2.

one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0.0025 mm = 0.3.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. always using a definite tube length. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. its true size is 50 0. botanical laboratory. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. as well as identification of commercial starches.125 mm. the height of sclerenchymatous cells. that is compared with the scale. However. and not the object itself.001 mm). the scale of 1 mm.) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer. for example.3 PROCEDURES 2.C.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. The diameter of fibers. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length.0025 mm.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. Most of the time. if an object. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. the factors for the other objectives can be determined. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. both of which are carefully counted. also known as micrometers.125 mm = 125 µ. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions. because it is the magnified object. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer. By its use. 0. Therefore. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale. the width of vessels. Q. That is. In the same manner. 2.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification.

and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. 11th ed. Bailliere Tindall. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky. for example. W. A. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter.. malaccensis.3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity. C. 90%. Pharmacognosy. J. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical.. calumba. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. and similar substances. viscosity. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. Trease. digitalis and henbane leaves). Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. For certain drugs..6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. 2. However. Churchill Ltd. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs. Some pieces of rhapontic. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence. glycosides.. optical rotation. which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents.3. they will give a high total ash value. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. 4th ed.g. Derris elliptica. the yield to water of liquorice root.3.. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. UV light provides very useful information. London.” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . E.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. volatile oil. London. 2. Similarly. Other drugs. E. 2. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash. REFERENCES Wallis. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate.3.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. vitamins. balsams. T.. 2. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e.3. and Evans.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. resins. In this way. such as hydrastis. 2.3. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent.3. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. viburnum. especially if they are present in the powdered form. G. 1978. D. 1960. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome. oleo-resins. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol.


When ordering a botanical. seed. therefore. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. ash content. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired. hexane). canadine.. methanol. etc.3 Quality Control 3. then maceration. There are many forms of extracts available. or the entire plant. and microscopy.. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state. ask for it by its common name first. odor. stem. very few plants lose their actives upon drying. color. i. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. and other tests like loss on drying. root. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. percolation. providing that they were dried properly.e. counter current extraction. This starts with the proper solvent system. the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. flower. etc. lipidic extraction. As seen in the example. For example. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. If this is not specified. Fortunately. fruit. organic solvents (ethanol. identification can be confusing. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. distillation. One should start with botanical terminology. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. Many plants have common names and. leaf. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. and berberine. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. etc. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. super critical fluid extraction.

however.. starches. pollen grains. 1. the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. Quassia Wood. viz. Cowhage). to differentiate between mineral powders. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. glands. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. For systematic study. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). Fig. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. 3. Dusting powders: One should be able. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. 3) is a representative example. primary phloem. secondary phloem. while Fig. Lupulin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2 is that of an angiosperm. 2. Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. and hairs (Kamala. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions.

QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig. 1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .


3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig.

The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. which are a useful identification tool. viz. Leaves: Example. thus forming a fruit. frequently. elder flowers of petals and stamens. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. epicarp. the corolla made of petals. Flowers: In a commercial sense. 5. (2) their thinness. called the pericarp. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. 6). red rose and marigold of petals only. red poppy. There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. and often a raphe. There are. mm. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. argel leaf. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils.. S /(E + S). Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. fibrous layer of anthers. 4. styles. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum. Among common drugs. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. in addition. (3) the presence of chlorophyll.e. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). mesocarp. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. i. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. 6. for the seeds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. In the great majority of plants. the ovary wall develops to form a case. micropyle. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. and endocarp. tilia of inflorescences and bracts.. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. stigmas).* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. two features that are constant. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area. 5) is an example of the flower. leaves may be recognized. if there is no stalk. 7. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. the calyx made of sepals. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. the leaf is termed sessile. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. however. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. papillosed epidermis of petals. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. Achillea millefolium L. (Fig.

4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig.

fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. However. Orange.20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Poppy. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. leaves. Tamarind. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Cardamon ii. Simple Fruits i. 8. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. Bael. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. Compound Fruits Hops In general. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. flowers and fruits. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. a. Caraway (see Fig. Colocynth b. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them. 5 Achillea millefolium L.

QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. 6 Grains of paradise seed. 7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Aframomum melegueta Rosc.

fibers. 8).g. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. Fig. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. 9. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. or are natural secretions (e. such as incision (e. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. branches.. Therefore.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. Microscopical techniques. olive oil). 3. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. similarly. or by the trichomes. decoction (e. Henna leaf by the absence of starch. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants.. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. stage and eyepiece micrometers. vertically. by the stomatal index.. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . agar). many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs. namely. Clearing agents.g. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays. which are usually slender and adventitious.. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. 10. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential.g. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios.g.. mountants. however. Chiretta herb. beeswax and myrrh). 9). such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e. opium). starch. For example. expression (e. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part.g. and sclerenchyma. and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues.

8 Fig.QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig. 9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. ether. hexane. for bleaching. lactophenol. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. water. Sometimes. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. chromic/nitric is mandatory. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. the presence of coloring matters. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. chlorophyll. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. tannins. resins. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. protein. volatile oils. and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. Other solvents include methanol. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. and petroleum ether (pet ether). Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. starch. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. it rapidly dissolves starch. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fats. carbolic acid. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. 3. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. and resins. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. alcohol. absorbance values should be used. clove oil.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. etc. and causes swelling of cell walls. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. or chlorophyll. and expands shrunken cells. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus.

UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. It can also be used to quantitate. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr. 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. If the substance is in a solid state. unless one has an FTIR. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. In addition. This will give you a transparent disk.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. Then press under anhydrous conditions. depending on solvent and pH. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg.

strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. 3400-3100 (variable). Lavender. then the filter paper can be eliminated. and (4) it is inexpensive. 2860 (M). The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). 3. as one gains experience. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. 3400–2500 (broad M). Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. Chamomile. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. Precoated absorbents on glass plates. it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sulfuric acid). or plastic sheets are also commercially available. one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it. Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. 3400 (M).g. 3. organic solvents (usually methanol). TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. Valerian. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. Other tests like loss on drying. S = strong. VS = very strong. and powder microscopy are also performed.) When development is complete.. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). M = medium. 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. 1455 (S). In addition.. The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S). odor. Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water.g. Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained.. aluminum. 3600–2400 (broad). 1760 (S). 1600. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. ash content histology. etc.7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. 1500. It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. 2100–1700 (W).

The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. hence. antimony chloride UV. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration. natural product.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16. proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance.5: 8. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent.

This system.g. From these spectra. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. 3. etc. rice hulls. With library search software. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. a separation technique. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. data acquisition. give excellent fingerprints for identification. spent herb). The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). and cosmetic industries. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. the use of the GC will continue to grow. with expected growth well into the next generation. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. In phytochemistry. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In addition to the TLC in chemical testing.” However.) procedures in order to establish its strength. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. such as rice hulls or spent herb. TLC. photodiode array detector. it will show up by having less soluble solids. If there is a diluent added. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. For plant volatiles and essential oils. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. together with UV and IR spectra. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. information-rich electron ionization spectra. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds.. comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. After extraction of the plant material. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. spectrometric. As with the raw materials. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e. System control. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. HPCL.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard. pharmaceutical. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. or chromatographic (GLC. However.

photodiode array detector. and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass. Ltd. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System.

and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. such as ergot. the color and general texture are more important. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). or Provence senna. nutmeg. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. beeswax. or Cochin. data acquisition. etc. honey. coffee.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. Instrument control. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. African. Hence. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha. Obovate. for example. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. in the case of powdered drugs. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. the adulterant can be any kind of material. for example. 3.

25 mm). 2. flow rate.0 M NaC1 gradient. 0. 15 psi argon. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. flow rate. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i.46. 1.5 ml/min. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4. 1. 2 ml/min. acetonitrile-water (83:17).9 mm 30 cm).d. 3. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm.2.QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray. UV 202 nm. acetonitrile-water (83:17).5. 220–223°C. acetonitrile-water (84:16).9 mm x 30 cm).1) flow rate.0 ml/min. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. 1 ml/min. 15 cm).2 M Pi buffer pH 7. detection. mobile phase. UV detection (homogencity test). 13-OH sparteine. distilled water. 1. mobile phase. 0.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6).8 ml/min for 7 min. spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase.d.d. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2. sparteine. flow rate.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60. mobile phase.6 mm i. detection. detection. 190 nm flow rate.6 50 cm): mobile phase. HPLC: Zorbax CN. xylose.. flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin. rhamnos Ginsenosides. flow rate. mobile phase. CH3CN-H2O (73:27). panaxatriol.. mobile phase.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. followed by 0.5:0.0 ml/min. E-500 and E-100 (Waters).5 ml/min. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid. mobile phase. galactose. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5).4x. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. mobile phase. thermopsine. flow rate. baptifoline. mobile phase. 50°C. flow rate. 2.9 mm 30 cm). UV 320 nm detection. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . or 3% SE-30. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). detection. panaxadiol.1 ml/min. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. lupanine. Rf 0.5 ml/min. luteolin. 0. UV 202 nm. then 1. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3./65 cm). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10). genistein Calenduladiol. cytisine Anagyrine. 0. 5% DC560. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7.5 mm i.0–1. R1.

LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. flow rate. 1 ml/min. mobile phase. HPLC: BONDPACK C18. isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase. hydrastine Rf 0.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column.. detection.5 ml/min.5 ml/min. berberine. phase B: ethyl acetate. 6 ml/min. detection UV 365 nm. 3. detection. 2 ml/min. mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3.05.d. 4. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. vanillin in H2SO4. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). begin rotation. methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. methanol-water (50:50). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9). C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. flow rate. flow rate. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5). mobile phase. 75°C. mobile phase. hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). ethanol-water gradient containing 0.. phase A: water. detection. flow rate. mobile phase. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages).5 ml/min. UV 340 nm. Start w/ 350 ml phase A.4 cm i. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1).9.9 i. detection. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. vanillin in H2SO4.5cm).0 ml/min. 25 cm at 75°C). flow rate. detection. 30 cm). increasing 3%/min). Merck(. 1. mobile phase. Rf 0. detection. w/guard.0mm i. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4). HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. introduce sample. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1. UV 270 nm.. detection UV 278 nm. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate. canadine. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8). canadaline. 0.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5.5-methanol (67:33). 25 cm). UV 330 nm. UV 365 nm. 2 liters phase B and C.d. UV 340 nm. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). methanol-water (15% to 95%.1 M phorphoric acid.5. 2 ml/min. flow rate. 66 m capacity 350 ml). i. luteoline. hydrastine Rf 0. detection. 2.6 mm. apigenin. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase.7 & 5.d.d. flow rate. 0.d. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). mobile phase. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i.1 ml/min. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2.

detection.. detection.6 mm i. UV 270 nm.5 ml/min. water. HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18. temp. 25 mm). detection. 25 cm). acetonitrile-water (gradient). mobile phase. 50% H2SO4. detection. flow rate.1:1). 150 mm).3 ml/min.. HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm).5 ml/min. mobile phase. UV 280 nm. 1. detection. flow rate 0. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658).9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). 4 ml/ min. 2.d. formononetin. UV 313 nm. genistein.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8).9 mm i. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. capric acid Isoflavones. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. 30 cm). mobile phase. detection. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5.9 mm 30cm). UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. caproic acid. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2. 25 cm) 2 in series.d.0 ml/min. caprylic acid.d. mobile phase. water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10). TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. mobile phase. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. daidzein. photodiode array. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid.5. 0. flow rate. R1. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min.5 ml/min. UV 280 & 546 nm.25m 3 mm).QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). 1. 1. mobile phase. mobile phase. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient).d. detection. flow rate. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . biochanin-A.1. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. flow rate. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min).d. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. mobile phase.6 mm i.. prunitrin Calycosin. analysis Column (3. detection. mobile phase. mobile phase.0 ml/min. 30 ml/min. UV 280 nm. helium flow. flow rate. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol.0 ml/min.5 10 cm). HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i.. flow rate. 300 mm). mobile phase. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3. flow rate. detection. methanol-water (27:73). HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. methanol-water (2.d. flow rate. mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i.8 ml/min. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). 2.0) mm i. UV 230 nm.. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid. detection.

30 cm). flow rate 10 ml/min. detection. detection. stramonium. 5. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8). UV 256 & 206 nm. Sometimes. coconut shells. UV 254 nm. valerosidatum.8% methanol in hexane. 0. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. such as lobelia. 2. hydrogen flame ionization.9 mm 30 cm). mentha. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . acetonitrile-0. detection. boiler scale. the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. hazelnut shells. GLC: 1. acetonitrile-0.4 (1:1). Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. 6. UV 254 nm. vitexin. or hamamelis leaves. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances.0 ml/min.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). 250 mm. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. valeranone Vincristine. mobile phase. detection.6mm i. stone. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1).25 m 4 mm). detection. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. mobile phase. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru.5 ml/min. walnut shells. 5u Chrompack). detection.1 M phorphoric acid. flow rate. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples. 8. mobile phase. vitexinine 3. 1. Substitution of exhausted drugs. acevaltrate. and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. almond shells. mobile phase. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. powdered olive stones. mobile phase.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. 7. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. or lead shot. conc. detection. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. usually having no relation to the genuine drug. 4. For example. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand.d. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. senna.7 ml/min. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. for example. etc.d. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. for example. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. etc. UV 298 nm. methanol-water (60:40). 2. flow rate. scented bdillium for myrrh. 2 connected in series. dextrin. guaiacum wood.

Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. xylem vessels. 6. Microscopical examination. starch. especially the diagnostic epidermis. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. fibers. red.. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. The powder is usually entirely lignified. 10. papillose surface of the stigma. ordinary cellulose parenchyma. 2. Also epidermis. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. Nut shells and fruit stones. however. sieve tubes. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. and aleurone grains. resins. Dilution better done on the slide. palisade cells. Frequently also trichomes.g. masks. wood parenchyma. stone cells. glands. and occasionally secretory tissue (e. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. pine and juniper).) Acacia. pericyclic and phloem fibers. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll.QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements.. A little vascular tissue. vessels. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. 8. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. and crystals of calcium oxalate. Mucilage of: Alkanna. protective glasses. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. 5. frequently particles of small seeds. hemicellulose.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests. palisade cells. which often cross the fibers and vessels. consisting of small-sized elements only. 7. 4. palisade tissue. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e. cellulose parenchyma. 9. and aleurone grains. gloves. Tincture of: Red with oils. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. tracheids. the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. calcium oxalate crystals. and medullary rays. 3. fibers.g. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests.g. Frequently also delicate yellow. Frequently also cork. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. etc. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . To be used diluted with equal volume of water. fibrous layer of the anther wall. starch grains. Structures absent: Cork. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). usually abundant parenchyma.. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. or oil). in powder. which often contains starch in large amounts. Keep for 6 months. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. cutinized and suberized walls.

Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. left for some time. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. To be freshly prepared. suberin. masks. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath.880). Benzidine. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). Add 7. with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water.I. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding. Chlorophyll. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. etc. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. cellulose. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. Store in amber bottle. with continued stirring. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. through glass wool. H2O. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. killed by steam. filtered. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. protective glasses. ligno. H2O with the aid of heat.I. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. gloves. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and some mucilages.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water. To be freshly prepared. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. 0.I. gr. etc.5 ml D. if necessary. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. The reaction is better carried out in the dark. Deteriorates on keeping. etc. starch. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. To be freshly prepared. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water.0 g sodium iodide and 2.

in powder. 1. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. dextrose). and 20 ml water. and then diluted to 100 ml with water. on the label.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water.. Set aside until clear. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water.27 g iodine and 0.I.g. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids. 40 g glycerin. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. note the coloration and read off from the table. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. gloves.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml. 1. the corresponding approximate pH. etc.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water. Indicator.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .64 g copper sulfate and 0. filtered. 1. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed. the strong solution will dissolve silk.. Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. Dilute: Used for mounting. protective glasses. e. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water.75 g lead monoxide. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid.g. 20 g lactic acid. added to a solution of 2.I. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. gives yellow with colchicine. Solution A: 34. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. masks. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use. H2O prior to use. 1.

10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. with a dropper or a glass rod. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. 10% alcoholic solution. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. stains lignified walls red. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. in small pieces. and cutin blue. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. suberin. Potash. 66. 0. Caustic: Used for clearing.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%). etc. It must be recently prepared. gloves. 5 ml of glycerin added. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). lignin. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium.4% alcoholic solution. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. 1% solution in water. and 80% by volume. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0.) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. masks. dissolving certain cell contents. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. and then diluted with equal volume of water. protective glasses. Store away from light. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. 10. 2% solution in alcohol (90%).

Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices.3BG. of various dilutions: 1:1. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. E. etc. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate.P. Properties Usually high in alcohol.G. AQU P.E. Contains no alcohol. 5:1. P. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1. 3x. H. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form.G. 0.01 = 2x 0. An extract in P. 1. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract.4 Preparations 4. Full strength 1:1.E.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. 60–90%. 5x.E. A molasses consistency. F.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S.G. Same as P. OLEUM N.3BG GLY 4. Serial type dilution and succussion.G.E. but the solvent is 1. An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing.M. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute.1.F. Same as a solid extract (S. 4x. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting. Same as P. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today. usually contains alcohol (20–60%). etc. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. but the solvent is glycerin.

close the lower orifice. the menstruum will channel. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . water. the product will not percolate. giving a weak extract (see diagram). Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. having a bottom outlet. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. ether. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. and macerate for the prescribed time. etc.1. by which it is exhausted of potash. distillation. suction. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. expression.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. the botanical is considered exhausted. gauze. cover the percolator. etc. the solution commonly known as lye. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. also referred to as the spent herb. treatment with a solvent. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. In pharmacy. cotton) below. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate. usually 48 hours. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation). or alcohol and water. or by chemical or physical means.. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. The packing of the percolator is very important. When no more actives remain. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly.. by traction. contained in a suitable vessel. or. acetone. 4. if packed too loosely. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes.g. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. If packed too tightly.40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical.).

add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). 4. placed over it. preferably distilled. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate. etc. These are usually the hard substances. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. mix thoroughly.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. Allow it to cool. such as twigs.1. roots. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. barks. and filter. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes.

cold water should be used. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Refrigerate or preserve. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. In order to prepare an infusion. Therefore. 4. it should be placed in a refrigerator. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. after preparation of an infusion. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter.4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. Moisten the herb in water. preferably distilled.1. Under refrigeration. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Refrigerate or preserve. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. which is very effective. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. However. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. there is also CO2 sterilization. 4. However. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However.1. bacteria. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. especially in inactivating larvae. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations. which seems to work well.

the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. and evaporation. and usually precipitate on standing. and canadine. need preservatives.G. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. Therefore. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine. check with the manufacturers. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture. and the solids are calculated. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. i. The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer.00 per pound). take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. Therefore.* 4. as they contain alcohol. Maceration is another procedure.S. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. percolation. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). Usual laboratory method. However. Filter.e. However. A typical example: 5:1 P. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. or a combination thereof.1.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. as strengths vary widely. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50.1. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. are weaker. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day..2). At present. from either fresh or dry botanicals. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. berberine. Additionally. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. Therefore. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths. No vacuum concentration is used. However.

Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances.I. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). if necessary. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml.I. Separate the excess oil. easily dispensed. or distilled water.1. or oven dried. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. or distilled water. or other specified volatile substance D. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. while hydrastine is colorless. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. age. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency. The native extract is usually vacuum dried. a sufficient quantity. spray dried. respectively.I. Avoid excessive heat. 4. returning the first portions. to obtain a clear filtrate.I. dry solid. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders.1. and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. and contain very little water.I. filter through wetted filter paper. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. and add enough D. preferably kept in a cool area. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. 4. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. which lowers shipping costs. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. need no preservation. Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. 2. Add 1000 ml D. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and pass enough D. and time of year collected. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. 2a. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes. and preserve or use the clear water portion. Then filter the mixture. Solution: The volatile oil.I.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. filtering if necessary. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. or distilled water.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. Their odors and tastes are similar.

preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. 4. butylene glycol. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves. a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C. Concentration. glycerin.10 Product Strength. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. bark. a 1:1 extract. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. would be too concentrated in many instances. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. in a true strength extract. 10:1.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. in the United States. most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. However. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight.1. tinctures. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia.). However. To avoid confusion. 10:1. and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. etc. etc. etc. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. fresh or dried. If it was calculated from fresh weight. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. 1997.1. Recently. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. Obviously. In Europe. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. The true strength will vary. therefore. etc. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations. in a cosmetic formulation.* 4. glycerin.G. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. are often found in the cosmetic literature. 1. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). is always measured on the dry basis. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. etc. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. This is very controversial. or roots of plants (see above). these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color. depending on the manufacturer. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. The starting botanical.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States.3-butylene glycol.

Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. the former designation is becoming the standard. However.15 to 0. which has been standardized on valepotriates. berberine. and starches to be significantly reduced. and then on valeric acid. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. Thus.5 to 4. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations. Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. resins. However. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. that is. GLC. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. dark in color. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1.S. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian. fixed and volatile oils. Analytical procedures (TLC. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents.0% hydrastine. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength. and canadine. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. and not soluble in most cosmetic products. This would cause the berberine. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used.. standardization can be carried to the extreme. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. which is approximately 20 times less costly). However.04%). One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. If the dried plants contain 0. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine.5% of essential oil. canadine.

there are usually losses during extraction.. Therefore. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. 4. alcohol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . consisting of an oil.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e.8% essential oil. 1997. ether.1. A thick. or other suitable solvent) and filtration.5% oil. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. oily resinous mass remains. However. followed by evaporation of the solvent.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. or 1. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution.g. either fixed or volatile. However. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts.

in turn. exhaustion. Moisturizing. digestive problems. aphrodisiac. antispasmodic. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. For example. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. 5. hair growth. soothing. Stimulant. Stimulant. calming anger. thereby reducing stress.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. digestive problems. aromatic waters. energy imbalance. Anti-inflammatory. antispasmodic. tonic.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. This is the essence of aromatherapy. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. mental strain. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. This. Cell regeneration. Skin elasticity. while others are said to lift one’s spirits.5 Aromatherapy 5. antidepressant. affects the adrenals. Carminative. scalp stimulant. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . euphoric. soothing. and perfumes. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland. anxiety. loneliness. mild stimulant. Stimulates scalp. nervous fatigue. cleanser. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender. poor memory. impotence. wrinkles. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. euphoric. Revitalizing. hair growth. Poor memory. revitalizing. aphrodisiac. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. antidepressant. sadness. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing.

Essential oils are very concentrated. Daniel Company. Example: to be effective. antidepressant. inflammations. uplifting during depression. Mood elevating. uplifting. amara) Antidepressant. 1984. wrinkles. shock. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. VT. Valnet. euphoric. bath oils. moisturizes. very little is needed. The Practice of Aromatherapy.W. Fabrice. 1982.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. Aging skin. Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. 1976. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. Rochester. Aging skin. lotions. vaporizers. Jean. If the reader has further interest. The Aromatherapy Handbook. opens psychic centers. C. Therefore. Ryman. grief. etc. Destiny Books. Essex. shampoos. house sprays. Saffron. Nervous tension. stimulates metabolism. mouth ulcers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. Danielle. anti depressant. Antidepressant. England. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. calming. anxiety. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. Walden. cell proliferant.

RANGE. PROPERTIES. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface. DESCRIPTION. pale-green. and 3 or 4 in. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. The flower is single. and involute at the point. spotted near the base. flowers in April or May. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. which is white internally.1 HABITAT. obtuse. yellow. with purplish or brownish spots. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. The scape is naked. subradical. slender. perennial herb. and fawn-colored externally. about 5 in. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. The leaves are two. long. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. droping. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. lanceolate. high. liliaceous.

1975. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. epistaxis. The root is long. and three-valved. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. Cavalitto. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1. Agrimonia has a bitterish. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. subastringent taste. agrimonol (= agrimonine). 2. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils.. from to 1 foot long. yellow. fibrous. agrimonolide. Pub. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. interruptedly pinnate. terminating in three undivided stigmas. Its odor is aromatic. conical. mild tonic.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. Soc. and hematuria. and borne in a dense. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. The whole herb and root contains. pyrogallic acid. Chem. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. anthers oblong-linear. functional bleeding. with a loose membranous tip. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. J. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. No further analytical data available.six. and phlobaphene. Hoppe. and anti-inflammatory. 1. 68.. This taste is strongest in the root. Am. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. and of reddish-brown color. and tapering.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2. in hedges and fields and by ditches. et al.. diuretic. antiscrofulous. racemose spike. 8th ed. flowering in July and August. pyrocatechol. Properties Emollient. filaments flat. Ovary obovate. The leaves are alternate.. It is much branched at the summit. longer than the stamens. 2332. Berlin. Drogenkunde. hooked bristles. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. A. 1946. and covered with a soft. Heinz. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. W. three-lobed at top. de Gruyter. and surmounted with reddish. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. style club-shaped. but unpleasant. The capsule is oblongobovate. long. coarsely serrated leaflets. nearly smooth beneath. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. producing numerous heads. which is somewhat aromatic. silky pubescence. harsh. between which are interspersed several smaller ones.

Peter-Horvath. luteolin. United States.. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin.. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. volatile oil. phytosterin. Constituents Tannins. et al. flavonoids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. citric acid and silicic acid. gum. eupatorin. fruiting tops. Patrascu. The bark is dark gray and ridged. V. 1. and minerals.. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. However. wedge shaped. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. 10(2). Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. 153-157. as do other types of face packs. tonic. nicotinic acid. Dermato-Vernol. M.. catechin. an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. 29(2). 2. this should only be done once a week. Europe. after which a good face cream should be applied. southwest Asia. glycosides. triterpenes. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots. and also to help relieve dandruff. Med. Alder also helps to unclog pores. organic acids. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. choline. usually abrupt at the tip. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. 1964. quercitrin. Ser. alterative. 7-0-B-glucoside. et al. which are roundish. glutinous. 190-193. 1994. Rev.. wavy-serrated. apigenin. ursolic acid. and polysaccharides.

sun poisoning. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. and is employed in skin creams. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. boron. etc. oils. and tannin. The surface is dull and smooth. this has not been verified. etc. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. ALOE Aloe vera L.50% (5 grams. creams. lotions. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. lotions. and burns. hair rinses. and Barbados Islands. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. which would suggest its use in baths. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. carotene. Aloe contains 99. scratches. The fracture is conchoidal.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns. saponin. The texture is waxy. chrysophanic acid. Further reading is recommended. bath gels. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. To date. The size of the pieces is variable. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. Properties Used in facial steams. a mild exfoliant in oils. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C).50% moisture and the average solids being 0. Alfalfa is also high in minerals. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. West Indies. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. calcium and trace minerals. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. irritated skin. cuts. etc. insect bites. The odor is strongly aromatic. hair treatments. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown.

ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. and pectin. Macintosh. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. Rome. Delicious. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. It contains malic acid. Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium). Granny. sugars. glucomanine. Constituents Malic acid. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant.

with few (6 to 10) pointless scales.56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. Cones oblong. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . containing thujone. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. long. tannins. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. and polyps. *INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. soft durable wood. shoddy bark and light. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. wax. having pale. moles. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. Wolf’s Bane. flavonoids. ARNICA Arnica montana L. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. ⁿ in. both internally and externally. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. in height. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. and mucilage.

due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). dark brown. pistillate. and surface phlebitis. stearic). pectolin arigenin). with fleshy bases. taste bitter and acrid. reddish yellow. pinnate. and the cypsella not beaked. malic). about 1 cm long. with subspinose. fatty acids (fumaric. northern Mediterranean. dark green and pubescent. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. kaempferol. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. leaves. edema. 5 to 7 mm long. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. finely striate. the scales ovate. Has been used for hematomas. patuletin. root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the pappus plumose and sessile. deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. 12-veined. Arnica tincture DAB 10. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. polyacetylenes. inflammation of the oral mucosa. In mouthwashes. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. receptacle slightly convex. 1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. Description This plant is perennial. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. and essential oil. ray flowers yellow.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. The heads are discoid and homogamous. isorhamnetin. lauric. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads. quercetin. 7. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. the cypsella spindle-shaped. and undivided leaves. Note: There can be side effects. Sesquiterpene lactones. xanthophylls. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. palmitic. three-toothed. stamens without a tail-like appendage. tubular flowers perfect. Odor characteristic and agreeable. sprains. the involucre dilated and imbricate. inflamed insect bite. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. the receptacle setaceous. emarginate and pointed.

and hypocholesterolytic. ascorbic acid. cholagogue. Also employed in jaundice.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse.. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. garlic. trace minerals. Cosmetically. diuretic. choleretic. vitamins. ascorbinase). Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Around the holidays. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. oxydase. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. protein. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. peroxidase. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. flavonoids.e. tannin. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. cynadase. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley. sterols. beta-carotene. cynarin. bread crumbs. and is said to lower cholesterol levels.

Herbalists use it for treating colds. resinous substance. sores. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. The taste is pungent and bitter. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. balm buds Part Used: Buds. or in threes occasionally. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. The base is truncate or depressed. The odor is balsamic. These buds are sessile. It is a stimulating expectorant. twigs. cuts. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The margin has projecting points of scales. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. The apex is acute. * Formerly CTFA. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. and various skin diseases. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. The color is reddish brown.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. Has been used on blemishes.

bervulcine. izalpinin. True Bay. Odor slight. Europe. populin. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. tinges saliva yellow. externally light yellowish brown.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. Description Cylindrical. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. volatile oil. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. jateorrhizine. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. 3. strongly branched. magnoflorine. wood yellow. Berberine. acetophenone. rhamnetin. Bactericidal. Grecian Laurel. circulatory stimulant. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). berbamine. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. and the Middle East. very bitter. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. taste distinctive. Flavonoids. North America. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. Properties Astringent. bark 1 mm in thickness. chrysin and apigenin. oxyacanthine. gallstones. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. on chewing. usually splitting somewhat on drying. color more pronounced upon wetting.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. tannic and gallic acids. fracture hard and tough. galangin. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. distinctly radiate. pinocembrin. volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . easily separable into layers. pith of rhizome small. has been used for indolent ulcers. salicin. 5-0-methylgalangin. sometimes excentric. Internally used to treat liver disorders. and showing rings of growth. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. knotty.

and glossy aromatic foliage. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. However. hyperoside. hydroquinone derivatives. linalool. undersurface yellowish-green. Spr. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. taste slightly bitter. soaps. Constituents 0. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America.3 to 3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). -terpineol acetate. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. base acute. 12 to 30 mm in length. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. finely reticulate. spatulate. margin entire. Description Leaves obovate. petiole about 3 mm in length. upper surface dark green. Asia. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. slightly pubescent. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. and volatile oil. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). -terpineol. Northern and Central Europe. and others. astringent. quercetin. due to its high tannin content. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. shiny black berries. and detergents. covered. ursolic acid. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. catechins. odor slight. tapering. The leaf also contains germacranolides. summit obtuse. phenolcarboxylic acids. lotions. gallic and ellagic acids. Treating small areas works best. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. texture coriaceous. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. -pinene. pale yellow flowers. and plant acids. glabrous. syringic and p-coumaric acids. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. perfumes. Uvaursi is astringent. alkaloids. along with methyl arbutin. slightly revolute. brittle. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent.

. and abscesses. G. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L.. leaves Habitat and Range Woods... Michigan. *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit. scabs.... Mirkin. minerals. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations. Wyoming. clears toxins.. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW. Properties Restoring.. 3 to 5 cm long... Properties Astringent for eyecare products.. 4 mm wide. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry. sores... Description Dwarf shrub. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees. about 5 mm long... 1854. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive...... and other compounds identified in bee pollen.. ovate.. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins.. Europe. 262.. 20 to 50 cm high. Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits. enzymes.. promotes tissue repair. Good for skin ulcers. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive. and Asia... anti-inflammatory. tonic.. California. and ulcers... The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx. dissolving.... combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees. 1 to 2% fat. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones..62 BED STRAW. Whortleberry.. corolla ovoid-lanceolate. antiseptic... and to replace retina purple. German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus. eruptions..0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels.. 55% carbohydrate.. amino acids. reduces inflammation. This is taken up in a collection vessel..1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins... 1.. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein.. JAMA.. only slightly paler beneath.. 1989. restrains infection.... British Columbia. wounds.1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... reducing visual eye fatigue... The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries. boils. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen. sores. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter. 9... leaf-blades thin. softening.

betuloside.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. fatty acids. (trace amount) asperuloside. 1988. gaultherin. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. Bugwort. 1. 76. New York. peonidin glucosides. Rattleroot. ascorbic acid. BIRCH Betula alba L. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. Rattleweed. Mabey. Europe. Macmillan. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. Bugbane. 1. methyl salicylate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ursolic acid. myrtillin. anthocyanosides. psoriasis. White Birch. German Commission E Monograph. North Asia. betuloresnic acid. parts of Arctic Siberia.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. New Age Herbalist. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. R. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. Squaw Root. Properties The bark. arbutin. The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. saponins. betulol. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri. essential oil. 4-23-87.1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. leaves. quinic acid. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne.. BANZ No. and eczema. apigenin dimethyl ether. naturalized in northern North America.

resins. tannins. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. and sugar.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. It possesses estrogenic activity.5 cm in thickness. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. bark dark brown. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. starch. longitudinally wrinkled. Rhizome horizontal. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. each of which shows a radiate structure. particularly depression and hot flushes. fracture short. externally dark brown. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. or less frequently by fibrous strands. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. frequently. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. internally. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. dyspepsia. externally dark brown. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. somewhat branched. fracture horny. and rheumatism. mainly formononetin. by deep cup-shaped scars. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. up to 3 mm thick. fatty acids. bark thin. taste bitter and acrid.

glabrous above. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. tannins. Florida. bark. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . fixed and volatile oils. serrate. anthelmintic. taper-pointed at the apex. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. and detergent. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. and Minnesota. with thick ridges. It is an astringent. 5 to 8 cm long. 8 to 10 cm long. Constituents Juglone. glabrous. Description A tree up to 50 m high. lanceolate. Massachusetts. rounded or subcordate at the base. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. and trace minerals. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. fruit globose. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside). or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. Texas.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. leaflets 11 to 23. Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). juglandic acid.

and bruises. myxoedema.66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). sprains. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. reproductive tissues. a prominent midrib. probably due to its iodine content. The taste is saline and mucilaginous. as a wash for psoriasis. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. The thallus is dichotomously branched. The texture is cartilaginous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols). Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. fucans). Frequently. rheumatism. cellutitis. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. steryl glucosides. The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. It can be added to hair and skin care products. massage for cellulite. trace minerals (mainly iodine). The odor is slight. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. slimming activity. The color varies from brown to black. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity.

saponins. sessile. mainly cultivated for commercial use. leaf.. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin. Constituents Vitamin C.. sometimes white.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. tannins.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage. mostly in the Eastern States. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock. flowers.. European Burdock. hollow stem. Description The root is fusiform. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains. It is easily grown from seed. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. about 2 cm in diameter... and minerals. the lower ones on short petioles..... Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage. Gobo Part Used: Roots. Borage has a cucumber-like odor. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia... longitudinally wrinkled.. simple or branched. up to 60 cm high. skin cleansing and lightening.. a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sparingly naturalized in the United States.. Fruit is ovoid and light brown.. fracture somewhat horny.. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L. the upper leaves. calyx of five sepals. five pointed corolla. flowers from June through September... usually blue. frequently split or in broken pieces. Description An annual robust plant. rhizomes. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores. Bugloss. of variable length. elliptical leaves wrinkled. covered with bristly hairs. the crown somewhat annulate. on long stalks.. rough.. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids.. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe.. externally grayish brown.

and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. arctinol. including buxine and buxozine C. arctinal etc. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. It has been combined with comfrey. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. Odor slight. abrasions. and oil. gels. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. sterols. in cases of acne. sweetish. cutaneous eruption. shampoos. fat. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. and can be used in facial steams. acid soils. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. psoriasis. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. North America. lignin. eczema. tannins. gout. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . berries with black seeds. polyalkenes. Arctinone. centrally hollow or containing a white. fukinanolid. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. scaly skin.. creams. licorice. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. and baths.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. taste is mucilaginous. anorexia nervosa. yellow-green flowers in spring. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. lotions. volatile oils. and slightly bitter. inulin. becoming pyroligneous on milling. cystitis. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. It is also used in hair conditioners. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. pith-like tissue. fatty acids. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood.

borne on green.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. ribbed. sudorific. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. diuretic. Leaves. Fruit. for the treatment of varicose veins. dark green shrub with thick. Europe. 2 cm long. dry hills. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. rutin. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. papery ca. Emmenagogue. a globular red berry ca. bushy places. 5 mm. saponin. chrysophanic acid. Properties Increases circulation. inhibits inflammation. mucilage. The extract has been used with success. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. 1 cm. Flowers greenish. Description A dense. ca. ruscoside. 3 mm across. scale-like. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oval rigid.


..... and from 5 to 9 angled. Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America.. penduletin.... piscidic-acids.. from 1. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . taste acidulous and mucilaginous. and beta-sitosterol...... *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material. herby odor.. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear. It has a strong. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments. CALENDULA.... or Sierra Leone Pepper. See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Mombassa. Mexican. Constituents Flavonoids. dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper.....C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia.. Description In pieces of varying length.. together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length.5 to 4 cm in diameter...... kaempferol. rutin..... at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present. Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. luteolin.... isorhamnetin-glucoside.. quercitrin.. healing for sensitive skin. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length.

The seeds are compressed and pointed. gray. The odor is aromatic. or is free from these. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The fruits vary greatly in size. The apex is acuminate or acute. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. The Mexican variety is deep red. the African variety is yellowish-brown. and greenish-red. Capsicum is a berry. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. The epicarp is thin and tough. yellow. yellow. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. and brown. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. The taste is pungent and warming. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. the Nyassaland variety is red. red. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx.

and perfumes up to 0. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. counter-irritant. keeping it smooth and soft. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. Sacred Bark. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. and others. After. lotions.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. is obtained by steam distillation. Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. geraniol. antiseptic. Chittem Bark. and vitamins A and C. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. Asia. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. naturalized in North America. geranyl acetate. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. segmented. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. jaborandi. daucol. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . -pinene. creams. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. rheumatic pains. etc. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin.29%). Bitter Bark. It has a long tap root. and North America. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. branched. flavonoids. Bear Wood. detergents. carotene capsanthin. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. rubefacient used for neuralgia.4%. leaves. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). hairy stem. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. Buckthorn. colocynth. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. fatty acids. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. CARROT Daucus carota L.

