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BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Frank S. D’Amelio, Sr.
CRC Press Boca Raton New York
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Acquiring Editor: Project Editor: Marketing Manager: Cover design:
Norina Frabotta Susan Fox Becky McEldowney Violet Liquori
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are only used for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2118-2 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
I would like to dedicate this book to my beloved mother for her inspiration and never-ending love for botanicals or as she would say “God’s Herbs.” To my wife Josephine for her enduring patience; to my children; to my beloved grandmother Susan, who gave me my first inspiration for the sciences, when on my seventh birthday surprised me with my first microscope and in later years passed on her knowledge of botanicals to me; and to my father for his encouragement and persevering interest in my work through the years; and special thanks to my brother Michael for his most helpful input.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE
Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference by Frank S. D’Amelio is a complete Desk Reference covering a large number of botanicals, their various constituents, properties, and uses of importance to plant and cosmetic chemists, pharmacists, herbalists, aromatherapists, and others interested in the properties and uses of botanicals. It is a well written text, nicely illustrated, featuring several hundred monographs of commonly used botanicals. Its pages include various forms of plant extracts, their extraction and identification technologies, and medicinal as well as cosmetic applications. Numerous cosmetic formulations are included, as is an extensive glossary of therapeutic terms and a Botanical Listing for cross-reference purposes. This book is recommended for everyone with interests in the properties and uses of botanicals and their cosmetic applications.
Heber W. Youngken Emeritus Dean and Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
This book is intended to be a brief overview of phytochemistry for the cosmetic formulator. It is in no way intended to be a comprehensive book on botanicals; however, I saw the need for some form of reference book that the cosmetic chemist could have handy. Over the past 25 years while working with botanicals, many cosmetic chemists expressed their interest in such a book. I have kept it to the point and researched to find the most common folkloric use of botanicals and their various constituents. It was almost impossible, in this brief overview, to list all the botanicals and their constituents, as many plants contain several hundred compounds. I listed those that I felt would be of greatest interest, and included a brief overview of phytochemistry, eliminating theory and technique as there are many excellent books on this subject which are listed in the bibliography. I have listed current INCI names, with Japanese cross-references. These are, however, constantly changing. In a small book such as this, it is virtually impossible to cover the entire subject of cosmetic and medicinal plants chemistry, but I am confident that the broad spectrum of information included will be very helpful to those involved in cosmetic nutritional and pharmaceutical industries. It is, however, my hope that this book will help to stimulate the reader’s appetite for the further investigation of botanicals.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
sorting. Always wanting to know more. Dioscorides. When I think of Frank D’Amelio. and the modern plant pharmacologist searching for the active component.FOREWORD The healer has been with us for as long as man has existed. Frank truly loves his chosen field and exudes a boyish enthusiasm whenever we talk of the power of plants. The great healers become scientists — botanists and pharmacologists — whose fame spread throughout the land and whose works are treasured to this day. and Avicenna. Mithridates. he wants all of us who read this book to truly respect nature’s pharmacy. to use plants wisely. Over time. Let it reflect brightly upon us. they never ceased being amazed by natures wondrous cures. This knowledge differentiated the healer from the rest of the tribal community. the knowledge was passed from master to pupil as it is today in many cultures we in the West classify as primitive. the vision is of a latter-day cross between the ancient healer whose eyes widen at the thought of experimenting with an unknown botanical. but in his heart knowing that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. Theophratus. always wanting to find a more active plant. Originally. Initially. experimenting. Galen. But more than anything. and Egyptian healers began to transcribe their secret remedies on to clay tablets and papyrus. men like Shen Nong. observing. They were the loners out in the fields and woodlands gathering. Chinese. Joseph Gubernick Estee Lauder vi © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the tenders of the sick and wounded gathered knowledge about those things in nature that performed best. And then the Babylonian. all we have at the end of the day is the integrity of that which we produce and sell. and to demand quality and performance from our suppliers. His knowledge is vast and his desire to share that knowledge is the reason for this labor of love. just an observer who noted that a certain leaf or mud next to a particular pond soothed and healed a wound faster. As formulators and purveyors.
AUTHOR Herbalist and analytical chemist. has 31 years of experience in the botanical industry.. vii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . He is an associate referee on botanical drugs for the Association of Analytical Chemists and a member of the Institute of Food Technologists. Inc. Sr. He founded BioBotanica. in 1973 and is the author of many articles and books on botanicals. Frank D’Amelio.
to Violet Liquori for designing the book cover and helping with the illustrations. and Subhash Kekatpuray for editing Indian botanicals. I would also like to thank Mary Lou Quinn and Ruth Quimby from the University of Chicago/Napalert for always reacting to my spontaneous needs. and to all my friends and associates for their help whose names would be almost impossible to list. and assistance in editing the manuscript. to Barbara Norwitz of CRC Press for her enduring patience. to Bio-Botanica for allowing me to utilize and photograph their facility. Youseff Mirhom for proofreading the manuscript and for his many helpful suggestions. and to Lipo Chemicals for contributing their standard formulations with botanicals. Special thanks to Professor Dr. to my secretary Geraldine Saiya for her diligent typing and many late hours.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to all my friends and acquaintances who assisted in the accomplishment of this book. to Gennaro Nunziata for his wealth of knowledge of the botanical business and for the donation of his personal library of over 250 rare books on botanicals. to Susan Fox of CRC Press for her precious time. viii © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . to Gene Berube and Sunyl Ratnayake for proofreading the manuscript. patience. Special thanks to Joseph Gubernick for taking the time out of his busy schedule to review the manuscript and many thanks for his most useful suggestions.
..................................5 Alkaloids..............9 2.......................11 References ........................................5 Infrared Spectroscopy.........6 Ash Determination ........................6 Carbohydrates.................1 1..............................10 2....2 Solubilities ............................................9 2......................................1 Forms 4...2 4.................................5 1......................................4 4...........10 Diagnostic Structures of Different Drug Groups ............14 3...............3 Physical Constants...................11 2.......................................................................................2 Macromorphology ......................................................26 3.............................43 ix © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ...........9 Resins and Resin Combinations ..................11 2............2 Phenols ........................8 Gas Chromatography...3 4....................................................11 Chapter 3 Quality Control 3...................................1....................................................................................................3 Procedures ...........................................................2 Some Common Terminology ...................................35 Chapter 4 4.....................................1........................................24 3.............7 Assay Procedures ...................................................................7 Glycosides ..................................7 Methods of Identification.............................................................2 1.....................................1.....................................................1..............................................3............8 Volatile Oils...................................................................................................1 1.......................................................1 Liquids ........30 3...................................................................................................................................................................................3..1 Plant Identification ...................9 Adulteration of Drugs .............CONTENTS Chapter 1 Phytochemistry 1.................................................................................3 Tannins.......39 Extraction Terminology...............................28 3.....2 1..................................................13 3.....................1 Botanical Terminology .......................................39 Percolation ..............................5 1............................................3....3.............41 Infusions .................1.......................................................23 3...............................................................................................................5 Yield to Solvents ...............................................................................11 2...................................................................................................................................................1...........11 2.....................................1.................................6 Chapter 2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2..6 Thin-Layer Chromatography and Developing Solvent Systems......................................................................................4 Ultraviolet Light ...............4 UV and Visible Spectroscopy of Botanical Constituents................................................................1 Constituents of Drugs...........................................1 4......................................3..............................................5 Preparations of Extracts ...............................4 Proteins ........................................1...........................................................................................................1....1...............................40 Decoctions ........1....................................1 1....................................1 Microscopical Techniques....................................................................................................................................3 Micromorphology............25 3................1 1.......1 1.......................1..................3.42 Fluid Extracts .............1..1.............3..................................................................................................26 3.............................11 2.....................................................................10 2.............................................................................
............................9 4............................269 6.................301 8.................................................................................................................6 Botanical Cross-Reference Table..............46 Product Strength............................................5 Indian Botanicals......................................................3 Botanical Quick Reference Table ...................................................................................................11 Tinctures .................304 8...........229 6.........................1.......................................................................................1......................283 Chapter 7 Marine Natural Products 7.......................................4.....................................49 5.........7 Index of Botanicals by Scientific and Common Names .....46 Oleoresins ......233 6...........8 Super Moisturizing Clear Gel with Lipocare HA/EC.........................................................48 Chapter 5 Aromatherapy 5......1 Natural Saponins Base Shampoo..............................6 4.......247 6......................................................................................................10 4...........302 8...............................................................1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table.........7 4........................2 Hair Care Botanicals ................................................7 After-Sun Moisturizing Gel with Aloe ..........................................................5 Natural Sunscreen Oil SPF 8+..........................................................300 8...........................4 Oriental Botanicals Used in Cosmetics .................................................................... Concentration.........................................................................1 History .................................... and Standardization..................225 6..................................................................................1 Habitat............................51 6..........................1... Range.....303 8.........................................1.2 Natural Shampoo.............253 6........................................................................45 Extracts Strengths................... Properties.............................................................45 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures ...1..........................................6 Spray Moisturizer ...........................1 Marine Algae....................................44 Preparation of Aromatic Waters ..................1.......2 Biomedical Potentials of Marine Natural Products....................................4 All Natural Blooming Bath Oil ..........298 Chapter 8 Formulations 8................................................2 Properties of Essential Oils for Use in Aromatherapy..............304 8...........................................................299 8..307 x © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ...........305 Chapter 9 Glossary................................8 4..............................................3 Cellulite Gel Base ..4.... Description............................................................................................................................295 References ...........289 7.................... and Constituents ....................49 Chapter 6 Botanicals for Cosmetic Use 6..............
interesting antiviral and anti-cancer properties have been attributed to certain tannins.1 Phytochemistry 1. spores. and usually bitter taste. They are widely distributed in plants. and (9) resins and resin combinations 1. glycerol. Fats and fixed oils are generally esters of long-chain fatty acids (such as stearic. hence. oleic acids) combined with trihydric alcohol.4 Proteins Proteins are nitrogenous organic substances produced by and associated with living matter. palmitic. TS). 1. fats. (2) phenols. Tannins precipitate proteins from solution and are able to combine with them. Those from plants are more easily isolated 1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . They occur in both the plant and animal kingdoms. They usually occur as a mixture of polyphenols. they are stored in seeds. and waxes.1. forming a mildly antiseptic protective coat under which regeneration of new tissue takes place. Phenolic acids are also abundant in plants as caffeic. (6) carbohydrates. (8) volatile oils. They are generally soluble in water. usually in combination with sugars as glycosides. and waxes (lipids). Phenols are water soluble and mildly acidic in nature.3 Tannins Tannins are chemically complex substances. (4) proteins.1 Lipids The term lipid refers to fixed oils.1. (5) alkaloids.1. 1. They can be broadly classified as follows: (1) fixed oils. (7) glycosides.1 CONSTITUENTS OF DRUGS Plant constituents of medicinal importance form an extensively diverse group of chemical compounds showing greater variation in solubility and stability. In the antidotal treatment of alkaloidal poisoning. myristyl. they are also called triglycerides. fats. stems. ferulic. etc. have astringent action. both in the gastrointestinal tract and on skin abrasions. Tannins are employed in medicine as astringents. rendering them resistant to proteolytic enzymes.1. In most cases. tannin solutions are extremely valuable for inactivating alkaloids by the formation of insoluble tannates. In the treatment of burns. roots. Waxes contain higher monohydric alcohol moieties such as cetyl.2 Phenols Phenols are compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups are directly attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic nucleus. There are two distinct groups of tannins: the hydrolyzable or pyrogallol tannins (blue-black with ferric chloride. They comprise a large group of complex substances that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and usually localized in specific plant parts such as fruit. Recently. TS) and the condensed or catechol tannins (green-black with ferric chloride. (3) tannins. In plants. 1. barks. Fats and waxes are extensively used in pharmaceutical preparations for dermatogical applications. proteins of exposed tissues are precipitated. Polyhydric phenols are powerful reducing agents. leaves. and coumaric acids. lipids are associated with reserve food materials such as proteins. They are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols and closely related derivatives. this action is known as astringent action and forms the basis of therapeutic applications of tannins. and vegetative perennial organs such as bulbs. and stearyl alcohols instead of the trihydric alcohol. When applied to living tissues.
piperidine. which end in -in. phenanthrene. leaves. The names of alkaloids end in -ine to differentiate them from glycosides. Basic chemical structures generally found are phenylalkylamine. and cryptogams. and seeds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . They are usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they derive.” referring to the basic nature of these plant constituents. The physiological and pharmacological action of alkaloids varies widely. antitoxins. alkaloids possess potent physiologic activities.6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon. and steroidal.2 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in crystalline form. Proteins are of enormous importance in metabolism. purine. oil-bearing plant seeds. stems.5 Alkaloids The term alkaloid can be defined as a plant base. codeine CNS stimulant: strychnine. Alkaloids are found in all parts of plants. Alkaloids are generally insoluble in water and soluble in ether or chloroform and other nonpolar solvents. tropane. veratrine Vermifuge: pelletierine Local anesthetic: cocaine Antimalarial: quinine Antiemetic: emetine Muscle relaxant: curare Antispasmodic: papaverine Uterine stimulant: ergometrine Antigout: colchicine 1. Proteins are derived from amino acids. and (3) derived carbohydrates. For example: Analgesic and narcotic: morphine. which are the building units. serums. particularly in the dicotyledons and less commonly in monocotyledons. Plants usually store proteins in the form of aleurone grains. only a few isolated proteins are employed as therapeutic agents. roots. They are essentially basic nitrogenous compounds of vegetable origin. and globulins contain proteins in combination with other biochemical substances — all of these substances possess therapeutic activity. and oxygen. They are broadly classified into three major groups: (1) true sugars.1. pyridine. but mostly in fruits.1. brucine. (a) monosaccharides. quinoline. Being basic in chemical character. (b) obligosaccharides. Alkaloids occur in many families of flowering plants. Whole glandular products. gymnosperms. Carbohydrates are widely used in pharmaceutical preparations in numerous applications. caffeine Mydriatics: atropine. The basicity of alkaloids is usually due to amino nitrogen. bark. homatropine Myotics: physostigmine. In fact. It is recently agreed that alkaloids should not be necessarily basic in nature and the nitrogen present might be an amide. (2) polysaccharides. isoquinoline. for example: colchicine. hydrogen. 1. They are either aldehydic or ketonic alcohols in which hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. imidazole. pilocarpine Hypertensive: ephedrine Hypotensive: reserpine. carboline. they form water-soluble salts with acids. possessing some marked physiological action. indole. Alkaloids mean “alkali-like.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY 3 The following is the general pattern of carbohydrate biogenesis: The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle can be summarized as follows: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Polysaccharides (non-sugars). They are natural plant hydrocolloids. D-ribose. Disaccharides: Non-reducing: sucrose. D-fructose (levulose). Unlike cellulose. Pentoses: L-arabinose. c. lichenin is soluble in hot water to form a colloidal solution. and Example Rhamnose. the most widely distributed skeletal polysaccharide and most abundant and chemically resistant of all substances elaborated by living cells. pectins. lactose. iii. their sulfate esters. emulsifiers.6-glycosidic bond (less soluble in water and more viscous in solution). It is an alpha-1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .6-deosy sugars) Glucuronic. amorphous substances. uronic acids.4. stabilizers. cellobiose. tri-. f. sarmentose. transluscent. alginates.2)-fructofuranose units. Gums are soluble in water. Glycogen. Tetrasaccharides: Stachiose (non-reducing). D-xylose. mucilages do not dissolve but form slimy masses. a. suspending agents. galacturonic Glucosamine. 3. Hexoses: D-glucose (dextrose). i. trihalose Reducing: maltose.4 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 1. melibiose ii. or amino sugars. Derived carbohydrates: polysaccharide complexes that yield in addition to monosaccharide. e. which is branched presumably through an additional alpha-1. and tetrasaccharides i. galactosamine b. g. Hexose Derivatives Derivative 6-Deoxy sugars 2-Deoxy sugars Methyl ethers Uronic acids Osamines (amino sugars) Sugar esters Pentoses Group replaced C6 hydroxyl C2 hydroxyl –OH –CH2OH –OH –OH –OH –CH2OH New group –H –H –OCH3 –COOH –NH2 –O–SO3H –O–PO3H2 –H D-mannose. They include hemicellulose. Monosaccharides. which is a straight chain of alpha1. They find diverse applications in pharmaceutical industries as tablet binders. It gives alpha-D glucose on complete hydrolysis. d. which is the reserve polysaccharide of the animal kingdom. consisting simply of 1. Cellulose. Therapeutically. a fructosan (molecular weight about 5000) consisting of a linear chain of B-(1.6-linkages. and apiose. Trisaccharides: Raffinose (non-reducing).4-glycosidic bonds (more soluble in water) and amylopectin. gelling agents. oleandrose. Dextran: used as a plasma substitute. It is a linear polysaccharide. It contains both B-1. turanose. L-galactose. and thickeners. True sugars a. Lichenin: a cellulose-like polysaccharide that occurs as a cell wall constituent in lichens as Iceland Moss. Starch: it is the principal food reserve of plants. diginose. gentiobiose. epimarose. digitalose (these are 2.4-linked B-D-glucopyranose units. it is formed of amylose. b. and some microbial polysaccharides. Those occurring naturally are usually di-.and B-1. Oligosaccharides (less than 9 monosaccaride units). fucose Digitoxose.6-linked polyglucan. cymarose. mucilages. they are ingredients in dental and other adhesives and in bulk laxatives. 2. Dextrins: obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch. gums. ii. Inulin.
strophanthin. 8. and hesperidin is used for capillary fragility. Phenol (e.g. representing about 87 families). 11. sinigrin) Steroid (e.. volatile oils can occur in all the tissues.g.g. for example. certain volatile oils are also found in animal sources.. detoxifying. daphnin) Flavone (e. Volatile oils can be formed directly by the protoplasm. Occasionally.. Such glycosides. Rutaceae. They are products of plant metabolism. and barbaloin are laxatives.. and defensive roles.. Lauraceae. rutin) Anthraquinone (e. amygdalin) Thiocyanate (e. Classification: glycosides are usually classified into the following groups using the chemical nature of the aglycone. Some families of the phanerogams are rich in species producing volatile oils (about 2000 species. on hydrolysis brought about by reagents or enzymes. or by hydrolysis of certain glycosides. regulating. are the most common ones found in nature. for example.. the sugar is linked to the thiol (sulfhydryl) group of the aglycone. glucovanillin) Cyanophore (e. Myrtaceae. sinigrin). and ouabain are cardiac stimulants. They are also called essential oils because they represent the “essences” or odoriferous constituents of plants. crocin and picrocrocin. sinigrin (after hydrolysis) is a local irritant. In S-glycosides (e. 3. as sugar reserves. There are also C-glycosides (e. in the liver of fish.. occur. the streptidine moiety of streptomycin. digitoxin. Function of glycosides in plants: certain functions have been attributed to the glycosides. indican) Others in which are included neutral principles (e. and Asteraceae. sennosides. arbutin) Alcohol (e. gentiopicrin and gentiamarin). digitoxin) Saponin (e. for example. the sugar is linked to the amino group of the aglycone. Depending on the plant family. In N-glycosides (e.PHYTOCHEMISTRY 5 1. 1. such as glandular hairs (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae). glucosamine.1. digitonin) Indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole) (e. the sugar component is called the glycone.g. 6.g.. 2. 12. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .g. They are called volatile oils because they are volatile in steam and at higher temperatures evaporate. cascarosides.g. gluco aloe-emodin) Aldehydes (e. or adenosine).g. oil tubes (ducts) or vittae (Apiaceae). 5. sometimes called O-glycosides. In the conifers.. 7.. The chief families are Pinaceae. Other glycosides do.g.g. Apiaceae. 9. salicin is an analgesic. modified parenchyma or oil cells (Lauraceae and Piperaceae).g. S-glycosides and N-glycosides. as well as in internal lysigenous or schizogenous passages or glands (Pinaceae and Rutaceae). The nonsugar part of the molecule is called the aglycone or genin.g. 10. 4.g. by the decomposition of the resinogenous layer of the cell wall. Lamiaceae.. however.g.. Salicin) Lactone or coumarin (e. The glycosidic linkages: the usual linkage between the sugar and aglycone is an oxygen linkage. barbaloin) in which the sugar is linked to the aglycone by a carbon-to-carbon bond.. connecting the reducing group of a sugar and an alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy group of the aglycone. Pharmacological activity: glycosides can possess important pharmacological properties.8 Volatile Oils Volatile oils are odorous principles found in various parts of the plant. yield one or more reducing sugars among the products of hydrolysis. 1..1. volatile oils can occur in specialized secretory structures.g.. for example.7 Glycosides Glycosides are nonreducing substances that.
cosmetics. but in few instances. turpentine. They can also serve as solvents for wound-healing resins. have somewhat common physical and solubility properties. 8. cassia bark. juniper. horsemint. 3. For example. either produced normally or as the result of pathogenic conditions (sometimes induced intentionally to produce the resin). parsley. clove. local irritants. etc. however. chenopodium. cade.1. thyme. transparent or translucent brittle substances. Ester volatile oils: lavender. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same plant possess different physical. These substances. neroli. 6. the presence of the antiseptic oils in the spices prevents excessive growth of bacteria. the essential oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Fam. lemon. etc. It should also be noted that the chemical composition of an essential oil prepared from the same organ of one species varies to some degree according to the environmental conditions under which the plant has grown. Ketonic volatile oils: caraway. etc. Lauraceae) is rich in cinnamic aldehyde. in the glandular hairs of the stems and leaves.6 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE in the rose. rose. as a class. themselves. only in the bark and leaves. however. nutmeg. etc. thus aiding in cross-pollination of the flowers or many act as repellents to insects or animals (defense agents). Ethers: anise. Hydrocarbon volatile oils: bitter orange. essential oils obtained from different organs of the same species have similar compositions. etc. 4. is rich in camphor. and in orange. etc. Classification 1. coriander. In most cases. The volatile oil obtained from the root of the same plant. Resins. dill. local stimulants. Oxides and peroxides: eucalyptus. confections. Alcoholic volatile oils: mentha. sweet orange. several ecological theories attribute to them such tasks as attraction of insects. sandalwood. Volatile oils are frequently found in the plant associated with other substances such as gums and resins and they. and odor characteristics. etc. star anise. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . spearmint. are hard. in umbelliferous fruits. or parasiticides. resulting in less food spoilage. etc. 1. pharmaceuticals. mild antiseptics. 7. in cinnamon. ajowan. thus preventing the destruction of the flowers and leaves. carminatives. and tobacco. while the essential oil prepared from the leaves of the plant contains eugenol as a main constituent. for example. beverages. In general. these substances are brittle secretions or exudations of plant tissues. chemical. one kind of oil in the flower petals and another kind in the rind of the fruit. Undoubtedly. Phenolic volatile oils: cinnamon leaf. they are widely used in perfumery. diuretics. 5. anthelmentics. etc. In addition. in the mints. They can be also used as spices and for flavoring of foods. Non-terpenoid and derived from glycosides: mustard. only in the pericarp. 2. They can be used for their therapeutic action. bitter almond. they appear in appreciable quantities only in the petals. lemongrass. However. cajuput. tend to resinify on exposure to air. Aldehyde volatile oils: cinnamon bark.9 Resins and Resin Combinations The term resin is applied to indicate a group of related solid or semisolid substances of very complex chemical nature and variable chemical composition. 9. rosemary. wintergreen. Volatile oils play an important role in the economy of man. A strict definition of a resin is not possible. fennel. geranium.
resins burn readily with a smoky flame. order. wood parenchyma. converting the juice into a resinous substance that covers the insects and the twigs of the plant. and glandular hairs (cannabis). resinotannols. with few exceptions (e. in the vessels. They are also soluble to a great extent in many other organic solvents (e. In this case. The insect (in the case of shellac) is called lac insect. deposit the resin as a varnish-like film. Chemically. colophony. cutting off the conduction in these areas to increase the effective use of root pressure and capillarity in forcing water and nutritive materials to tops of these tall trees. on evaporation. fibers. Resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities.g. resins occur in different secretory structures. that is. For example. they darken in color and become less soluble due to slow oxidation.9–1. but when heated in the air. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and medullary rays cells). esters. Laccifer lacca.. mastic).. they decompose and yield empyreumatic products. schizogenous or schizolysigenous ducts or cavities (Pinus and Savin). in rare cases (e. unless very large quantities of salt are employed. When heated in a closed vessel. but consist of a mixture of numerous substances. carbon bilsulfide). Many products (e. It is noteworthy to mention here that. but impregnate in all the elements of a tissue. resenes (neutral inert compounds). as well as in fixed and volatile oils. the resin is found in all the tissues of the heart wood of Guaiacum officinale tree (i. consisting chiefly of hydrocarbons. resin acids. Most resins undergo slow change on keeping. but do not contain any nitrogen. benzoin and balsam Tolu) are not formed by the plant until it has been injured. resins soften and finally melt. the resin occurs as a result of sucking the juice of the plant by scale insects. owing to the large amount of carbon present in their structure. gr. In plants. in Guaiacum wood. and resenes. Hemiptera.g. but the yield is sometimes increased by injury. Resins are preformed in the plant as normal physiological products. Resins are insoluble in water and hence have little Volatile oil distillation apparatus taste. as in case of Pinus. forming solutions which. chloroform. 0. and ether. resins are complex mixtures of resin acids. Resins dissolve in chloral hydrate solution (used for clarification of sections of plant organs). Some resins are acidic and when heated with alkalies form soaps (resin soaps).PHYTOCHEMISTRY 7 They are generally heavier than water (sp. they are of pathological origin. when freshly powdered..g. They can be considered as final products in destructive metabolism. which is called secondary flow. They are amorphous (rarely crystallizable). Resins are bad conductors of electricity and when rubbed become negatively electrified. forming sticky or adhesive fluids. The chemical properties of the resinous substances are based on the functional groups present in these substances. they are divided into resin alcohols. acetone. The solutions of resins in alkalies differ from ordinary soap solutions in the fact that they cannot be “salted out” by the addition of common salt.. Some investigators believe that resins are oxidation products of terpenes. Resins dissolve more or less completely in alcohol. They are not pure chemical substances.25). and glycosidal resins. Resins are rich in carbon and contain little oxygen in their molecules. resin cells (ginger). viz.g. They are usually insoluble in petroleum ether. Family Coccidae. shellac). On this basis. without volatilization or decomposition. they sometimes do not occur in specialized secretory structures. resin alcohols. On heating at comparatively low temperatures.. they occur as tyloses.e. The secretion from naturally occurring secretory structure is called primary flow to distinguish it from abnormally formed secretory structures.
are resinous substances that contain varying amounts of aromatic balsamic acids. barks. arabinose. therefore. etc.g. etc. Some plants containing mucilage are althea root (Althea officinalle). they can be separated from resins rather easily. it stores the mucilage in the epidermis.e. Gamboge is the dried exuded resinous emulsion obtained by the incision of the bark of Garcinia Hanburyi (Fam. cathartics. flowers.) In general. and also to assist other healing agents in a formula. respectively — both contain volatile oil. depending on the amount of volatile oil present. mouthwashes. xylose. hexoses.8 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Resins are often associated with volatile oils in more or less homogeneous mixtures. (anywhere soothing is required). Most mucilages contain varying amounts of component sugars (i. cough syrups. Such glycoresins are found in Ipomea. (e. galacturonic and glucuronic acids). Another is flax seed. Since gums are water-soluble carbohydrate derivatives. or esters of these acids. and Canada balsam. the only true medicinal gum-resin is gamboge. These are. copaiba. and malva (Malva sylvestris). and uronic acids. in seaweeds. usually white amorphous (when in a pure form) masses. ointments.. leaves. The mucilage is deposited directly onto the cell wall during its formation. for example. viz. One well-known mucilage containing plant is psyllium. purgatives. In some cases. asafoetida). the mixtures being known as oleoresins. the mixtures being called gum-resins. expectorants. Mucilages are used by herbalists for irritations of varying kinds. nonadhesive solutions with water. such as Canada turpentine and copaiba (in such terminology as Canada balsam. Jalap. Mucilages are viscous. like most seeds. liquid or semi-liquid substances. shave creams. resins can also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. being called glycoresins. which contains no volatile oil. Guttiferae). carminatives. The gum is usually similar in composition to gum acacia but not identical with it and is often accompanied by oxidase enzymes. The term balsam has been often wrongly applied to some oleoresins. glucose. Comfrey root (Symphytum officinale). and seeds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Mucilages can also be used to help form emulsions. Mucilages are not readily absorbed by the skin and are more local in action. No hard and fast distinction can be made between these three groups because products such as ammoniacum and mastic — which are usually considered as gum-resin and resin. balsam of Copaiba. Gum acacia Resins can also occur in association with volatile oil and gum and are called oleogum-resin. Natural oleoresins are exemplified by turpentine. and Podophyllum. benzoic acid or cinnamic acid or both. creams. Balsams. Mucilages also form a fine layer on the skin and mucosa. slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva). resins and related products are used as rubefacients. and anthelmintics. Probably. Mucilage also occurs in the cells and tissues of many different plants. This means that the nomenclature of these resinous combinations is at best only an artificial one because it is often found that small amounts of volatile oil are present in gum-resins and small amounts of gum in oleoresins.. parasiticides. they form a mixture of pentoses. counter irritants. protecting it and helping to soothe inflammation. On hydrolysis. antispasmodic. as in the resins of the Convolvulaceae. fruits. on the other hand. the seed contains a bulking cathartic. they can be incorporated into lotions. Resins also occur in mixtures with gums. They often contain small amounts of volatile oil as well. that form colloidial. roots.
gauze. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. etc. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it.1 BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY Maceration: Soaking a botanical in a suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time. the solution commonly known as lye. etc.. Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation).). In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. suction. cotton) below. distillation. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical contained in a suitable vessel. treatment with a solvent. 2. also referred to as the spent herb.2 SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY* Cortex — Bark Extractum — Extract Flores — Flower Folia — Leaf Folliculi — Pod Fructus — Fruit/Berries Herba — Entire plant above ground Gummi — Gum Oleum — Oil Radix — Root Resina — Resins Rhizoma — Rhizome Semen — Seed Succus — Juice Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. having a bottom outlet. by which it is exhausted of potash. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. 9 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or unorganized mass. acetone. As with the raw materials. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. or by chemical or physical means.g. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. In pharmacy. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. expression.. Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained.2 Botanical Examination Procedures 2. or alcohol and water. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. by traction. water. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. both physical and chemical tests should be performed. ether. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. TLC together * To be used when purchasing botanicals to properly identify the plant part.
Calibration: To determine this factor a stage micrometer with. the direct reading are not the actual dimensions. botanical laboratory. as well as identification of commercial starches.001 mm). and the length of stomata are also valuable parameters. consisting of a scale mounted in an eyepiece so that its divisions can be read by the eye lens. If five divisions of the stage scale (= 0. In the same manner. and not the object itself. the width of vessels. Therefore. examined with the same objective and tube length as above. also known as micrometers. that is compared with the scale. an object or part of an object can instantly be made to coincide with the scale and measured. one thousand of which equal one millimeter (1000 µ = 1 mm or 1 µ = 0. because it is the magnified object.3.10 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE with UV and IR spectra give excellent fingerprints for identification.C. for example. the factors for the other objectives can be determined.125 mm = 125 µ.05 mm) cover 20 divisions of the eyepiece scale. Divided in 100 divisions (1 division = 0. 2.1 Microscopical Techniques The diameter of starch grains will assist in distinguishing varieties of ipecacuanha and also in distinguishing cassia from cinnamon bark. if an object.0025 mm.3 PROCEDURES 2. Q. Microscopic Measurment (Photo courtesty of Bio-Botanica®. Micromeasurements are commonly expressed in microns. 0. TLC comparison with a standard active compound is also carried out. By its use. although they are readily converted into such by the use of a factor that is constant for the same objective and tube length. always using a definite tube length. the scale of 1 mm. That is. is covered by 50 divisions of the eyepiece scale. the height of sclerenchymatous cells. However. The diameter of fibers.0025 mm = 0.125 mm. its true size is 50 0.01 mm) is placed on stage and adjusted so that a certain number of divisions of the eyepiece micrometer cover a certain number on the stage micrometer.05 mm ÷ 20 = 0. Most of the time. then the value of each division of the latter is 0. Stage micrometer © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) A simple method of measuring under the microscope is with the use of an eyepiece micrometer. both of which are carefully counted.
vitamins.6 Ash Determination Ash determination is especially applicable to powdered drugs. Churchill Ltd. and Lonchocarpus urucu can be distinguished by their characteristic fluorescence.7 Assay Procedures Low results obtained by assaying for active constituents such as alkaloids. However. London. and similar substances..” which in such case is often of more value than the “total ash”. and wild cherry bark exhibit characteristic fluorescences under UV light. When exhausted or mixed with sandy or earthy matter. optical rotation. calumba.3. 1978. Solubility in different solvents is a useful means to detect the presence of vegetable debris or foreign material in unorganized drugs. Similarly. 2. Bailliere Tindall. vegetable drugs can contain varying amounts of calcium oxalate. Derris elliptica. REFERENCES Wallis.3. the solubility of balsam Peru in a solution of chloral hydrate. T. the remaining ash will be the “acid-insoluble ash. 4th ed. Trease. 1960. E. and tend to retain earthy matter splashed on to them (e. the solubility of colophony in light petroleum...3 Physical Constants Constants such as specific gravity. 2. especially if they are present in the powdered form. The latter is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. viscosity.. Examples: the yield of fixed oil when linseed is extracted with ether. G. Other drugs. balsams. glycosides. oleo-resins.2 Solubilities The behavior of certain drugs toward particular solvents is very characteristic. Many drugs fluoresce when the cut surface or the powder is exposed to UV radiation. and the solubility of balsam Peru in an equal volume of alcohol. they will give a high total ash value..3. In this way. J.5 Yield to Solvents This is particularly useful for certain drugs that yield appreciable amounts of solutes to certain solvents. and the production of a turbidity with a larger volume. digitalis and henbane leaves). which yields varying amounts of calcium oxide or carbonate on incineration. the solubility of castor oil in half its volume of light petroleum and the turbidity produced with two volumes of the solvent.4 Ultraviolet Light Soxhlet extraction section It is a useful routine procedure to examine in ultraviolet (UV) light all material upon which one is required to report. A. D. one can obtain evidence of the presence of excessive earthy matter. such as hydrastis. such as tea leaves and ginger rhizome. which is likely to occur with roots and rhizomes and with leaves that are densely pubescent or sticky.g. 2. and Evans.3. the yield to water of properly fermented gentian as compared to overfermented or nonfermented samples. UV light provides very useful information. resins. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .3. or other constituents will determine the presence of inferior or exhausted drugs.. Indian and Chinese rhubarb are very difficult to differentiate. for example. 2. 11th ed. volatile oil. For certain drugs. C. 90%. while complete absence of the assayed constituent will suggest the substitution of a worthless botanical. W. and refractive index are especially valuable for oils and fats. London. Some pieces of rhapontic. the yield to water of liquorice root.3. E. 2.BOTANICAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURES 11 2. viburnum. Pharmacognosy. Some drugs when exhausted by water give a considerable “water-soluble ash” and this is an important indication of the presence of exhausted material substituted for the genuine article. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. malaccensis.
the correct Latin (botanical name) should be used when identifying a plant as well as which part of the plant holds the active constituent. For example. counter current extraction. The proper method of extraction is also extremely important in order to preserve the inherent properties of the botanical. Chemical tests include tests for solubility (total extractives) in water. Fortunately. stem. very few plants lose their actives upon drying.. etc. When ordering a botanical. etc. Physical tests (organoleptic) usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. color. then maceration. flower.1 PLANT IDENTIFICATION Choosing the right plant is very important. and other tests like loss on drying. seed. odor. and would contain very Botanical herbarium (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) little hydrastine. If this is not specified. providing that they were dried properly. thin-layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. or the entire plant. This starts with the proper solvent system.. distillation. ash content. 13 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaf. There are also certain constituents that are only available in the fresh plant juice that may be destroyed when dehydrated. plants have different virtues and chemical constituents. There are many forms of extracts available. fruit. and taste of the botanical with a known reference standard. root. lipidic extraction. methanol. which is only 20% the cost of the root extract. and berberine. etc. hexane). identification can be confusing. then the Latin name along with the plant part desired.3 Quality Control 3. i. One should start with botanical terminology.e. Yellow Root can be any one of the following: Zanthorrhiza apifolia Jeffersonia diphylla Hydrastis canadensis Coptis trifolia Celastrus scandens However. one could purchase the extract of the plant leaf. The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing. canadine. ask for it by its common name first. organic solvents (ethanol. Many plants have common names and. therefore. super critical fluid extraction. and microscopy. As seen in the example. percolation. Example: Golden Seal Root (Hydrastis canadensis) or Golden Seal Radix. as most enzymes and compounds remain stable when in a dehydrated state.
3. 3) is a representative example. For systematic study. secondary phloem. one should be able to classify the material into one of the following morphological groups before further detailed consideration.14 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lycopodium at 600 (spores) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Lycopodium at 10 (spores) 3. and other natural powders such as spores (Lycopodium). the vessels being usually blocked by ingrowths. however.2 MACROMORPHOLOGY The particulars used for crude drugs and herbs differ from those required for purely biological descriptions. Quassia Wood. Woods: Used pharmaceutically consist almost entirely of the tissue named xylem and the great bulk is secondary xylem formed by the activity of the cambium. The transversely cut surface is most useful for providing distinguishing characters showing annual rings and fine parallel lines crossing them at right angles these are the “medullary rays” coniferous woods show only tracheids and no vessels. and hairs (Kamala. while Fig. 1. The bark of Witch Hazel (Fig. starches.. Fig. which might have been subjected to manipulation during preparation for market. Cowhage). pollen grains. 2 is that of an angiosperm. Separation of the bark occurs at the weakest layer which is the cambium. Dusting powders: One should be able. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Commercial barks may be constituted of some or all of the following tissues. because one is frequently concerned with dried structures. cortex and periderm (which is the botanical bark). glands. 2. primary phloem. Barks: Barks consist of the external tissues of stems and roots removed by peeling them after making suitable longitudinal and transverse incisions through the outer layers. 1 is an example of a confierous wood. viz. Xylem consisting of conducting elements and living cells is named sapwood eg. Lupulin. A large proportion of most commercial woods consists of “heartwood” and consists of dead cells. to differentiate between mineral powders.
QUALITY CONTROL 15 Fig. 1 (courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
2 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .16 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig.
QUALITY CONTROL 17 Fig. 3 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
5. A summary diagram of terms used for leaf description is shown in Fig. Achillea millefolium L. styles. In the great majority of plants. (Fig. tilia of inflorescences and bracts. elder flowers of petals and stamens. the corolla made of petals. Leaves: Example. and endocarp. thus forming a fruit. which are a useful identification tool. and the gynaecium made of carpels (ovaries. 7. leaves possess neither nodes nor internodes and branches arise in their axils. stigmas). (3) the presence of chlorophyll. and distinctly papillosed epidermis of stigma are characteristic features of flowers. 6. Fruits: Concurrently with the development of the seed from the ovule. by four well-marked characters: (1) their flattened form. Among common drugs. fibrous layer of anthers. the leaf is termed sessile. leaves may be recognized. and often a raphe. There are. two features that are constant. the term flowers is used to include a number of inflorescences in addition to flowers as defined Argel leaf botanically. The most important structures found in seeds are the testa showing the hilum.e. Seeds: A seed is a plant member derived from a fertilized ovule. Within the testa is the kernel that is formed of embryo (radicle and cotyledon [s]) with or without endosperm and/or perisperm.18 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 4.. in addition. the androecium made of stamens (filaments and anthers). There are also several drugs that consist of parts of flowers and are named accordingly. frequently. argel leaf. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 4. Some constants are particularly useful for differentiation purposes. for the seeds. mm. Note that the presence of certain elements as pollen grains. and the photograph shows different pollen grains that help in the identification process. (2) their thinness. it contains an embryo and is constructed so as to facilitate its transportation. The wall of the pericarp is usually divisible into three regions. epicarp. 6).. viz. the ovary wall develops to form a case. Stomatal index: The percentage that the number of stomata [S] form of total number of epidermal cells (E) and stomata together in the same unit area.* The expanded blade or lamina is not always the whole of the leaf. micropyle. the blade is attached to the stem by a stalk — the petiole. and (4) the presence of supporting or conducting strands — the veins. The most important fruits may be classified as: * Vein-islet number: Average number of vein-islets per sq. the calyx made of sepals. i. and the floral leaves are generally arranged in whorls named from below upward. however. called the pericarp. They are appendages to the stem showing a great variety of external form. papillosed epidermis of petals. Palisade ratio: The average number of palisade cells beneath each of the epidermal cells of the leaf. mesocarp. S /(E + S). The testa can be derived from one or two integuments and is formed of different characteristic layers. if there is no stalk. All these structures are grouped for the purpose of pharmacognosy under the heading flowers. red poppy. Flowers: In a commercial sense. saffron and corn-silk consist of styles and stigmas only. Individual flowers have a short axis with undeveloped internodes. 5) is an example of the flower. A good example showing the most important structures of seeds and testa is Grains of Paradise (Fig. red rose and marigold of petals only.
QUALITY CONTROL 19 Fig. 4 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Tamarind. Compound Fruits Hops In general. Dry fruits Cremocarps: Umbelliferous fruits Legumes: Senna pods. Bael. Succulent fruits Drupes: Prune. Caraway (see Fig. fruits show two scars: one from the attachment to the stalk and the other left by the style and stigma. 8. Cardamon ii. a. leaves. Poppy. Entire organisms (herbs): This includes entire plants as Irish moss and ergot and also drugs derived from flowering plants and consisting of flowering tops that include smaller stems. flowers and fruits. Aggregate Fruits Star Anise c. 5 Achillea millefolium L. Cocculus Berries: Capsicum. Colocynth b. However. Orange. 7) may be taken as an example of umbelliferous fruits. Simple Fruits i. Cassia Pod Capsules: Vanilla. as well as others consisting of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .20 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fig. No common detailed structure can be given for fruits as there is a big differentiation between them.
7 Caraway fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 6 Grains of paradise seed.QUALITY CONTROL 21 Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic longitudinal cut 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Entire seed 7) Grains of paradise — Seed (Diagrammatic transverse cut 10) Fig. Family: Zingiberacaea Fig. Aframomum melegueta Rosc.
however. which are usually slender and adventitious. starch. by the stomatal index. 3. Thus Surinam quassia is recognized by the absence of calcium oxalate and the predominance of uniseriate medullary rays.g. it is necessary to know the histology of the genuine drug and its common adulterants. branches. Clearing agents. which are similar in construction to the main root: the origin of these branches is described as endogenous because the growing point arises in the pericycle. Scars of fallen roots appear as small circular marks.. Rhizomes are stem structures growing horizontally. or by the trichomes. 9).. Senega root is characterized by the absence of calcium oxalate crystals. commercial roots often consist of rhizome in the upper part. stage and eyepiece micrometers.. many adulterants of belladonna herb by the palisade ratio. 9. and stains are commonly used and a cover glass must always be applied to protect the microscope Plant identification and archiving lenses and facilitate examination. Microscopical techniques. The root differs from the rhizome in that it bears only one kind of lateral appendage. decoction (e. or are natural secretions (e. 10. rhubarb and ginger are characterized by their non-lignified vessels. vertically. For the detection of adulterants in powdered drugs. or in an oblique direction at the surface of the ground in which much of the lower part is embedded. A representative example is White Hellebore (see Fig. require years of experience to acquire a really good knowledge of the microscopy of drugs and other plant material. the varieties of senna by the vein-islet numbers and by the palisade ratios. such as incision (e. Henna leaf by the absence of starch.g. The surface bears scale-leaves with occasional buds in their axils and is often marked with the encircling scars of fallen aerial leaves. For example. fibers. The lower surface of horizontal rhizomes and the entire surface of vertical and oblique rhizomes bear the roots. expression (e.3 MICROMORPHOLOGY This is a valuable tool for identifying drugs and detecting many adulterants simply by an examination of calcium oxalate crystals or by the details of structure of the trichomes and other features. For (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) microscopical measurements.22 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE all parts of the plant growing above ground level. Unorganized drugs: These are materials having a structure that is fairly uniform throughout and are not composed of cells built up into definite plant or animal members or organs.g. agar). 8). olive oil). similarly. Chiretta herb. such as Broom Tops (see drawing) and in some instances also the root and rhizome (e.g. They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some process of extraction. beeswax and myrrh). and the branch bores its way through the comparatively wider cortical tissues. Fig.. Rhizomes and roots: Commercial rhizomes almost always contain a considerable proportion of root and. knowledge of microscopical structure is essential. as well as camera © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and sclerenchyma.g. mountants.. opium). Therefore. namely.
8 Fig.QUALITY CONTROL 23 Fig. 9 White hellebore (all three horizontal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
It does not dissolve calcium oxalate crystals and can be used for their detection. Potassium hydroxide solution: 5% aqueous solution is generally used. carbolic acid. The most important reagents used for this purpose are 5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for common drugs except sclerenchymatous tissues such as testas of capsicum and colocynth seeds or for the separation of lignified Hand microtome with knife hairs such as those of nux vomica and strophanthus. and causes swelling of cell walls. protein. It should be washed out as soon as clearing is completed as more prolonged action is liable to cause disintegration. chlorophyll. Sometimes. and expands shrunken cells. resins. alcohol. Alcohol should also be used for examination of mucilage or water-soluble cell contents. ether. and petroleum ether (pet ether). Colorless compounds are usually measured in the 200–400 nm (nanometer) range and colored compounds from 200 to 700 nm. Ether–alcohol: Equal parts of ether and alcohol are useful for removal of fixed and volatile oils. tannins. starch. Other solvents include methanol. 3. and the shrinkage or collapse of the cell walls. chromic/nitric is mandatory. The most widely used solvent is ethanol. Wash sections with water as soon as bleaching is complete. it rapidly dissolves starch. Structures are frequently obscured by the abundance of cell contents. Preparation of isolated elements: Disintegration and isolation of tissues is essential for determining the shape and size of cells and their distribution and relation in the different tissues and layers. absorbance values should be used. or chlorophyll. fats. clove oil. lactophenol. Reagents are therefore used for the removal of cell-contents. Drugs (dehydrated) should be prepared beforehand for microscopical examination by exposing them to moist atmosphere or by soaking or boiling them in water. volatile oils. chromic/nitric should be used for very hard and lignified material. etc.24 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE lucida are used. and resins. water. Chloroform generally is not used as it absorbs strongly at 200 to 260 nm. Defatting is particularly necessary for oil seeds such as linseed and strophanthus. Solution of chlorinated soda: It removes starch and lignin and bleaches dark-colored sections such as those of many barks and for removing chlorophyll from leaves. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and for restoring as far as possible the original shape of the cell wall. Spectral measurements are an important tool for the phytochemist for the identification of many plant constituents and also for screening crude plant extracts for particular classes of compounds. the presence of coloring matters.4 UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY OF BOTANICAL CONSTITUENTS The absorption spectra of various plant constituents can be measured utilizing very dilute solutions against a solvent blank using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The following clearing and bleaching agents are particularly useful: Chloral hydrate solution: Dissolves proteins. Some commonly used mountants are glycerin. and Canada balsam have clearing effect. When the concentration or the molecular weight of the compound is unknown. for bleaching. hexane.