1974. R = H. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. including those of emodin.. R = OH. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. and D. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). 444. it acts as stomach ache treatment. odor distinct. E. emodin oxanthrone. 1983. 267. 2. 3. B. London. It is much used as a laxative. C = 10B. In small doses. See formula. The bark occurs in flattened. Bailliere Tindall. bryophytes. and Evans. Publ. 12th ed. W. C. they contain both O. B = 10 R = OH. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. aloe-emodin. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives.and C-glycosidic linkages. 1974. Teil B. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. R = H. Z. 5. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. in Pharmacognosy. 1. Trease. Two aloins. curved pieces or quills of variable length. Various diathrones. It is frequently covered with lichen. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. Wagner et al. Naturforsch.5 to 5 mm thick. chrysophanol. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. 4.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. Aloe-emodin. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. G. It gives red color with ammonia TS. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . D = 10 . aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels. 1. 2.. and chrysophanol. C. and emodin in the free state. Teil C. Description The tree is 4. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic.

softhairy above. Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect. stems quadrangular. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed. ovate or oblong. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . nepetalactone. interrupted spikes. pungent... and aromatic. the lower spreading and three-cleft.. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties... bract-like. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A. the upper lip erect and two-cleft. downy beneath. limb bilabiate.CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L. Constituents Essential oil. corolla whitish. in dense.. CENTELLA. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders. downy. dotted with purple. petiolate. or crushed and broken.... (geraniol... citronellal. camphor.. margin deeply crenate. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling.. crenulate..... nepetalic acid.. the middle lobe largest.. nepetol rosemarinic acid. from 10 to 20 cm long. much branched.... tubular. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache.. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. carvacol. methyl-nepetalactone. from 2 to 7 cm long.. rounded or ear-shaped at the base... leaves opposite... up to 4 mm in diameter. puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen. naturalized in North America. thymol).. Br. throat dilated... Description Top. pale gray-green... Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like. lower pair shorter. taste bitter.. stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip.. calyx hairy.. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe. nepetariaside. pointed at the apex..... floral leaves small. flowers small. the larger.

internodes short.I.6 to 1 cm broad. 1994. 1973–1974. and U. Y. Yang. aromatic. Iwakami. and rheumatism. H.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities.A.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant. Y. Ebizuka. and U.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic. skin infections. Sankawa.W. Pharm. isoamyl caproate (1. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns.T. apex acute. diarrhea. margin dentate. Pharm. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells. Phytotherapy Res. 3272. Lin. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. florilenalin-angelate. 1992. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. wounds. S. venation pinate reticulate.. Campbell. and C. 1196. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. beta-gurjunene. thymol (1. 6. UIO. Abstr. Wright. 436. Cai.5%). Chin J. D’Amelio. longitudinally striated. Y. 8(7).S. oblong.50%). J. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. myrtenol (5. then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. 894. 1.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes. brevilin A. florilenslin derivatives.804..D. sessile. 5. 7. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. cylindrical. Y. C. Yang. Sept.Y. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. Chun.. J. 204(2).3 antiprotozoal. H. green. arnicolides. 1998.3 to 0. Phillipson. the apical cell being elongated filamentous.S. Leaves. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1.97%). Patent 5.B.6-beta-oside.7. Mutat. triterpenes. plenolin derivatives. Odor characteristic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . D’Amelio.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. and amoebiasis. F. 1991.B. and D. J. Lee and J. Yang.C.206.L. Stem 0. the plant has been used to treat colds. 8. Chem. 40(5). July 26–30.W. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. 54. caryophyllane-2. Compositous glandular hairs are also present. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm.C. F.23%). 3..85%). midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. 1973. Lin. W. Bull.. Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. green.. G. Y.98%). Wu. Ebizuka. asthma. Y. The plant also contains diterpenes. Pharm. malaria.. Chem. 97. and alpha-humulene.C. Microbiol.1 In Chinese traditional medicine.W. and flavonoids. 1988. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. J. simple. 4. A. Sankawa.5 cm in diameter. 6. alternate. Wu. and Mirhom. 39(12). Aust. S. and sternutatory. 22 g. helenalin.18%). Y. Hu. T. 2. Kriby. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. U. Warhurst. nasal allergies. 1997. Res. Bull. and Mirhom..

usually reflexed. farnesol. chamazulene. naturalized in the United States.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. disk-florets tubular. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. three-toothed and four-veined. oblanceolate. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. or only a slight membraneous crown. involucre hemispherical. calendula. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. New York southward. hollow receptacles. and pubescent scales. aromatic. borneol. creams. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile.5 cm. anti-inflammatory. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. apigenins. It is a carminative. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. see the bibliography at the end of the book. furfural. Constituents Essential oil. alpha-bisabolol. For further reading. bisabolene. healing tonic. pappus none. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. Chamomile contains azulene. corolla white. longitudinally furrowed. and without a pappus. chlorogenic acid. peduncles light green to brownish-green. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. matricarin. well over one hundred compounds. taste aromatic and bitter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Odor pleasant. etc. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical. perfect. pistillate. and mullein in shampoo 5-ribbed. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. ray-florets from 10 to 20. lotions.

Properties Good for softening. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. Also used on skin rashes and infections. Description A resinous. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra..A. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. Yellow flowers have five petals. Gobonadorra Greasewood. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts. and stimulating the skin.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. Chaparral is a source of N. The leaves grow in opposite pairs.G. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. 3/8 in. restoring. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall.D. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. The flowers normally occur in January through May. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is native to the southwestern United States. long.

The taste is astringent and pungent. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. The fracture is weak. p. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. and uneven. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin.). if unpeeled. However. 747. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. granular and slightly fibrous. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota.. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gossypetin. Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. is brownish-black. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. which can be peeled.G. south to Florida and Texas. camphor. tannins. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. sedating.CHERRY BARK. astringent. partially peeled. Constituents Aspartic acid. Properties Soothing. phenolic acids. will add body to hair. quercetin). 5 cm in width. this has not been thoroughly investigated. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. and unpeeled. and 4 mm in thickness. a powerful antioxidant. Merck Index.A. it is finely striated and fissured. 1. bitteralmond-like when moistened. brittle. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. 8th ed.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. The outer surface. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. The odor is aromatic. CHERRY BARK.D.

Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. flowers white. stems slender. white bird’s eye. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. fruit a many-seeded.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. the lower petioled. swelling. psoriasis. on slender. redness of face erysipelas. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. axillary stalks and in terminal. opposite. high. the uppermost sessile. For inflammed eyes. baths. vulnerary. annual. small capsule. rooting at the nodes. emollient. long. with a line of hairs along one side. rutin. carboxylic acids. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey. satin flower. Can be used in creams. tocopherols. and facial steams. entire. coumarins. gamma-linolenic acid. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. Description A weak. All Europe. leafy cymes. leaves ovate. Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. indolent ulcers.1 mucilage. Properties Antipruritic. acute. fatty acids and minerals. lotions. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. creeping or ascending. 1⁄6 to 1 in. saponins. small. triterpene gyycosides.

. each 3 to 10 cm..... woody. spreading. In 1770...... fragrant. sterols. melissic acid. CINCHONA. 2nd ed. 1996. it is used for dementia. vitalbiosides.. feather fruit clusters. Y... grey. Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants. John Wiley & Sons.. Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods... and inflammation.. sores.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches. densely hairy on both sides... rubefacient..) Bull. Carophyllus aromaticus L. Steven Foster.. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply. each with long styles with dense. behenic acid.. petals spreading.. CRC Press. New York. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. Duke. et Herr... antiscrofulous properties.. June to August.. *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard. and conspicuous.. indifference. mental escape from reality. chlorogenic acid.... it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. Caryophyllum. protein. most of Europe.See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L... Constituents Caffeic acid. Leung. Fruit with numerous carpels.. thickets. inattentativeness. in lax terminal and axillary clusters... Boca Raton. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy). FL. Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters.. said to have antibiotic properties. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval. CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L. J. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands. 1992. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stalked leaflets. hedges. white hairs. Description A robust.CLOVES 81 1. 2.. clematine...... Flowers 2 cm.. A/B..

lipids. flavonoids. and Tyler. Burma. and incurved. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic. glandular-punctate petals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. protein. Nepal. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. afterwards very pungent. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. followed by a slight numbness. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. antispasmodic.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. J. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. which alternate with the calyx teeth. ovary twolocular. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. J. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. dark brown. carbohydrates. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. Robbers. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. crowded. and somewhat four-angled. It lowers blood pressure. and others.5 mm in length. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. stamens numerous. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. style 1. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator.. 1. and has carminative properties. with numerous ovules. E. Williams & Wilkins. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd.. vitamins. The buds also contain sterols. It is native to India. odor strongly aromatic. Speedie. and Thailand.K. Sri Lanka..E. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. taste pungent and aromatic. where it is widely cultivated. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin.

The younger leaves densely white. A. bitter. When the leaves are dried. tussillagine. screens. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. banks. palmately 5. taste mucilaginous. landslides. Description Petiole long. deeply cordate at the base. blade very brittle. mucilage. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. carotenoids. river gravels.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide. 1996. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. slightly wrinkled. Properties Emollient. Kronenthal. Personal communication. faintly herbaceous. senkirkine. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. floccose beneath.L. R. All Europe. London. tussilagone and essential oil. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. minerals. 83. glabrous above. pubescent. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system.. terpene alcohols. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth.. and smoked like tobacco.. 1998. it is said to help relieve asthma. 3. flavonoids. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. Constituents 9-nerved. Odor indistinct. ground. Chevallier.

rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity..1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. radical leaves are very large. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . althea. It is almost inodorous. Healing Herb. Blackwort. lotions. and demulcent.2–4. chlorogenic. aloe. Menghini A. 1. Most of Europe. ointments. fractures. long. asparagine (1–3%).) Comfrey is also an astringent.7%). The stalks are hollowed and cornered. B-sitosterol amino cids. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum. Knitbone Part Used: Root. cone flower. Capassa F. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. and lithospermic acids. and Fasulo M. Autoreg. on wounds.P. very hairy. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). Comfrey can be used in creams. Bruiswort. and has a mucilaginous. 944. Description The lower.. 1987. hair rinses. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. salves. feebly astringent taste. The powder is green in color.. Fillipendula. shampoos. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva. I. Phytotherapy Res.. phenolics. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention.. Mascolo N.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. alkaloids. a very powerful cell proliferent. watersides. anti-inflammatory. antihemorrhagic. marshes. douches. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. caffeic. up to 10 in. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics.

14 8.74 0.59 2. Nutrients Calc.50 1101100.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.89 0.285 0.0 30.19 0.0 15.14 49.47 1.111 1.480 0.19 5.00 57 34 34 1.18 2.58 5. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.142 0.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.84 4.30 1.7 7.600 0.40 0.0 7.1 Dry matter 30.72 1. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.0 1200. energy therms cwt Prod.0 100 g 4.795 0.92 0.0 0. Dig. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.61 0.01 24.10 0.29 44.0 0. for cattle Maint. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.99 1.7 0.085 0.92 0.51 4.11 25.8 213.93 0.26 0.41 0.59 0.93 0.7 0.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.037 17.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.10 19600 10 6 28 0.0 3.01 14. A equiv.2 0.0 5.05 0.456 0.8 2.86 49.20 0.78 7.624 8.73 28.07 100.176 0.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .79 275.65 0.208 100.8 44.

.5 cm thick and 30 cm long. feebly astringent taste. promotes tissue repair. horny texture.. occasionally dark brown in color.. externally wrinkled. cultivated extensively... It is almost inodorous. Blackwort. internally creamy white. Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... reduces inflammation and clotting. creates astringency.. *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. mucilaginous. Bruiswort... Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L... Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia.. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf. riverbanks. firm. branched... and dark color. Good when used in burn creams.See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L.. *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L.. woodland... and has a sweetish.. CONE FLOWER. North Africa. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey.. often more than 2. It contains a mucilage that is water extractable.. Europe...... Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped... Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland.. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface.. Healing Comfrey Herb.

20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. limonene. frequently with numerous large. Properties Has been used in body lotions. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. chlorogenic. toilet waters and after shaves. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. -terpinene. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. The essential oil is used in massage oils. coumaric. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. each mericarp with five prominent. undulate secondary ribs. etc. tangentially elongated. eliptical oil ducts. ferulic). perfumes. mericarps easily separated. two or three layers of large. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. camphor. fatty acids. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large. straight. geraniol and geranyl acetate. toothpaste. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. flavonoids (quertcetin. rutin). and flavors. phenolic acids (caffeic.). Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. deodorants. p-cymene. tannin.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. endocarp of large tabular cells. cremocarp nearly globular. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

conjunctivitis. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes. it is soothing and emollient. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. heads long-peduncled. floccose. blue. native of Europe. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . about 15 mm high. Description Annual. varying to rose or white. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. Quebec. British Columbia. Virginia. bracts greenish-yellow. involucres round-ureolate. marginal corollas funnelform. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips. California. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. stem 3 to 7 dm high. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. and various skin complaints. more or less floccose. For aging skin. ascending branches. with slender. or as a compress for tired eyes.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. scrapes.

many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. cnicin. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. corn silk. purplish-red. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders. arginine. and from 0. protein. palmitic acid.4 to 3 mm in length. spiral or annular tracheae. Constituents Acetanapthene. tocopherols. maizeric acid. Europe. polygalacturonic acids. flavonoids (Maysin). light green.2 to 0. Topically very soothing and softening. cultivated extensively. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. stigmas bifid. stigmasterol. spherical nucleus. and 0. minerals. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. CORN SILK Zea mays L. saponins. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. segments very slender.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. frequently unequal. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. tannin. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. protocyanin. the basal trichomes 50. potassium. yellow or light brown color. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. the upper portion being usually unicellular. alanine. the epidermal cells rectangular. and temperate Asia. fixed oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. cyanidin glucoside. proline. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain.4 mm in diameter. vitamin C.8 m in length. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. cichorin.

.. in face creams.. Plant Drug Analysis. flavonoids (gossypetin. minerals.. Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing. slightly curved.. and spotted with orange at the throat. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging)... about 1 cm in diameter. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. enzyme (primeverase). Taste. hairy perennial.. p.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .90 CRESS... S. The flowers are tubular... sunburn.. cucurbitacins.See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L. Properties Stimulate circulation. and E. odor. five-lobed. astringent. Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties... sweetish. cooling. Hydrating.. campferol dirhamnoside. 1984. and coughs. wrinkled leaves.. Berlin...... phytosterol.. and for chapped skin or sunburn.. broad hairy leaves.. Constituents Saponins..... For blotchiness of skin. Zgalinski. phenolic acids. quercetin). Both the fruit and seeds are employed.. Constituents Vitamins. apricot-like. often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America. and refreshing.. used for catarrh of the respiratory tract... dark green fruits.. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles.. and 3-gentiotrioside. 176. Blatt.. and cylindrical. Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis. with oval. H... CRESS. soothing eye compress... yellow.. Description This trailing annual has rough stems..... 1. fatty acids. amino acids... Springer-Verlag.... colds. Wagner.. According to the German Commission Monograph E.. tubular yellow flowers. volatile oils. *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India.M.SEE WATERCRESS Description A short..

D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum. approximating 90°.5 cm wide. where it is a common weed. yellow-brown and sometimes purple. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. 0. Frequent pieces of cut. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular.0 cm long and 0. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). dark green or brown-green in color. Foreign Dandelion. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple.5 to 1. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA. with a pronounced midrib. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate.S. the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous. naturalized in the United States. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. and for various skin complaints and eczema. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences.5 cm wide. Stomata are present in both epidermises. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle. ending in a spherical secreting cell. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes.

Vitamin B and C. and is especially high in potassium. The white sap has been used to treat warts. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile. as a diuretic. probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses. the root has been used to treat inflammation. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also considered a blood purifier.

whitish bark in which numerous. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. which toward the upper part. glucoside. Properties See Dandelion Leaves. with concentric rings as in the root. brownish concentric rings of sieve. It attains a length of about 30 cm. the section exhibiting a yellow. much shriveled. The drug. and its derivative taraxacoside. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. It has no odor. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). which have not been found anywhere else. the latter sometimes remains simple. where it is a common weed. flavonoids.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. but a bitter taste. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. The dried root is dark brown.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. carotenoids. straight root. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood. naturalized in the United States. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. surrounded by a thick. Description The root consists of a simple. The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. porous. milky latex exudes. and a layer of cork externally. it tapers but little below. a narrow cortex. vitamins and minerals. becomes tough when slightly moist. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. 1. and the eudesmanolides. also ca. whitish and fleshy within. surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem.1% mucilage. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. but often divides into several erect branches. which is rather hygroscopic. and sterols. and wrinkled longitudinally.

Planta Med. heavily concentric. Antiphlogistic. occasionally with cavities. 1. Description It has a characteristic large. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber. taste astringent. polyphenols. polysaccharides. M. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. light grey-brown.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. slightly analgesic.5 cm thick. Odor slight. (oleanolic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The plant produces bright red flowers. hooked. Lanhers. ursolic acid) phytosterols.-C. 1992. Xylem radiate.. claw-like fruit. 58. procumbide)... up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0. quinones. triterpenes. Fracture short. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. chlorogenic acid. rheumatism). flavonoids. 117. with some fan-shaped pieces. bitter. et al.

) Nutt. Part Used: Root.. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. E. Scurvy Root. (Nutt. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. Hedgehog Part Used: Root. pallida. Black Susans.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. Indian head. purpurea. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. Black Sampson. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . E. Moench. L.

blood purification. fracture short. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. or poisonous insects. Odor faint. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. For example. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. bark less than 1 mm thick. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. stings. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. bed sores. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. taste sweetish. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. slightly annulate in the upper portion. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. fibrous. bites. use for snake bite. wound healing. externally grayish-brown.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. boils. cylindrical. aromatic. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. or purplish-brown. when administered into normal leghorn chickens. ulcers. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. When administered orally. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. light brown. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. or furrowed. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. wounds. sieve tissue in radial rows. etc. burns. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae.

and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It also increases T-cell proliferation. indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. interleukin-1 (IL-1). A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii). TNF-X.3 Furthermore. this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X). Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. and Interferon-B2.ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities.

10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E. but practically absent in E.6–2. – The mono. • Polysaccharides. including an essential oil.98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro. arabinoga lactan). purpurea and E.. Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea. purpurea)]. isobutylamide of undeca (2E.4E. ferulates of tartaric. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. albicans pathogens.g. angustifolia).4Z-diene8. These include aliphatic amides. angustifolia. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity.. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes.1%). pallida. pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Present in both E. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood. which is useful for species identification. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. chlorogenic acid. angustifolia. Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan.5 Furthermore. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. in vivo.8Z. In E.g. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0.7% (except in E.3–1. These include the following: – Caffeic acid.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid. purpurea (0.10E)-tetraenoic acid).

(Bethesda). J. Cheminat. 2787-2794.E. J. N.Matthes. Wuerdinger. Gifford. Roesler. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and R. G. 1991. B. Loesch. H. 36(5). Phytochemistry. Vet. Klumpp and U.ECHINACEA 99 1. J. 38(2). M. C. Cancer Inst. 1989 2. I. and M. and H. Puhlmann. 13(1). J. R. K. Zenk. Schranner. O.L. Wagner. S..-L.744. M.. Intn. 81(8). J. 1989. 4. Ger Offen De 3. A. H. Steinmueller. Andreas. and J. H.H.345. 353-364.. B. R. 5. Wagner. Wagner. 3. 27-38. K. Holger. 1988. Becker. Ser. Lohmann-Matthes.. 6.. Natl. Lohmann. 276-281. Christiane. 1989. Wagner. Brouillard. 1988. 27(9). Bauer. Luettig. Zawatzky. Med. E. Albrecht. 669-675.. Immuno Pharmacol. Arzneim-Forsch. Jurcic.

slender anthers oblong. calyx superior. and tannins. triterpenes (alpha. flat or slightly campanulate. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. tumors. stamens five. joint stiffness etc. mucilage. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. Description Small. rotate. yellow. minerals. filaments. sterols. astragalin. regularly five-lobed. It is said to reduce swellings. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . soreness. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder.and beta-amyrin). sambunigrin).023 mm in diameter. covered with finely punctate markings. south to Florida and Texas. volatile oils. having three pores and up to 0. ursolic acid. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. taste slightly bitter. rutin. from 2 to 3 mm in width. five-lobed.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L. shriveled. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. inflammation. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba.

naturalized in northeastern North America. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. Scabwort. wounds. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. fracture short and horny. and rashes.5 cm in diameter. roots cylindrical and tapering. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . inner or cut surface somewhat concave. west to Missouri. itching skin. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. and pungent. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. bitter. frequently curved or irregularly curled. and catarrh. up to 13 cm in length and 1. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. asthma. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. Elecampane (Inula helenium L.) strongly lignified wood fibers. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. and separated by large intercellular spaces. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. south to North Carolina. central Europe. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. as a bactericide.ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. taste acrid. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. Odor aromatic. externally grayishbrown to dark brown.

inulin. isolantolactone. triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. friedelin). germacrene-D-lactose). polyacetylene. sterols.

resin. febrifuge. revolute or undulate. broad. sessile. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. Hemostatic. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. always deeply cut-in teeth. woolly beneath. essential oil. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. taste bitter and aromatic. It is odorless. 2 to 8 in. and phytosterin. The stem is erect and wiry. heads numerous. Description It is an elegant little annual plant. odor characteristically aromatic. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. 1 ⁄6 to in.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. heaths. Europe. however. Description Stems white-woolly. Also has slight Anodyne properties. obtuse bracts which are white. high. woodland. long and about in. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. small. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. The leaves are sometimes almost round. Astringent tonic. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. green above. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Tannins. their margins. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. and at other times pointed and narrow. either unbranched in small specimens. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. or with many opposite branches. has a bitter and astringent taste. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. but sometimes tinged with brown.

lotions or drops for eye complaints. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as. and various skin conditions. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . including aucubin. inflamation of the blood vessels. geniposide. caffeic acid. catapol. ferulic acid.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. poultices. inflammation of the eyelid. Euphrasia contains glycosides. minerals. and a volatile oil. gallotannins. conjunctivitis. Constituents Aucubin. luproside.

the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. and two oil ducts on the ventral side. United States. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs.5 mm in breadth. strongly lignified fibers. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. Description Mericarps usually separate. brown walls. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. For use in eye washes. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. dorsal surface convex. more or less curved. New Jersey. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. making usually six oil ducts in all. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. It is * Formerly CTFA. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. south to Florida and Texas. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. composed of polygonal cells. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. conical stylopod. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular.