The spectrum usually takes approximately 3 to 5 minutes to record. Then press under anhydrous conditions. or making a mull with Nujol (mineral oil). 275 3 to 4 intense peaks 220–290 240–260 The values are approximate. If the substance is in a solid state. This makes IR the simplest and often the most reliable method of classifying a compound. by performing concentration curves utilizing a standard substance and known dilutions. This will give you a transparent disk. It can also be used to quantitate. UV/Vis spectrograph (photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) 3. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . IR can be used not only to fingerprint the botanical but also for comparison to determine if a synthetic is being used as an adulterant. depending on solvent and pH. finely powdered plant material and 10 to 100 mg KBr.5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Spectra of plant extracts can be measured utilizing a recording IR spectrophotometer. unless one has an FTIR. mix with KBr (potassium bromide) using approximately 1 to 2 mg.QUALITY CONTROL 25 UV spectroscopy is useful in fingerprinting a botanical extract. either in solutions of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. UV and Visible Absorption Maxima of Some Common Compound Groups Pigment class Chlorophylls (green) Anthocyanins (mauve or red) Carotenoids (yellow to orange) Anthraquinones (yellow) Chalcones and aurones (yellow) a Visible spectral range (nm)a 640–660 and 430–470 475–550 400–500 (a major peak with two minor peaks or inflections) 420–460 365–430 Ultraviolet range (nm) ca. Many functional groups can be identified by their characteristic vibration frequencies. In addition.
Chemical tests are solubility (total extractives) in water. In addition. with the exception of the highly volatile constituents. 1580 (W-M) 3610 (W-M). or plastic sheets are also commercially available. Valerian. (2) semiquantitative information of the major active compounds can also be obtained. Other tests like loss on drying. aluminum. (The exception would be when using water as the solvent. 2860 (M). Precoated absorbents on glass plates. TLC has become widely adopted for rapid and positive analysis of drug and cosmetic preparations. 1760 (S). Lavender. 3400-3100 (variable). VS = very strong. The main reasons include: (1) results can be obtained in a very short time. 1710 (S) 3500 (M). 1500.7 METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION The method of identification of the raw material includes physical and chemical testing.. sulfuric acid). 3600–2400 (broad). It is customary to line the inside of the development chamber with filter paper in order to help saturate the atmosphere inside with the solvent phase. (3) it gives a chromatographic fingerprint that can be documented. The physical tests usually performed include: comparison of the appearance. Once the TLC plate is spotted with the extract. and powder microscopy are also performed.) When development is complete. 3400 (M). 3. 1380 (M) 3050 (W-M). 3400–2500 (broad M). Aluminum oxide is also sometimes used. The reproducibility is excellent on glass plates. 3. etc. a plate sprayed with anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid must heat for 105°C for 5 minutes). TLC has wide application in phytochemistry and can be used for almost any class of compound. Some constituents in the extract can be seen under UV light (wavelength 254 or 365 nm) if the plate has the fluorescent indicator in it. then the filter paper can be eliminated. 1410 (M) 1820-1680 (S) 3520 (W). Some typical aromatic notes that are hard to forget would be Asafoetida. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 1610 (M) 2225 (W-S) 2270 (VS) Note: Band intensities: W = weak. as one gains experience. and (4) it is inexpensive.. 2100–1700 (W). Reference compounds are needed as markers when performing TLC. ash content histology. and thin layer chromatographic behavior of these extracts. and taste of the material with the standard reference sample. odor.g. the compounds can be visualized using a spray reagent and/or long or short UV rays. organic solvents (usually methanol). The other advantage of a glass plate is that sometimes the plate has to be heated to a certain temperature (e.6 THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC) From the variety of chromatographic methods presently available. M = medium. Chamomile. strong spray reagents can be sprayed onto glass plates (e. one can just look at the herb or even fragments of it and be able to identify it.g. 1600. 1455 (S). The major absorbent used in TLC is silica gel 60 with a fluorescent indicator in it (silica gel 60 F254). The procedure requires very little equipment and great sensitivity can be achieved with microgram quantities.. it must be developed in a suitable solvent system using a closed developing chamber (usually a glass chamber) to separate the compounds. S = strong.26 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Characteristic IR Frequencies Class of compound Alkanes Aromatics Alcohols and phenols Esters/lactones Carboxcylic acids Amines Cyanides Isocyanates Approximate positions of characteristic bands above 1200 cm–1 Compounds 2940 (S).
natural product. antimony chloride UV. The total extractives can © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . proper identification of the starting material is crucial and of paramount importance.5: 8. There is a simple quantitative test to check for powder adulteration. hence. reagent p-Dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde Aniline hydrogen phthalate and UV Folin reagent Isatin/H2S04 Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Vanillin/sulphuric acid Anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid Anthocyanins Cardiac glycosides Silica gel Cellulose Silica gel Flavonoids Indoles Monosaccharides Phenols Polyacetylenes Saponins Terpenes Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Silica gel Note: This table contains only suggestions of solvent systems and is by no means comprehensive. Densitometer (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Crude drugs have always been subjected to different and extensive adulteration processes.QUALITY CONTROL 27 A Brief List of TLC Developing Solvent Systems Compound Alkaloids Absorbent Silica gel Solvent system Methanol:chloroform (85:15) Toluene:ethyl acetate:diethylamine (70:20:10) n-Butanol:acetic acid:water (40:10:20) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (81:11:8) Chloroform:methanol:water (65:35:10) Chloroform:Acetone:Formic Acid (75: 16.5) Chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:4:1) n-Butanol:acetic acid:ether:water (9:6:3:1) Acetic acid:chloroform (1:9) Chloroform:methanol (1:9) Chloroform:methanol:water (64:50:10) n-Butanol:water (1:1) Chloroform:methanol (95:5) Ethyl acetate:methanol:water (77:15:8) Detection group UV Dragendorff UV Anisaldehyde–sulfuric acid Kedde reagent.
the use of the GC will continue to grow. it will show up by having less soluble solids.g. System control. As the market demands more precise and informative information concerning the ingredients and chemical constituents. or chromatographic (GLC. This system. with expected growth well into the next generation. If there is a diluent added. The demand for gas chromatographic (GC) systems has grown tremendously over the past several years. data acquisition.28 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE be taken. and a chromatogram is obtained using a programmed method and can be compared to a known herb/botanical standard. With library search software. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . comprised of an Alliance HPLC System. analysts can compare spectra to stored spectra of hundreds of thousands of known compounds and confidently identify many target compounds. The next instrument of great value is the Integrity LC/MS (Courtesy of Waters Corporation). information-rich electron ionization spectra. analysts can deduce the intricate details of the molecular structure of natural products. The simple test would be an overnight extractive: determination against the known extractives of the same plant. give excellent fingerprints for identification. TLC. spent herb). GC/MS is also a very valuable tool for the phytochemist. it is recommended that the analyst create his/her own library of known compounds and also purchase what is presently available on the market. and single-quadrupole Thermabeam mass detector. HPCL. 3. a separation technique. It has become an irreplaceable tool for the analysis of plants and plant extracts for the food. After extraction of the plant material. has gained much attention in a broad range of applications and fields of study. UV and IR spectroscopic data of the diluted extracts should also be obtained. Powdered botanicals have been known to be adulterated in the past with various diluents (e.. GC is basically used for the identification of any substance that will volatilize. pharmaceutical. The versatility of GC has made it an important tool for the separation of substances in many different disciplines. and results management are all performed by Waters Millennium Chromatography Software. This is also referred to as “fingerprint analysis. photodiode array detector. etc.” However. When the material has passed previous scrutiny. and cosmetic industries. it provides fast and accurate separations and can be used to assay the substances against a known reference standard. GC can also be used as a secondary means of identifying plants. Botanical extracts should also be identified and fingerprinted. separates and quantifies analytes in complex extracts and transports the analytes into the mass detector where analyte molecules are fragmented into well-characterized.8 GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Gas chromatography. together with UV and IR spectra. In addition to the TLC in chemical testing. the resulting solution is properly prepared and is injected into the GC. GC is now being used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of many plants that were traditionally analyzed by UV absorption after lengthy extractions or column chromatography. For plant volatiles and essential oils. As with the raw materials. However. GC/MS instrumentation can be purchased with software that will enable the analyst to create his/her own library or a library that contains thousands of compounds can be purchased. spectrometric. In phytochemistry. it is worthwhile to analyze it quantitatively for its main active ingredient(s) using appropriate colormetric. rice hulls. the extract should be within 10% of the reference standard. This usually requires overnight extraction along with a reference standard.) procedures in order to establish its strength. Example: Overnight extractives of Horehound herb should be 25%. such as rice hulls or spent herb. From these spectra. both physical and chemical tests should be performed.
QUALITY CONTROL 29 GC/MS (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Integrity LC/MS (Photo courtesy of Waters® Corporation) The Waters Alliance HPLC System featuring the Micromass Platform LC Mass Detector is comprised of a Waters Alliance HPLC System. and singlequadrupole Platform LC Mass Detector made by Micromass. This system is for scientists who want to quantify and confirm the identity of target natural compounds in complex extracts © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . photodiode array detector. Ltd.
While the macroscopic resemblance is essential for the entire material.9 ADULTERATION OF DRUGS Adulteration constitutes a very serious problem with crude drugs. 2. honey. data acquisition. etc. The adulterator chooses a suitable material that is cheap and readily available. 3. Manufacture of substitutes simulating the general form and appearance of various drugs. and often occurs when a drug is difficult to obtain or when its price is comparatively high. for example. beeswax. and reporting is accomplished with Micromass MassLynx Software. not necessarily belonging to the same morphological group as that of the genuine drug. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. enabling the analyst to quantitate (approximately) the compound by the density at a specific RF value (see Page 27). Obovate. the color and general texture are more important. or Provence senna. The HPLC front-end resolves the target compounds and transports them into the mass detector which converts the sample stream into electrically charged molecular ions which are then separated by charge and produce what is known as a mass chromatogram. It can be used to measure the spot density of a chromatogram. for example. coffee. or Cochin.30 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Waters Allience LC\MS systme featuring the micromass platform LC detector (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) — some of which may be present at low levels — by ascertaining their molecular weight. such as ergot. nutmeg. African. in the case of powdered drugs. and Japanese ginger to adulterate Jamaica ginger. Methods used for adulteration include: 1. Instrument control. Hence. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Another useful instrument available to the analytic chemist is the scanning densitometer. the adulterant can be any kind of material. adulteration of Alexandrian senna by Arabian. powdered guaiacum wood has been used to adulterate powdered nux vomica and dextrin to mix with powdered ipecacuanha.
/65 cm). CH3CN-H2O (73:27). distilled water. mobile phase. rhamnos Ginsenosides. spray detection 1% vanillin and 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol.4x. E-500 and E-100 (Waters). mobile phase. detection UV 365 nm and vanillin in phosphoric acid.5 ml/min. sparteine. 190 nm flow rate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/toluene-ethylacetate-diethylamine (70:20:10) detection. luteolin. detection: Naturstoff Reagent UV 365 nm.5:0. ninhydrin or dragendorff spray. 0. 0. 2 ml/min. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .8 ml/min for 7 min. flow rate. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.d. mobile phase. panaxoside Eleutherosides Ephedra Ephedrine TLC: AgNO3 treated silica TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (100:11:11:27). flow rate.46. 25 mm).0–1. 1. panaxatriol. HPLC: Ion pair TSK gel LS-410 5p ODS bonded silica gel (4 mm i. HPLC: DEAE Sepharose C1-6B (2.5 ml/min. watermethanol-acetic acid (65:30:5).d. UV 202 nm. mobile phase. detection. GC: HC1 washed silanized chromosorb W coated with one of these: 3% XE-60.. thermopsine. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3. R1.2-dichloroethane-ethanol-methanol-water (50:20:20:6). flow rate. 15 psi argon. 0.6 50 cm): mobile phase. then 1. lupanine. mobile phase. HPLC: TSK G3000PW (7.0 ml/min. mobile phase. HPLC: Zorbax CN.9 mm 30 cm). 50°C. UV 320 nm detection. mobile phase.0009 M dibutylaminephosphate pH 2. acetonitrile-water (83:17). 2. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-MeoH-water (70:30:10).QUALITY CONTROL 31 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Aesculus Aescin TLC: Silica. mobile phase. Rf 0.2 M Pi buffer pH 7. water-acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfate-phosphoric acid (65:35:0. detection.. or 3% SE-30. 1 ml/min. baptifoline. xylose. acetonitrile-water (83:17).5 ml/min.1 ml/min. 2.6 mm i. UV 202 nm. detection. detection. 3. Arctium Inulin Baptisia Lupine alkaloids.9 mm 30 cm). cytisine Anagyrine.02 M Pi buffer pH 7. galactose.2. 13-OH sparteine. HPLC: Water’s Carbohydrate Analysis Column (3.5 mm i. HPLC: P-Bondagel E-250. 15 cm). 0.d. flow rate. UV detection (homogencity test). flavonoids Kaempferol Apigenin. followed by 0. 1.9 mm x 30 cm).1) flow rate. flow rate. flow rate. ursadiol HPLC: BONDPACK C18 mobile quercetin phase. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (4.5. acetonitrile-water (84:16). panaxadiol.0 ml/min. genistein Calenduladiol. 1.0 M NaC1 gradient. Calendula Centella Asiaticoside Echinacea Polysaacharide Eleutherococcus Sugars: arabinose. 220–223°C. 5% DC560.
75°C. detection UV 365 nm. quercetin Vitexin © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 0.0 ml/min. flow rate.5cm). 2 ml/min. HPLC: Hibar Lichrosorb-Diol 5m (0. UV 340 nm. TLC: silica developed w/CHC13-MeOH (93:7) CCD: Craig-Post Apparatus (200 stages). 2 liters phase B and C.7 & 5. Fucus Ginko Fucole Flavonoid glycosides Gymnema Harpagophytum Gymnemagenin Harpagoside Hydrastis Hydrastidine. Rf 0. UV 330 nm. mobile phase. 3. flow rate. detection. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 mobile phase. Hewlet-Packard 1040 M high-speed spectrophotometer CCC: Ito (2.5. TLC: Silica gel developed harpagide w/ CHC13-EtOH (2:1). luteoline. methanol-water (50:50). UV 270 nm. UV 340 nm. 1. detection..9. 6 ml/min. introduce sample.d. Merck(. 66 m capacity 350 ml). hexane-chloroform-tetrahydrofuran (gradient). detection. C18 corasil BONDAPAK 37-50 u (3mm 2. canadaline. detection. 4. phase C: ethyl acetate-2-butanol (6:4). HPLC: BONDPACK C18. spray vanillin-H2SO4 or phloroglucin-HC1.d.4 cm i. isopropanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (5:15:85). detection. 25 cm at 75°C).5 ml/min. vanillin in H2SO4.5-methanol (67:33). methanol-water (50:50) flow rate. detection. vanillin in H2SO4. water-methanol-acetic acid (65:30:5).. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C 18 gymnemic acid mobile phase.5 ml/min. begin rotation. spray vanillin in H2SO4 HPLC: Hibar RT 250-10 kaempferol 3-0-glycoside (Lichrosorb RP-18 7u 250 quercetin 3-0-glycoside mm 10 nm i. hydrastine Rf 0. mobile phase. UV 365 nm. CHCl3-phosphate citric acid buffer (10 ml:10 ml) with discontinuously decreasing pH. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. 2 ml/min. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. 30 cm). water-quercetin 3-0rutinoside acetonitrile-acetic acid: flow rate. mobile phase. Start w/ 350 ml phase A. methanol-water (15% to 95%. acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (gradient). 2. detection.d. mobile phase. hydrastine Marrubium Marrubiin Passiflora Flavonoids.01 M potassium phosphate monobasic pH 5. hydrastine Rf 0. phase B: ethyl acetate. phase A: water. HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. i. flow rate. mobile phase. w/guard. 0. flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. increasing 3%/min). isohamnetol 3-0-rutinoside mobile phase.d. berberine.1 M phorphoric acid. flow rate.32 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Ephedrine HC1 HPLC: u BONDAPAK octadecylsilane C18 10u (8mm 10 cm): guard column. mobile phase. mobile phase. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18..0mm i. 1 ml/min. LC: Alumina eluted w/ ethyl ether-pet ether (8:2) TLC: kieselgel developed w/ CHC13-MeoH (95:5). canadine.1 ml/min.5 ml/min.d. 25 cm). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate-diethylamine (70:20:10). detection UV 278 nm. apigenin. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/CHC13-Me2CO (9:1). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (77:15:8).05. flow rate. TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ n-propanol-formic acid-water (90:1:9).9 i.6 mm. flow rate.
R1.25m 3 mm). flow rate. 1. tetrahydrofuranwater-methanol (gradient). 0.9 mm i. 25 cm) 2 in series. detection.9 mm 30cm).. helium flow. mobile phase.1:1).5 ml/min. mobile phase. 30% MeoH in 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate pH 7. 30 cm). UV 230 nm. pseudobaptigenin Vaccinium Arbutin. 300 mm). detection. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 (4. Carbowax-20M on 80–100 mesh Chromosorb W (2.d.6 mm i. flow rate. detection. HPLC: Water’s Fatty Acid.. methanol-water (27:73). TLC: Silica developed w/hexane-acetone (5:1) spray. cannivonine © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2.5 ml/min.6 mm i. genistein. 25 mm). 4 ml/ min.. UV 280 nm. detection. flow rate. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18 10u (4 mm i. capric acid Isoflavones. UV 250 nm w/ shift reagents. 1.5.0 ml/min. UV 280 nm. 25 cm).0) mm i. mobile phase. mobile phase. 30 ml/min.d. detection. HPLC: u BONDAPAK-phenyl (3.5 ml/min.9 mm 30 cm): mobile phase acetonitrile-tetrahydrofurane-water (45:20:35). flow rate. HPCL: u BONDAPAK C18 (3. caproic acid. caprylic acid. flow rate. flow rate. GLC: Yanaco-G8 w/ flame ion detector. mobile phase. UV 280 & 546 nm. formononetin.. pH 4 w/ phosphoric acid. formic acid-water-methanol (gradient). biochanin-A. mobile phase. HPLC: Develosil ODS-5. methanol-water (2. UV 313 nm. methanol-water acetic acid (19:71:10). HPLC: Lichrosorb RP-18 5m (4 250 mm). detection. flow rate.d. water-methanol-acetic acid (53:37:10).1.0 ml/min. mobile phase. UV 254 nm HPLC: Partisil-10 ODS-2 (4. methanol-water (15 to 95% increaseing 3%/min). detection.d. tetrahydrofuran-dioxanemethanol-acetic acid-phosphoric acid 5%-water (145:125:50:20:2:658). daidzein. HPLC: Hypersil ODS 3u (0. 150 mm). 2. flow rate 0. mobile phase. gomisin Catalpol Serenoa Trifolium Mannitol.d. mobile phase. 1.d.0 ml/min. water-acetonitrile (68:32)-5 mM tetra-n-amylammonium bromide. HPLC: u BONDAPAK C18.8 ml/min. 50% H2SO4.. detection. 70 to 200°C increasing 2°C/min.QUALITY CONTROL 33 Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system HPLC: Zorbax ODS (2. acetonitrile-water (gradient).3 ml/min.methanolacetic acid (42:50:8). analysis Column (3. Rumex Essential oils Salix Salicin Salicylic acid Schizandra Scutellaria Schizandrin. mobile phase.5 10 cm). HPLC: Spherisorb ODS II 3u. water. mobile phase. temp. mobile phase. prunitrin Calycosin. detection. UV 270 nm. HPLC: ODS (TSK gel LS-410) 5u (4mm i. photodiode array. flow rate. detection.
TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ toluene-ethyl acetate (75:25). detection. hazelnut shells. UV 254 nm. 5. 8.6mm i. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products. vitexinine 3. detection. or hamamelis leaves. acevaltrate.d. HPLC: u BONDPAK C18 (3. HPLC: Zorbax-ODS. etc. Powdered drugs are even more susceptible to adulteration by powdered waste products of suitable color and density. mobile phase. UV 256 & 206 nm.7 ml/min.8% methanol in hexane. powdered olive stones.4 (1:1). TLC: Kieselgel developed w/ hexane-methylethylketone (80:20). the color of the adulterant needs adjustment by roasting to the correct tint. senna. HPLC: LiChrosorb-RP-8. methanol-water (60:40). UV 298 nm. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . such as lobelia. for example.9 mm 30 cm). UV 254 nm.01 M ammonium carbonate (47:53). coconut shells. conc. mobile phase. Sometimes. detection. dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. detection. Substitution of exhausted drugs. such as adding citral to oil of lemon. vincamine Vitex Flavonoids. For example. Ailunthus species can be substituted for belladonna.d. GLC: 1. guaiacum wood. Substitution of apparently similar but cheaper natural substances. dextrin. etc. boiler scale. or benzyl benzoate to balsam Peru. cloves and umbelliferous fruits after preparation of their volatile oils. mobile phase. vitexin.0 ml/min.01 M Na2HPO4 pH 7. HPLC: Spherisorb Silica S5W (4. Addition of worthless heavy material such as sand. excessive amounts of stems might be present in drugs. for example. hydrogen flame ionization. 250 mm. 30 cm). and chestnut leaves for hamamelis leaves.34 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Suggested Chromatographic Applications Chart Note: This list is only suggestions and by no means comprehensive Marker or Genus major constituents Analytical system Valerian Valepotriates. flow rate. Vinca Sesquiterpenes. flow rate 10 ml/min. The dried exhausted material sometimes closely resembles the genuine drug. TLC: Kieselgel-DC eluted w/toluene-butanone (9:1). detection. flow rate. valtrate HPLC: uBONDAPAK C18 (mm i. 2. acetonitrile-0. mobile phase. UV detection before and after spraying with aturstoffreagent. detection. 2. 0.5% SE-30 Chromosorb W 60-80 mesh (2. 5u Chrompack). or lead shot. acetic acid-hydrochloric acid (2:8). valerosidatum. stone.1 M phorphoric acid. 2 connected in series. 1. scented bdillium for myrrh. The occurrence of large amounts of parts of the plant other than that which constitutes the drug. walnut shells. 7. stramonium.5 ml/min. acetonitrile-0. 6. peach and apricot kernels for almonds. detection. mobile phase.25 m 4 mm). mentha. valeranone Vincristine. 4. usually having no relation to the genuine drug. ethanol-water gradient containing 0. almond shells. Addition of barium sulfate to silver-grain cochineal and manganese dioxide to black-grain cochineal are other examples.
or blue fragments of leaf-like structures showing a slightly papillose epidermis. Leaves: Structures present: Epidermis with stomata. and crystals of calcium oxalate. fibrous layer of the anther wall. Barks and galls: Structures present: Sieve tubes and cellulose parenchyma. A little vascular tissue. Structures absent: Cork. Dilution better done on the slide. Rhizomes and Roots: Structures present: Cork and vascular tissues in varying amounts. 4 parts gum acacia dissolved in 6 parts water. Some form of carbohydrate reserve (e. hemicellulose. red. The powder is usually entirely lignified. consisting of small-sized elements only. cellulose parenchyma. Unorganized drugs: These can be sorted by first observing the solubility toward alcohol and then applying other tests.g.10 DIAGNOSTIC STRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT DRUG GROUPS 1. Frequently also trichomes. in powder.) Acacia.g.g. pericyclic and phloem fibers. palisade cells. and aleurone grains. xylem vessels. Fruits: Structures present: The same structures as for seeds and also more highly developed vascular tissues and other lignified and strongly built elements from the pericarp. starch grains. with a few pieces of spiral vessels and cellulose parenchyma. cutinized and suberized walls. Keep for 6 months. frequently particles of small seeds. sieve tubes. and parenchyma characteristic of herbaceous stems. Leaves from bulbs contain no chlorophyll. not very abundant small-sized vascular elements. papillose surface of the stigma. starch. Structures absent: Epidermal tissues. gloves. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pine and juniper). ordinary cellulose parenchyma. Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 7. 3. vessels. which often cross the fibers and vessels. 9. Herbs: Structures present: All structures characteristic of both leaves and flowers. To be used diluted with equal volume of water. palisade tissue. etc. 5. Nut shells and fruit stones. protective glasses. and medullary rays. Seeds: Structures present: Aleurone grains are always present. 6. Frequently also cork. which often contains starch in large amounts. Mucilage of: Alkanna. masks. or oil). the microscopical structure is a definite confirmation of the nature of the powder. Tincture of: Red with oils. glands. palisade cells. Vessels are absent from the wood of most gymnosperms (e..QUALITY CONTROL 35 3. Structures absent: Chlorenchyma. tracheids. and aleurone grains. Dusting powders: In addition to the specific chemical tests. Microscopical examination. however. fibers. Frequently also delicate yellow. 4. usually abundant parenchyma. especially the diagnostic epidermis. fibers. Woods: Structures present: Vessels. 8.. wood parenchyma. 2. will be useful for detecting any foreign structure or adulterant. Foliage leaves contain chlorophyll. resins. Flowers: Structures present: Pollen grains.. calcium oxalate crystals. often including a well-marked epidermis and a sclerenchymatous endocarp. oil cells and laticiferous cells or tubes). and occasionally secretory tissue (e. stone cells. consist almost entirely of lignified stone cells. 10. 1 part bruised Alkanet root macerated in 5 volumes alcohol (90%) for a week and then filtered. Also epidermis.
I. Let solution stand for approximately 12 hours and filter off the sodium acetate (precipitate). ligno. 0. Chlorinated Soda Solution: Used for clearing and bleaching. To be freshly prepared. H2O.I.6 g basic bismuth carbonate to 25 ml glacial acetic acid and boil 3 to 4 min. A saturated aqueous solution (about 1 in 30). and some mucilages. left for some time. The reaction is better carried out in the dark.36 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. To be freshly prepared by rubbing down 1 g copper carbonate in a mortar with 20 cc water and then gradually adding.5 ml D. Store in amber bottle. Dragendorff Reagent: Orange. Can be prepared by extracting some green leaves. gr. if necessary. Glycerine 5 ml Alcohol (ETOH) 10 ml D. filtered. Deteriorates on keeping. etc. Chloral Hydrate Solution: Used to clarify. killed by steam. with continued stirring. Solution of: Blue with oxidizing substances. 10 drops dilute nitric acid (1%) in 20 cc sulfuric acid. starch. Dissolve 10 g chromium trioxide in 15 cc nitric acid (70%) and add water to 100 cc. Bromine Water: Calberla’s Solution: For staining pollens. H2O 15 mil 2 drops Basic Fuchsin (saturated aqueous solution) 5. etc. Alcoholic Solution of: Green with oils. Erdmann’s Reagent: Alkaloids (phenanthrene) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .0 g sodium iodide and 2. Take 20 ml of the clear filtrate (red-brown) and mix with 80 ml ethyl acetate and 0. the mixture ocasionally shaken during 3 or 4 hours and then filtered. Corallin Soda: Red with callose . through glass wool. Add 7. with alcohol (90%) on a water bath. Braemer’s Reagent: Brownish precipitate with tannins. cellulose. Cuoxam or Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Oxide: (Schweizer’s Reagent) Dissolves cellulose. Chlor-Zinc-Iodine Solution: (Schulze’s Solution) Blue with cellulose and starch Chromic and Nitric Acid: For the disintegration and isolation of the elements of lignified tissues. gloves. To be freshly prepared.880). with 2 cc hydrochloric acid added. masks.0 g chloral hydrate is dissolved in 20 ml D. 1 g dissolved in 100 cc alcohol. 10 g sodium tungstate and 20 g sodium acetate dissolved in 100 cc water. then mixed with 20 g chlorinated lime triturated with 150 cc water. etc.I. Benzidine. protective glasses. 30 g zinc chloride dissolved in 10 cc water and to this is added a solution of 1 g iodine and 5 g potassium iodide in 4 cc water. H2O with the aid of heat. Chlorophyll. suberin. To be freshly prepared.) Aniline Chloride Solution of: Yellow with lignified walls. red color of precipitate with alkaloids. 20 cc strong ammonia (sp. 30 g crystalline sodium carbonate dissolved in 50 cc of water. 2 g dissolved in a mixture of 60 cc alcohol (95%) and 38 cc water. To be freshly prepared by mixing 1 volume of solution of 5% of corallin in alcohol (90%) with 20 volumes of 25% solution of sodium carbonate in water.
etc. mixed with a solution of 5 g potassium iodide in 20 cc of water. 1.27 g iodine and 0. colchicine) A mixture of 20 g phenol. 1 g calcium hydroxide shaken thoroughly and repeatedly with 100 ml water. dextrose). Froede’s Reagent: Alkaloids (opium) Glycerin. 1 g ammonium vanadate in 200 g sulfuric acid. on the label.75 g lead monoxide. e. protective glasses. Hydrochloric Acid: Dissolves calcium oxalate crystals.5 g potassium iodide dissolved in 3 ml water and made up to 100 ml. 20 g lactic acid. Set aside until clear. Dilute (10%) and concentrated (33%) Add 2 drops of the indicator to 5 cc of the liquid. Solution B: 176 g sodium potassium tartrate and 77 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc. the strong solution will dissolve silk. and 20 ml water. masks.64 g copper sulfate and 0. Dilute: Used for mounting. in powder. yellow or brown with proteins Lactophenol (Amann’s): Used for clearing and mounting. then sufficient recently boiled and cooled water is passed through the filter to produce 100 ml.353 g mercuric chloride in 60 ml water. gloves. 40 g glycerin.) Fehling’s Solution: Red precipitate with reducing substances such as reducing sugars (e.. and the clear liquid is siphoned when required for use. H2O prior to use. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gives yellow with colchicine. Ferric Chloride Solution: To detect tannins: (phenolic hydroxyl groups) Blue-black or green-black color is observed.0 g ferric chloride is dissolved in 60 ml D. note the coloration and read off from the table.I. Lime Water: Carbon dioxide Mandelins Reagent: Alkaloids (strychnine) Mayers Reagent — For Alkaloids: Precipitate with alkaloids (except the purine bases and certain other alkaloids. Indicator. H2O 1 ml stock solution is diluted with 9 ml D.. Universal: Approximate pH determination Iodine Solution: Brown precipitate with alkaloids and as iodine water. left aside for 48 hours with occasional shaking. filtered. and then diluted to 100 ml with water. the corresponding approximate pH. Solution A: 34. 1. 1 volume iodine solution diluted with 5 volumes water.g.QUALITY CONTROL 37 Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. 1. Lead Subscetate Solution: Granular precipitates with gums and mucilages. 1.5 g lead acetate in 75 cc water.I. 1 g ammonium molybdate in 100 ml sulfuric acid 1 volume glycerin diluted with 2 volumes water. Equal volumes of solutions A and B are mixed and boiled immediately before use. added to a solution of 2. Iodine Water: Blue with starch and amyloids.5 cc sulfuric acid dissolved in water and made up to 500 cc.g.
producing after some time groups of radiating needlecrystals with non-drying oils and granules with drying oils. and then diluted with equal volume of water. gloves. 10% aqueous solution containing 10% alcohol. 10. Millon’s Reagent: Red precipitate with proteins a-Naphthol: Followed by sulfuric acid gives violet with inulin and other carbohydrates. Picric Acid: Stains proteins yellow Potash. and disintegration of cellulosic tissues. Color reactions can be carried out in a white spot plate depression. suberin.01 g dissolved in 5 ml alcohol (90%). 10% alcoholic solution. cutin and oils Sulfuric Acid: Does not dissolve suberized and cutinized walls. Freshly prepared by dissolving 0. 2% solution in alcohol (90%). etc. Alcoholic Solution of: Potash. added to 50 g methyl alcohol under reflux condenser. Ruthenium Red: Red with many gums and mucilages. 5% potassium hydroxide in water. and cutin blue. add the reagent to the suspect material and observe the color changes for several minutes. Potassium Methoxide: Gives with santonin red to carmine-red color. Place a few milligrams of test sample in the depression and. Scarlet red added to saturate a mixture of 2 ml potash (10%). 1% alcoholic or aqueous solution. Store away from light. in small pieces. stains lignified walls red.008 gm in 10 cc of lead acetate solution (10%).) Methylene Blue: Stains some mucilages. 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Osmic Acid: Brown to black with oils Phloroglucin: With hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. 5 ml of glycerin added. 66. Scarlet Red (Scharlach R): Sudan or Soudan (Red) III: Red with suberin. 5 gm of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 100 ml of alcohol (90%). 1% solution in water. masks. Tannic Acid: Precipitates with proteins and alkaloids 0. It must be recently prepared. Caustic: Used for clearing. 7 ml alcohol (90%) and 1 ml of water. lignin. and 80% by volume. with a dropper or a glass rod.38 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Reagents For The Detection of Phytochemical Constituents by Color Reaction Caution: Extreme caution should be used when preparing the following reagents (fume hood. protective glasses. Ammoniacal Solution of: It saponifies fixed oil. Stick potash washed with water to remove the carbonate incrustation and then water added in a quantity sufficient to dissolve all the potash. 1 cc mercury dissolved in 9 ml fuming nitric acid in a flask placed in cooled water. Potash. dissolving certain cell contents.4% alcoholic solution. The saturated solution decanted and mixed with equal volume of strong ammonia 5 g potassium.
An intermediate solid extract used for further manufacturing. 5:1. F.E. Solid extract Powdered extract Homeopathic dilution Homeopathic preparations are official and have specific monographs for each botanical (see bibliography) Oil extract Native extract S. It is the solid portion that remains after distillation of the percolate.E. Since native extracts can be manufactured on many different types of matrices. Type of preparation Tincture Fluid extract Abbreviation Tinct. H.01 = 2x 0.1 = 1x (mother tincture) 0. of various dilutions: 1:1. 4x.3BG GLY 4.G.3-Butylene glycol Glycerin F. Digestion: Maceration with gentle heat 40–60°C 39 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . E. Properties Usually high in alcohol. but the solvent is glycerin. 5x. the extract manufacturer should be consulted when choosing the proper excipient (matrix) for a specific application. A water extract usually by infusing the herb or decocting.E.E. 1/10 or 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. etc.1. 60–90%. Contains no alcohol. A molasses consistency.1 FORMS OF EXTRACTS The following table is a quick guide as to the many forms of extraction on the market today. 0. Note: Start with a mother tincture (10% solution) 1x and dilute.001 = 3x Contains oil soluble constituents of the botanical. usually four to six times the strength of a fluid extract.3BG. Same as P. usually contains alcohol (20–60%).F.G. Same as P. For further manufacturing Aqueous extract Propylene glycol 1. 1. Same as a solid extract (S.P.G. 1 ml of fluid extract is the equivalent of the total extractives from 1 g dehydrated botanical. Expression: The process of forcibly separating liquids from solids. Full strength 1:1. Same as a solid extract except in powdered form. AQU P. An extract in P.4 Preparations 4. OLEUM N. 3x. etc.1 Extraction Terminology Maceration: Soaking a botanical in suitable solvent(s) for a specified period of time.G.) except it has not been adjusted to a definite strength. anywhere from several hours to 3 weeks (21 days) until the soluble portions are dissolved in the menstruum. P. but the solvent is 1.M. Serial type dilution and succussion.
also referred to as the spent herb. suction. water. If packed too tightly.g. or alcohol and water. Add enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. expression. acetone. 4. usually 48 hours..1. regardless of which of the two extractive processes are involved.2 Percolation General Method For Extracting Botanicals Moisten 1000 g (1 kg) powdered botanical with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum to render it evenly and distinctly damp and macerate for 6 hours in a tight covered container. the product will not percolate. the botanical is considered exhausted. Example: the percolation of water through wood ashes. etc. treatment with a solvent. gauze. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator. In pharmacy. and macerate for the prescribed time. Recover the alcohol from the remainder of the percolate and concentrate to a soft extract in a vacuum apparatus © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Menstruum: A term used to describe the solvent used to extract the botanical of its various constituents (e. Then open the (Hoffman clamp) valve and allow the percolation to proceed slowly. Percolator: (Laboratory scale) A cylindrical or conical vessel with a porous diaphragm (wire mesh. by traction. The percolate is usually tested for remaining actives. distillation. Continue percolation by gradually adding more menstruum over the herb until the botanical is exhausted. the solution commonly known as lye.). Marc: The botanical residue that remains after the extraction (percolation).40 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation: A displacement whereby a powdered or cut botanical. Collect and reserve the first 850 ml percolate.. Extraction: The act of withdrawing something from an organized structure or disorganized mass. by which it is exhausted of potash. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator. contained in a suitable vessel. cotton) below. Percolate: The solution coming from the percolator and containing the extracted substance. This will enable the plant cells to absorb the menstruum. having a bottom outlet. Extractive: The material dissolved by the soluble portion of the botanical when it is solubalized in the menstruum. the menstruum will channel. When no more actives remain. and to the removal of these constituents from the liquids in which they are held in solution by treatment of the solutions with immiscible solvents or by mechanical methods. if packed too loosely. in which the botanical is loaded and its soluble constituents are extracted by the descent of a solvent (menstruum) through it. is deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through it. close the lower orifice. giving a weak extract (see diagram). cover the percolator. or by chemical or physical means. etc. or. ether. extraction exclusively means the withdrawal of the soluble constituents from crude or partially refined drugs by treatment with suitable solvents. The packing of the percolator is very important.
mix thoroughly. then strain the liquid through cheesecloth or screen and pass enough cold water through the strainer to make the product measure 1 liter © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . preferably distilled. barks. Allow it to cool. and filter. Dissolve this residue in the reserved portion of the percolate.1. add a sufficient quantity of the menstruum to make the fluid extract measure 1000 ml (1 liter). roots.PREPARATIONS 41 Rotary evaporation unit (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Pilot plant (showing distillation and spray drying) (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) at a temperature not to exceed 45°C. Cover the vessel well and boil the mixture for 15 minutes. 4.3 Decoctions Decoctions are usually prepared by boiling the vegetable substance or substances that contain water-soluble and heat-stable constituents for a period of time. such as twigs. placed over it. Cut or powdered herb (60 g) is placed in a suitable vessel and 1 liter of cold water. These are usually the hard substances. etc.
In order to prepare an infusion. They are difficult to standardize and are unstable and particularly susceptible to attack by various fungi and bacteria. Allow it to stand for 15 minutes and then add the balance of the liter of boiling water. Note: Decoctions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. it should be placed in a refrigerator.42 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Percolation in lab (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Extraction department showing percolators (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) and filter. Let it set for approximately 1 hour and then strain as above and filter. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .4 Infusions Infusions are usually prepared from botanical substances containing water-soluble constituents. infusions will only last a few days unless preserved or frozen. Moisten the herb in water. Therefore. If hot water affects the constituents of the product. cold water should be used.1. Strain the mixture and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure 1 liter. the herb is usually cut or coarsely ground. preferably distilled. Cover the vessel tightly and allow it to stand approximately 30 minutes. 4. It is customary to use approximately 60 g herb in 1 liter of water. Refrigerate or preserve. Under refrigeration. after preparation of an infusion. Refrigerate or preserve.
which seems to work well.PREPARATIONS 43 Section of extactos and distillation (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) Microorganisms in Botanicals Most botanicals are either cultivated or gathered in the wild and are usually contaminated with fungi. However. Ethylene oxide (ETO) treatment is one form of sterilization. However. 4. Their advantages consist of greater convenience of administration and assimilation and in the fact that they have not been subjected to excessive heat. or other microorganisms and thus should be cleaned or sterilized before use. there is also CO2 sterilization. The other alternatives would be gamma-radiation. as well as cold filtration and pasteurization. Their distinct character is the concentration of the active constituents of botanical substances into a small bulk and in liquid form. which is very effective.1. However. Chemical and microtesting should be done before and after sterilization to determine which method is best for the particular botanical. heat sterilization can have a detrimental effect on some of the active constituents of the plant. especially in inactivating larvae. I have done several studies on this and found certain changes in compounds due to a reaction with ETO. Fluid extracts are prepared by © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bacteria.5 Fluid Extracts This form of extract was introduced into the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Micro department (biology plate) 1880 for the first time as a distinct class of preparations.
The most common menstruum are alcohol and water or vegetable glycerine. No vacuum concentration is used. take 10 to 20 ml fluid extract and Q. and evaporation. as strengths vary widely.44 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE maceration. * Note: All official extracts in the USP and NF were uniform in strength. they are higher in actives and do not require preservatives. Therefore. These dilutions are usually referred to in the cosmetic industry and the strength will vary according to the manufacturer. berberine. some manufacturers prepare extracts utilizing a known constituent (marker) and standardizing on that: for example. This applies only to true fluid extracts of a 1:1 strength where 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to the total extractives of 1 g crude dehydrated botanical. percolation. Add 1000 ml menstruum and let macerate for 7 to 14 days with shaking several times a day. They are also uniform in strength: 1 ml fluid extract is equivalent to 1 g dehydrated botanical. need preservatives. from either fresh or dry botanicals. Use 100 to 200 g dried botanical and add menstruum until 1000 ml percolate are collected. At present. 100 to 200 g dry botanical are needed to make 1000 ml (1 liter) of standard USP/NF tincture. all botanicals should be calculated on a dry weight basis and any moisture should be calculated as water. Extracts contain those substances that do not readily release their virtues to just plain water alone and do not readily precipitate. it would take 40 g herb to make 1 liter of 5:1 extract. depending on which combination will extract the virtues of that particular plant material.2). propylene glycol = 20% the strength of a fluid extract (1 kg herb to make 1 liter) or could be 20% the strength of a tincture (200 g herb to make 1 liter). and canadine. Therefore. 100 to 200 g botanical are placed into a suitably sized vessel with a tight lid. Berberine is abundant in other botanicals such as Berberis aquifolium and Berberis vulgaris. Golden Seal Root contains hydrastine.1. However.. or a combination thereof. Therefore.00 per pound). To convert fluid extracts to tinctures. Concentration/Standardization of Extracts 5:1 10:1 20:1 etc. Filter.1.6 Tinctures Most tinctures represent the active constituents of 10 to 20 g (dehydrated) botanical per 100 ml. However. Maceration is another procedure.G.S. A tincture can also be made by the same process as a fluid extract (see Section 4. there is really no standardization of cosmetic extracts. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and the solids are calculated. These are approximately 5% the cost of Golden Seal Root and would make an excellent adulterant (at present. Strain and press the botanical to remove all menstruum. Note: When preparing extracts or tinctures. check with the manufacturers.e. many companies are marketing liquid extracts of varying strengths. Pass additional fresh menstruum through the strainer until 1000 ml percolate are collected. with a 60% (approximate) aqueous ethanol solution. Usual laboratory method. The advantages that extracts have over infusions and decoctions are that decoctions and infusions are made with water. 5 g botanical are placed in a tared weighing dish and placed in an induced draft oven set at 105°C for 2 hours and then weighed. i. usually through a Whatman #1 or equivalent. they are 1/10 to 1/5 the strength of a fluid extract. Additionally. the proper standardization would be to standardize on the hydrastine instead of on the berberine. are weaker. and usually precipitate on standing. crude Golden Seal Root costs approximately $50. A typical example: 5:1 P.* 4. However. as they contain alcohol.
need no preservation. and repeat the shaking several times during a period of about 15 minutes. Add 1000 ml D. Crude Golden Seal Root contains approximately 1. Alternative Solution Method: Thoroughly incorporate the volatile oil (or the suitably comminuted volatile solid) with 15 g talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. Pilular extracts are viscous semisolid products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums) and carefully evaporating the solutions to the proper consistency.5 to 4% hydrastine — C21H21N6 — depending upon the size.I. to obtain a clear filtrate. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml. and contain very little water.I. Powdered extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry and prepared either as granular or fine powders. 2.I. if necessary. age. and conveniently stored in tightly stoppered containers. 4. or distilled water. 4. returning the first portions. and pass enough D. They offer high concentrations of active ingredients. Their odors and tastes are similar. respectively.PREPARATIONS 45 Berberine is what gives Golden Seal Root its beautiful yellow color. Separate the excess oil. and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes. They are also stable and have a longer shelf life than other forms of extracts. filtering if necessary. carefully evaporating the solutions to obtain the prescribed consistency. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and adjusting the products to a fixed standard. carefully avoiding the development of empyreumatic odors through the charring or scorching of the substances. Set the mixture aside for 12 hours or longer. Avoid excessive heat.I. Distillation: Place the odoriferous portion of the plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still with sufficient D. or other specified volatile substance D. preferably 1/2 gallon to 1 gallon size. Powders are usually prepared from native extracts. and preserve or use the clear water portion.I. Note: Aromatic waters should be preserved and kept away from light. spray dried. while hydrastine is colorless. and they should be free from empyreumatic and other foreign odors. which lowers shipping costs. or powdered products prepared by exhausting drugs with appropriate solvents (menstruums). Aromatic waters can be prepared by one of the following processes: 1. 2a.I.8 Comparison of Extracts and Tinctures Extracts are either viscous semisolid masses. native extracts are resinous and of a honey-like consistency. a sufficient quantity. Solution: The volatile oil. Then filter the mixture. The native extract is usually vacuum dried.7 Preparation of Aromatic Waters Aromatic waters are basically saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in D. To make 2 ml or 2 g 1000 ml Shake the volatile substance (suitably comminuted if a solid) with 1000 ml purified water in a bottle. or distilled water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 ml.1. or distilled water.1. preferably kept in a cool area. to those of the botanical or volatile substances from which they are prepared. or distilled water to cover the botanical and distill most of the water. and add enough D. dry solid. filter through wetted filter paper. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts because they can be more accurately weighed. easily dispensed. and time of year collected. or distilled water. or oven dried.
and Standardization Dilutions of 5:1. butylene glycol. as most 1:1 botanical extracts are dark in color. Obviously. in a true strength extract. The starting botanical. glycerin. fresh or dried. Tinctures of extracts in propylene glycol. or roots of plants (see above). a 1:5 extract is just the opposite. is always measured on the dry basis. A typical 5:1 extract could be 20% of a fluid extract (where one part botanical yields 1 part fluid extract) or 20% of a tincture (where one part botanical yields 5 to 10 parts extract). are often found in the cosmetic literature. liquid into powders) the cosmetic industry has been using extract (Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) strengths of 5:1. 10:1. in a cosmetic formulation. bark. Dry 2 hours in an induction oven at 105°C.* 4. etc. etc. Concentration. In Europe. This is very controversial. A 5:1 extract in propylene glycol (P. tinctures. However.9 Extract Strengths A note on the strengths of extracts. However. The true strength will vary. as described in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. creating many difficulties to the formulating chemist. consult with the manufacturer as to the strength and how the strength was determined: by dry weight or fresh weight. as a 5:1 extract contains the total extractives of 20 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent.10 Product Strength. A 1:1 extract represents the total extractive 100 g dehydrated botanical in 100 g solvent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . these extract strengths are contrary to the previous definition. the moisture content would have to be calculated so that one starts with a known dry weight.** * The Homeoopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. etc.3-butylene glycol.1.). most botanicals will lose approximately 80% of moisture during the drying process. therefore. a 5:1 extract would be one part extract is the equivalent of five parts total extractives of dehydrated botanical. Because of the rather high ethyl alcohol content in these preparations.1. depending on the manufacturer. whereby one part extract is the equivalent of five parts of total extracIndustrial size spray dryer (used to convert tives of the dehydrated botanical. The dry weight of the herb is usually determined gravimetrically at 105°C. 4. would represent 20% of a 1:1 extract. If it was calculated from fresh weight. would be too concentrated in many instances. should contain appropriate preservatives and most can be manufactured at the same strengths as alcoholic tinctures or extracts. preservatives are not needed and the result is a pure liquid containing active constituents. etc. ** Weigh 5 g ground botanical into a tared weighing dish. in the United States. Reweigh and calculate the dried weight. 1997. 1. Tinctures are usually processed by maceration and/or percolation of the leaves.46 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solutions of botanical extracts and are approximately 1/10 the strength of fluid extracts. Recently. 10:1. a 1:1 extract.G. etc. glycerin. To avoid confusion.
One should always check with the manufacturer as to the strength system reflected in the product name. European manufacturers designate a 5:1 extract as being prepared by 5 kg of the dried botanical making 1 kg finished extract. the entire plant works as a sedative much better and without side effects compared with the isolated constituents.S. and HPLC) are available to assay these active constituents.15 to 0. Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis L. American manufacturers have been reporting this ratio as 1:5. and canadine. Thus. they are not practical to work with in cosmetic formulations.5% of essential oil. This would cause the berberine. However.04%). Ranunculaceae) contains hydrastine. actually the ratio of the crude drug to extract. fixed and volatile oils. the former designation is becoming the standard. and then on valeric acid. Golden Seal extracts could be standardized to any or all. while a 5:1 cosmetic grade extract would theoretically contain 0. then a 1:3 or 3:1 extract ratio should theoretically contain four © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. Berberine from other botanicals could be used to adulterate the extract. dark in color. Analytical procedures (TLC. and not soluble in most cosmetic products. and starches to be significantly reduced.8% (actual yields are greater than 0. Selective extraction of one ingredient could lead to a severe weakening or even absence of other ingredients. Crude Golden Seal Root (depending on the age of the root and time of year collected) contains approximately 1. However. European and American manufacturers use different strength systems. 1 kg extract is prepared from 5 kg dried botanical. that is.5 to 4. Many herbal practitioners and cosmetic chemists find that the ingredients in holistically balanced herbal extracts work better synergistically to give improved performance over the isolated single ingredient. valerenic acid is used as a marker in order to determine the strength of the extract. A 5:1 pharmaceutical grade extract would theoretically contain 7. berberine. Research indicates that neither of these constituents are the active. which has been standardized on valepotriates. With the preponderance of European botanicals entering the U. Since berberine (which gives the Golden Seal its yellow color) is available in quantity from other botanicals (Berberis vulgaris. which is approximately 20 times less costly). canadine. it would make sense to standardize on hydrastine rather than berberine. GLC.. A perfect example would be Valerian Root extract. Many pharmaceutical botanical extracts are very resinous. If the dried plants contain 0. While pharmaceutical grade extracts are 5 to 10 times stronger. resins. while 5:1 cosmetic grade extracts are prepared so that 1 kg botanical produces 5 to 10 kg extract. To make a Golden Seal extract with a 25 to 30% hydrastine content. no one knows for sure what the active compound is in valerian.PREPARATIONS 47 Extract Comparison 5:1 PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from 5 kg crude botanical 5:1 COSMETIC GRADE EXTRACT: 1 kg extract is made from approximately 100 to 200 g crude botanical Example: 5000 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (pharmaceutical grade) approximately 200 g crude to make 1 kg of 5:1 (cosmetic grade) 5:1 Pharmaceutical grade extracts are prepared so that 5 kg botanical produces 1 kg extract. This would also destroy the holistic balance of the extract. extreme extraction procedures would have to be used.0% hydrastine. standardization can be carried to the extreme.5 to 20% (actual yields are greater than 5%) hydrastine. Standardization would appear to provide a more scientific basis for reporting strength.
either fixed or volatile.48 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE times the amount of oil. consisting of an oil.5% oil.g. However. ether. followed by evaporation of the solvent.11 Oleoresins Oleoresins are extracted from the crude botanicals using various solvents (e.8% essential oil. oily resinous mass remains.1. or 1. which makes them hard to dissolve in cosmetic preparations. holding resin and sometimes other active matter in solution. A thick. Oleoresins are decidedly more potent than fluid extracts. 1997. there are usually losses during extraction.* * The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States. 4. However. most are difficult to work with due to their gummy nature. an extract of Valerian Root representing 3x the crude should contain not less than 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Therefore. alcohol. or other suitable solvent) and filtration..
Moisturizing. if one walked through a forest on a spring day. hair growth. Carminative. This is the essence of aromatherapy. cleanser. Anti-inflammatory. anxiety. wrinkles. This. 49 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . aphrodisiac. calming anger.2 PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR USE IN AROMATHERAPY Essential oil Angelica Root Angelica archangelica Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Basil Ocymum basilicum Bay Pimenta racemosa Benzoin Styrax benzoin Cardamon Elettaria cardamomum Chamomile German Matricaria chamomila Clarry Sage Salvia sclarea Frankincense Boswellie carterii Ginger Root Zingiber officinale Jasmine Jasminium odoratissimum Properties Carminative. Poor memory. tonic. which are the concentrated aromatic part of the plant. Some examples of the concept of aromatherapy would be the burning of incense. hair growth. aromatherapy is rapidly becoming one of the more popular forms of holistic healing. sadness. For example. thereby reducing stress. Some say these oils are the herbal energy of the botanical and represent the heart and soul of the plant. Stimulates scalp. antidepressant. Revitalizing. while others are said to lift one’s spirits. 5. Skin elasticity. energy imbalance. Essential oils stimulate the nerves and the olfactory system. Aromatherapy utilizes essential oils. soothing. digestive problems. digestive problems. exhaustion. nervous fatigue. Aromatherapists believe that the oils are picked up by the nerve endings and passed on until they eventually reach the pituitary gland.5 Aromatherapy 5. a field of clover or the relaxing tranquil fragrance of lavender.1 HISTORY Although its use can be traced back thousands of years to the ancient Egyptians. aromatic waters. one might sense the invigorating fresh scent of pine. and perfumes. aphrodisiac. in turn. antispasmodic. impotence. Certain oils are known to be calming and relaxing. euphoric. mental strain. Cell regeneration. soothing. revitalizing. euphoric. antispasmodic. mild stimulant. scalp stimulant. poor memory. affects the adrenals. loneliness. Stimulant. Stimulant. antidepressant.
Note: Never use essential oils for internal use. moisturizes. VT. Fabrice. euphoric. wrinkles. etc. uplifting. uplifting during depression. La Medicine Par Les Fleurs. 1984. Mood elevating. shampoos. Walden. calming. Valnet. cell proliferant. The Aromatherapy Handbook. amara) Antidepressant. Therefore. anti depressant. Rochester. If the reader has further interest. bath oils. These oils can be compounded into massage creams. The Practice of Aromatherapy. Aging skin. house sprays. This is only a brief review of aromatherapy. Aging skin. 1982. approximately 2 to 4 drops of essential oil can be placed in a bath. Essex. inflammations. mouth ulcers. vaporizers.W. antidepressant. grief. Destiny Books. Danielle. Saffron. very little is needed. 1976. Ryman. lotions. England. stimulates metabolism. Lemon Citrus limonia Melissa Melissa officinalis Myrrh Commiphora molmol Rose Rosa centifolia Sandal wood Santalum album Neroli citrus aurantium (var. shock. opens psychic centers. I recommend the following books: Bardeau. Daniel Company. C. Jean. Nervous tension. Antidepressant. Essential oils are very concentrated. Example: to be effective. anxiety.50 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lavender Lavendula officinalis Anti depressant. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and closing somewhat at night and on cloudy days. The flower is single. 51 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . high. The leaves are two. slender.1 HABITAT.6 Botanicals — For Cosmetic Use 6. Yellow Snowdrop Part Used: Dried aerial part Habitat and Range United States Description Grows in moist meadows. Adder’s Tongue is an indigenous. and fawn-colored externally. about 5 in. and 3 or 4 in. with purplish or brownish spots. The segments of the perianth are oblong-lanceolate. spotted near the base. obtuse. The scape is naked. yellow. subradical. and one of them nearly twice as wide as the other. pale-green. and involute at the point. long. flowers in April or May. Stamens Adders Tongue * Formerly CTFA. perennial herb. RANGE. INCI* Name Erythronium americanum Oil Erythronium americanum Extract Part Used: Seed Herb Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Serpents Tongue. the inner ones being bidentate near the base. which is white internally. droping. AND CONSTITUENTS A ADDERS TONGUE Erythronium americanum L. lanceolate. expanded and revolute in the sunshine. liliaceous. DESCRIPTION. PROPERTIES. with a cormus or bulb at some distance below the surface.
It is much branched at the summit.. The leaf and stem contain luteolin 7-0-B-glucoside. pyrogallic acid. *INCI Name Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) Powder Part Used: Leaves Dried herb CAS#: 84775-40-6 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Stickwort Cocklebur Liverwort (England) Part Used: Dried herb Habitat and Range British Isles. Heinz. Agrimonia has a bitterish. Cavalitto. from to 1 foot long. racemose spike. J.2 The Chinese use the whole herb of Agrimonia pilosa for hematemesis. in hedges and fields and by ditches. and borne in a dense. and tapering. The leaves are alternate. and covered with a soft. The oil is used externally for wounds and various cuts and abrasions. 8th ed. functional bleeding. having from 3 to 5 or 7 oblong-ovate. This taste is strongest in the root. long. silky pubescence. epistaxis. A poultice of the plant has been applied to boils. 1975. Soc. The whole herb and root contains. pyrocatechol. Its odor is aromatic. anthers oblong-linear. de Gruyter. Am. producing numerous heads. and hematuria. agrimonol (= agrimonine). hooked bristles. the seeds rather numerous and ovoid. The calyx-tube is curiously fluted with 10 ribs. coarsely serrated leaflets. In vitro study of an aqueous extract inhibited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and especially more fragrant when in bloom. Drogenkunde. 52 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and three-valved. Properties Emollient. interruptedly pinnate. nearly smooth beneath. harsh. terminating in three undivided stigmas. yellow. The flowers that bloom in July and August are small.1. mild tonic. fibrous. which is somewhat aromatic. Chem. between which are interspersed several smaller ones. et al. AGRIMONY Agrimonia Eupatoria L. A. Hoppe. W. longer than the stamens.1 An ethanol extract has shown anti-viral effects against Colombia Sk virus in mice. and of reddish-brown color. Pub. The capsule is oblongobovate. Berlin. growing to the height of 2 or 3 ft having stems but little branched. The root is long. subastringent taste. and phlobaphene. No further analytical data available.. antiscrofulous. The aqueous extract has been shown to have activity against G + Ve and G – Ve bacteria. conical. flowering in July and August. style club-shaped. agrimonolide. and surmounted with reddish. 1946. 68. with a loose membranous tip. 1. three-lobed at top.six. Ovary obovate. and anti-inflammatory. Description Agrimony is a perennial herb. diuretic. Properties Its action is a mild astringent. 2. 2332. but unpleasant.2 Constituents -Methylene butyrolactone2 C5H6O2.. filaments flat..
1. glycosides. and polysaccharides. triterpenes. tonic. Constituents Tannins. Peter-Horvath. after which a good face cream should be applied. The bark is dark gray and ridged. which are roundish. Gaertn *INCI Name Part Used: Alnus glutinosa Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Common Alder. *INCI Name Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Extract EU NAME Medicago sativa Part Used: N/S N/S CAS #: 84082-36-0 Family: Leguminosae Synonyms: Lucern Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Grassland on chalk soils. 29(2). phytosterin. citric acid and silicic acid. 153-157. apigenin. and also to help relieve dandruff. southwest Asia. choline. quercitrin. eupatorin. et al.. as do other types of face packs. United States. usually abrupt at the tip. Properties Alnus glutinosa Astringent. gum.. flavonoids.. glutinous. wavy-serrated. fruiting tops. Alder also helps to unclog pores. nicotinic acid. Dermato-Vernol. Scottish Mahogany Part Used: Bark. It was also used when mixed with flour (oat) as a face pack for cleansing. volatile oil. Ser. 190-193. 1994. Med. catechin. Patrascu. ursolic acid. M.. V. organic acids. alterative. It reportedly tightens the skin and increases blood flow. wedge shaped.ALFALFA 53 Constituents Tannin. luteolin. 10(2). this should only be done once a week. Fruit “cones” last through winter and are joined in spring by yellow-green catkins and sticky new shoots.. et al. 1964. 7-0-B-glucoside. Rev. sharply and deeply incised in some varieties until late autumn. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . an infusion of the leaves was used as a hair rinse to help prevent hair loss. and minerals. Description The tree attains 25 m in height and keeps its leaves. 2. ALFALFA Medicago sativa L. However. Europe. ALDER Alnus glutinosa L. leaves Habitat and Range Fast-growing riverside tree.
Alfalfa is also high in minerals. The stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm and bear trifoliate leaves. etc. Further reading is recommended. and Barbados Islands. boron.50% (5 grams. Properties Used in facial steams. which would suggest its use in baths. The texture is waxy. the leaflets being narrowly obovate and the margin serrate in the apical third with an acute apex. hair rinses. The papilionaceous flowers have pedicels about 2 mm long and the corolla is purple or blue. Curacao aloe is an inspissated juice. The surface is dull and smooth. Alfalfa is also very rich in protein. insect bites. lotions. *INCI Name Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe barbedensis barbedensis Extract barbedensis Gel barbedensis Part Used: Plant material — leaves Leaves Juice from leaves N/S CAS#: 85507-69-3 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Curacao Aloes Part Used: Leaf and leaf inner gel Alfalfa Habitat and Range Africa. hair treatments. saponin.50% moisture and the average solids being 0. sun poisoning. Properties The inner gel is used for sunburn. this has not been verified. which can be of benefit as a vegetal protein source in hair conditioners. The size of the pieces is variable. To date. vitamins E and K and numerous water-soluble vitamins. cuts. Constituents Some recent analytical data suggest aloe contains over 130 different constituents. West Indies. The fruit is a spirally twisted legume with two to three turns.54 ALOE Description Lucerne is an erect or ascending perennial plant with a deep root system. The flowers are borne in axillary racemes of 7 to 10 flowers and about 3 to 4 cm long. emodin) and iso-barbaloin plus O-glycosides of barbaloin called aloinosides. bath gels. and burns. Description Curacao aloes occur as solidified masses packed in boxes or large gourds. scratches. Aloe is a subject by itself and is too large to cover in this handbook. a mild exfoliant in oils. carotene. creams. and tannin. The outline of the broken pieces is irregular. The odor is strongly aromatic. The color varies from orange-brown to blackish-brown. calcium and trace minerals. The © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions. Constituents The leaf is rich in protein. Aloe gel placed in an induced draft oven for 2 h at 105°C). Aloe contains 99. The outer rind contains a bitter yellow latex composed of the anthraquinone barbaloin (a glucoside of aloe. chrysophanic acid. oils. The fracture is conchoidal. ALOE Aloe vera L. etc. The taste is intensely bitter and pungent. irritated skin. etc. and is employed in skin creams.
Macintosh. glucomanine.ARBOR VITAE 55 inner gel is devoid of anthraquinone glycosides. Constituents Malic acid. The inner gel contains a polysaccharide. Also used in face creams and lotions as a mild exfoliant. ARBOR VITAE Thuja Occidentalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sugars. Delicious. Granny. Aloe vera APPLE Pyrus malus L. Rome. and pectin. It contains malic acid. *INCI Name Apple (Pyrus malus) Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Leaf Extract Apple (Pyrus malus) Pectin Pyrus malus Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Fresh cider Part Used: Fruit Description Common apple. Properties Excellent in hair rinses to give golden highlights to light hair (in an acid medium).
*INCI Name Arnica montana Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. and polyps. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. Wolf’s Bane. having pale. and mucilage. long. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. containing thujone. moles. Constituents Arbor Vitae contains volatile oil. Cones oblong. soft durable wood. shoddy bark and light. The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. Properties Arbor Vitae is said to have antiviral activity and has been used to treat warts. both internally and externally. flavonoids. It has been used to treat cancer and has been incorporated into liniments as a counter irritant. mountain slopes of eastern Canada. Part Used: Plant material-flowers Flowers and roots N/S CAS#: 8057-65-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Arnica Flowers. Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. wax. in height. tannins. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. ⁿ in. Leopard’s Bane Part Used: Medicinal flowering heads © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .56 ARNICA Thuja *INCI Name Thuja Occidentalis Part Used: Leaves Family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: White Cedar Thuja Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Swamps. ARNICA Arnica montana L.
1 part herb and 10 parts 70% ethanol. including application to unbroken skin that has been bruised (black and blue marks). edema. tubular flowers perfect. about 1 cm long. Arnica tincture DAB 10. sprains. the tincture is usually diluted to 10%. Properties Various uses as a stimulant to increase blood circulation. The heads are discoid and homogamous. receptacle slightly convex. fatty acids (fumaric. dark brown. dark green and pubescent. Arnica should not be used on broken skin. Note: There can be side effects. the pappus plumose and sessile. and the cypsella not beaked. patuletin.ARTICHOKE 57 Description Consisting chiefly of tubular and ligulate flowers. with subspinose. ARTICHOKE Cynara scolymus L. Description This plant is perennial. In mouthwashes. pectolin arigenin). leaves. northern Mediterranean. Sesquiterpene lactones. the involucre dilated and imbricate. finely striate. *INCI Name Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Extract Habitat and Range Rich soils. the receptacle setaceous. glandular-pubescent and surmounted by a pappus a little longer than the cypsella and composed of a single circle of nearly white barbellate bristles. Odor characteristic and agreeable. isorhamnetin. polyacetylenes. emarginate and pointed. kaempferol. malic).to 12-veined. usually with the involucre and receptacle present. stamens without a tail-like appendage. Arnica has antiphlogistic effects and in some cases can be antiseptic and analgesic. and undivided leaves. stearic). root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . deeply pitted and densely short-hairy. ray flowers yellow. Combines well with various other herbs to stimulate hair growth but is only to be applied to unbroken skin. Topically. Arinca montana Constituents Over 10 flavonoid glycosides (including glucosides of betuletol. palmitic. Has been used for hematomas. Arnica oil usually employed at a maximum of 15%. and essential oil. reddish yellow. pinnate. 5 to 7 mm long. the cypsella spindle-shaped. with fleshy bases. the scales ovate. inflamed insect bite. pistillate. ointments usually contain 20 to 25% tincture. the ligulate portion up to 2 cm long more or less folded lengthwise. three-toothed. taste bitter and acrid. and surface phlebitis. due to its ability to increase circulation and prevent clotting. and alpha-hydroxy acids (lactic. lauric. involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate. xanthophylls. quercetin. 7. inflammation of the oral mucosa. Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84012-14-6 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Globe artichoke Part Used: Flower heads.
ascorbic acid. trace minerals.58 ARTICHOKE Properties Helps to increase circulation. and is said to lower cholesterol levels. Artichoke stimulates the secretion of bile. peroxidase. protein. cholagogue. bread crumbs. and hypocholesterolytic. artichoke is also reportedly used to treat hardening of the arteries. Around the holidays. choleretic. cynarin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Artichoke Constituents Numerous enzymes (i. Also employed in jaundice. to help treat liver damage from alcohol abuse. vitamins. cynadase. and over 80 compounds with cynarin and luteolin being active. Cynarin reportedly is hepatoprotective. diuretic.. beta-carotene. and extra virgin olive oil steamed first then baked. sterols. tannin. artichoke extract would lend itself nicely to products where an increase in circulation is needed. Italians say artichokes are good for keeping the blood thin especially after a heavy meal. Cosmetically.e. ascorbinase). garlic. flavonoids. oxydase. Italians eat the artichoke leaves prepared with parsley.