Soaked in water. In addition. dark. horny. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. and 2 mm thick. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. there are methylchavicol. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. they are hard. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. and flattened. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. the fruits contain a fixed oil.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. and flavonoids. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. Nearly in the center of one of the long. the taste is disagreeable and oily. this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. is strong and spicy. especially if powdered. -phellandrene. 2 to 3 mm wide. the former appearing as a whitish point. However. The odor of Fenugreek. the radicle being accumbent. In addition. cultivated in India. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . organic acids. yellowish-brown. Israel. protein. Pakistan. and Turkey. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. and limonene. translucent endosperm. including -pinene. anisaldehyde. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent.

choline. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. swollen glands. choline. Scrofula plant. wounds. and various skin irritations. yamogenin.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. hedges. in woods. mucilage. Constituents Dioscin. flowering from July to October. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. Fenugreek contains mucilage. and banks. Square stalk. mucin. glycine. glutamic acid. neurosis. sores. tumors. A poultice has been employed for gout. cystine. diosgenin. trigonelline. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. It is also used as a galactagogue. dating back to the ancient Egyptians. damp copses. fenugreakin. aspartic acid. trigofoenoside A-G. histidine. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States.

Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. alkaloids and flavonoids. with a leafy. tuberous. The leaves are opposite. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. dark purple. the limb contracted. 3 to 4 in. sublabiate. with a livid purple lip. ovate. sharply and unequally serrated. cleansing. Constituents Saponins. which are broadly ovate. the corolla of a dull green color. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. ovate-oblong. obtuse. erect. and 3 to 7 in. having a green scale or sterile filament. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. with paniculate. adnate to the upper side. cardio-active glycosides. rounded. hesperetin. and circulatory stimulant. smooth stem. and knotty root. thyrsoid panicles. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and subglobose. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. 2 to 4 ft in height. ovoid. and slightly margined. quadrangular. on axillary and terminal. in length. The calyx is in five segments.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. anodyne. whitish. petiolate. of a deep-green color. forked. acutish or broadly cordate at base. opposite branches above. slightly drooping. or the upper lanceolate. long. The flowers are small. lecithin. acute. veined.

and rough on the margins. or eights. including psoriasis. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. verticillate in sixes. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. corolla rotate and 4-parted. Catch-weed. fatty acids. with a weak. In a green state. phenolic acids. stamens 4 and short. the flowers white. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). retrorsely prickled stem. and astringent. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. procumbent.or 2-flowered. Description Galium aparine is an annual. with an acidulous. and midrib. quadrangular. The fruit is large and bristly. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. growing in cultivated grounds. Calyx 4-toothed. tapering to the base. styles 2. small. 2 or 3 lines in width. mucronate. and along banks of rivers. and n-alkanes. and Burdock. moist thickets. coumarins. these plants have an unpleasant odor. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with hooked prickles. astringent. GARLIC Allium sativum L. and bitter taste. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. the peduncles are axillary and 1. but are inodorous when dried. cleansing. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. sevens. Stinging Nettle. and flowering from June to September.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. in length. succulent plant. numerous and scattered. flavonoids. tannins. and is hairy at the joints. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. sterols.

and attached to a flattened circular base. membranaceous. B. Garlic does not lend itself. taste intensely pungent and persistent. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. Italy is a large producer. C. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. Description Bulb subglobular. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. scordinins. surrounded by whitish. cultivated extensively. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. Properties Cosmetically. Internally. sores.750 mm in diameter. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. (alliin. pimples. with 8 to 15 bulbils. apex acute. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. membranaceous scales. dry leaf. spasmolytic. However. about 0. each bulbil covered by whitish. The membranaceous scales. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. g-glutamyl). and E.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. base truncate. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. the outer surface convex. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily. Vitamins A. allicin — dialltrisulfide. in place of butter. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. It has been applied successfully to swellings. antiviral. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. Constituents Sulfur compounds. and fructans. bacteriostatic. hypotensive and anthelmintic. compound. peptides. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. for obvious reasons. trace minerals. scale-like leaves. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. expectorant. antiseptic. promotes leucocytosis. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. and acne. Garlic is diaphoretic.

and middle western United States. The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. sialagogue. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. swertiamarin). The cambiam zone is dark brown. then strongly bitter. The taste is first sweet. These roots measure up to 8. sweroside. It is recommended for loss of appetite. amarogentin. gastric stimulant. and to 37 mm in diameter.5 dm in length. The odor is aromatic. cleansing. phenolic acids. polysaccharide. *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. volatile oils. Cranesbill. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. but are usually shorter. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. but pliable when it is moist. Properties Gentian is an astringent. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. xanthones. and cholagogue. and alkaloids (gentiamine). bitter. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. that of the root. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. anti-inflammatory. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles.



Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.

Wild alum

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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome

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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf

Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.


Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.

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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root

Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.

Ginseng root (american) cultivated

Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its

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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.

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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.

GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves

Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.

Golden rod (Solidago)

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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome

Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.

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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.

GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part

Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near

Gotu kola

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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin

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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.

GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit

Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract

Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.

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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf

Green tea

Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.

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Green tea contains anti-oxidants. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. ferulic).. theophylline). and phenolic acids (caffeic. creams. etc. shampoos. conditioning. lotions.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. theobromine. hair rinses. which can be used in various sun-care products. gallo catechins). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannins (catechins.


Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. vitexin glucosides. it has been used as a wash for itching. Description The fruits are small berries. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. purple-brown to brown in color. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. Cosmetically.C. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. and dimeric procyanidin. and externally wrinkled.) C. fatty acids. with five parts. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. Properties Flowers. catechin. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. and central and northern Asia. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. Medically. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. quercetin and glucosides). phenolic acids. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. Monogyna (jacq. and frost bite. Externally. sores.H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L. leaves.

. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. with occasional stems and brown. Chamomile. It is also said to be cooling. 1 to 2 cm wide. Della Loggia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glabrous. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. etc. 4-napthoquinone). fruit. However. 1983. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. however. R. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. Arabia. fading on the addition of acid. Calendula. and conditioners. Description Leaves greenish-brown. hair rinses. in an aqueous solution. acids destroy its properties. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. entire. Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. It can be used in shampoos. shortly petiolate.126 HENNA 1. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. tapering at the base. Persia. and decolorized by a special extraction process. (2-hydroxy. as henna. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. opposite. Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. triangular pitted seeds. et al. It will add body and highlights to hair. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. Pharm. Sci. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. oblong or broadly lanceolate. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. small. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. astringent. often imported in coarse powder.. 319. deepening with alkalies. mucronate. 2 to 3 cm long. 51. India. l. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. simple. It will not impart any color to the hair. decoction orange-brown. brown. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers.

It becomes partially crystalline. flavonoids. various parts of Africa. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. Australia. phenolic acid. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. orange blossom. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. Chile. translucent. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. fatty acids. and tannins.4-napthoquinone). and New Zealand. luteolin). (glucosides of apigenin. Honey obtained from heather. owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and semi-solid on keeping. California. Description Honey is a viscid. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable.HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid.

and pollen grains. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. bactericidal. tannins. hypnotic. it will reduce swellings. The strobiles measure 5. The individual bracts are thin and papery. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. The odor is aromatic. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. volatile oil. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe.brown. dextrin. In combination with Chamomile. and discoloration. sores. It has been used on crural ulcers. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and tannins. one margin is flat. bitter principles. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin). formic acid. humulene. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation. Useful in treatment of dandruff. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. lupulone. will give body to the hair. consisting mainly of humulene. tetters. and hair conditioning. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate. the veins are elevated. Bark Bongay. wax. ringworm. The taste is pungent and bitter. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. face creams. and alleviates pain and itching. xanthahumol).8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. It contains small quantities of sucrose.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). Hops is a sedative. Asia. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. Hops is a strobulus. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits.

flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. nearly an inch in diameter. The aqueous infusion is bitter. iron gives a green precipitate. Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. in diameter. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. vasoconstrictor. Constituents Saponins (aescin. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. and slimming products. The internal surface is whitish and smooth. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it.25–0. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. and hemorrhoids. and non-astringent. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. compressed. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. The inner bark has a rough. The plant has long. Description A perennial . varicose veins. hand creams. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. increases circulation. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. is subglobular. Anti-inflammatory. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. fleshy roots. lotions. quercetin). yellowish-white in color. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. aesculin). aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. peculiar odor. with a shining. in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. chestnut-brown testa. large rough leaves. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. It has been used in cellulitis. one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. when dry. and has an unpleasant. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. The nut. fawn-colored. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. bitter taste. phlebitis. tendonitis. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids. The root has antimicrobial properties. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. The leaf has been used to treat eczema. The nut has a slight. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. Properties Cosmetically. The internal portion is starchy. Properties Astringent. stimulates digestion and circulation. is nearly odorless.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. Increases venous tone. and tannin. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. The bark is thin. from 1 to 1 in. sprains and various sports injuries. bitter taste.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. and swellings. Gaertn et Schert.

However. solid. cones peduncled. as the fresh juice can be irritating. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains.5 dm. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. branches 3 to 4 angled. branched. and Eurasia. 10 to 14 furrowed. greasy skin. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. However. after crushing and moistening. thick. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. California. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. high. 2 to 3 mm. acuminate. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L.5 dm. South Carolina. high. sterile stems decumbent to erect. thick. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which would validate its use on blemished. 2 to 4 cm long. mostly with sterile spores. yields 0. 3 to 5 mm in diameter. rarely with a few branches. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. 1 to 3. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. causing the skin to blister.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. Greenland. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. 5 to 10 mm. Alaska.

and equistetolic acid. emarginate. scarcely shorter than the calyx. and diverging. Stamens 4. second whorls. healing. Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. spreading. apigenin). gangrenous ulcers. and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. entire. The flowers are bluish-purple. green on each side. acute. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flat. sometimes elliptical. rather thick. Will add strength and sheen to hair. woody at the base. astringent. The leaves are opposite. sometimes narrower. acute. flat. Its stems are quadrangular. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. with the middle of the corolla erect. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. or lanceolate. emarginate. erect. phenolic acids. very much branched. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. with the middle obe larger. kaempferol. spreading. usually oblong-linear. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained. and 1 ribbed underneath. palustrine alkaloid. sunny sites. saponin (equisetonin). and borne in racemose. punctate. seldom white. Used for putrid wounds. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. and 1 to 2 ft in height. protruding. the branches are rod-like. and external bleeding. lower lip trifid. southern Europe. Upper lip of the corolla. It is diuretic. minerals. anthers with linear divaricating cells. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers. but smaller. The floral leaves are like those of the stem.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. silicic acid. sessile.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. Constituents Volatile oil. marrubin.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. Tannin. ursolic acid. flavonoid glycosides. gum. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. and resin. oleanic acid. phenolic acids.

hairy. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. square. the limb oblique. * Formerly CTFA. North America. volatile oil.I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. phenolic acids. forming the appearance of a cross. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). The calyx is long. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. gray. hairy herb. crenate. roundish. with a prostrate. amino acids. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. with a varegated throat. villous. decongesting tonic. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the upper being the largest. The leaves are petiolate. radicating at base. The floral leaves are of the same form. opposite. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). and glaucous on both sides. though often purplish beneath. curved. The flowers are bluish-purple. marubiin. Also useful in cough preparations. cordatereniform. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. about three together in axillary whorls. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. creeping stem. Europe to Caucasus. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. luteolin [cynaroside].

rather fragrant odor. and introduced into North America. It is acrid. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. exudes from the incised bark. Europe. This plant is common all over Europe. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. The former possesses a peculiar. and when heated emits a pleasant. sun or shade. antimutagenic. aromatic odor. Properties Anti-fungal.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. Description An evergreen climber. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. Scandinavia. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. molluscicidal. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. control of cellulite. Ivy has been used in face packs. However. anthelmintic. faintly bitter. or Ivy gum).

phenolic acids. hederacoside C (5%). and fatty acids.IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides. malic acid. hederacoside. . flavonoids.


The leaves are compound. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay. smooth. The margin is entire and slightly revolute. The under surface is yellowish-green. and stems. stalks. The taste is salty and bitter. Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA.5 cm. The upper surface is yellowish-green. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dull. the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. The odor is slight. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. and the veins are elevated. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. The blades are asymmetric. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4.

containing benzylacetate. jaboric acid. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and lotions to stimulate the follicle. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. and soaps. It can be used in shampoos. It contains pilocarpine. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. It increases intestinal motility. jaborino. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. colocynth. hair rinses. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. and sweat hypersecretion. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. very sweet-scented flowers. tincture of Capsicum. eugenol. isopilocarpine). It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. the terminal leaflet larger. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. conditioners.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. more than half as long as the corolla tube. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. calyx linear. It induces salivary. antiglaucoma agent. Combines well with Nettles. benzyl alcohol. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. and mullein as a hair tonic. gels. hair tonics. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. Leaves opposite. pilocarpic acid. gastric. and farnesol. lotions. volatile oil. skin creams. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. isamone. Constituents Essential oil. and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia.

benefits the skin. Constituents Iodine. dissolving. Description Vesicles large. hair products. potassium. and many trace minerals and micronutrients.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors. restoring. softening. skin care products. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation. each bearing an expanded blade. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. see Chapter 7. (For additional information.) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. Nourishing. algin.


dandruff. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. triterpenoids. The flowers are in branched panicles. southern India and Sri Lanka. antipyretic. and lotions. and antifungal. antioxidant. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and similar skin problems. analgesic. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. creams.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. Approximately 30 species have been identified. bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. shampoos. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses. tropical habitats in dry soil. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. Antimicrobial properties. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. wide. and alkaloid.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Russia. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. flavonoids. southern Europe. and close the pores.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. phenolic acids. distinctive. bacteriastatic. Glycyrrhizae Radix. Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. taste aromatic. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. dilute it with water. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. Properties Healing antiseptic. skin bleach. Constituents Essential oil. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza. giving relief. Liquorice Root. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond).) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. skin creams. and Hungary. When taken on an empty stomach. It is aromatic and astringent. odor fragrant. and cleansers. Sweet Wood. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds.) Burman F. cleanse the skin. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles.

Externally. it is externally pale yellow. longitudinally wrinkled. it is yellow and radiate. its taste is sweetish. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. antiseptic. antibacterial. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. sometimes split longitudinally. including dermatitis. Internally. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . somewhat tapering. Internally. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. antihepatotoxic. The upper portion is more or less knotty. Properties Good for skin eruptions. when deprived of the outer corky layer. and cysts. anti-infectant. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. Anti-inflammatory. eczema.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. pruritus. Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. antiviral. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. antiphlogistic. Its odor is distinctive.

glabrone. B-amyrin. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. bracts Flowers. 4’. formononetin. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. limestone.). glycyrrhetol. gum wax. coumarins. licoisoflavanone. echinatin. glyzarin. neoliquiritin.7-dihydoxyflavone. bracts N/S Flowers. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid. Basswood. licoisoflavones A and B. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). On hydrolysis. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. glabronin etc. Europe. licuraside. liquiritigenin. amino acids. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. sterols. amines. licoric acid. etc. glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. rhamnoisoliquiritin. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. kumatakenin. Linn Tree. liquiritin. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. neoisoliquiritin. 4-hydroxychalcone. licochalcones A and B. glabrolide. glabrol.). lignin. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . isoglabrolide. glycyrol.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%. bracts N/S Flowers.). licoricone. isoliquiritin. White Wood. 2 to 20% starch.

or approach yellow. are oblong or lanceolate. Emollient. when dry. The petals are five and whitish. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. faint. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. Internally. When fresh.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. For bruises and to reduce swelling. The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. odor is agreeable. linear. which are axillary. leaf-like bract. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

naturalized in North America. gum. sterols. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .0% volatile oil. The fruit is a cremocarp. tannins. high amount of uronic acid. dark green. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. phenolic acid (chlorogenic.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. and resin are also present. lotions. kaempferol). volatile oil. and perfumes. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. mucilage. Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps.5 to 1. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. creams. J. Coumarins. caffeic). Description Lovage has large. cultivated in central and southern Europe. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. D. The rhizome and root are aromatic. Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. W. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2. Maggi Herb. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage.

the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. and with blackish roots. tannin. slender. Properties In rinses. The rhizomes are horizontal.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. phenolic acids and their sulfates. primary forks. 147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pedately branching at the summit. mucilage. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. blackish. and then into several spreading pinnae. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. They consist of long. and shining frond bases. Constituents Adiantone. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA. first into two recurving. The odor is slight. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. adiantoxide. quinic acid. Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. astragalin.

Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The flower heads have a short. and phenolic acids. and fruits. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. greenish-gray bracts. Mary-bud. The odor is not distinct. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. The taste is mucilaginous. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. the veins are elevated. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color. distinct. Emollient for sensitive skin. the veins are palmate. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. Useful in eye preparations. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. naturalized in North America. flowers. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. Properties Soothing and softening. thick. and slightly elevated. These flowers are oblanceolate. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. Holligold. British Columbia to Mexico. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. The texture is herbaceous. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. blotchiness. The individual flowers are yellow. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. niacin. protective. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. Relieves itching. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. spasmodic colitis. hairy. mostly ligulate. The blade is cordate at the base. curved peduncle. and insect bites. Medicinally used in cough preparations.



The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root

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yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops

Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.


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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.

MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root

Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.

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Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb

Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)

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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers

Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied

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Mullein (plant)

to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin

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sore throats. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. diaphoretic. Myrrh is used in incense. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. powdery. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. The odor is aromatic. The fracture is conchoidal. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. bitter. It is said to bring forth the gods. carminative. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. The taste is pungent. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. and acrid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is said to promote granulation. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. for example. engler) The surface is dull. antifungal. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. Used for halitosis. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. and anti-inflammatory. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. diuretic. mildly expectorant.

on bruises and hemorrhoids. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. cineole.2 to 0.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. geraniol. camphene. Constituents Yields 0. and nerol). The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction. creamy white flowers. and blue-black berries. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

.. and in gardens. amines (histamine. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy.. serotonin)............ flowering from June to September.. Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . herbaceous. which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed. formic and citric acids.. armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. Urtica urens L. Description This plant is a perennial. kaempferol. acetyl choline. and for cutaneous eruptions. See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L... Stimulates hair growth. dull-green plant.N NASTURTIUM .. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic.. and epistaxis malaena.. by woodsides. in hedges.. choline. (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll... minerals (high amount). beta-carotene. growing in waste places... Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant. common to Europe and the United States. sterols. Nettles has been used as an astringent.... Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant. nervous eczema. and isorhamnetin)...


up to 1. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. taste starchy. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. rarely. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. Odor slight. within the groove a narrow. tapering toward each end. Texas. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. above the center. the apex pointed. two-veined palet or scale. a scar or. thinly membranous. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. Florida. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. and the Yukon. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle.O OATS Avena sativa L. the base somewhat contracted. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet.

outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. highly refringent and truncate. straight or slightly curved. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. avenacin). The drug tastes bitter. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. rarely over 25 ft in height. bent here and there. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. and herpes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. eczema. subsessile. lignified. Properties Benefits the skin. Medically. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. the cells filled with protein. Description The tree is small. The leaves are opposite. less heavily developed tissue. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. polyphenols. OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. pointed hairs. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick. shingles. sleeplessness. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. some of which give rise to unicellular. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. lignified walls. entire and coriaceous.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. elliptical stomata up to about 0. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. these are elongated thick-walled. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. partially beaded.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner.

. 513.. A. ll-demethyl oleuropein. hypoglycemic. Planta Med.. 417. et al. ONION Allium cepa L. antifungal.ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. yellow globe. 2. et al. 1. Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. also hollow. Planta Med. few of them have been studied experimentally. Zarzuelo. 57. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1991. 1992. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. 7. hypoglycemic. and antimicrobial. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). and red globe onions. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. Gonzalez. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. diuretic. M. 58. hypotensive. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. up to about 1..2 m high. ligustroside.

white. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. 2 to 2 cm long. with bitter rind and sour flesh. by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. Description Leaves. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. Fruit. Flowers. 7 to 8 cm globular. these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. oblong-oval. trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. acute. alkyl and alkenylcysteines. fructans. reddish-orange. introduced to Europe. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. very sweet-scented. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. 1-propenesulfenic acid.

taste aromatic and bitter. odor fragrant and aromatic. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. more astringent than rose water. nobiletin. conical projections and linear. minute pits. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. with many slight. somewhat curved. 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. non-bitter flavonoids. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. It is often used as a flavor enhancer.2 to 0. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. flavonoids. the sugar component of which. Constituents Essential oil (ca. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. fracture hard. var. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. inner surface whitish. aromatic wash. short. used for oily skin and acne. tangeretin. It is also given internally. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . considerable amounts of pectin. such as hesperidin.5%). and bitter substances. rutoside. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. neohesperidose (2-0. furanocoumarins. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). with limonene as main constituent. 0. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical.

parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. skin creams for its flavonoids. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. It is also an aromatic. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. sinensis L. naringin. and hesperidin. quercetin. citral. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . globules of volatile oil. odor fragrant. Cultivated in Florida and California. Flavonoids. bitter and carminative. taste pungently aromatic. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. sinensis Osbeck. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. citronellal.

magnesium tartrate. Constituents Essential oil. but sometimes up to twice as long. Monograph 6. tannin. and carotenoids.. scoparine. rutin. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. anti-inflammatory. p-coumaric acid.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. violutoside. *INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. Leaves variable. very variable in size. Petals usually longer than the sepals. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. meadows. pruritus. anthocyanidin glycosides. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. stipules variable. tocopherol. Description Flowers mostly tricolored. leafy. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . arabinose. Exerpt from German Commission E. impetigo. antipyretic. acne. saponins. mucilage. usually little longer than the calyx appendages.g. eczema. e. flavonoids. gaultherin. galacturonic acid. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. Properties Used as a healing tonic. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. but often palmately lobed with a larger. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. spur short. rheumatism. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease.