These buds are sessile. Properties Aromatic antiseptic. is found along roadsides or streams from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Georgia. The color is reddish brown. sores. Herbalists use it for treating colds. The buds are simple or clustered in twos. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. It is a stimulating expectorant. and is covered with a thin coat of sticky resin. leaves Habitat and Range The Balm-of-Gilead tree. buds Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Balsam poplar. twigs. The apex is acute. The surface of the imbricated scales is smooth. They measure up to 13 mm in width and up to 28 cm in length. Description Balm of Gilead buds occur as solitary buds and agglutinated masses of buds. * Formerly CTFA. or in threes occasionally. The inner surface is more stocky that the outer. and various skin diseases. The base is truncate or depressed. The scales enclose numerous undeveloped leaves. 59 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The taste is pungent and bitter. balm buds Part Used: Buds. cuts. The margin has projecting points of scales.B BALM OF GILEAD Populus tacsmahacca Mill Populus candicans Air *INCI Name Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gilidensis) Extract Popular (Populus candicans) Extract Part Used: Buds Leaves. The odor is balsamic. Has been used on blemishes. which has mostly escaped from cultivation. resinous substance.
taste distinctive. very bitter. color more pronounced upon wetting. *INCI Name Berberis vulgaris Berberis vulgaris Extract Part Used: Dried Rhizome/root Root bark CAS#: 8054-40-8 Family: Berberidaceae Synonyms: Pipperidge Bush. tinges saliva yellow. pith of rhizome small. acetophenone. Odor slight. North America. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . usually splitting somewhat on drying. jateorrhizine. magnoflorine. Properties Astringent. Bactericidal. salicin. volatile oil. sometimes excentric. bark 1 mm in thickness. externally light yellowish brown.7-di-o-methyl quercetin. pinocembrin.60 BARBERRY Constituents Resin. galangin. wood yellow. longitudinally wrinkled and scaly. Internally used to treat liver disorders. True Bay. izalpinin. easily separable into layers. distinctly radiate. on chewing. and the Middle East. Berberine. gallstones. chrysin and apigenin. BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris L. mistakenly called Oregon Grape Root Part Used: Bark of root and/or stem Habitat and Range Woodland. berbamine. populin. 3. Description Cylindrical. and columbamine BAY LAUREL Laurus nobilis L. *INCI Name Laurel Part Used: Dried leaf Family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Sweet Bay Laurel. Used in shampoos and hair rinses to add highlights to light-colored hair. usually cut into pieces of varying length and up to 45 mm in diameter. Europe. Flavonoids. Berberis is said to dilate blood vessels Constituents Contains myricinic acid (an acrid astringent resin). and showing rings of growth. volatile oil. isoquinoline alkaloids including palmatine. 5-0-methylgalangin. rhamnetin. fracture hard and tough. bervulcine. knotty. farnesene D-alpha-bisabolol. strongly branched. circulatory stimulant. Grecian Laurel. tannic and gallic acids. oxyacanthine. has been used for indolent ulcers. Mediterranean Bay Part Used: Dried leaf Barberry Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region.
catechins. pale yellow flowers. gallic and ellagic acids.1% volatile oil that is composed mainly of cineole (30 to 50%). alkaloids. Properties Sweet Bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. due to its high tannin content. undersurface yellowish-green. Asia. Herbalists use it to treat cystitis. covered. and volatile oil. the arbutin works best in an alkaline medium. base acute. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. odor slight. -terpineol acetate. Uvaursi is astringent. along with methyl arbutin.BEARBERRY 61 Description It is an evergreen tree with small. Italians use an infusion of Bay Leaf and Fennel Seed to help alleviate colic in infants: two to three Bay leaves and five to six Fennel seeds boiled in 1 pint of water. Uva-ursi owes its benefits to its high content of the glycoside arbutin. and used also to treat scar tissue and freckles. glabrous. slightly pubescent. Constituents 0. cooled and placed in a baby bottle. slightly revolute. Constituents Phenolic glycosides espressed as arbutin (6–10%). Treating small areas works best. soaps. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . However. margin entire. lotions. and plant acids. It is said to be diuretic and have antibacterial activity. spatulate. syringic and p-coumaric acids. Northern and Central Europe. 12 to 30 mm in length. Description Leaves obovate. shiny black berries. Bearberry is also said to inhibit the formation of tyrosine and melanin. hydroquinone derivatives. astringent. taste slightly bitter. tapering. The leaf also contains germacranolides. quercetin. Spr. hyperoside. ursolic acid.3 to 3. upper surface dark green. -pinene. 5 to 13 mm in breadth. Eng *INCI Name Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS #: 84776-10-3 Family: Ericaceae Synonyms: Kinnikinik/Uva-ursi Parts Used: Leaves Habitat and Range North America. brittle. summit obtuse. Properties Bearberry leaf has been used to treat urinary disorders. It is also wise to avoid sunlight to prevent repigmentation. finely reticulate. texture coriaceous. The hydroquinone is used as a skin bleaching agent. and others. as large areas can give skin a marble effect. linalool. -terpineol. and glossy aromatic foliage. and detergents. petiole about 3 mm in length. perfumes. BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. phenolcarboxylic acids.
. promotes tissue repair.. SEE GALIUM BED STRAW. 20 to 50 cm high. Properties Restoring. Good for skin ulcers.0 ppm) and is said to lower blood sugar levels... clears toxins.. antiseptic. sores. 1989.. and Asia. 55% carbohydrate. about 5 mm long.1 Promotional literature lists almost 100 vitamins. 1854. scabs... 4 mm wide. See GALIUM BEE POLLEN Apis mellifera *INCI Name Pollen Extract Part Used: Flower pollen Family: Apidae Synonyms: Pollen Part Used: Plant pollens collected by worker bees. minerals.. dissolving. leaves CAS#: 84082-34-8 Family: Vacciniaceae Synonyms: Huckleberry.. Pollen is used as a source of food for the male drones.... California. only slightly paler beneath. Bee pollen is a good source of nutrients and would lend itself well in cosmetic and hair care formulations.. 1 to 2% fat. and to replace retina purple.. reducing the hole at the entrance to the beehive. amino acids.. The commercial collection of pollen is done by placing a screen. Properties Astringent for eyecare products. Pollen is a combination of plant nectar and bee saliva. 9. 3 to 5 cm long. leaves Habitat and Range Woods..... German Commission E Monograph states that Bilberry leaf tea is used for treatment and prevention of diabetes melitus..... Description Dwarf shrub. and abscesses. anti-inflammatory... Hurtleberry Part Used: Fruits. A tea of the leaf is high in chromium (approx.. JAMA. G... 1.. restrains infection.. eruptions. This is taken up in a collection vessel. leaf-blades thin.. Constituents Contains approximately 30% protein. wounds. enzymes...62 BED STRAW..... *INCI Name Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Extract Part Used: Fruit.. Whortleberry.. Michigan.1 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... 262. and ulcers.. softening. therefore forcing the bees to leave it behind as they enter the hive. combined with plant nectar and bee saliva Description Bee pollen consists of various plant pollens collected by worker bees. and other compounds identified in bee pollen. British Columbia. berry 8 to 10 mm in diameter.. sores. reducing visual eye fatigue.. tonic. Wyoming...... corolla ovoid-lanceolate. and 3% minerals and trace vitamins.. boils.. BILBERRY Vaccinum myrtillus L..... Mirkin. The bees carry the pollen with their hind legs. Europe. The extract of the berries recently has been shown to be useful for increasing the strength of capillaries.. ovate. reduces inflammation.
White Birch. Constituents 10 to 15% Betulin (Betula camphor). The oil has the familiar smell of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) and is used to fragrance soaps and as a flavoring in candy. BLACK COHOSH Cimicifuga racemosa (L. New Age Herbalist. Bugbane. The tea of the leaves is also diuretic and is said to dissolve kidney and bladder stones. betuloside. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . myrtillin. psoriasis. gaultherin. ascorbic acid. parts of Arctic Siberia. ursolic acid. German Commission E Monograph. Descriptions A medium-sized tree commonly known as the White Paper or Canoe Birch having white bark that separates in layers and shows numerous lenticels and ovate. essential oil. quinic acid. 76. Squaw Root. fatty acids. Europe. Macmillan. apigenin dimethyl ether. Rattleroot. R. 4-23-87. and in North America in open woods at the edges of dense forests from Ontario to Tennessee and west to Missouri.BLACK COHOSH 63 Constituents Tannins. 1988..1 The leaves are said to be antibacterial and used by herbalists to treat gout and rheumatism. Rattleweed. naturalized in northern North America. 1. Properties The bark. peonidin glucosides. betulol. and eczema. doubly-serrate leaves that are slightly hairy and glandular-dotted on the veins beneath. betuloresnic acid. New York. North Asia. arbutin. BIRCH Betula alba L. 1. *INCI Name Birch Birch Birch Birch Birch (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula (Betula alba) alba) alba) alba) alba) Bark Extract Extract Leaf Extract Oil Sap Part Used: N/S Leaves and bark N/S N/S Tapping of the tree CAS#: 84012-15-7 Family: Betulaceae Synonyms: Paper Birch. (trace amount) asperuloside. BANZ No. leaves.) Nutt *INCI Name Black Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Black Snakeroot. Cohosh Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range It grows in the most temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. and flowers have been used to treat skin disorders such as acne. saponins. methyl salicylate. anthocyanosides. Mabey. Bugwort. Canoe Birch Part Used: Young leaves and bark Habitat and Range Europe and Asia.
Its leaflets are shaped irregularly with toothed edges. The drug also contains considerable amounts of isoflavonoids. frequently. somewhat branched. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . bark thin. by deep cup-shaped scars. dyspepsia. or less frequently by fibrous strands. lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root scars and a few short roots. resins. from 2 to 15 cm in length and from 1 to 2. particularly depression and hot flushes. up to 3 mm thick. wood radiate and about the same thickness as the pith. mainly actein (xyloside of acetylacteol) and 27-deoxyactein (xyloside of 27-deoxyacetylacteol). mainly formononetin. fracture horny. internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy. tannins. Additional constituents are isoferulic acid. and rheumatism. taste bitter and acrid. externally dark brown. Black cohosh Properties It is known to affect climacteric symptoms. the upper surface with several buds and numerous large stem bases terminated. wood yellowish and showing three to six rays. slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scales. externally dark brown. and sugar.64 BLACK COHOSH Description This perennial grows to 8 ft and is topped by a long plume of white flowers that bloom from June to September. internally. Roots cylindrical or obtusely four-angled. bark dark brown.5 cm in thickness. Rhizome horizontal. fracture short. fatty acids. it suppresses LH release and binds to estrogen receptors. Constituents It contains triterpenoid glycosides. each of which shows a radiate structure. It has also been used for dysmenorrhea. It possesses estrogenic activity. longitudinally wrinkled. starch.
Herbalists use Black Walnut to expel worms (anthelmintic). or hulls N/S Shell of nut Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut. and also used externally for its antiseptic properties in many kinds of skin diseases. and detergent. nut 4-celled at the top and bottom. glabrous above. BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus L. 5 to 8 cm long. tannins. Texas. Black Walnut also has application in suntanning products. rounded or subcordate at the base. lanceolate. Black Tang Part Used: Whole thallus Habitat and Range Shore of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. and Minnesota. Description A tree up to 50 m high. Florida. with dark brown heartwood and rough dark bark. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . anthelmintic. glabrous. Constituents Juglone. Properties Walnut has been employed as a hair dye (black/brown). fixed and volatile oils.BLADDERWRACK 65 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. *INCI Name Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Part Used: Leaves. taper-pointed at the apex. Massachusetts. leaflets 11 to 23. minutely downy beneath and on the petiole. serrate. *INCI Name Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) Extract Part Used: Dried thallus CAS#: 84696-13-9 Family: Fucaceae Synonyms: Bladder Fucus. with thick ridges. juglandic acid. and trace minerals. fruit globose. It is an astringent. bark. Black Walnut Part Used: Hulls Habitat and Range Woods. 8 to 10 cm long. hydrojuglone (mostly as monoglucoside).
massage for cellulite. probably due to its iodine content. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. as a wash for psoriasis. Each branch separates into two branches or is simple. It can be added to hair and skin care products. trace minerals (mainly iodine). fucans). myxoedema. reproductive tissues. Herbalists incorporate it in formulas to help boost the immune and lymphatic systems. cellutitis. The base of the thallus is cylindrical and the branches are mostly flattened. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .66 BLADDERWRACK Description Fucus occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the plant (thallus). The taste is saline and mucilaginous. These pieces measure up to 4 dm in length and up to 2 cm in width. algae polysaccharides (about 12% alginic acid. The thallus is dichotomously branched. The odor is slight. The texture is cartilaginous. The color varies from brown to black. a prominent midrib. and frequently white deposits of saline matter. rheumatism. steryl glucosides. and bruises. The surface has air vesicles usually occurring in pairs. the tips of the branches are enlarged because of great numbers of rounded projecting. Frequently. sprains. slimming activity. Properties Bladderwrack It has been used to treat obesity. Constituents Polyphenols (polyphloroglucinols).
. It helps remove impurities from clogged pores... simple or branched. skin cleansing and lightening. sessile.. sometimes white. mainly cultivated for commercial use. usually blue. Gobo Part Used: Roots.. fracture somewhat horny.. calyx of five sepals. about 2 cm in diameter. flowers. and minerals. mostly in the Eastern States... rough. from 5 to 20 mm in diameter near the crown. sometimes surmounted by a wooly tuft of leaf remains.. Mucilage and pyrrolizdine alkaloids.. externally grayish brown. Description The root is fusiform... a dark cambium Burdock © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Constituents Vitamin C. up to 60 cm high... European Burdock. *INCI Name Burdock Burdock Burdock Burdock (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium (Arctium lappa) Extract lappa) Seed Oil majus) Extract minus) Extract Part Used: Roots N/S Roots Roots Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Foreign Burdock.. leaf. Fruit is ovoid and light brown. which is very emollient and soothing and therefore reduces reddening of sensitive skin.. longitudinally wrinkled. the crown somewhat annulate. flowers from June through September. the upper leaves.See BILBERRY BORAGE Borago officinalis L. *INCI Name Borage Part Used: Flowering tops CAS #: 84012-16-8 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Burrage. Borage has a cucumber-like odor.. tannins. Properties Borage contains a high amount of mucilage.. the lower ones on short petioles.BURDOCK 67 BLUEBERRY LEAF. sparingly naturalized in the United States. Bourrache Part Used: Flowering tops Habitat and Range Throughout the United States and Europe. five pointed corolla. covered with bristly hairs. The seeds contain an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. and fruit Habitat and Range Europe and Northern Asia. of variable length. elliptical leaves wrinkled.. Bugloss. frequently split or in broken pieces.. It is easily grown from seed. on long stalks. rhizomes. BURDOCK Arctium lappa L.. Description An annual robust plant. hollow stem. saponins.
psoriasis. Herbalists extol its use for cleansing the blood. It is also used in hair conditioners. pith-like tissue. tannins. volatile oils. and can be used in facial steams. Constituents Polyunsaturated compounds. scaly skin. the leaves are applied locally to relieve insect bites. gels. gout. creams. It has been combined with comfrey. and oil. licorice. lotions. sweetish. inulin. becoming pyroligneous on milling. centrally hollow or containing a white. The leaves and bark were used to treat rheumatism and expel worms. arctinal etc. and polyalkynes including C13-alkynenes and sulfur-containing acetylinic compound. Odor slight. fatty acids. lignin.68 BOXWOOD separating the thick brownish bark from the yellowish porous and radiate wood. The Boxwood is toxic to animals. berries with black seeds. *INCI Name Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) Extract Habitat and Range Europe. fukinanolid. and leafy stems with a distinctive scent. fat. in cases of acne. sterols. BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens L. acid soils. eczema. Properties The leaves are reportedly used to improve horses’ coats and to stimulate hair growth. polyalkenes.. including buxine and buxozine C. abrasions. and baths. North America. cutaneous eruption. Constituents Approximately 27 alkaloids. Description Boxwood is an evergreen shrub or small tree with small. and fennel to restore skin tone and smoothness. The distilled oil is used to treat toothache and hemorrhoids. yellow-green flowers in spring. Properties It is used as a poultice for boils and abscesses. cystitis. and slightly bitter. Part Used: Leaves Family: Buxaceae Synonym: American Boxwood Part Used: Leaves and bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Arctinone. shampoos. and for its soothing effect on chapped skin. anorexia nervosa. arctinol. taste is mucilaginous.
supposedly having a tonic effect on blood vessels. much-branched stems 25 to 80 cm. diuretic. ca. borne on green. 5 mm. Properties Increases circulation. scale-like. and spiny-pointed false leaves ca. dry hills. bushy places. papery ca. rutin. 1 cm. ribbed. Description A dense.BUTCHER’S BROOM 69 BUTCHER’S BROOM Ruscus aculeatus L. sudorific. a globular red berry ca. saponin. Constituents Ruscogenins ruscodibenzofuran. dark green shrub with thick. 2 cm long. Leaves. Europe. Flowers greenish. mucilage. 1 to 2 subtended by minute brown bracts and borne on the upper surface of the false leaves. oval rigid. 3 mm across. *INCI Name Butcherbroom (Ruscus aculeatus) Extract Habitat and Range Woods. chrysophanic acid. used for hemorrhoids to reduce swelling and inflammation. ruscoside. for the treatment of varicose veins. Fruit. Part Used: Rhizome CAS#: 84012-38-4 Family: Liliaceae Synonyms: Box Holly Part Used: Flowering tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . inhibits inflammation. The extract has been used with success. Emmenagogue.
. *INCI Name Capsicum annuum Extract Capsicum frutescens African Capsicum frutescens Extract Capsicum frutescens Oleoresin Capsicum frutescens Part Used: N/S Plant material. Description In pieces of varying length... and beta-sitosterol.. from 1...5 to 4 cm in diameter... Constituents Flavonoids. It has a strong. rutin.. Barbary fig Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA.... dried ripe fruit Dried fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84625-29-6 Family: Solanaceae Synonyms: Red or Cayenne Pepper. Ficus-indica L *INCI Name Prickly Pear (Opuntia tuna) Extract Habitat and Range Native of tropical America. taste acidulous and mucilaginous... piscidic-acids. luteolin. healing for sensitive skin. the angles at intervals of about 2 cm with tufts of from 9 to 12 acicular spines about 5 mm in length. isorhamnetin-glucoside. 71 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Properties Astringent for wounds and various skin ailments. together with about the same number of bristles about 1 cm in length.. and from 5 to 9 angled. CALENDULA. See MARIGOLD CAPSICUM Capsicum annum/frutescens L. Mombassa... Mexican........ kaempferol.. penduletin..C CACTUS FLOWERS Optuntia.... at irregular intervals branched roots sometimes present. or Sierra Leone Pepper.. Chilies Part Used: Fruit Cactus flowers (optuntia) Part Used: Flowers and stems Family: Cactaceae Synonyms: Prickly pear.. quercitrin....... herby odor..
yellow. The epicarp is thin and tough. and brown. Mexican capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. or is free from these. The outline varies from oval to ovate to oblong-conical. Nyassaland capsicums measure 21 mm or less in legnth and 7 mm or less in diameter. the African variety is yellowish-brown. Description Capsicum occurs as entire fruits attached to and mixed with pedicles and calyxes. Mombassa capsicums measure 18 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. The seeds are compressed and pointed.72 CAPSICUM Capsicum Habitat and Range South America. The taste is pungent and warming. the Mombassa variety is mostly light red. red. The odor is aromatic. The fruits vary greatly in size. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The Mexican variety is deep red. gray. African capsicums measure 26 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. Sierra Leone capsicums measure 19 mm or less in length and 6 mm or less in diameter. the Sierra Leone variety is light red. yellow. and greenish-red. Capsicum is a berry. The base is constricted and is attached to a pedicel and a persistent five-toothed calyx. the Nyassaland variety is red. The apex is acuminate or acute.
and others. CARROT Daucus carota L. colocynth. Dihydrocapsaicin and related alkaloids. geraniol. Chittem Bark. and vitamins A and C. hairy stem. CASCARA BARK Rhamnus purshiana De Candolle *INCI Name Rhamnus purshiana Part Used: Bark Family: Rhamnaceae Synonymns: Rhamnus. segmented. Carrot Root Extract is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of -carotene and Vitamin A. geranyl acetate. Description Annual or biennial herb with erect. detergents. and North America. etc. Asia. and umbels of white to purple-tinged flowers. is obtained by steam distillation. *INCI Name Carrot Part Used: Root. keeping it smooth and soft. carotene capsanthin.4%.CASCARA BARK 73 Properties Carminative. Capsicum owes its virtues to capsaicin. fruit Habitat and Range Native to Europe. jaborandi. Constituents Carrot Fruit Oil contains carotol (up to 18. creams. Face packs are made by grating fresh carrots. Buckthorn. Properties Carrot Fruit Oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. Used in hair tonics to stimulate follicle along with nettles. Sacred Bark. Yellow Bark Part Used: Bark collected at least 1 year prior to use © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rheumatic pains. branched. lotions. Bear Wood. the face is rinsed with warm water and a rich face cream is applied. antiseptic. naturalized in North America. leaves. Carrot Fruit Oil (commonly called carrot seed oil). Queen Anne’s Lace Part Used: Root. -pinene. fatty acids.29%). and perfumes up to 0. while Carrot Root Oil is obtained by solvent extraction. flavonoids. fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wild Carrot. rubefacient used for neuralgia. Bitter Bark. After. daucol. Caution Should not be used around eyes or mucous membranes. It is said that the extract restores the elasticity of the skin. and applying to the face for 20 minutes. in combination with tincture of myrrh is very antiseptic. Carrot Root Oil contains high concentrations of carotenes. counter-irritant. It has a long tap root. Constituents Cayenne pepper contains a crystalline pungent alkaloid capsaicin.
5. W. and sometimes even encrusted with mussel-scale insects. The following groups of constituents are not recognized: 1. bryophytes. It is much used as a laxative. Wagner et al.5 to 10 m high with reddish-brown bark and hairy twigs. and chrysophanol. Z. curved pieces or quills of variable length. aloe-emodin. Publ. R = OH. it acts as stomach ache treatment. 1983. Teil B. 1974. London. The inner surface is yellow to reddish-brown and longitudinally striated. Trease. Teil C. 267. Properties Tincture can be applied externally as mild antiseptic. aloe-emodin and chrysophanol. The outer surface is dark purplish-brown with whitish lenticels.5 to 5 mm thick. and D. Two aloins. The tree has been successfully cultivated in Kenya. they contain both O. E. R = H. 4. chrysophanol. D = 10 . 2. B.74 CASCARA BARK Habitat and Range Abundant in western United States and exported from San Francisco. C. It is frequently covered with lichen. C = 10B. Four primary glycosides or cascarosides A. 12th ed. R = H. Fracture is short but fibrous in the inner bark. and Evans. Various diathrones. In small doses. Bailliere Tindall. A number of O-glycosides derived from emodin. in Pharmacognosy. 2. Configurations: Cascaroside A = 10B. These C-glycosides are probably breakdown products from (1). emodin oxanthrone. including those of emodin. It gives red color with ammonia TS. G. Aloe-emodin. B and C (see “Rhubarb”). 1. C. which are present both as normal O-glycosides and as C-glycosides. See formula. and the heterodianthrones palmidin A. Their structures have now been finally determined as the C-10 isomers of the 8-O-B-D-glucopyranosides of aloin and chrysophanol. B = 10 R = OH. and emodin in the free state. Taste bitter and slightly acrid. Description The tree is 4. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .and C-glycosidic linkages.1 Cascarosides of Rhamnus purshiana. Other considerable plantations are found in British Columbia and exported from Vancouver. 1. 3. Constituents Cascara contains about 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives.. 444. The bark occurs in flattened. 1974. barbaloin derived from the aloe-emodin enthrone and chrysaloin derived from chrysophanol anthrone.. Naturforsch. odor distinct.
.. lower pair shorter. the middle lobe largest.. petiolate.. curved obliquely and subequally 5-toothed.CENTIPEDA 75 CATNIP Nepeta cataria L. floral leaves small. pungent.. the lower spreading and three-cleft. pointed at the apex. downy.... Constituents Essential oil. much branched. citronellal. Properties Catnip has been used for reducing swelling. flowers small. the upper lip erect and two-cleft.. nepetalic acid. or crushed and broken. limb bilabiate... from 10 to 20 cm long. corolla whitish. downy beneath. pale gray-green. nepetol rosemarinic acid.. softhairy above. thymol). stamens two pairs ascending under the upper lip.. from New Brunswick south to Georgia and Kansas. Br. throat dilated. leaves opposite. margin deeply crenate. the larger..... from 2 to 7 cm long. taste bitter. (geraniol. Herbalists frequently recommend catnip in treating baby’s colic for its soothing and mildly sedative properties. Odor faintly aromatic and mint-like. and aromatic.. CENTELLA. dotted with purple... in dense.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description Top... puffy swollen eyes in combination with gobonadorra (chaparral) and wintergreen. methyl-nepetalactone.. ovate or oblong. up to 4 mm in diameter... camphor.... Cats love its intoxicating (pheramone-like) effect.. carvacol. *INCI Name Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84929-35-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Catmint Part Used: Leaves and tops Habitat and Range Europe... rounded or ear-shaped at the base. Aschers *INCI Name Centipeda cunninghami Part Used: Flowering tops Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sneezeweed.. It is useful for dandruff and various scalp (irritations) disorders.. stems quadrangular. interrupted spikes. nepetariaside. Old Man’s Weed Part Used: Flowering tops Catnip Habitat and Range Indigenous to Australia and grows in the Far East. tubular... naturalized in North America.. crenulate. See GOTU-KOLA CENTIPEDA Centipeda cunninghami A... bract-like. calyx hairy.. It has also been shown to reduce fever and relieve headache. nepetalactone.
Compositous glandular hairs are also present.. beta-gurjunene. and rheumatism. Iwakami. asthma.3 antiprotozoal. 7. and isobutyl isopentanoic acid ester (1. 1988. 1.6 to 1 cm broad. the first one being distinctly larger and appearing inflated and almost spherical. Bull.C. Yang. J. Stem 0. isoamyl caproate (1.. Y. Patent 5. Lee and J. obovate 6 to 9 cm long and 0. 3. The plant yields about 1% of volatile oil containing cis-dihydro-carveol (23. and sternutatory. brevilin A. helenalin. green.7. 6. caryophyllane-2..804. and C. Pharm. Mutat.8 Constituents The predominant constituents are the sesquiterpenes. 894.D. florilenslin derivatives. Ebizuka. oblong.2 The plant also possesses antiallergic. Lin.2 and platelet-activating factor antagonistic activities. Wu. 3272. sessile.I. plenolin derivatives. 22 g. trans-sabinyl acetate (22. Kriby.5 cm in diameter. Chin J. 6. Phytotherapy Res.206. Pharm. Y. 1973–1974.. midrib biconvex more prominent on the lower side and running from base to apex. Phillipson.18%). 40(5). Res. Y. 2. G. T. The basal cells measure together 400 to 500 µm in length. J. aromatic. Wright. J. Yang. internodes short. The herb is covered by characteristic abundant nonglandular trichomes with 6 to 8 curved cuboidal basal cells. Ebizuka. H. A. and D.L. 5. apex acute. triterpenes. 54. Microbiol. Aust. W. 436. Bull.1 In Chinese traditional medicine.50%). simple. 97. Sept.3 to 0.W. 39(12). and U.W. Wu.4 Antimutagenic5 and antiviral6 activities were also attributed to the plant. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Chem.C. The plant was found to be highly effective as a topical antiinflammatory (antiallergic) and cell-regenerating (healing) agent with distinct sunscreen acticity. alternate. 8(7). F. Campbell. 4.5%). then the cells gradually decrease in breadth. longitudinally striated. 1997. Chun. Lin. U. J. F.23%). D’Amelio.. and amoebiasis. 1973. and U. and Mirhom. margin dentate. florilenalin-angelate. and Mirhom. Y. UIO. 1196.85%). Taste aromatic and slightly bitter. July 26–30.B. trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (13. Cai.S. of papers presented at the 38th ASP Meeting. Y. The plant also contains diterpenes. Y. 204(2). Sankawa. Properties Centipeda has been used by aborigines in Australia for Centipeda cunninghammi burns. Sankawa. diarrhea. myrtenol (5.98%).C. S. C.. green. Yang. H. Warhurst. Y. Pharm. and alpha-humulene. Hu. 1992.T.97%). the apical cell being elongated filamentous. Abstr.B. Leaves. while the apical cell measures 1000 to 2000 µm. Odor characteristic. 1998.. S. D’Amelio. wounds. skin infections. cylindrical. the plant has been used to treat colds. Chem.W.6-beta-oside. thymol (1. 8. 1991.S. malaria. and flavonoids.Y. venation pinate reticulate.76 CENTIPEDA Description It is a herbaceous plant.A. arnicolides. nasal allergies. which comprise dihydroactinidiolide. 1994.
anti-inflammatory. New York southward. and mullein in shampoo rinses. furfural. etc. Properties Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the kingdom of botanicals. borneol. It is a carminative. more or less twisted and attaining a length of 2. and pubescent scales. Constituents Essential oil. longitudinally furrowed. chamazulene. pistillate. For further reading. oblanceolate. naturalized in the United States. well over one hundred compounds. ray-florets from 10 to 20. Wild Chamomile Part Used: Flower heads Habitat and Range Europe and Western Asia. Chamomile will add highlights to light hair and is compatible with neutral henna. Used in facial steams to reduce puffiness and cleanse the pores of impurities. pappus none. farnesol. aromatic. composed of from 20 to 30 imbricated. peduncles light green to brownish-green. usually reflexed. creams. Odor pleasant. achenes somewhat obovoid and faintly 3. Used in topical oils to relieve aches and pains. *INCI Name Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Extract Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) Oil Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Extract Matricaria (Chamomilla recutita) Oil Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flower heads Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: German Chamomile. alpha-bisabolol. taste aromatic and bitter. chlorogenic acid. or only a slight membraneous crown.CHAMOMILE FLOWERS 77 CHAMOMILE FLOWERS Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L.5 cm. lotions. and without a pappus. involucre hemispherical. hollow receptacles. calendula. Chamomile contains azulene. the latter being from 3 to 10 mm in breadth. apigenins. healing tonic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . perfect. see the bibliography at the end of the book. disk-florets tubular. corolla white. bisabolene. matricarin.to 5-ribbed. three-toothed and four-veined. Description Flowerheads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical.
Also used on skin rashes and infections. The flowers normally occur in January through May.G. and can be found growing wild from Texas to California and south to Mexico.78 CHAPARRAL Chamomile CHAPARRAL Larrea divaricata Cov. but can occur throughout the year in warmer climates. long. many-branched evergreen shrub growing 3 to 9 ft tall.D. Yellow flowers have five petals. each consists of two olive-green leaflets. Chaparral is a source of N. a powerful antioxidant that was formerly used to preserve fats and oils from going rancid. and are followed by showy globular fruits (seed balls) that are covered with fuzzy white hairs. restoring. (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. Its branches are distinguished by black rings at the nodes. Hediondilla Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range It prefers scrub deserts.A.. The leaves grow in opposite pairs. It is native to the southwestern United States. and stimulating the skin. *INCI Name Chaparral (Larrea divaricata) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-70-3 Family: Zygophyllacea Synonyms: Creosote bush. The Mexicans refer to Chaparral as Gobonadorra. Properties Good for softening. Gobonadorra Greasewood. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description A resinous. 3/8 in.
Constituents Aspartic acid. 747. granular and slightly fibrous. CHERRY BARK. and unpeeled. Constituents Flavonoids (kaempferol. this has not been thoroughly investigated. brittle. However.. bitteralmond-like when moistened.CHERRY BARK.G. 8th ed. south to Florida and Texas. The fracture is weak. partially peeled.WILD Prunus serotina EHRH *INCI Name Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bark Extract Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina) Extract Part Used: Plant material Bark N/S Fruit CAS#: 8000-44-0/8460407-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Black Cherry Bark. sedating. quercetin). astringent. gossypetin. 1. Properties Soothing. and 4 mm in thickness. p.D. phenolic acids. These pieces measure up to 30 cm in length. The odor is aromatic. used in hair conditioning as a rinse for ease of combing. and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N. will add body to hair. a powerful antioxidant. Merck Index. 5 cm in width. The inner surface varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown.). Description Wild Cherry occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. Wild Cherry (Bark) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it is finely striated and fissured. The outer surface.A. which can be peeled. The taste is astringent and pungent. Wild Cherry Bark Part Used: Bark Habitat and Range Ontario to North Dakota. The fractured surface is yellowish and reddish-brown.WILD 79 Chaparral is also reportedly used to reduce tumors. camphor. if unpeeled. it has numerous transversely elongated grayish-white lenticel scars. The bark is chip-like or partially quilled. is brownish-black. and cyanogenetic glycoside prunasin. Has been formerly used in cough remedies and was once official in the USP and NF. and uneven. tannins.
Herbalists recommend a poultice be used to remove splinters. the lower petioled. long. Stellaria media (Chickweed) Constituents Hentriacontanol. high. carboxylic acids. Villars *INCI Name Chickweed (Stellaria media) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 901301-34-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Tongue grass. coumarins. and facial steams. swelling. tocopherols. small capsule. opposite. entire. lotions. Stellaria combines well in ointments with Althea or Slippery Elm Bark and Comfrey.1 mucilage. satin flower. also as a poultice for carbuncles or abscesses. redness of face erysipelas. Description A weak. 1⁄6 to 1 in. on slender.80 CHICKWEED HERB CHICKWEED HERB Stellaria media L. white bird’s eye. psoriasis. Has been used in an ointment to treat eczema. vulnerary. muchbranched herb 4 to 16 in. with sepals longer than the two-parted petals. gamma-linolenic acid. flowers white. indolent ulcers. acute. Can be used in creams. Starweed Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Cultivated on waste ground. All Europe. annual. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A wash has been used to help reduce freckles. baths. creeping or ascending. leaves ovate. Properties Antipruritic. Chickweek is also said to have cellproliferating properties. saponins. small. stems slender. axillary stalks and in terminal. with a line of hairs along one side. the uppermost sessile. rooting at the nodes. fatty acids and minerals. For inflammed eyes. rutin. fruit a many-seeded. emollient. triterpene gyycosides. leafy cymes.
... New York. rubefacient. A/B.. Flores caryophylli Part Used: Flower buds Habitat and Range Native to the Molucca Islands...) Bull. white hairs. and inflammation. grey. petals spreading. John Wiley & Sons. It is now extensively cultivated on these two islands and furnishes the bulk of the world’s supply... CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum (L. each 3 to 10 cm. feather fruit clusters. Encylopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. each with long styles with dense.... indifference. it is used for dementia. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Clematis vitalba Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84929-63-5 Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Old Man’s Beard. CRC Press... and conspicuous.... Homeopathic preparations are used to treat blisters.See QUIN-QUINA CLEMATIS HERB Clematis vitalba L.. inattentativeness.. melissic acid.. Boca Raton.. 2nd ed. in lax terminal and axillary clusters. behenic acid.. chlorogenic acid. CINCHONA. 1996.. then brought to Zanzibar and Pemba.. mental escape from reality.. FL. Flowers 2 cm. Leung. Leaves pinnate with 3 to 9 oval.. most of Europe. spreading.... clematine. Carophyllus aromaticus L.. Travelers Joy Part Used: Dried aerial parts Habitat and Range Woods. Properties As a bach flower remedy (aromatherapy). thickets. Y. densely hairy on both sides. hedges.. woody.. it was introduced into Mauritius and Reunion. 1992.. In 1770.. Fruit with numerous carpels. vitalbiosides. Duke..... J.. deciduous-leaved climbing plant to 30 m with clusters of white flowers toward the end of the present year’s branches... 2.) Merr et Perry *INCI Name Syzygium aromaticum Part Used: CAS #: 84961-50-2 Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Eugenia caryophllus (Spreng.... et Herr.. June to August.. antiscrofulous properties. protein. said to have antibiotic properties. Steven Foster. Description A robust. Handbook of Phyto Chemical Constitutents of Grass Herbs and Other Economic Plants. Caryophyllum. sores. fragrant. stalked leaflets. Constituents Caffeic acid.CLOVES 81 1. sterols.
odor strongly aromatic. followed by a slight numbness. dark brown. afterwards very pungent. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. Sri Lanka. vitamins.) Briq *INCI Name Coleus Root Part Used: Root. Constituents The buds yield 15 to 18% volatile oil containing 60 to 90% Eugenol. with numerous ovules.5 mm in length. and incurved. The buds also contain sterols. where it is widely cultivated. and Tyler. It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant. anti-allergy and antiglaucoma agent. antispasmodic. taste pungent and aromatic. flavonoids. terminated by an epigynous calyx with four incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. and has carminative properties. crowded. Constituents Volatile oil and the labdane diterpene forskolin. lipids. It is native to India. Description An aromatic perennial with tuberous roots and erect stem reaching 60 cm The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic.. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of four imbricated. J. Williams & Wilkins.K. leaves Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Plectranthus barbatus Part Used: Root.. 2 to 27% eugenol acetate. Speedie. It lowers blood pressure.. hence its use in cosmetic preparations intended to whiten the skin. COLEUS ROOT Coleus forskohlii (Willd. stamens numerous. It has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. it is antispasmodic and heart tonic. 1. and somewhat four-angled. leaves Habitat and Range The plant is distributed over the subtropical to temperate climate zones in the mountains of Africa.E. suggesting its value as a bronchodilator. J. the odor is agreeable and refreshing. carbohydrates. Properties They are due to the volatile oil. which alternate with the calyx teeth. ovary twolocular. style 1. which is responsible for most of the activities of the drug. E. and Thailand. Nepal. Burma. protein.82 COLEUS ROOT Description From 10 to 17. glandular-punctate petals. It activates adenyl cyclase reaction. Properties It has an inhibitory activity on melanin formation. and 5 to 12% -caryophyllene. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Robbers. and others.
3. The flowers are said to reduce inflammation and stimulate the immune system. bitter. flavonoids.COLTSFOOT LEAVES 83 2.. terpene alcohols. minerals. blade very brittle.L. The younger leaves densely white. palmately 5. landslides. Personal communication.to 9-nerved. tussilagone and essential oil. senkirkine. Description Petiole long.. London. R. 1998. Coltsfoot prepared as a wash for treating skin ulcers and sores. Properties Emollient. pubescent. All Europe. floccose beneath. Chevallier. it is said to help relieve asthma. screens. Colts foot © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A. banks. from 8 to 15 cm long and nearly as wide.. Kronenthal. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. slightly wrinkled. carotenoids. COLTSFOOT LEAVES Tussilago farfara L. the older nearly or often quite glabrous below. dark green to brownish-green or yellowish-green. ground. 1996. has been used as a poultice for welts and swelling. and smoked like tobacco. nearly orbicular or broadly ovate-reniform. taste mucilaginous. *INCI Name Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Extract Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Leaf Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 84625-50-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Coughwort Part Used: Dried flowers and leaves Habitat and Range Waste places. in The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. glabrous above. When the leaves are dried. deeply cordate at the base. angular and dentate with red-brown teeth. tussillagine. Constituents Tannins. faintly herbaceous. 83. mucilage. river gravels. Odor indistinct.
Bruiswort. lotions. Comfrey combines well with Ulmus fulva.. cone flower. shampoos.. Blackwort.2–4. alkaloids. Constituents Comfrey contains allantoin (1. a very powerful cell proliferent. plus other botanicals too numerous to mention. B-sitosterol amino cids. and even hernias (12–15% extract in ointment base). on wounds. It is almost inodorous. Comfrey’s anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vivo. feebly astringent taste. salves. Description The lower. Fillipendula.1 (Allantoin has been used in suppurating wounds and resistant ulcers to stimulate growth of healthy tissue. and lithospermic acids. antihemorrhagic.) Comfrey is also an astringent. fractures. rhizome and leaf N/S Habitat and Range Damp meadows. hair rinses. 1. and has a mucilaginous.84 COMFREY LEAF COMFREY LEAF Symphytum officinale L. Comfrey can be used in creams. Healing Herb. up to 10 in. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. and Fasulo M. watersides. aloe. The powder is green in color. The mucilage is mainly composed of polysaccharides of glucose and fructose triterpenoids (isobauerenol). marshes. It has been used in chronic varicose ulcers. douches. Autoreg. Large amounts of mucilage (approximately 30%) are found in both the leaves and the roots. 944. 1987.7%). Mascolo N. ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs that promote itching when touched. long. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . I.. very hairy. The stalks are hollowed and cornered. anti-inflammatory. Properties Comfrey is one of the most useful botanicals that can be employed in cosmetics. and demulcent. althea. Comfrey has a wide and varied reputation. *INCI Name Comfrey (Symphtum officinale) Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Extract Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Leaf Powder Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84696-05-9 Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common Comfrey Symphytum.. The healing action of poultices of the roots and leaves might be related to the presence of allantoin an agent that promotes cell proliferation. chlorogenic.. and massage and Comfrey leaf body oils. Knitbone Part Used: Root. asparagine (1–3%). radical leaves are very large. phenolics. Menghini A. ointments. Capassa F. Phytotherapy Res.P. caffeic. Most of Europe.
795 0.51 4.0 0. energy therms cwt Prod.93 0.14 8.20 0.0 100 g 4. Protein Nitrate as KNO3 Beta-carotene mg/lb As Vit.84 4.2 0. Nutrients Calc.085 0.0 30. Net Energy therms cwt Calc.10 0.01 14.59 0. Unless noted) Moisture Protein Crude fat Crude fiber Ash Nitrogen-free extract Total Dig.58 5.0 3.0 7.285 0.8 44.1 Dry matter 30.0 5.41 0.7 0.92 0.01 24.72 1.142 0.456 0.79 275.65 0.10 19600 10 6 28 0.61 0.624 8.18 2. energy therms cwt Percent of standard feed Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium Sodium Sulfur Manganese ppm Copper pm Cobalt ppm Zinc ppm Iron ppm Molybdenum ppm As is 82.86 49.8 2.47 1.07 100.92 0.05 0.000 IUs Pantothenic acid Vitamin B-12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Allantoin (mg/100 g) 1.29 44.176 0.COMFREY LEAF 85 Typical Comfrey Analysis Report Amino analysis report (% Total sample) Arginine Histidine Lysine Phenylalanine Cystine Methionine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycine Alanine Proline Glutamic acid Aspartic acid (Asparagine) Serine Tyrosine Tryptophane 0.11 25.480 0.19 5.74 0.037 17.59 2.93 0.0 0. Dig.00 57 34 34 1.0 15.50 1101100.30 1.7 7.7 0.40 0.18 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .26 0.19 0.65 Comfrey feed analysis report (%.111 1.73 28.208 100. for cattle Maint.0 1200.99 1. A equiv.600 0.78 7.3 Vitamin Group Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Nicotinic acid Equivalent to Vitamin A 28.14 49.8 213.89 0.
. Blackwort. promotes tissue repair.. Knitbone Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Damp grassland. Good when used in burn creams... Europe.See ECHINACEA CORIANDER FRUIT Coriandrum sativum L. branched.. firm. internally creamy white.86 COMFREY ROOT COMFREY ROOT Symphytum officinale L... *INCI Name Symphytum officinale L.. Comfrey root Constituents See Comfrey Leaf. cultivated extensively. feebly astringent taste.. and has a sweetish. and dark color. Description Unground Comfrey Root: Spindle shaped....... It is almost inodorous. reduces inflammation and clotting.. (Symphytum officinale) Root (or) Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Root Powder Part Used: N/S N/S Family: Boraginaceae Synonyms: Common comfrey.. woodland. horny texture. North Africa... Powdered Comfrey Root: A greyish brown color with many small dark brown specks that make up the outer bark. occasionally dark brown in color.5 cm thick and 30 cm long.. Healing Comfrey Herb. The secondary effects of its demulcent qualities include the drawing of boils and abscesses to the surface.. Coriander Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Asia. *INCI Name (Coriandrum sativum) Extract Part Used: Fruit Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Coriandrum. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. riverbanks... Properties Provides moisture for dryness of the skin.. often more than 2.. externally wrinkled. creates astringency... CONE FLOWER... It contains a mucilage that is water extractable. Bruiswort.. mucilaginous.
etc. endosperm distinctly reniform in outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells containing fixed oil. ferulic). limonene. coumaric. undulate secondary ribs. intercellular spaces and bearing on each commissural side two large.CORIANDER FRUIT 87 Description Mericarps usually coherent. apex with five calyx teeth and a short stylopod. deodorants. phenolic acids (caffeic. camphor. p-cymene. chlorogenic. toilet waters and after shaves. mericarps easily separated. perfumes. rutin). Structure: An epidermis of small cells with thick walls. The essential oil is used in massage oils. longitudinal primary ribs and four indistinct. trans-tridec-2-in-1-al is responsible for the “bedbug” smell of the unripe fruit and of the herb. from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. and flavors. cremocarp nearly globular. externally light brown or yellowish-brown. geraniol and geranyl acetate. eliptical oil ducts.). Properties Has been used in body lotions. straight. The Egyptians use it as an aphrodisiac. the inner yellowish walls being considerably thickened and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed coat. more to less collapsed parenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified fibers that extends as a continuous layer in the mesocarp of each of the mericarps. and numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette or prism of calcium oxalate. tannin. each mericarp with five prominent. tangentially elongated. two or three layers of large. flavonoids (quertcetin. Herblists add to formulas to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. Constituents Volatile oil (about 1%) containing 60 to 70% D-(+)-linalool. a layer of several rows of thin-walled. except on the commissural side where the endocarp is separated from the seed coat forming a large elliptical cavity. fatty acids. 20% monoterpene hydrocarbons ( -pinene. -terpinene. toothpaste. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface. Coriander fruit (seed) at 10 thin-walled parenchyma cells. frequently with numerous large. endocarp of large tabular cells.
conjunctivitis. Corn flower (Blue bottle) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . heads long-peduncled. leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. more or less floccose. scrapes. California. varying to rose or white. Anti-inflammatory and nourishing. ascending branches. bracts greenish-yellow. and various skin complaints. Quebec. involucres round-ureolate. entire or the lowest dentate or somewhat pinnatifid. Properties Corn Flowers have been employed in face masks and packs. British Columbia. marginal corollas funnelform. native of Europe. It can be useful when employed in hair tonics. it is soothing and emollient. blue. Description Annual. Virginia. about 15 mm high. with slender. or as a compress for tired eyes. with dark brown fimbriate margins and tips.88 CORN FLOWERS CORN FLOWERS Centaurea cyanus L. For aging skin. stem 3 to 7 dm high. *INCI Name Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Extract Part Used: Dried flowers N/S CAS #: 84012-18-0/68916-70-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Bachelor’s Button Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. floccose. A water distilled from the flowers is used as a beneficial wash for inflamed eyes.
stigmas bifid. Europe. Constituents Acetanapthene. cnicin. spherical nucleus. and from 0. cultivated extensively. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . segments very slender. cyanidin glucoside. many of these being extended into multicellular hairs. the purplish-red styles contain a purplish-red cell sap. minerals. the upper portion being usually unicellular. roots N/S Family: Primulaceae Synonyms: Paigles. CORN SILK Zea mays L. maizeric acid. Topically very soothing and softening. Structure: Styles consisting of parenchyma and two parallel vascular bundles with narrow. *INCI Name Corn (Zea mays) Silk Extract Part Used: Stigmas Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Zea Part Used: Stigmas from the female flowers of maize (silk) Habitat and Range America. protein.4 to 3 mm in length. polygalacturonic acids. Peagles Part Used: Yellow petals and the root Habitat and Range Common in Britain. spiral or annular tracheae. Description Slender filaments from 10 to 20 cm in length. and has been used for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary system. the cells of the hairs are rich in cytoplasm and usually contain a small. and 0. saponins. alanine. flavonoids (Maysin). fixed oil. proline. portion consisting of 2 to 5 united cells. the basal trichomes 50. arginine.4 mm in diameter.COWSLIP FLOWERS 89 Constituents Apigenin glucoside. purplish-red. tannin. light green. is said to be a diuretic and antilithic. the Corn silk (zea mays) L. frequently unequal. stigmasterol. yellow or light brown color. COWSLIP FLOWERS Primula officinalis L. and temperate Asia. Filamentous stigma with latter from 0. vitamin C. potassium. protocyanin. cichorin. corn silk.2 to 0.8 m in length. *INCI Name Primula Extract Primula veris Part Used: Petals. tocopherols. the epidermal cells rectangular. palmitic acid. Properties Corn silk has been used in various urinary disorders.
used for catarrh of the respiratory tract. Properties Fresh cucumber slices are used as a refreshing.... volatile oils.... Herbalists used it to treat bronchitis.. apricot-like. Constituents Saponins..SEE WATERCRESS Description A short.. H.... Cowslip Flowers are reportedly sedative having antihistamine properties. flavonoids (gossypetin. *INCI Name Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Extract Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Juice Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit Expressed from fruit CAS#: 89998-01-6/70955-25-8 Family: Cucurbitaceae Synonyms: Gherkin Part Used: Whole fruit and seed Habitat and Range Native of India.. about 1 cm in diameter... and E. Berlin. For blotchiness of skin.. and for chapped skin or sunburn. hairy perennial.. Description This trailing annual has rough stems. and coughs.. tubular yellow flowers.... broad hairy leaves.. campferol dirhamnoside. 176. sunburn...See WATERCRESS Cowslip CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus L. Taste. astringent. Both the fruit and seeds are employed.. sweetish. cooling. Zgalinski. colds. 1984. yellow.. Springer-Verlag.. and 3-gentiotrioside. CRESS.. and refreshing. five-lobed.90 CRESS.. minerals... Properties Stimulate circulation.. p. fatty acids. quercetin).... According to the German Commission Monograph E.. Plant Drug Analysis.. Primula has been used as a wash for wrinkles. Constituents Vitamins. phytosterol.... Hydrating. some say the flowers are antioxidant (free radical scavenging).. S.M. soothing eye compress. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .... dark green fruits.. cucurbitacins.. 1. wrinkled leaves.. and spotted with orange at the throat.. and cylindrical... often cultivated as vegetable in southern Europe and North America.. Wagner. in face creams. phenolic acids. and acne and is said to be antiinflammatory. amino acids.. Blatt. enzyme (primeverase). The flowers are tubular. odor. slightly curved.. with oval..