Naturalized in southern Florida. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. edible berry up to about 15 lb. palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care. Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). long petioled. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). Carpaine. and minerals. etc.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. staminate and pistillate flowers. The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The fruit is a large melon-like. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. which resembles sinigrin. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree. shampoos. C14H2502N. with large. vitamins. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. carpinine (an alkaloid).

upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world.2-benzenediol.PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. margin dentate to crenate. taste woody and characteristic. and B. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. Odor faint. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. m = outer lamella. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels. q = group of large fibers. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. The roots are brown longitudinally striated. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. Kr´ = crystal rosettes. (After T. ms = latex tubes. papyrifora. Regn. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. Veget.F. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. p = parenchyma. Vent. kr = individual crystals. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. Tabl.

sativum. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs. fruit. apiin. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. compound umbels. Apium petroselinum. W. p-mentha-1.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). emmenagogue. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown. above-ground herb. and antimicrobial. green. Germany. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. fruit.8-triene (9%). P. The tap root is fusiform. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin. and starch. aromatic. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. cylindrical and striated stem about 0. extensively cultivated in California. above-ground herb. isopimpenillin.) Nym. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal. spasmolytic. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . apiole (18%). psoralen. 8-methoxypsoralen. expectorant.3. stout. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root. Furocoumarins including bergapten.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. and others. France.05 to 0. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. (Mill. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. Other parts of the plant contain 0. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. Belgium. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. hortense. B-phellandrene (12%). diuretic. ex A. antirheumatic. Odor characteristic. The commissural surface is slightly channeled. and imperatorin. taste faintly sweet. and Hungary. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide.

Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. The bracts are lanceolate. The margin is sharply serrate. the texture is fibrous. naturalized in North America. menthofuran. The corolla is united and tubular below. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. antiseptic. interrupted spikes. and the veins are more prominent. The outline is quadrangular. cholagogue. the leaves are opposite decussate. carminative. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. and solid or hollow. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. and minerals. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides. The taste is pungent and finally cooling. tonic.5 cm in length and to 3. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. its color varies from light to dark purple.3 cm in width. mildly sedative. south to Florida and Alabama. spasmolytic. rutin. The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). and the veins are slightly depressed. the internodes are of variable length. The under surface is light green. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. menthone (10 to 40%). chlorogenic. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. large. broad. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The under surface is light green. phenolic acids (caffeic. menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). The apex is acute.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. The nodes are enlarged. cultivated in Japan and the United States. Properties Stimulant. as it contains flavonoids. and the veins are slightly depressed. The pith is white. four-lobed above. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. rosemarinic). cineole. ursolic acid. The calyx is campanulate. The stems are simple or branched. They measure up to 9. notably viridoflorol. and the color varies from green to purple. flavonoids (luteolin. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). The odor is aromatic. The flowers are arranged in dense. hair tonics. The blade measures up to 7. triterpenes. hesperidin). The cortex and wood are thin. The fracture is tough and incomplete. sitosterols. its five teeth are subulate.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe.

they are different. corolla blue. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine. flavonoids. however. truncate. Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). dark green. leaves ovate to oblong. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. in Connecticut. hypotensive. the lobes obovate.5 to 3 cm broad. Description Stem spreading. a standardized extract should be used. Properties Used as a hemostatic. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. 1 to 6 dm long. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. entire. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Has also been used to stop external bleeding. and Georgia. shining. as well as Europe. firm. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. astringent. tannins. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. Vinca contains vincamine. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. hypoglycemic. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. Minnesota. and ursolic acid. 1. trailing. native of Europe. vasodilator.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. vulnerary sedative.

long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. aromatics. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid. The leaves are ovate. and insect bites. parahydroxybenzoic acid. by the seven-nerved. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. ferulic acid. quercetin. tannins. in fields. somewhat toothed. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. moist places. very small. n-nonacosane. swellings. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. The stamens and styles are long. five. balsamic. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. which are the medullary rays. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. Ripple-grass. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. It flowers from May to October. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. and applied to sores. Properties Astringent. long. malonic acid. quinic acid. smoothish. and in grass plats. appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it has a density varying from about 0. The medullary rays. In a radial surface. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others. Plantago major L. pinnicorretin. numerous. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). dihydroconiferyl alcohol. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. and is common in Europe and America. the seeds numerous. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. abietic acid. The flowers are white. arising from a fibrous root. raffinose sequoyitol. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. imbricated. dark band of autumn wood. campesterol. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous.35 to 0. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. cuts. channeled petiole. Vessels are absent. leaving smooth surfaces. growing in rich. Constituents Contains oils. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. pinitol. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. and abruptly narrowed into a long. shikimic acid. dihydroquercetin.

Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . catapol. and palmitic acids). balcalin. apigenin. aucubin. tannins. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). asperuloside. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. they both have the same virtues. allantoin. polysaccharides.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. apparently. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. essential oils. sterols. and for cell proliferation. Constituents Mucilage. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. for healing. fixed oil (linoleic. oleic. and phenolic acids.

PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial.1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing. and pinobanksin. 1847. Hiadon B. 1980... The New Honest Herbal. Philadelphia.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. 4. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. galagin.F. fungicidal.E. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. 1990. and pinobanksin). pinocembrin.. J. and anti-inflammatory. 32(1). galangin.. et al. antiviral. 1. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. balsam. Stickley Co. Nihon Univ. ArnzneimittleForschung.2 Constituents Resin. 3. 2. 30(1).3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro. and caffeic acid. Sch. G. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture. wax. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system. Dent. pollen. Magro Filboo. essential oils. Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. 1987. Tyler. V. de Carvalho Ac. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester.


coarsely fibrous. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. Historically. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. finely wrinkled. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. taste very acrid and unpleasant. conical projections or transverse. and occasional circular depressions. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. outer surface nearly white. Smegmandermos deC. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. inner surface yellowish-brown. fracture uneven. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . longitudinally striate. channels. Description In flat pieces of variable size. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. Bolivia. it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. odor slight sternutatory. these species appear to resemble that of Q. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder. and Peru. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. * Formerly CTFA. Upon microscopic examination.

Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). are used. partially quilled. overlapping quilled. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). shallowly fissured transversely. its important alkaloids. gypsogenin.8 dm in length. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. The fracture is tough and uneven. which is nearly always chip-like. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. calcium oxalate sugars. The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. cinchonidine. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. The bark is flat or chip-like. a neutral saponin. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. quinine and quinidine. and to 6 mm in diameter. Remineralizing protein. cinchonine. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. or compound quilled. Ecuador. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. quilled. quinamine). QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. free acids (quinic acid). Internally. The root. and volatile oils. to 7 cm in width. uronic acids. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. quinidine. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). tannins. The odor is not distinct.

The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. triangularly compressed. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . present in the epidermis of the testa. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. with water. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. ovoid or oblong.QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. It is also used as a suspending agent. being coated with mucilage. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe.


Medicinally. volatile oil. and esters. which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves. petals united into a tube below. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. benzyl alcohol. fatty acids. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. calyx teeth subulate. and furfural. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). stamens diadelphous (nine and one). shriveled. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. eugenol. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. taste sweetish. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. purplish and more or less brown from drying. Mildly anti-spasmodic. then slightly bitter. Constituents Flavonoids. * Formerly CTFA. contains over 40 compounds. including methyl salicylate. style slender. phenolic acids. sitosterol. volatile oil. biochanin A. starch. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause. consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. daidzein. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. phenolic acids. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. genistein. tapering. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. Properties Historically.

but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. light-colored. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hair rinse. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. such as hand creams. Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. ovate. fruit red. they are smooth and shining above. and Minnesota. Maine. mainly rhoeadine. with an entire margin. They have. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. armed with bristles or weak prickles. Quinoline alkaloids. etc. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. when fresh.15 to 0. shortacuminate. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. lotions. double-serrate. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. Description Stem biennial. emollient. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). dark violet claw. Rhode Island. peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles. finely tomentose when young. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. erect. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. leaving a space about 0. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. By drying. Properties Soothing. doubtfully indigenous to England. somewhat smaller. thimble-shaped. rounded or cordate at the base. inflorescence short-racemose. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. with a short. The numerous veins run from the base toward. and are then employed in the fresh state.

malic acid. fragarine. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hepatitis. Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. riboflavin. succinic acid. protein. Constituents Ascorbic acid. ellagic acid. and North American coastal rainforests. mouth ulcers. B. Happy Herb. have been isolated. antioxidant. it comes in various sizes and shapes. Dried and whole. Constituents Polysaccharides. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia. granoderan A. and inflammations. Japan. and beta-carotene. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency.). gallic acid. and antibacterial properties. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. Internally. Ling-Zhi (Chin. Note: However. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. A series of tritepenoids. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. and chest and heart diseases.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent. insomnia. Ergosterol derivatives. nervousness. Miraculous chi. Auspicious Herb. minerals. and C. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. consult a qualified physician before using. China. lactic acid. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. thiamine.

*INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. that of the wood. of the wood. which has numerous branches. The color is dull reddish-brown. of the larger roots. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9. The odor is not characteristic. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. rough and scaly.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. of the larger roots. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth.5 cm in diameter at the crown. fibrous. very tough and hackly. The texture of the cortex is granular. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. and it tapers into the main root. and P. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. dark reddish-brown. The taste is astringent. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color.

In the periphery of the pith. and N-methyltyrosine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 mm long. showing that they are leaf traces. ratanine). and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. tannins (proanthocyanidines). about 5 mm wide. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. III. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. The smoothed. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. Dark areas may still be found here and there.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. the cortex has been removed. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. If the trimming has been very severe. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. II. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. to give a good appearance. Within the cambium is a ring.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. officinale.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. Constituents Gum. etc. face creams. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. barrel-shaped or conical. except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. which when carefully shaved off. in the form of a fine yellow powder. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome. immediately within the secondary xylem. after-shave lotions. mouth wash. After removing the powder. parenchymatous matrix. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical.

and compact. of which many aglycones have been identified. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. it is very gritty between the teeth. due to the bitter taste. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. it breaks with an uneven short fracture.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. Flavonoids. which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color.and 7-0-glucosides. The predominant aglycone varies. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. and physcion. it is used as a stomachic. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. 2. A very complex mixture is present. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. and (+)-gallocatechin. when chewed.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). min. it is often rhein. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the mechanism is described under Aloes. Barbados. This is applied to the hair and left to dry. but in one investigation. astringent taste. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. heavy. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. In most cases. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith. (+)-afzelechin. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin). aloeemodin.Eur. rhein. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant.5% calculated as rhein). there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. also (+)-catechin 5. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. It is then rinsed out. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. chrysophanol.184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. the fractured surface. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. With its high tannin content. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome. In small amounts.

and procyanidins. filter. 5 to 10%. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gallic acid. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate.0. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose. Minor constituents are citral. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. l-linalool. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. glycerol. and traces of carvone. French Rose. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. free and in combined forms with glucose. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. slightly bitter. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. catechins. and astringent. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. it can be prepared by using rose oil. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. however. L. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. Tannins. One example would be rose water. phenylethyl alcohol. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. pink. taste sweetish. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. approx. odor fragrant and rose-like.

coriaceous. Description A bushy. capric acid.5 cm in length and up to 2. protein. Constituents Ascorbic acid. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic. linolenic acid. Description The fruit of R. sucrose. flavonoids. boron. xanthophyll. vanillin. evergreen. catechin-tannins. rubidium. isoquercitrin. gallocatechin.5 to 3. The achenes themselves are hairy. much branched. linoleic acid. Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . essential oil. it will add highlights to light hair. lycopene. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long. tannins. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. low. kaempferol-3-glucoside. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. alpha-tocopherol. magnesium. leucoanthocyanins. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. invert sugars. sessile. When combined with various other hair preparations. rubixanthin. citric acid. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. opposite. pectin.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. malic acid. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. they are refrigerant. succinic acid. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. Wild Brier. mildly astringent. epicatechin. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. and slightly diuretic. and zeaxanthin. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit.2 cm wide.

An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. and triterpenic acids. characteristic. The extract can be used in shampoos. taste pungently aromatic. boron. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. flavonoids. margin revolute. and bitter. diosmin. Properties Tonic. and showing a prominent midrib. camphoraceous. protein. Topically. astringent. creams. stimulant. borneol. The oil is used in fragrances. hair conditioners. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. camphor. tannin. rosmarinic acid. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. lower surface wooly. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. Constituents Essential oil. it is used to increase circulation.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. odor aromatic. diaphoretic. etc. phenolic acids. lotions. glandular-punctate.


camphors. estrogenic compounds. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. cineole. salvin.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. 1 to 2. uneven or lobed. Constituents Volatile oil. stimulating. the reticulations being very small. In early summer. protein. midrib and veins prominent. base rounded or subcordate. lamina elliptical. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. there arises a grayish. much branched. Leaves opposite. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. fungistatic. pubescent stem with branches opposite. Properties Cosmetically. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. It is antibacterial. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. the upper branches bear blue. antiseptic. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties. margin crenulate. thujone. taste aromatic and bitter. beta-sitosterol. petiole up to 4. flavonoids. saponins. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. pinene. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. It is said that if massaged into the scalp. densely pubescent. and disinfectant (against inflammations). Sage Garden Sage. long petiolate. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. astringent. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ursolic acid. ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. From an underground fibrous root system. linalool. apex acute or obtuse. carminative. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. phenolic acids. carnosolic acid. caryophyllene.6 cm in breadth.5 cm in length. 2 to 10 cm in length. to 1 ft high. borneol. and tannins. texture velvet-like. venation pinnate-reticulate.

carvings. but easily split. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. vulnerary. White Sandal Wood. and for the manufacture of boxes. of which it contains over 90%. hemorrhoids. and dense. o. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . The taste is slightly bitter.973 to 0. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. the vessels are mostly solitary. In Yellow Sandal Wood. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. alterative. or as a perfume. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. the odor strong and fragrant. L. and similar articles. It is said to be anti-inflammatory.and -santalols). mountainous regions of tropical Africa. –13° to –21°). It has been used to treat internal bleeding. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. Asia Minor. and a stomachic. burns. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. and inflammed skin. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. astringent. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. North and South America. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. Black Snakeroot. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. wounds. and erect. 0. depurative. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. heavy. hemostatic.r. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. palmately lobed leaves. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%.985. and lotions. hard. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. It is also used in perfumery. pectoral. gr.

resin. saponin. Mucilage. chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. essential oil. and a bitter principle. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

smooth and somewhat oily.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1.192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. from 1. Dark Palmetto. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid. occasionally compressed. externally brownish-black to bluish-black.5 cm in diameter. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

SEAWEED.. aromatic.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich.. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous. oleic acid. Ann. sito sterols. such as anorexia nervosa... skin creams. 41. capric acid.. They are said to be very nutritious. and slightly acrid. somewhat flattened. 559.P. Tarayre..1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. Pharm. The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles. Properties Sabal berries.... Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. Franc. tough. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity.. palmitic acid.. were eaten by the Indians.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. lauric acid. caproic acid. 1. to 1. which measure up to 3 dm in length.. ferulic acid. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous.. J. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled. a native of the southern United States.. inner layer of endocarp smooth. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. and lotions. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp. and incomplete. 1983.6 dm in thickness. lipase. it is coarsely striated longitudinally... reddish-brown seed. or as cut and sawed pieces.... beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity.. when cork patches are present. to 17 cm in width.. arabinose..7 dm in width. and to 1. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases.. aromatic. and to 3 mm in thickness.. The fracture is very strong. Constituents Anthranilic acid. The odor is distinct. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside.. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp.. beta-sitosterol. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. taste sweetish. ellipsoidal or ovoid. et al.... myristic acid. Odor pronounced. south to Florida and Texas.. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color... *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids. enclosing a hard. and stearic acid. mannitol. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. Ulmus rubra Muhl... apex marked by the scar of the style. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp.

Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). blades obcordate. New Mexico. minerals. calyx tubular. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. Soap Wort produces a gentle. Colorado. starch. New Brunswick. stem 3 to 6 dm high. Constituents Mucilage in abundance. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. pentosans. etc. L-rhamnose. Colorado. and tannin. and beta-carotene. polysaccharides. soothing. chemicals that foam when added to water.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. and tannins. healing. hair conditioners. It can be used to emulsify oil. Nova Scotia.2 cm long. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. hexosan. ulcers. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. 5 to 8 cm long. leaves oval or ovate. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places. native from Europe. d-galacturonic acid. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tannin (minute). and wounds. and Saskatchewan. protein. Can be used in creams. lotions. North Carolina. Description Glabrous perennial. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. Massachusetts. Florida. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. 3 to 5 ribbed. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. petals pink or white. boils. and other beverages. 1 to 5. capsule oblong. starch.

caffeic acid. tonics. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. Medically. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. choline. emmenagogue. guanine. acute or acuminate. Used in aromatic baths. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. capsule ovoid. obtuse. petals obovate. and anthelmintic. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. rutin. 2 to 10 mm wide. Virginia. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. toothed above the middle on one side. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. bruises. bracts canescent. umbelliferone. heads numerous. 4 to 6 cm long. disk-florets 15 to 20. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. Manitoba. Constituents Essential oil. scarious. Nova Scotia. California. with revolute margins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . astringent. antiseptic. stimulant. frostbite. glandular-punctate. native to Europe. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. flowers cymose. leaves linear to oblong. isofraxidin. etc. and superficial burns. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions. having antibacterial properties. uric acid. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. and anodyne. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. disinfectant. poultices. scopoletin. lower leaves petioled. tannin. conditioners. and for skin conditions. ST. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. Properties Used as a nervine. and scopolin. St.5 cm broad. slightly tomentose beneath. the outer linear-lanceolate. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. quebrachitol. ray florets about 10.ST. chlorogenic acid. John’s Wort ing. 10 to 12 mm long. corolla 2 to 2. British Columbia. 1 to 3 cm long. uterine tonic. the rest broadly oval. leaves. Colorado. 5 to 10 dm high.

mannitol. phenolic acids. New Mexico. tannins. saponin. hyperoside.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. protein. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. resin sitosterol. Manitoba. Newfoundland. hypericin. and Virginia. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . John’s Wort St. hypericin-like substances. flavonoids. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G.

5 dm high.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. and phenolic acids. very thin. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ellagitannins. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol.5 cm long. mostly acute. scape slender. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. very soon glabrate on both sides. quercetin). 5 to 7.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. seldom over 1. very rarely leafy-bracteate. fruit elongate-ovoid. rhombic-obovate. condensed tannins). fatty acids. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. seldom much exceeding the leaves. sharply and deeply serrate.


The leaves and flowering tops. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Scented Fern. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. Bitter buttons. 1 to 3 ft high. and branching near the top. * Formerly CTFA. tanacetin. Ginger plant. fern-like leaves and yellow. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. button-like flowers. It has a stout. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. sesquiterpenes. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. erect stem. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. usually smooth. anthelminitic. The entire leaf is about 6 in. and quercetin. are collected at the time of flowering. English Cost. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. Also said to be an insect repellant. tannin. flat-topped. phenolic acid. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. resin. and spasmolytic. The roundish. Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. Parsley Fern. button-like. somewhat reddish. carminative. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous.

Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. cymene). involucral bracts spiny-tipped. thickets. pimples. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. scabies.5%). New South Wales. stings. fruit. boils. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. while cineole is low (about 2. ringworm. Description A stiff. oral infections. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. bronchial congestion. in a flattened rosette. with a broad range of health claims. lanceolate. streamsides. Over-wintering leaves. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. It is found in numerous product forms. and dense. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers.5 to 2. sparingly branched biennial. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and Australia. either singly or with other ingredients. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. sore throat. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. athlete’s foot. lice. insect bites. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. capsule. and vaginal infections. abrasions. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. constantly renewable tree. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. terpinene. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. cuts.0 ml high. including treatments for sunburn. abrasions. erect. burns. spongy.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. 0. conical. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. and the like. upcurved. Bark.

Ed. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. S. taxifolin). Taste and odor. Foster. Also used in homeopathy. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. Blessed Milk Thistle. St. and magnesium. both orally and also by intravenous injection. Description Leaves spiny. Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. 1. purple. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. flavonoids (keampferol. yellow spines. fatty acids. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. entire or toothed. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids).) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. Mary Thistle. The root and root stock are short and erect. The injection gives better results. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). rare in Britain. Flowerheads rayless. TX.. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. glucosides. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. 1955.1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. It is said to contain saponins. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. Austin. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . American Botanical Councin. quercetin. and tannins.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. dark green. stems.

diarrhea. and dentate. Properties Fruit: astringent.5 to 8 cm long. from 2. 0. lycopene. Florida. gargles. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L. antihemorrhagic. stem 3 to 10 dm high. New York. 10 to 15 mm broad. lotions. ellipsoid. Texas. minerals. and reddish within.5 to 1. glycine.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. cystine. much branched.5 cm thick. vitamins. hair tonics.5 to 10%. It can be employed in creams. red or yellow. lobed. that can be used for hemorrhoids. rinses. menstrual disorder. ascorbic acid. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. Colorado. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. brown or blackish externally. subglobose. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. glucose. -hydroxy acids. It can be incorporated into shampoos. or pear-shaped. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne. etc. mouth rinse. and from 0. styptic. and California. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. corolla yellow. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. Constituents Proteins. and sore throats. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and phytosterols. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. fruit through cultivation very variable. acne. to add sheen.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. conditioners. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. abscisic acid. sore gums. sensitive skin. glutamic acid. branching and more or less curved. facial muds. somewhat fusiform. flavonoids. Description Viscid-pubescent. cyclohexanol. aspartic acid. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels. leaves two-pinnatifid.

tormentillin. a red pigment. and other tropical countries. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. China. quinovic. internally. Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. Curcuma. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). caffeic. Indian Saffron. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. Occasionally. they bear short knob-like branches. bluntly tapering at each end. The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars).. and break with a short fracture. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. They are hard and heavy. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. Java. longitudinally wrinkled.

ukonan A. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. zingiberene. etc. it colors the saliva yellow. comprising mainly bisabolane. antifungal. ar-turmerone. antibacterial. when chewed. anti-arthritic. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). but the coloring matter. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. is also present. hypotensive.. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. and anti-edemic.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. 2-7% essential oil. guaiane. and antimutagenic. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. curlone. monodesmethoxycurcumin. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also choleretic.

Roots are branched or simple. relaxant. simple or branched. and baldrinal. and to 2 cm in diameter. and spasmolytic. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. Constituents Essential oil. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. It is sedative. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. pungent. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. * Formerly CTFA. actinidine). alkaloids (valerianine. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. valerosidatum). However. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. The taste is sweet. Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. and disagreeable. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. Wood is small. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). fatty acids. Cortex is thick. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. and to 3 mm in diameter. cultivated in Germany. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. acevaltrate. Pith is white or grayish-white. isovaltrate. and valepotriates (valtrate. Belgium and England. The rhizome is vertical. central and cylindrical. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. phenolic acids. naturalized in New York and New Jersey.

206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

gout remedy. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. 4 to 7 feet high. artemitin. four-sided stem. caffeic acid. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. ursolic acid. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. contraceptive. diuretic. aucubin. straight. meadows. verbenelol. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. Nebraska. and against sunburns. anorexic (appetite suppressant). tannin. False Verbain. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. Constituents Iridoids. Simpler’s Joy. in addition to verbenin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. hastatoside. Wild Hyssop. Description This rather rough. verbenalin. Verbena officinalis L. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). finely haired herb has an erect. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida. volatile oil. and Arizona. and superficial and limited burns. long.


*INCI Name . Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. The bark varies from nearly smooth. imparipinnate. serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. depurative. and edible. ophthalmia. disinfectant. scrofula. deep. west to Minnesota and Kansas. The leaves are alternate. blisters. scabbing pruritus. styes. rheumatism. eczema.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. The kernel is sweet. oily. and varicose ulcers. The wood is light brown. glandular disturbances. gout. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. round-topped. * Formerly CTFA. irritation of the eyelid. soft and coarse grained. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Tonic restorative. open crown. vermifuge. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. Juglans nigra L. astringent. Used for skin complaints.

lymphatic or edematous swellings. ascorbic acid. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia. and diastase. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). glutamic acid. ellagic acid. tannin. beak about 1 mm long. Description Aquatic perennial. spatulate. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. about 4 mm long. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. California. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. destroying most of its active principles. about 2 mm long. Externally.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1. tryptophan. aspartic acid. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. arginine. hyperin. folacin. protein. many trace minerals. Virginia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alanine. Rheumatism and nervousness. biotin. thiamine. leucine. leaves pinnate. cystine. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. high in protein. 4. proline. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS. South America. fruiting pedicels divaricate. methionine. A Cure For All Cancers. -carotene. it looks rather yellowish. 3 mm thick. WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. tumors. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. Mexico. 5. lysine. Clark. valine. West Indies. threonine. and Europe. British Columbia. caffeic acid. tyrosine.g. phenylalanine. and kaempferol. gluconasturtiin. its action being both detergent and healing.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. it will strengthen and thicken hair. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). somewhat curved. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). petals white. histidine. amino acids. sepals oblong. 1. glycine. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. Rubbing on scalp.. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers.

Twitch Grass. Scutch Grass. Couch Grass. sprouts. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. Creeping Wheatgrass.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend. Dutch Grass. Devil’s Grass. Durfa Grass. Quitch Grass. of young grass. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. Fin’s Grass. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. Quake Grass. Durfee Grass.)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass.

. Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos. scattered. long.. 1 to 3 ft high. flavonoids.. and phenolic acids. and dried. insipid.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. amino acids... Colic Root. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas. The root stocks... collected in the spring.. lotions.. are carefully cleaned. Description Knotted and woody. externally pale brown. Constituents Vitamins. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root... yellowish wood bundles. bearing scattered nodular projections... -carotene. and dermatitis. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States... with numerous small. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma.. Odorless... more or less detached. bent and branched.212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. fracture short but tough.. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish..See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L... an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer. Over 240 compounds have been identified. are produced from a long. creams. Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled. WHITE NETTLES. and stem scars on the upper surface. fatty acids. cut into small pieces about in.. creeping root stock. elongated. and hair conditioners. often compressed.. Its smooth hollow stems.. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist.. thickets. taste starchy. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout.See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES.. which are thickened at the joints.. eczema... The flowering heads are produced from July to September. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous. 6 to 20 mm thick. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat.. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached... thin outer layer. afterwards acrid.

Contains steroid-like substances. minerals. triandrin. cortex composed of thin-walled. and trace minerals. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. rinses. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. anti-inflammatory. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin).WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. It can be used in hair conditioners. antirheumatic. vimalin). It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. salicortin. greenish-brown. odor slightly aromatic. etc. in older bark dull. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. dioscin. Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. yellowish-brown to dark brown. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. as it contains salicin. populin. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. Constituents Steroidal saponins. flavonoids. diosgenin. dioscorin. longitudinally striated. However. outer surface in young bark smooth. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. fragilin. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. slightly lignified parenchyma. as this could vary among different manufacturers. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. naturalized sparsely in North America. antiseptic. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. analgesic. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. fracture short fibrous. taste astringent and slightly bitter. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. White Willow. irregularly wrinkled. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. it should be standardized for its salicin content. shampoos. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. endodermis distinct. and antipyretic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . inner surface. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. ascorbic acid.

Wych-hazel. flavonoids. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. scattering the shining black. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. thick. and polyphenols. and leaves Bark. long. leaves. and alcohols. brown bark. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. yellow flowers. eastern United States. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. Constituents Essential oil. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. eastern Canada. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. forking branches with smooth. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. when it bursts open. tannin. Winterbloom. and borne on short stalks. saponins. Striped Alder. due to its high tannin content. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. Spotted Witch Alder. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. bark.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. esters. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. Description Witch Hazel. It has a crooked stem and long. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones.

They are followed by four nutlets. rather narrow. are small.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. Carpenter’s Herb. Description This herb has long. mint-like odor. The whitish flowers. tublar. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. slender. including betonicine. Green Archangel. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. to 2 ft in height. smooth. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. Gypsywort. The plant has a rather pleasant. Wolf Foot. Paul’s Betony. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. Gypsy Herb. Water Bugle. and stachyerine. The leaves are about 2 in. Missouri. and bell-shaped. pointed. Purple Archangel. erect stem from 6 in. and Nebraska. Externally. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. Sweet Bugleweed. in length. but a disagreeable bitter taste. American Water Hoarhound. Constituents Alkaloids. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Gypsyweed. which appear from about July to September. Therefore. shady places from Canada to Florida. bitter.

tannin. and the iridoids asperuloside. calming. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anti-inflammatory. when dry. Odor. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. unbranched. bitters. antineuralgic. forwardpointing bristles.216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. quadrangular. coumarin. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. white. citric acid. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals. with slender. Description A short perennial. monotropein. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. of new-mown hay. vermouths. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. etc. in loose clusters. wines. astringent. anti-arthritic. soothing to the nerves. Used in aromatherapy. pointed leaves edged with tiny. Flowers small. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. antiseptic. with four petal lobes.

aromatic. Absinth. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. 2 to 3 mm long. protein. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. which are from 2 to 5 in. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. consist of numerous small. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. Old Woman. and anthelmintic. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. Also used to clean atonic wounds. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. camphene. and the grayish-green leaves. Mingwort. Odor aromatic. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. are divided into small leaflets. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height. thujyl alcohol. thujone. especially in Michigan and Indiana. approximately 100 identified constituents. absinthin. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. the inner linear with membranous margins. the lower lobe is petiolate.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anthelmintic. tannins. taste bitter. long. Madderwort. It is cultivated in some localities. used as an external antiseptic. Constituents Essential oil. Flower heads greenish-yellow. insignificant. isovaleric acid. Description This shrubby. yellow heads. -carotene. choleretic. Bitter stomachic. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. the florets tubular. two to three pinnately divided. rutin. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. drooping. artabsin. and antipyretic. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. p-coumaric acid. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. chamazulene.


Gordoloba... Yarrow Milfoil.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L. Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic.. Cammock.. feathery. From June to September.Y YAM. Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in.. Green Arrow.. antipyretic.... Carpenter Grass.. and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada. and is urinary antiseptic.... *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium.. Closely related forms occur in the western states..... It * Formerly CTFA. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small... Dog Daisy. It has a strong odor... 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields.... Thousand-Leaf Clover.. Sanguinary... hypotensive... Bloodwort. white flower heads. Soldiers’ Woundwort. Nosebleed..... high and has many finely divided.... Thousand-leaf.. pastures.... diuretic. astringent.. dark green leaves.. Old-Man’sPepper...

Internally. and furrowed stem. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. angular. and tannin. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. camphor. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. flavonoids. in cultivated as well as in waste ground. injuries. blue colored chamazulene). and along roadsides. long. it is also used in hair care preparations. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. it is stomachic. and cholagogue. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. phenolic acids. bearing numerous. alkaloids (achilleine). Broad-leaved Dock Root. achillin). Broad-leaved Rumex. Curled Dock Root. carminative. and varicose ulcers. It has been used for cuts. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. spasmolytic. among rubbish heaps. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

tapering or spindle shaped. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast. short stemmed or stemless. with few or no rootlets. chrysophanic acid. and eruptive diseases. emodin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . swellings. they become rusty brown. nepodin. yellowish cortex. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. while the upper leaves are narrower. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. in length.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. protein. Consumptive’s Weed. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. and tannin. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. only 3 to 6 in. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. and pale radially split wood. lapathinic acid. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. usually from 8 to 12 in. These are followed by the fruits. Bear’s Weed. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. long. with long stalks. and carefully dried. psoriasis. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. in length. sores. Gum Plant. The root is large and fleshy. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. et Tor. As the clusters ripen. They are washed. from 6 to 8 in.The root.

in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. butyric acid. The rather showy. eriodictyonic acid. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. and eriodyctyonine. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. Schum. and the Congo.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. eriodictyol. chrysoeriodictyl. tannin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . essential oil. Gabon. Constituents Resin. The narrow. dark green. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. acetic acid. cerotic acid.

YUCCA Yucca baccata.5 cm long. Soap Yucca Root. It also contains corynanthine. coarsely filiferous. tigogenin. hence its aphrodisiac effect. minerals. Constituents Sarsapogenin. R. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. oblong or conical-ovoid. Torr Yucca brevifolia. allo-. the most important of which is yohimbine. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. style slender. smilagenin. shagreen roughened. fruit large. Roezl. about 7. Soap Weed. Personal communication. and epiallo-yohimbine. sometimes 2 dm long. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. Description Low. and protein. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. Arizona. the major alkaloid. spreading. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. sepals and petals lanceolate. with narrow brown margins. 1. samogenin. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. tannin.1 Yohimbine.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. pendent. It is also being used for arthritis internally. Properties Yucca contains saponins. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown. and Nevada. pseudo-. Colorado. concave. L. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. however. is sympatholytic. saponin.. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. fleshy. Kronenthal. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaves rigid. Texas. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. 1998. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. elongate. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. Kansas. at low doses.

224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. makes an excellent hair rinse. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. Oak. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. Lavender See “Folklore” section. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. However. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. not essential oil. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. Dark brown contains juglone. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. Hops See “Folklore” section. The botanical extract. Galls Used to dye the hair black. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. See “Folklore” section. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. Hemp. Henna Used to dye hair red. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. The leaves contain buxine. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster.

See Lichwort. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. make it soft and shiny. and help keep it free of dandruff. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. A source of potassium and iodine. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. and linalol. it will darken the hair. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. Can be used in deodorants. The essential oil is used to add sheen. Lemony fragrance. borneol. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. Vitamins A and D. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. It also helps to remineralize. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. leaving it silky and glossy. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. The extract contains thymol. Combined with rosemary. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. It is antiseptic. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. and mouthwashes. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. and some protein. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair. Contains a yellow dye. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. See Stinging Nettle.

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. It is said that when blended with rosemary.


Quassia. Sage. Tormentil. Rosemary. Violet. Arnica Lemon. Myrrh. Bladderwrack. in various vehicles as water. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Chamomile. Burdock. Proanthocyanidins. Witch Hazel. Hops. Calendula. Uva Ursi Quassia. Calendula. Bay Laurel. Slippery Elm. Comfrey. Rhatany. Milk Thistle. Sandalwood. Soap Bark. 1. Raspberry. Comfrey. etc. Horsechestnut Papaya. Rosemary. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Orris. Myrrh. Calendula. Cardamom Seed. Bistort. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Bilberry. Yarrow. Horsechestnut.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Cucumber. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Oak Bark. Lavender. Lemon. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. Lemon. Witch Hazel. Onion. White Lily. Peppermint. White Willow. Ginkgo. powders or extracts. Corn Flower. Chamomile.3-butylene glycol. Pansy. Echinacea. Parsley Broom Flowers. Arnica. Tomato. refer to the index). Yarrow. Nettles. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Papaya. Lemon Grass. oil. Thyme. Vinca Minor. Burdock. Orange Peel. Myrtle. Balsam Peru. that is. Lavender. Cinnamon Agrimony. ethanol. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Pineapple. Lady’s Mantle. Plantain. Wild Alum. The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. Bayberry. Southernwood. Lavender. Eucalyptus. Oats. Golden Seal. propylene glycol. Hops. Juniper Berries. Nasturtium. Rosemary. Fenugreek.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Birch. Soap Root. Nettles. Rose. Artichoke. Sage. Lemon. Artichoke. Grapefruit. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Bayberry. Chamomile. Hawthorn Angelica. Althea. either when applied topically or taken internally. Inc. Rosemary. Rosemary. Lemon. Myrrh. Black Walnut. White Willow. Benzoin. glycerin. Asparagus. Tumeric. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. Wild Indigo. Thyme. Garlic. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Birch. Anise. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Tilia. Sandal Wood. Chaparral. Thyme.

Primula Flowers. Mullein Flowers. rinses.* Centella. Rose. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Jaborandi. Golden Seal. Sage. Jaborandi. Comfrey Root. Rosemary. Nettles. Citronella. Broom. Sage. Orange Flowers. Calendula Oil. Brown Henna Rosemary. Sage Jaborandi. Citrus Bioflavonoid. Butchers Broom Chaparral. dark Hair. to add sheen Hair. Cedar. Thyme. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Plantain. Thyme. Anise Rosemary. Raspberry. Red Henna. Horsetail Grass. Red Clover. Oregon Grape. Quince Seed. Basil. Witch Hazel. Chickweed. Oats. Malva Flowers. Roseberries. Eyebright. Yellow Dock. Wild Alum. Cucumber. Cowslip. Rosemary. Golden Seal. Comfrey. Purple Loosestrife. to relieve Nails. Black or Neutral Henna. to add highlights Marigold. Birch. Pansy. Raspberry. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Witch Hazel. Tea. Corn Flower Water. Arnica. split ends Scalp. Calendula. Burdock. Thyme. Rosemary. Phytoplenolin®. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Basil. Cantharides. Orris Root. Chaparral. Elder. Southernwood. White Willow Bark. Peppermint Aloe. Capsicum. Parsley. Comfrey. Lavender. Wormwood Chamomile. Horseradish. Tilia. Chamomile. Quinine. Fenugreek. Peach Leaf. Chamomile. Yarrow. Melilote. Feverfew. Flax. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Dandelion. Eucalyptus. Slippery Elm. Pilewort. Red Poppy. Seaweed. White Willow Aloe Vera. Cucumber. Nettles. Patchouli. Onion. various seaweeds. Comfrey. Coriander. Yarrow. Lemon Peel. Myrrh. Chamomile. etc. Bayberry Bark. Neem.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Orange Flowers. Cade. Hops Chamomile. Chamomile. Elder Flowers. dry Hair. Fenugreek. Lemon Peel. Alfalfa. Golden Seal. Elder. Cardamon. Rosemary. Raspberry. Pansy. Red Clover. Catnip Bayberry. Centella. conditioners. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Oak Bark. Capsicum. Rosemary. Chamomile. Camphor. Althea. Fenugreek. Comfrey. Southernwood. Echinacea various oils. Garlic. Southernwood. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Horsechesnut. Sage. Marigold Golden Seal. Sage. Pansy. Orange Peel. to add highlights Black Walnut. Pine Tar. Grapefruit. Nettles. Rosemary. to add highlights Hibiscus. Echinacea. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Figwort. Quassia. Capsicum Bistort. Horsetail Grass. Comfrey. Lavender. Southernwood. Capsicum. Fennel. Olive. Quince Seed. Cleavers. Comfrey. Echinacea. Cucumber Chamomile. Flax Horsetail Grass. Rhatany. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Sarsaparilla. Witch Hazel Bark. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Capsicum. Quince.

Peach. Oats. Red Clover. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Valerian. Witch Hazel. Plantain. Pine. Licorice. Capsicum.Vinegar. Colts Foot. Capsicum. Nettles. Violets. Seaweeds. Passion Flowers. 1998. dry Botanical Cantharides. Slippery Elm bark. Lemon. Calendula.Yarrow. Bistort. Yarrow flowers. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. White Pond Lily. Seaweed. Uva ursi Wild Alum. Oils. Cucumber. Lavender. Althea Root. Witch Hazel. Capsicum. Sept. Sage. Croton. Jaborandi. Hawthorn. Poke Root. St. Echinacea.206 for Centipeda. Mullein. Lemon. Arnica. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fennel. Plantain. Garlic. Primula Flowers. however. Hawthorn Berries. Thuja. Witch Hazel. Apples. Comfrey. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Comfrey. St. Parsley. Wild Alum Althea. Quince. Comfrey. Capsicum. Calendula. Comfrey. Horsetail grass. Fennel. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. Elecampane Skin.804. Tilia. Grapefruit. Ginseng Caraway. Lavender. Birch. Wormwood. Dandelion. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Bayberry. Arnica. Cleavers. Chamomile. John’s Wort. Chickweed. St.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Blue Flag. Horsechestnut. Citrus bioflavonoids. Orange Peel. Licorice Cleavers. Meillot. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Lemon Grass. Chamomile. Slippery Elm. Comfrey. Bayberry. Dulse. John’s Wort. Red Poppy. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Rose. Tilia. Golden Seal. Corn Flower. Dandelion. Slippery Elm. Evening Primrose. Yarrow. Lemons. Elder Flowers. Chamomile. Cinchona. St. Althea Root. Calendula. John’s Wort. Apple. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Pansy. Orange Flowers. John’s Wort. Cucumber. Aloe Vera. Centella. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. Echinacea.) Aloe Vera.


rough. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. yellowish brown. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. etc. The seeds are also spherical. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. can be found in the main section. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high. wedeloclactone. nourishes the blood. it strengthens the spleen. yellowish-white. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. Common botanicals such as Lotus. and fleshy. The nuts are spherical. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. The flowers are polygamous. etc. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs.5 to 5 cm wide. 8 stamens. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. which are coriaceous. nicotine. The powder is used on abscess. and eyebrows.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. internally used to blacken hair. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic. 1.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. aril white. tannin. elliptical shaped. The female flowers are white and ligulate. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. Constituents Saponin. wounds. Licorice root. elongated.5 to 2 cm in diameter. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. beard. short stiff hairs.) STEUD. Ginger. sores. It grows in fields and ditches. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. Internally. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vitamin A. and tonifies the heart.

yeast infections. adenine. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose. fats. sucrose. antiparasitic. Vitamins A and B. ringworm. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema. choline. protein. pruritus. etc. vaginal itches. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L. tartaric acid.70.

choline. dyspepsia. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. palmate leaves. a glucoside C20 H20 011. amino acids. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. berry-like fruits. imperatorin. Betaine. astragalin-glucose. moisturize. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. Constituents Saponins. isopimpinellin. When using Ginseng internally. asthma. any citrus and turnips.) Bge. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. alloimperatorin. hypertension. xanthotoxol. ginsenosides. avoid black tea. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. and arabinose. sugars. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. amino acids. edultin. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. diabetes. cnidiadin. lack of appetite. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. insomnia. improves circulation in the skin. columbianetin (C14H14O4). Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. dilates the blood vessels. ostol (C15H16O3). isoborneol). B-sitosterol. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . dihydrooroseiol. cnidiankin. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients. bornyl isovalerate. etc. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. heart palpitations. it could nourish. used as an aphrodisiac. deficiency of energy. L-camphene. Astragalin. columbianadin (C19H20O5). and has red. It is also said to promote blood production. folic acid. It is an astringent. weak pulse. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene.

SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. To list all would take several pages. saponins (ginsenosides). and antifungal properties. (C18H30O2). sugar fatty oil. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . resin. trichosanic acid. essential oil. Constituents Triterpenes. trichokaurin. The root has antipyretic. These are a few of the constituents. protein.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. tricosanthin. antibacterial. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used.

It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic. It is said to heal without leaving scars. reduces swelling. ginsenosides. blood in the stool. According to Chinese tradition. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. both internally and externally. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. traumatic injuries. Rb2-Rb.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. dissolves clots. Internally. this herb can be used safely in large doses. and Re. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . nosebleeds. Constituents Saponins. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. and is analgesic. helps to promote circulation. it has been used in coughing of blood. etc.

Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. fructose. II. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. essential oil. L-typhasterol. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. 1/3 in. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity. xylose. glucose. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. ziyuglycoside I. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. long. GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. tannin. Constituents Flavonoids. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. Cones oblong. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. rhamnose. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vitamin A. anti-inflammatory. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. It has almost no odor. glucose. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. U. and arabinose. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. palmitic acid.V. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. sitosterol. stearic acid. and a slightly bitter taste.

tannin. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. in height. Vitamin C. 15 to 30 cm long. resin.5 to 1 m high. pinene. caryophyllene. which has hairs on both surfaces. astringent. flavonoids.-fenchone. L. reddish-purple. fenchone. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. shoddy bark and light. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. 5 to 8 cm wide. obovate-lanceolate shaped. and is said to have antibacterial. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The basal leaves are clustered. and antipyretic. The flowers are tubular. having pale. and pinnatipartite. It is a hemostatic. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. and hermaphroditic. becoming smaller on top. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. soft durable wood. and antiviral properties. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. Constituents Thujone. anthelmintic. the base tapers into a winged petiole.

It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. starch.F. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. It is used in traumatic injuries. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. The perianth is in 6 segments. anti-inflammatory. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. essential oil. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. Constituents Glucose. 2 to 3 cm long. reduces swelling. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan). antifungal. and promotes the healing of the flesh. and antibacterial. B-amyrin.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. and 2 to 6 cm wide. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. -amyrin. skin infections. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. and in abscesses. hemostatic. The tuber is thick and fleshy. 15 to 30 cm long. It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. stigmasterol. Their base runs into a long sheath. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antibacterial.

followed by a slight numbness. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. oleic acid. oval. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. palmitic acid. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. and nasal mucositis. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. esculetin. One tree can yield as much as pound. montanic acid. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. antibacterial. etc. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. See “Botanical” section for further description. linoleic acid. dryobalanone. hydroxydammarone II. stearic acid. odor strongly aromatic. caryophyllene. B-caryophyllene. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. caffeic acid. erythrodiol. cold sores. style 1. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. taste pungent and aromatic. Constituents D-borneol. boils. tannin. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. conjunctivitis. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. The dark green.5 mm in length. fat. wax. and incurved. stamens numerous. with numerous ovules. which alternate with the calyx teeth. antiparasitic. acetyl eugenol). essential oil. glandular-punctate petals. ipterocopal. ovary 2-locular. having antipyretic properties.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. dark brown. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. humulene. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . arachidic acid. analgesic. sores. capillarisin. Constituents Scoparone. and antiviral. and somewhat 4-angled. crowded. It has been used in ringworm. asiatic acid. Antibacterial. chlorogenic acid.

3 to 4 cm long. Constituents Alkaloids. pruritus. flavonoids. and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. The stem is erect with many branches. The pods are cylindrical.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. The raceme is terminal. which are globose and black. The stamens are 10 and free. and other skin ailments. and 1 to 2 cm wide. The leaves are alternate. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . itchy skin. imparipinnately divided. It is used for vaginal infections. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. Excellent remedy for sores. yellowish-white. The corolla is papilionaceous. 10 to 20 cm long. sores. and allergic reactions. constricted between the seeds.

aching. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. It is said to be a natural antibiotic. It is applied externally to swollen. fraxin. ferulic acid. Constituents Berberine. and swollen eyes. tannin. used as an eye wash for sore. and red eyes. obakunone. palmatine. Constituents Aesculin.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. jatrorrhizine. columbamine. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. Antiinflammatory. fraxetin. coptisine. magnoflorine. MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. aesculetin. red. obakulactone.

The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. The leaves are opposite. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent.5 to 1.5 cm wide. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers. 1 to 3 cm long. Its stem is erect. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. their margins sparsely serrate. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. ovate shaped. The calyx is bilabiate. and 0.

Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. and English consume this plant in salads. and often purplish in color. stomach. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. beta-cyanin.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. fleshy. boils. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds. Its stem is cylindrical.5 to 1. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. gamma-linolenic acid. It is used to reduce swelling. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. snake bites. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. 1 to 3 cm long and 0. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. Constituents Portulal. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. 5 yellow petals. gamma-linolenic acid. betanin. betanidini. The Chinese. French. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA. Constituents GLA.5 cm wide. Italians. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped. and intestines. Folkloric Use Antipyretic.3 cm long. antiphlogistic. The flower has 2 sepals. 8 to 12 stamens. abscesses. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. 1 to 1. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma.. decumbent or slanting upward. It is also a good source for GLA. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color.

246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.4.

97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3. 90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6.248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0.

84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6.

84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-52-2.250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 68917-49-7.

84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1.

84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1. 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.

shiny. circular. Kal-karanj Nuts.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pitted black. and saponin in the seed coat. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. and protein in kernel. sporalidin. etc. tannin. Burma. hairs few. and flavones. isopsoralidin. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. and gray with thick testa. roots. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. and Sri Lanka. Flowers yellow. alkaloids. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. simple. Several species grow in the United States. Leaflets about 10 pairs. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci. Description It is an erect herb. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. corylifolean.BENDUC NUT 253 6. globular. Essential. sharp recurved spines. firm. Description Main leaf axis has stout. campesterol group. Fruit small subglobular. Constituents Furanocoumarins. ovate or oblong and inflated. perianth covered withspines. covered with numerous black dots. ellipticoblong. starch. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). oil. hairy tip acute. Leaves petiolate. chalcones. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. Flowers are dense. Seeds are hard. glabrous slightly compressed.

aspartic acid. borne on convex flower heads. with winged petiole. starch. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. Leaves opposite. reducing sugar. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. upper leaves smaller. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. The endodermis is indistinct. However. margin toothed. basal are large. oblong. Leaves membranaceous. Seeds also contain protein. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. and sulfurcontaining peptides. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. and skin diseases. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. arresting hemorrhage.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. sterols. Flowers about 2 cm long. Few layers of cork cells are present. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. sessile. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). phytosterol. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. flower head white. and for infectious diseases. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. and citrulline. bluish-purple. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lanceolate. arginine. Constituents Oil. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high.

The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. entire. terpene alcohols. phyllanthe emblic. slightly recurved. greenish-yellow. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. The fruit is subglobular. linear oblong or elliptic.but white internally. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. arranged densely on the branchlets. apex subacute. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. stipulate. In old samples. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. Leaves simple. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. unisexual. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. Feathery. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The oil and root contains camphene. Description A medium tree.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. mucronate. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. slightly broader than long. Flowers are small. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow.

Sri Lanka. antifungal. testa light-red. antispasmodic. sacred basil Leaves. Flowers small. odorant. antipyretic. CNS-depressant. bitter. Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ovate compressed.& Bpinene. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. very short. subcoriaceous. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. camphor. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. filament slender. antiviral. flowers. antihistaminic. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. taste bitter. decyladehyde. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. tulsi. point decurved. hairy along the veins. A. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. Each flower consists of. opposite. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. smooth and shining. Leaves are simple. exserted. and carvarol. 2 to 4 inches long. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. pubescent calyx. seeds. insecticidal. pod woody. in terminal raceme-like panicle. and luteolin. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. antiulcer. antidiabetic. antispermatogenic. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. Leaves pinnate. apex thick and blunt. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. margin serrate. antibacterial. style 2-lobed. such as antistress. elliptic-oblong. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. corolla 2-lipped. apigenin. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. cotyledons very oily. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. antihepatotoxic. The leaves yield ursolic acid. krishna tulsi.

the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. and translucent. The root bark is rustybrown externally. leaves. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. pongamin. the pulp translucent. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. the skin is shriveled. yellow within. and as an anthelmintic. each berry is the size of a cherry. thick. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. tough. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. pongamol. The bark contains alkaloids. herpes. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. then bitter. When dry. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. Radicle at the base of the seed. except at the scar. The seed is black. The oil is used to treat scabies. All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. the inner membranaceous. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. smooth. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut. Properties The seeds. pengaglabrone. glucose. singly. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sitosterol. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. firm and fleshy. kaemferol. . the outer very thick and hard. the testa is double. with a peculiar pungency. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. where it is woody. the size of large a pea. rheumatism. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. (S. cotyledons unequal. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. Emarginatus. spirally incurvate. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. the berries are the color of a raisin. and other cutaneous diseases. Constituents Saponins. pointing to lower and inner angle. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. pectin. S. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. and butyric acid. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil.

A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings. skin diseases such as ulcers. The taste is sweetish at first. then acrid and bitter. scaly. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. Properties The roots are astringent. and xanthine. gum. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. Constituents Roots contain resins. Leaves heart shaped. Root consists of short stock. coloring matter. round violet colored and seeds light black. fruit long. leucoderma. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . alterative. and sugar. inflammations. garancin. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. freckles. alizarin. It also has anodyne properties. flowers small yellow in color.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. and tonic. and discoloration of skin. Description A climbing plant. deobstruent.

and bitter extractive matter. B-sitosterol. Tracheids and few fibers. valves papery smooth. Pods broadly oblong. nardostechone. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. Description An herbaceous plant. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. and flatulence. which also contains sesquiterpenes. and combined with Henna. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. resin. Roots contain valeranone. and contain obvate. Himalaya (11. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. nervous headache. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. Leaves usually in pairs sessile. Corolla 5-lobed. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . n-hexacosanyl isovalerate. n-hexaconsanol. is used to dye the hair black. nardol. Bhutan. Senna is also a safe purgative. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery. Flowers in racemes. dark brown. seeds. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. and Nepal. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna.000 to 15. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. Epidermal hairs are few. slightly curved. mainly in palpitation of heart. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. starch. oblong or ovate. sugar. valeranal.5% essential oil. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. calarenol. n-hexacosanyl arachidate. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. It is a good substitute for valerian. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. Rhizomes long. The paste is also useful for removing pimples.



Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume

Synonyms: Parts Used:

Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.

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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.

Neem (leaves)

Neem (whole plant)

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PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.

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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range Southern India.

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Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed

Synonyms: Parts Used:

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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.

WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots

Synonyms: Part Used:

Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.

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and spermatorrhoea. Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. Leaves simple. withanine. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. white internally. and appetite stimulant. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. It is in flower all year long. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. a mixture of W. It bears small. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. grayish or hoary. loss of memory. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. smooth. senile debility. Constituents It contains alkaloids.3-biplumbagin. brittle. fracture short. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. tapering. as in enlarged glands. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. brain lag. somniferine. The dried root is of uniform appearance. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. The root is seldom branched. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. rheumatism. loss of muscular energy. 3. gastric stimulant. Isolation of nicotine. Somnifera. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. plump. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. smooth. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. somniferinine. greenish or yellow flowers.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. ovate hair-like branches. and starchy. For improving sight. elliptinone. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. It is also cultivated. Licorice powder. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. Iso-zeylinone. erect. branching perennial. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. zeylinone. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. and droserone. petiolate and alternate. globose. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. withananine.

choline. and cuscohygrine.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported. Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In addition to alkaloids. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. pseudotropine. Roots also contain tropine.


6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference. These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938. Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6.

U. Bitter Orange Peel.S. Black Ash.270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

U. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba.

yellow Cinchona. pale Cinchona. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . blue Cohosh. black Cohosh. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. calisaya Cinchona.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel. pale Cinchona.

U. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion.S. American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara.

Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula. S. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum. U. U.

American Hellebore. Black Hellebore. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. Canadian Hemp. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Black Indian Hemp. S. U. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. White Indian Hemp. S. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. U. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore.

276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

U. Green Osier. Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier.

278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

S. U.280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica. Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .

U. S. Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum. U.S.


Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Aloe vera L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L.) Juglans nigra L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L. Fucus vesiculosus L. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L.F. Cynara scolymus L. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Betula alba L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Agrimonia eupatoria L. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. Ruscus aculeatus L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan. Alnus glutinosa L. Optuntia. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L.

Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Zea mays L. Geranium maculatum L. Allium sativum L. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Symphytum officinale L. Sambucus nigra L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. Symphytum officinale L. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Scrophularia nodosa L. Br. Centaurea cyanus L. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Larrea divaricata Cav. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Gentiana lutea L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. spp. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L. & Aschers.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. Cucumis sativus L. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. purpurea. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. Inula helenium L. See Coleus Galium aparine L.

Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Calendula officinalis L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L.) Burman F. Schert Equisetum arvense L. Pongamia glabra P. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Gaertn. Hedera helix L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Melissa officinalis L. Justicia Adhatoda. Solidago Virgaurea L. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Mac Fad. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Amoracia rusticana. Ocimum sanctum linn. Camellia sinensis L. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. Citrus paradis. Hydrastis canadensis L. Limm Malva sylvestris L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. et. Aesculus hippocastanum L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Althaea officinalis L. Centella asiatica L. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Hydrocotyle asiatica.

L. Nasturtium officinale R. Lythrum salicaria L. Engler Myrtus communis L. papyrifora. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mentha piperita L. or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. ssp. Olea europoea L. Rheum rhabarbarum L. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Papaver rhoeas L.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. Carica papaya L. Trifolium pratense L. Commiphora molmol. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Vinca minor L. Regn. & P. and B. Rubus idaeus L. Tabl. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Pinus silvestris L. Vent. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. Veget. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Allium cepa L. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L.

DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L.) Acacia Concinna. Salix alba L. Betonica officinalis L.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L.) Tanacetum vulgare L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Juglans nigra L. Salvia officinalis L. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Artemisia abrotanum L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. Juglans regia L.

Gentiana lutea L. Torr. Yucca brevifolia. Artemisia absinthium L. Rumex crispus L. Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L.) Perre Yucca baccata. Schum. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L.

There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. and have even been used to put a head on beer. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals.7 Marine Natural Products 7. 5. etc). and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. blue. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. 7. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. Seawater. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. It is said that life started in the seas. etc. ice cream. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. weeds. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. and red pigments. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. cosmetics. They are also used as thickeners in jams. phytoplanktons. bath. Xanthophyta. e 8. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. and vitamin content. high in carotenoids. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. 2. 9. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. and sterols. 10. body rubs. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. sea grasses. 6. sauces. However. The sea holds an endless source of life. as well as vitamins. Xanthophylls. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. mineral. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. and sometimes in seawater. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. Cryptophyta — Contain green. 3. mud baths. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. including: 1. 4. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine.

diterpenes. for example. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. and C. polyphenols. sulfur compounds. proteins. proline. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. and cosmetic fields. lipids. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. fucose polymers. cranberry. pears. prunes. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. emulsion stabilizer. and imparts slip. anticoagulants. Therefore. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate. carotenoids. second. marshmallows. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. and polysaccharides. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and herbicides. prostaglandins. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. For plating microorganisms. Kelp is also the main source for algin. Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. B12. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. growth substances.g. and ice cream as a thickening agent. pharmaceutical. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. B2. and other fruits. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. steroids). Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. such as ursolic acid derivates. mainly from some gelidium species. emulsions. First. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals.. and vitamins. it is resistant to microorganisms and. cardiac substances. acetylenes. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. and lycine). Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. anthelmintics.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. For example. furanoterpenes. glycine.

magnesium. Mg. B12. B6. shampoos. In addition. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. Algin. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). etc. antimicrobial agent. a synergestic effect was exhibited. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. iodine. salads. broadspectrum. which is a polysaccharide. calcium. and carbohydrates. and lauric acids). However. B. palmitic. F. potassium. iron. creams. helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. B3. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. including iodine. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. and ointments. in combination with Vitamin E. potassium. B 2. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. mannitol. antioxidant. Laminaria longicruris (L. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. B6. K. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. particularly fluoride. B3. and zinc. Mn. P. it has a high content of potassium. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. B. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. bromide. Ca). B12. fat. Na.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. L. minerals (Zn. and mannitol. both in vivo and in vitro. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. Fe. Cr. and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. sodium. There are traces of chloride. C. lotions. It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. myristic. Sargassum contains fructose. Co. and iodide ions. and glutamic acid. oleic. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. galactose. protein. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. A). I. phosphorus. phosphorus. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. and antiglaucomic. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products.

a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic.8 mg/100 g 1. polysaccharides.000). polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10. fucans. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products. and as a massage for cellulite. Eisenia contains a complex polymer. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. Echinus esculentus L.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. It is a single-cell protein. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. sterols as free fucosterol. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C. alginic acid. single-cell. rheumatism.3. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. Lyngb. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. containing all the essential amino acids.500 IU/100 g 180. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). a well-known anti-inflammatory. polar lipids. the Pacific. Halidrys siliquosa L. phlorotannins. mainly iodine (0. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. which means it is a self-sufficient. sulfated. sulfonate. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. and the Baltic Sea. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain).02 to 0. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55.9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .1%). F.6 Fucus contains trace minerals. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms.

Chlorella also contains a growth factor.8 mg 1.A. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.8% 18. It is found in both brackish and fresh water. Moreover.64 w/w/% 5.9 mcg 15. Chlorella. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin. B.6% 60..2% 55.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3.78 w/w% 6.59 w/w% 3.5% 11.26 w/w% 2. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.06 w/w% 0. 14-15.6 mcg 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .29 w/w% 3.70 w/w/% 2.64 w/w% 1.46 w/w% 1.8 mg 1.40 w/w% 4.09 w/w% 3. Dr. Spirulina Spirulina. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation.08 mg Potter.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0.0% 20.S. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder.1% 0.38 w/w% 3.08 w/w% 0. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll. Tests performed by the U.7 mg 125.500 IU/100g 180.9 mcg 191.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.2% 4.5 mg 4.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0. pp.469 mg 613 mg 1.93 w/w% 3.20 w/w% 2.80 w/w% 0. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron.63 w/w% 5. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).. It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81.45 w/w% 2. et al. called the Chlorella Growth Factor. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.3 mg 26.29 w/w% 2. The Emerald Food.8 mg 1. In a controlled study.

Biotin. K. B6. as it is high in plant protein. B2. B12 Folacin. Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .40) B1. Spirulina. etc. P. B3. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams.A. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products.. minerals. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. Ge.L. Na. Cr. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca. vitamins. Mn. Fe. and minerals (5 to 10%). G. Cu. Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. Zn.L. carotenoids. Mg.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G.A. lipids (4 to 7%).

It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. which although poorly known. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. Oahu. and ascidians. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. soft corals. cyanophyta.11 4. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. anti-inflammatory. pressure. having distinct anti-cancer properties. anticancer. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. the following being some examples: 1. or temperature. bactericidal. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. bacteristatic.12 5. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. and imidazole disulfides. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas. the search is only beginning. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms). 7. and marine organisms. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats. Related unicellular microorganisms. including phaeophyta. kalkitoxin. penazetidines. but no chemical study has been reported. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. plant. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi.10 3. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. barbamide. the Bacteria. such as the curacins. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins.2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. sponges. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. such as those of elevated salinity. and chlorophyta. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. microcolin C. were isolated from marine organisms. melemeleones.13 6. Unfortunately. are common in marine environments.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years.8 The results obtained are quite promising. as a soothing demulcent. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms.9 2. Thus. antillatoxin. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. Significant compounds. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater.

(described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. which display a variety of pharmacological activities.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .15 8. and true symbionts from sponges.18 11. actinomycetes.16 9. and cytotoxic activities. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp. A series of B-carboline derivatives. including corals and sponges. and the theonellapeptolides.17 10. and gorgonians. a unique anti-viral protein. tunicates. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria. the eudistomins. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum. antimicrobial. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. Cyanovirin-N. including potent antiviral.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. the swinholides. fungi. which produce anti-tumor compounds.. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia.19 12.

Diamirone B.29 22. phorboxazole A and B. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges).33 26.39 32. discorhabdin A. E. Cyclomarin A. including makaluvamines A.26 19. and anti-tumor promoting properties.36 29. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13. New antimycotics. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp.30 23. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity.23 16. cytotoxic natural products. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.28 21.37 30. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani.32 25. D.38 31. immunopotentiating. Several new classes of compounds. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. were isolated from the marine sponge. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic.21 14. B. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. Many novel. a novel.31 24. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents.25 18. latrunculin B and swinholide A. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. Okoadene and Mailidene.35 28. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus. C. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle.24 17.34 27. and F.27 20. Isolation of Microcolin C. makaluvone. Isolation of Dysidiolide. Phorbas sp. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp.22 15. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina.

ibid P 141. 6. 5. L.A. and Crews. L. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. B... Lassota..G. 9.. B.. F. Davidson. Brielmann. M.... S.. Gerard. T. Castor. M.-Y. and Gould. 8. July 27-31. M.H. Lawry.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Allen.J. Forenza..P. and Rodriguez. Haden. B.. McInnes. The Emerald Food.K. and Joseleau.S. Sci. and Crews.D.. 35. Suecica.. ibid S 15. D. Gustafson.. J. Clark. Santa Cruz (UCSC). W. Mokinski.R. S. J. Pettit.T. G. ibid P 25. M. I.. Slate.P. Beverly A. Natural Prod. S.. Chan. Fulton. 22... G. Brzezinski. J. Lloyd.. and Molinski. T. Chikarmane. B. ibid P 28.E. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy. B.. Yoo. D.. ibid P 156. 17. Gerwick. D. Pomponi. 6. ibid P 149. Zheng. 14-15.R.T. R. Sheehan.. B.. D. Andersen. S... 2... Dumdei. S. R. Erim. B. J.. Searle.W. W. B. C. L..J. K.... J. M. Al. Yoshida. and Kelly-Borges. 25. J. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae. ibid O 7. M. ibid P 19. Nakao. McMahon. ibid P 154. C.. Venables. and Bair. ibid O 49. H.J. 12.. S.K. Chlorella. Pharmaceut. and Scheuer. et al. T. R. H. B. O 50. J.. W... Phytochemistry. Major. H. 3. R. July 27-31.. ibid P 36. Zhang.P.... 39. J.W.. and Gerwick. 14. Boyd... R. P..A... 1993. and Afzelius.. Ragan.J.G. de Silva. and Scheuer. J. 1258..J. D. Mendola.. W. ibid S 14. Shangxiao. McMahon. and Yavor. 18.. S. Dhyana.. L. G. 21. ibid P 155.. Crews.J.. Freyer.. 11. B... ibid P 26. 40.. M.F... and Walter.A. A. P. P. Blunt. Ph.. Andersson.C. G. P.. Wright.E. Harrison. ibid P 9.. P.. Kerr. 20. Mendola. 1983.. Bringano. L. D.R. Wilkins. L.A. Hemling. 38. M. J. Lill.. 10. 24. A. pp. Blunt.. 29.. 19.A.Y. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae. and Wang.E. Smith. Janus. A.. ibid P 145.F.. C. J... and Baker.J.-P..M. G.. Haughey.. and Francis. ibid O 10. Kloareg.. T.J. 16. ibid O 25. M..A.E. R. and Leahy.-D.S. R.J. S 8. M.. Fernandes. D. K. 36. Ferrante. P. 23.. L. 15. ibid P 27.. C. and Munro. Hong.. Hamel. 13. 63... Xie. ibid S 23. and Thompson. O’Sullivan. 31. Abstr.....A. K.. Westley.A. Papers presented at the 37th Annu. P.G. 401-414. Janda.T. Acta Pharm. Lam. 34... 7.R.. Solimabi. J.B. 28. S. Bohlin. 1996.. 1975. Barrows. Green. UCSC.. ibid P 30. J..S. Dunbar. Heath. D. 32.A.. E.A. P. N. M.. H. Meeting. M. Jayatilake.. ibid O 26.. B. Carte’. J. C. and Cardellina. 56(4). T. J. N. Franklin. P. M. McCarthy.. Javor.. K. 1990. 20(6).. ibid O 36.. Carney. M. Magni. H.. B. Potter. M. K. 1977. Mabeau.. T. 37. ibid O 38.. Shoemaker. 29. S.. Chem. J. McCombs.. Can. Bewicke. J. J.H. T.W. 1985.H.. Mar. Rea. 30. J. K. Andrew. 27. and Ireland.. A. 478-488.. P. O’Keefe..A.. L. J.. Hook. and Kelly.. Haygood. I. R. J. ibid S 22. P.-R.. J. J. Lidgren..M. R... J. and Bauer.A.A. S.. L. Screening of biological activity. El Sayed. 304-313. Plubrukarn.. 64.. ibid P 150. K. R. S. ibid P 151. Ind. ibid S 9. and Hamann. McKee.. L. Perry..298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1.. Beutler.. Gerwick.. J.. 1996.. O’Keefe. Hargraves.P. W.. 33. Gulakowski. M. D... Duh. Gulakowski. Gunasekera. R. 4. Linton. and Munro. J.J. Sci. G.K. S. Baker. J. and Hung.J. ibid P 31.. El-Sayed.. Copp.. D.. 2441-2446..C.. and Russel G.. 180. Coleman.M. ibid O 11. and Kerr.. and Boyd. Cardellina. Y. Ogren.. and Hamann. Fucus Vesiculosus L.. Harrigan. and Harrigan.F. L. D. Schumacher. Maranda. Schmitz. Goins. 26.A. Varoglu. Rodriguez.. G. Gush. J.

Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing.5 (±0.10 q. Patterson.s..10 0.60 21. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes. 8. Adjust pH to 9. Inc. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.10 0. 5. In main kettle.00 q. 2.00 6.00 0. Adjust pH to 5. either alone or in combination with other products. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent. 3.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.00 10. Henkel.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq.2 (±0. Therefore.s.10 0.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 4. NJ 07504. PROCEDURE: 1. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature.2) with Sequence 5. 5./Lipo Chemicals. 207 19th Avenue. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. Rohm & Haas.00 10. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47.

4.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Adjust pH to 9.50 15.10 0. 3. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. 6. 5.00 20. Adjust pH to 5.00 1.5 (±0.00 0. 7. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq. Henkel. Amerchol. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. Inc. high-foaming.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. combine Sequence 1 ingredients.00 0. 6. Procedure: 1.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 q. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1. at room temperature. Rohm & Haas. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. 2. Lipo Chemicals.s. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. In main kettle. 10.00 10.2 (±0.10 0.s. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31.10 0. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. Inc.00 6. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient.10 q.

10 5. Procedure: 1.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65.F. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform.(Induchem).45 0. Aqualon. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed. B.10 0.10 0.50 1. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Inc. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22. 5. 4. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals. Goodrich Co. 2. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform.50 3. 6. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine. In main kettle at room temperature. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.00 0. Inc.FORMULATIONS 301 8.00 1. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens.95 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq.

10 0. Inc. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 0.96 63. At 25°C. At 30°C.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals.10 0. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C. Inc. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. 3.54 5. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved. add Sequence 3 to correct shade.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15.00 0.00 5. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0.10 q. Cool to 30°C. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . In main kettle.s.10 0. Procedure: 1.00 10. 2.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.

2. Inc. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .50 0. 3.10 0.00 4. Cool to 25°C. Begin cooling.00 2. BASF.28 0.10 0. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base.10 0. In main kettle. Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved.10 0. Haarmann & Reimer Corp.05 6.50 0.10 0. Givaudan Corp. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals.FORMULATIONS 303 8. Inc.10 0. Fanning Corp.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No.02 0. Procedure: 1. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C .

Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4.82 0.00 0. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. Spl Phosphoric acid. 3.80 0.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.25 0.s.10 g. 2.10 0.00 5.00 0.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.75 0.70 2. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.30 0. 4. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940. F. Cool to 60°C. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31.05 0. Procedure: In main kettle. 8. 10% sol’n Supplier B.10 0.00 0. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel.05 20. Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92.88 45. Inc. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. Inc.

FORMULATIONS 305 8. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.00 5.20 0. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem).05 1 2 Triethanolamine.70 1. Inc. Procedure: 1. B.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5. 3.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C. 99% Hypan SA100H 25. Guardian Chemicals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible.30 0. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.10 0. Lipo Chemicals.00 2.00 0. Goodrich.00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0. 2. Lipo (Kingston).8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25.F.


or Akene: A dry. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. Acerose: Needle-shaped. one-seeded fruit. Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. the fecundating material from an antheridium. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. like the leaves of pines. Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. indehiscent. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). one-celled. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. as ferns. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing. Adnate: Adhering to another structure. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . answering to the pollen of phaenogams. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. containing the pollen. or flower-arrangement. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. with firm pericarp. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. Acicular: Needle-shaped. Achaenium. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane.

Bulb: An underground discoid stem. Atropous: With erect ovule. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. as bi-foliate. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves. Bacca: A berry. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems.g. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. Appendages: Superadded parts. Axillary: Growing in an axil. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Castor seed). Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears.. carrying the ovary. a pulpy. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. Apetalous: Without petals. Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. Bristles: Sharp. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e. cinnamic). the hilum and the chalaza being together. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Bracteate: Possessing bracts. stiff hairs. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue. Bi-: Signifying double. meristematic cells. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. Calcarate: Spurred. Blisters: See Vesicants. Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it.g..308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases.g. rare in present times). with two leaves. Cardamon). Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. Capsule: A dry. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary.. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below.. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity. Carina: The keel. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. Capitate: With globose head.g. Nutmeg). the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower.

tuber-like. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. from which they hang when ripe. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. thick.g. outer layer. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Caudex: The axis. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Coriaceous: Leathery. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. Cilia: Marginal hairs. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents. Connate: where two parts. Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Caudale: Having a hairy style. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. one-seeded. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. Cohesion: Attachment. one-celled. Convolute: Rolled up. Contorted: Twisted. usually distinct. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. Cortex: The bark. Umbelliferous fruits). become joined. indehiscent fruit. Clavate: Club-shaped. upright rhizome. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit.GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Costa: The midrib. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. Cespitose: Tufted. Cathartic: A purgative. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. with the dry pericarp united with the testa.. Corm: A solid. Caulis: The stem. Also a name given to a short.

downward throughout the length. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Deliquescent: Dissolving. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Deltoid: Triangular. Dentate: With sharp teeth. etc. Deciduous: Falling off. Diatrorse: Turning to the light. or tending to fall. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. two long and two short. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Dichotomous: Forked. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Definite: Constant. Didynamous: With four stamens. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. lymphatic. Discoid: With convex face. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Deflexed: Bent. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. dividing into irregular branches. Crispate: Curled. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem. Didymous: In pairs.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Decompound: Many times compound. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. producing intellectual confusion. Determinate: Definite.

Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Fibrils: Root-hairs. the ovary. or borne on. the outermost layer. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever. nearly parallel. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ..GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting.g. Distichous: In two opposite rows. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. Exogenous: Having bark. and pith distinct. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. Episperm: The coat of seed. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Echinate: Prickly. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. as the maple and the elm or outer parts. Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Extrorse: Turned outward. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. wood. Etiolated: Blanched. and bark. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Epigynous: Adnate to. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. E: Signifies deprived of. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. wood. Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. Entire: Without marginal divisions. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. Epidermis: The true skin. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Escharotics: See Caustics. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. without. purgation).

Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Filiform: Thread-like. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. as petals and leaves. devoid of hairs. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. etc. Flocculose: Woolly. Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains. Globose: Roundish. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fimbriated: Fringed. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. more swollen on one side than on the other. as bifid. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. the point of attachment. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Glabrous: Smooth.g. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Herbs: Plants having annual stems.. as in the cypress and juniper. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Fid: Cleft. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Furcate: Forked. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. algae. orange). Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Flexuose: Wavy. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion.

on the receptacle. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. squirrels. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary. Inarticulate: Not jointed. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. Lateral: Attached to the side. cats. i. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower. Involute: Rolled inward. the lower petal of an orchid. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Lacinate: Fringed.e.. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. Incanescent: Hoary. i. Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. rabbits. Causing watery evacuations. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens).e. Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. Jointed: Having. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. as innate anther. Hypogaeous: Subterranean. Laxative: A mild purgative. Imbricated: Overlapped. or appearing to have. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. Labellum: (Lip). Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. Inferior: Growing below another. two or three times longer than broad. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. layer. Lacuna: A space between cells. Internode: Interval between nodes. Inflexed: Bent inward. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. Innate: Adhering to apex. and irritation. etc. joints or nodes. dogs. Keel: See Carina. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules). Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. like shingles. either by mechanical or chemical action. inflammation.. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves.

Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. with upper lobes largest. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Ligulate: Strap-like. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. found at the ends of young stems. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Multifid: Many-cleft. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. Monandrous: Having one stamen.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. but with lipclosed (flower). Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Lunate: Crescent-shaped. Medulla: The pith of exogens. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens. Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Monopetalous: Having petals united. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. with hard tubercles. often caused by fungus infection. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. and roots. style. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Masked: Labiate. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. Linear: Narrow. Lobate: Divided into lobes. Monospermous: One-seeded. Locusta: The spike of grasses. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. leaves. Muricate: Rough. Monogynous: Having one carpel. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. with parallel sides. or stigma. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves.

and nourished by. Obtuse: Blunt. Pedatipartite: Pedate. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. with lobes nearly free. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Parasitic: Growing upon. indehiscent. the wings. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. Oblique: Unequal sided. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. one-celled fruit. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. death. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. and the keel. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). but lobe extending only half way to midrib. in large doses. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. with lateral divisions again subdivided. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. Orbicular: Circular. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. rounded. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. having tufts of leaves at extremity. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Nodulose: Necklace-shaped. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. Pedatifid: Pedate. Octandrous: Having eight stamens. another plant. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Offset: A short. Nut: A hard. Obsolete: Suppressed. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. as ergot. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. Pedate: Palmate. as in the pea-flower. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. apex broad (leaf). the veins proceeding from a common carrier. thick runner. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment.

with petiole attached at or near the center. Pod: A general name given to dry. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Pendulous: Hanging down. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. female. pointed cells. indehiscent. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. dehiscent fruits. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Pilose: Hairy. Personate: Masked. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. melon. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. Pome: An inferior. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Petaloid: Resembling petals. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. squash. fleshy fruit. Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Pubsecent: Downy. Pentandrous: Having five stamens. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . two or more celled. Peltate: Shield-shaped. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. usually of family Leguminosae. Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid). Petals: The corolla leaves. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. and the like.316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. and perfect flowers on the same plant. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. resembling a mouth. few-seeded. Polygamous: With male. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Periderm: The corky layer of bark.

Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Runner: A slender. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. such as glands. Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Sheath: See Ocrea.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Retuse: Obtuse. Radical: Springing from roots.. one. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. bristly hairs. Scarious: Thin. and shriveled. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). winged.or two-celled fruit. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. Setae: Stiff. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). Serrate: Toothed like a saw. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. with wide lips (corolla). Scape: A slender radical peduncle. Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. bearing leaves and rootlets. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. rooting and budding at nodes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Reclinate: Bent downward. Runcinate: Jagged margin. dry. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. Retrorse: Directed backward. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Reduplicate: Valvate. Recurved: Bent backward. indehiscent. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. etc. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. Ringent: Labiate. its function being to support the flower organs. and producing pustules. creeping. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). prostrate stem. with deep notch in middle (leaves). with reflexed margins (estivation). Revolute: Rolled backward. Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Saccate: Sac-like. Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients).

Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). may be modified leaf or stem. Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. spiral branch. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. Style: The prolongation of ovary. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. Tendril: A thread-like. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. dehiscing from below upward. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). with short hairs. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Tomentose: Pubescent. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). and one short pair. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. Stipitate: Stalked. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Subulate: Awl-shaped. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. bearing the stigma. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Ternate: Arranged in threes. leafless. Spine: A pointed modified branch. Squamose: Scaly. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. in pairs. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. Sporangium: A spore-case. falsely two-celled pod. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Suture: A line of junction.318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long.

Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Toxic: Poisonous.. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Lucius E. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. Volute: Rolled up. Sayre. Utricle: A superior. 1895. pp. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Versatile: Freely swinging. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Vexillum: The standard. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. Trichomes: Hairs. one-celled.GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Truncate: Terminating abruptly. Valvate: United only by the margins. few-seeded fruit. Verticel: A whorl. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. 529-536. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Zones: Concentric bands. Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Uncinate: Hooked. Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate.

Tyler. 1936. 21. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. FL 1992. Bournemouth. A. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. 1989. Lavoisier.. Potter & Clarke. G.. Huntington. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. Bladt.. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. 19. A Modern Herbal. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. U. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. O. 1983. Wall. John Wiley & Sons. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Grieve. Haworth Press.. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants.. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. Ltd. Paris. The National Formulary XVIII. 4th ed. 3. 24. 1930. T. 7th ed.. 2nd ed. Tyler. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. P. Biddles.. R. I and II. N. Boca Raton. SpringerVerlag. H. Dover Publications.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1.. A. CRC Press. Vol. Ehrhart & Karl.A. Y. 5. Haworth Press. 8. 1. London. Merck & Co. Washington. 13. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy.. Wren. IL. New York. Louis. Ltd. E.. & A.. British Herbal Compendum. J. Plant Drug Analysis. 1994. CRC Press. Vol. Vol. 1975. New York. V. Robert E. Boca Raton. 1997. 15. 17. 2nd ed. St. Duke. Biddles.. 10. 1974. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities. Blakiston’s Son & Co. Bruneton.. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Notes on Parmacognosy. Berlin. The Essential Oils.. Stuttgart.E. Tease and Evans. Pharmacognosy. The Merck Index. Herbs of Choice.W.. 4. MIS Publication. Inc. 1995. 11. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. MO. British Herbal Medicine Association.K. 1964. 12. American Pharmaceutical Association. Wagner and S.K. U. Natural Products Chemistry. Merck Research Laboratories. Bisset. 13th ed. 1996.E. The Honest Herbal. Vol. Youngken. 1995. M. 1994. Chicago. 1902. Foter. PA. 22. 23. D.. 1992.E. 1990. U. Duke. 1996. 1971. London. 12th ed. 14.C.. 7. V. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. CRC Press..A. 2.. 16. 9. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy.K. FL. New York. Boca Raton. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Rockville. 1–7. 1932. New York. Academic Press. J. 20. 1996. 1992. 6. New Jersey. 4th ed. 1993. Guenther. NY. FL. J. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. Philadelphia. Leung and S. MD. Aug. K. Krieger Publishing. 1960. Ltd. 3rd ed. Churchill Ltd. Nakanishi et al. H..C. Wallis. Bailliere Tindall. Mack Publishing. J. I and II.. 18.

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