Stomata are present in both epidermises. Cut pieces of root and rhizome may occur. Frequent pieces of cut. the acute lobes are directed toward the base. ending in a spherical secreting cell. Lion’s ale Part Used: Leaf Habitat and Range Europe. the midrib is often violet colored and broad and the secondary veins leave it at a wide angle.5 cm wide. arranged in an ellipse as seen in T. Properties The Dandelion is useful in facial steam packs.0 cm long and 0. approximating 90°. The drug occurs as small leaf fragments 0.D DANDELION LEAVES Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Taraxacum officinale Part Used: Leaf CAS#: 84775-55-3 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Taraxacum. dark green or brown-green in color. with a pronounced midrib. broken midrib and stems 2 cm long. near the base are a very few pluricellular emergences. and for various skin complaints and eczema. The leaves are lanceolate to obovate and runcinate. which are composed of cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. The few trichomes are uniseriate and may be simple. 91 Dandelion leaf Dandelion tops © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the leaves vary much in size and are nearly glabrous.S. The vascular bundles of the meristele in the midrib are separate and often about ten in number. but occasionally much larger (up to 40 cm long). the mesophyll has a rather indefinite palisade of two layers of cells that are short and wide. Dandelion * Formerly CTFA.5 cm wide.5 to 1. where it is a common weed. Foreign Dandelion. naturalized in the United States. yellow-brown and sometimes purple. 0. ending in spathulate cell or rarely glandular. about 10 to 20 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad. Description The plant carries basal rosettes of leaves that are deeply divided into uneven triangular lobes.
There have been entire books written on Dandelions as it has many uses.92 DANDELION LEAVES contains the following nutrients per ounce: Vitamin A (7000 units). The white sap has been used to treat warts. It is also considered a blood purifier. the root has been used to treat inflammation. Herbalists use it to stimulate the secretion of bile. Vitamin B and C. and is especially high in potassium. lack of appetite and dyspeptic complaints. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . probably due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. as a diuretic.
The rhizome and its branches are crowned with the short remains of the leaves which bear brownish hairs near the point of insertion. DEVIL’S CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens DC *INCI Name Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Part Used: Roots CAS #: 84900-65-8 Family: Pedaliaeae Synonyms: Grapple plant Part Used: Roots © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Description The root consists of a simple. and its derivative taraxacoside. milky latex exudes. whitish and fleshy within. It attains a length of about 30 cm. and sterols. which toward the upper part.DEVIL’S CLAW 93 Constituents Sesquiterpenes (taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. triterpenes such as cycloartenol. and a layer of cork externally. naturalized in the United States. whitish bark in which numerous. central wood occupying about 1/4 to 1/3 of the diameter. a narrow cortex. flavonoids. It has no odor. When fresh it is yellowish-brown externally. carotenoids. but often divides into several erect branches.1% mucilage. but a bitter taste. where it is a common weed. The drug. tissue and laticiferous vessels are visible. becomes tough when slightly moist. vitamins and minerals. surrounded by a thick. Constituents See Dandelion leaves. the section exhibiting a yellow. straight root. much shriveled. brownish concentric rings of sieve. the latter sometimes remains simple. coumarins as scopoletin and esculetin. DANDELION ROOT Taraxacum officinale Weber *INCI Name Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Extract Dandelion (Traxacum officinale) Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lions Tooth Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Europe. glucoside. From the freshly cut surface a bitter. with concentric rings as in the root. which have not been found anywhere else. tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide B-D-glucopyranoside). surrounded by a yellow wood outside that is a wide secondary phloem. 1. The drug breaks when dry with a short and horny fracture. it tapers but little below. also ca. porous. which is rather hygroscopic. passes imperceptibly into an erect rhizome. p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. and often divides in the upper part (rhizome) into several erect branches. and wrinkled longitudinally. The dried root is dark brown. and a thickness of about 10 to 25 mm. Properties See Dandelion Leaves.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. The transversely cut surface of the rhizome shows a small central whitish pith. and the eudesmanolides. In the center of the root is a small yellow wood.
procumbide). 117. bitter. taste astringent. quinones. 1992. polyphenols. Description It has a characteristic large. Odor slight. Lanhers. 58. rheumatism). hooked. triterpenes. claw-like fruit.94 DEVIL’S CLAW Devil’s claw (claw) Devil’s claw (cut section of root) Habitat and Range Indigenous to southern and eastern Africa. ursolic acid) phytosterols.. occasionally with cavities. Bark yellow to dark brown with longitudinal striations. heavily concentric. Fracture short. Planta Med. flavonoids. Antiphlogistic. The plant produces bright red flowers. up to 6 cm in diameter and about 0.5 cm thick.-C. light grey-brown.. with some fan-shaped pieces. chlorogenic acid. polysaccharides. (oleanolic acid. slightly analgesic. The aqueous fraction containing mostly harpagoside has shown significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced edema in rats and the writhing test in mice. Xylem radiate.1 Devil’s claw (root) Constituents Iridoidglycosides (harpagoside. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . M. 1. Properties Anti-inflammatory (arthritis. et al.. Macroscopical: Transversely cut disks of tuber.
pallida.. Indian head. Black Sampson. purpurea. 95 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Hedgehog Part Used: Root.E ECHINACEA Echinacea angustifolia DC. Part Used: Root. E. Scurvy Root. aerial parts including flower or flower head Echinacea * Formerly CTFA. *INCI Name Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Extract Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern United States. Black Susans. herb N/S N/S N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Pale Purple Cone Flower. Moench. L. (Nutt.) Nutt. E.
when administered into normal leghorn chickens. sieve tissue in radial rows. this plant extract enhances phagocytosis significantly in experimental mice. Properties Coneflower is noted to be antiseptic. are directly related to the immune mechanisms. but lacking the persistent and benumbing effect produced by the drug. the latter with secretion canals and characteristic stone cells. For example. fibrous. separated by broad wedges of parenchyma. It was suggested that the wound-healing action of this compound was due to a hyaluronic acid–polysaccharide complex that resists hyaluronidase attack. The stabilization and the temporary increase of hyaluronic acid cause fibrosis and an increase of fibroblasts. Structure: An outer cork composed of several layers of tabular cells with yellowish walls and containing oil globules or granular masses. wounds. or poisonous insects. taste sweetish. or furrowed. wound healing. wood composed of alternate light yellowish and black wedges. bark less than 1 mm thick. with occasional stem scars somewhat longitudinally wrinkled. healing for skin conditions or carbuncles. rather thick-walled parenchyma cells among which are oil or resin canals. etc. aromatic.96 ECHINACEA Author on his farm in field of echinacea Description Nearly entire.2 A polysaccharide named “Echinacin B” isolated from this plant has shown to have antihyaluronidase activities in vitro. burns. to form the basis of the wound-healing process. This plant extract increases the serum immunoglobulin concentration and increases three classes of antibodies.1 It also increases the production of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) and antibody in immunodeficient chickens. a distinct cambium zone of several rows of thin-walled cells. blood purification. bed sores. ulcers. the rhizome with a circular or angular pith. stings. slightly annulate in the upper portion. about 8 rows of tangentially elongated. fracture short. central portion made up of radially arranged groups of tracheae. very slightly tapering and sometimes spirally twisted. Recent studies strongly support this phenomenon. or purplish-brown. characteristic carbonlike masses occur around the stone cells and fibers. the latter separated by parenchyma containing inulin and extending to the middle bark. light brown. When administered orally. followed by a tingling sensation suggesting aconite. cylindrical. bites. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . externally grayish-brown. It has been taken internally to help build the immune system. boils. The properties of this plant strongly indicate that the drug interacts through the human immune system. use for snake bite. from 10 to 20 cm long and from 4 to 15 mm in diameter. Odor faint.
It also increases T-cell proliferation. and Interferon-B2. Three polysaccharides isolated4 from the cell culture of this plant have been shown to have stimulating effects on the activity of macrophages. and IL-6 to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . A highly purified acidic arabinogalactan has been shown to be effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and a microorganism (Leishmania enriettii). indicating that these drugs can possibly be used in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as in AIDs patients. interleukin-1 (IL-1). this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis (TNF-X).3 Furthermore. Macrophages from different organ origin could be activated to produce IL-1. TNF-X.ECHINACEA 97 Echinacea purpurea root (whole) Echinacea purpurea root (cut) — notice how it sheds Echinacea angustifolia (root with cross cut) The polysaccharides purified from the cell cultures of this plant have also shown significant immunomodulating activities.
98 ECHINACEA Echinacea tops Echinacea tops Candida albicans in vitro.7% (except in E. purpurea)]. and the following compounds: • Phenolic compounds derived from caffeic acid. but practically absent in E. isobutylamide of undeca (2E. angustifolia. isobutylamide of dodeca(2E.and dicaffeate of tartaric acid.4E. note especially the presence of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. chlorogenic acid. purpurea and E. Present in both E. The dicaffeate (= cichoric acid) is abundant in E. the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocytes in spleen and bone marrow and migration of granulocytes to the peripheral blood.1%). arabinoga lactan).10E)-tetraenoic acid). Constituents A number of compounds have been isolated from Echinacea. the roots of the same species contain a glucuronoarabinoxylan. These effects indeed resulted in excellent protection of mice against the consequenses of lethal infections with Listeria monolytogenes and C. ferulates of tartaric. angustifolia).. isobutylamides of polyenyne acids (e.5 Furthermore.3–1. including an essential oil. in vivo. and dicaffeoylquinic acids (cynarin is specific to E.g. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . pyrrolizidine alkaloids. These include the following: – Caffeic acid. – Sugar esters of caffeic acid [echinacoside: 0. Their structure has been studied on cell cultures of E. which is useful for species identification. • A large number of unsaturated aliphatic compounds. angustifolia.. – The mono. pallida.4Z-diene8.8Z.g. In E. purpurea (fucogalactoxyloglucans. purpurea (0. • Polysaccharides.10-diynoic acid) and polyene acids (e. Some major caffeoyl derivatives6 isolated from the Echinacea plant have been shown to have antiviral activity. These include aliphatic amides.6–2. Long-chain fatty acids and alkanes are present in all species in the genus. their respective structures and levels are slightly different. albicans pathogens.
2787-2794. and J. H.. H. Albrecht. 5. 353-364. Luettig. Arzneim-Forsch. A. J. 4. and M. 1989. 276-281. Puhlmann. M. 36(5).-L.. 27-38. Phytochemistry. 13(1).ECHINACEA 99 1. C. 27(9).744. 1988. Ger Offen De 3.. Zawatzky. O. Wagner. 6. H. K.E. Lohmann. Cheminat. Gifford.. Steinmueller. B. J. 1991. Schranner. Natl. Immuno Pharmacol. 669-675. Klumpp and U. N. 81(8). Zenk. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Wagner.Matthes. Becker.H. E. Med. Cancer Inst. Holger. Intn. M... Wagner. and H. B.L. 1988. and R. J. 38(2). 3. S. Lohmann-Matthes. (Bethesda). J. Jurcic. 1989. G.345. Bauer. Brouillard. 1989 2. R. R. J. Roesler. K. Christiane. Andreas. Ser. Vet. I. Loesch. Wuerdinger. Wagner.
soreness. triterpenes (alpha. minerals. Properties Herbalists often call the Elder tree the cosmetic tree. tumors. pollen ellipsoidal or tetrahedral and rounded. Odor faintly sweet and aromatic. inflammation. joint stiffness etc. flat or slightly campanulate. Elder is also claimed to lighten freckles. calyx superior. filaments. shriveled. Sweet Elder Part Used: Flower and leaf Habitat and Range New Brunswick to Manitoba. volatile oils. Description Small. slender anthers oblong.100 ELDER FLOWERS ELDER FLOWERS Sambucus nigra L.023 mm in diameter. mucilage. sambunigrin). having three pores and up to 0. Almost all parts will aid in complexion beauty such as softening the skin. corolla cream colored to brownish-yellow. covered with finely punctate markings. sterols. ursolic acid. yellow. Elder berry © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .and beta-amyrin). south to Florida and Texas. regularly five-lobed. inserted at the base of the corolla and alternating with its lobes. *INCI Name Sambucus Sambacus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus Sambucus canadensis Extract nigra nigra Berry Extract nigra Extract nigra Oil nigra Water Part Used: N/S Flower and leaf N/S Flowers Volatile oil N/S Flowers Family: Caprifoliaceae Synonyms: American Elder. phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). rutin. stamens five. astragalin. rotate. Constituents Flavonoids (isoquercitrin. taste slightly bitter. from 2 to 3 mm in width. It is said to reduce swellings. five-lobed. and tannins.
ELECAMPANE 101 ELECAMPANE Inula helenium L. taste acrid. Properties Has been used as a wash for various skin disorders. frequently curved or irregularly curled. arranged in nearly radial rows and forming interrupted circles. longitudinally striate and more or less fibrous near the cambium zone. inner or cut surface somewhat concave. Internally it is one of the greatest herbs for lung ailments such as bronchitis. south to North Carolina.5 cm in diameter. the edges incurved with the overlapping bark. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and rashes. asthma. externally grayishbrown to dark brown. yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. Elfwort Part Used: Rhizome Habitat and Range Asia. fracture short and horny. up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. a cortex of numerous parenchyma cells containing inulin in irregular or fan-shaped masses and a number of large. Description Rhizome usually split into longitudinal or more or less oblique pieces to which can be attached one or more of the roots.) strongly lignified wood fibers. as a bactericide. Elecampane (Inula helenium L. wounds. intercellular secretion cavities containing oleoresin. internally light brown and marked by numerous circular or elliptical oleoresin canals. woody portion consisting chiefly of parenchyma. *INCI Name Elecampane (Inula helenium) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 84012-20-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Horseheal. Structure: A corky layer of from 4 to 7 rows of broad tabular cells. and pungent. bitter. Scabwort. up to 13 cm in length and 1. longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem scars and surmounted at the crown by a portion of the overground stem. roots cylindrical and tapering. itching skin. parenchyma cells in the pith of the rhizome large. containing less inulin than the cells of the wood and bark. and catarrh. a number of tracheae with simple pores or reticulate thickenings and associated occasionally with a few. and separated by large intercellular spaces. Odor aromatic. and secretion cavities containing oleoresin similar to those occurring in the bark. west to Missouri. naturalized in northeastern North America. central Europe.
polyacetylene. triterpenes (dammaradienol acetate. friedelin). Elecampane (Inula helenium) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sterols.102 ELECAMPANE Constituents Sesquiterpenes (eudesmanolides. inulin. isolantolactone. germacrene-D-lactose).
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . has a bitter and astringent taste. essential oil. The corolla lip equals or exceeds the tube and the bracts of the flower-spike are broad at the base. either unbranched in small specimens. The leaves are sometimes almost round. high. Properties This beautiful yellow-flowered plant makes a good wash for bruises. The stem is erect and wiry. Eyewort Part Used: Aerial parts Part Used: Flower heads N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-56-0 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Sweet & Fragrant Life Everlasting. and phytosterin. Hemostatic. 2 to 8 in. small. EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia officinalis L. heaths. *INCI Name Euphrasia officinalis Euphrasia officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Euphrasia. with deeply cut leaves and numerous. woolly beneath. febrifuge. taste bitter and aromatic. corymbosely-branched at summit and leafy. green above. Eternal Flower Part Used: Flowering heads Habitat and Range Poor meadows. white or lilac and purple-veined flowers variegated with yellow. long and about in. revolute or undulate. each with white or pearly white involucre of ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate. always deeply cut-in teeth. however. heads numerous. odor characteristically aromatic. and at other times pointed and narrow. and tubular flowers having a bristly pappus. It is odorless. Has been used in mouthwashes and gargles for sores in the mouth and throat. obtuse bracts which are white.EYEBRIGHT 103 EVERLASTING (LIFE EVERLASTING) Gnaphalium polycephalum Michx. opposite to one another on the lower portion of the stem. Astringent tonic. their margins. resin. broad. or with many opposite branches. *INCI Name Everlasting (Helichryseum arenarium) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum italicum) Extract Everlasting (Helichryseum stoechas) Extract Cudweed (Gnaphalium polycephalum) Extract Habitat and Range North America. woodland. Description Stems white-woolly. and discutient (reduces and distributes swelling). Europe. Also has slight Anodyne properties. sessile. but sometimes tinged with brown. in terminal spikes with leafy bracts interspersed. leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. Constituents Tannins. 1 ⁄6 to in. Description It is an elegant little annual plant.
geniposide. and a volatile oil. conjunctivitis. Herbalists also use it locally for conjunctivitis along with Golden Seal Root and Witch Hazel. minerals. Constituents Aucubin. Euphrasia contains glycosides. inflammation of the eyelid. catapol. luproside. The German Commission E Monograph states that preparations of eyebright can be used externally as.104 EYEBRIGHT Properties Eyebright is reportedly used as a wash for sore eyes and is an astringent and anti-inflammatory. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . including aucubin. and various skin conditions. caffeic acid. inflamation of the blood vessels. ferulic acid. gallotannins. poultices. lotions or drops for eye complaints.
It is * Formerly CTFA. more or less curved. the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by four large elliptical schizogenous oil ducts with thick. Fennel combines well with Eyebright and Golden Seal Root.F FENNEL FRUIT Foeniculum vulgare Mill *INCI Name Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Extract Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Oil Part Used: Dried ripe fruit Fruit Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 84625-39-8/85085-33-2 Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Fennel fruit Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range Southern Europe and Asia. and two oil ducts on the ventral side.5 mm in breadth. the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal and somewhat reniform. Herbalists recommend Fennel to help increase breast milk and regulate menstruation. dorsal surface convex. filled with aleurone grains and fixed oil. In the central portion of each of the ribs occurs a nearly circular. comFennel fruit at 10 missural surface with three narrow. New Jersey. light brown longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish-black areas containing oil ducts. some having a slender stalk from 2 to 10 mm in length. United States. Description Mericarps usually separate. from 4 to 15 mm in length and from 1 to 3. strongly lignified fibers. yellowish-green to grayish-brown. brown walls. Properties Used in facial steams to soothe and clean skin. 105 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . south to Florida and Texas. making usually six oil ducts in all. Fennel also helps to aid digestion and is carminative. Structure: A pentagonal mericarp. conical stylopod. Odor and taste aromatic and characteristic. with five prominent longitudinal primary ribs and at the summit a short. the latter occurring singly and alternating with the primary ribs. the other or commissural surface being much broader and more or less undulate. each being broadly elliptical with the commissural surface flattened. four of the sides being nearly equal and slightly concave. fibrovascular bundle with a few tracheae and numerous thin-walled. cells of the seed-coat closely united with those of the pericarp giving the transverse section two very distinct areas. For use in eye washes. composed of polygonal cells.
However. and 2 mm thick. The odor of Fenugreek. and Turkey. cultivated in India. -phellandrene. thus dividing the radicle-pocket from the remainder of the seed. the radicle being accumbent. the fruits contain a fixed oil. horny. yellowish-brown. especially if powdered. *INCI Name Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Extract Part Used: Seeds CAS#: 68990-15-8 Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Greek Hay Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Native of Asia. In addition. irregularly rhomboidal in outline. Israel. the taste is disagreeable and oily. in which are the two large cotyledons placed face to face. the former appearing as a whitish point. dark. In addition. Soaked in water. The embryo is yellowish and the cotyledons are surrounded by a scanty. they are hard. organic acids.106 FENUGREEK also said to help liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. Milk Thistle is supposedly a more specific liver-protecting agent. Fenugreek seed (Indian) at 10 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . this depression is continued in the form of a furrow running diagonally across part of each of the adjoining sides. protein. the endosperm swells and yields mucilage to the surrounding liquid. comprising up to 50 to 70% of the sweetish trans-anethole and up to 20% of the bitter and camphoraceous (+)-fenchone. anisaldehyde. translucent endosperm. including -pinene. Pakistan. and flavonoids. Description Fenugreek seeds are about 4 to 6 mm long. Constituents 2 to 6% essential oil. 2 to 3 mm wide. there are methylchavicol. FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum graecum L. narrow sides is a small depression in which both hilum and micropyle are situated. Nearly in the center of one of the long. and flattened. and some terpenoid hydrocarbons. and limonene. is strong and spicy.
dating back to the ancient Egyptians. diosgenin. and banks. choline. neurosis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . trigonelline. glycine.FIGWORT 107 Properties Anti-inflammatory source of diosgenin. cystine. flowering from July to October. Fenugreek is one of the oldest plants to be used in medicines. Fenugreek contains mucilage. histidine. swollen glands. *INCI Name Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa) Extract Part Used: Herb N/S CAS#: 90106-65-3 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Carpenter’s Square. tumors. fenugreakin. mucilage. in woods. FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa L. A poultice has been employed for gout. glutamic acid. aspartic acid. mucin. It is also used as a galactagogue. sores. Constituents Dioscin. trigofoenoside A-G. Heal-all Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Figwort is a native of Europe and found growing in different parts of the United States. choline. Square stalk. and various skin irritations. Scrofula plant. wounds. hedges. damp copses. yamogenin.
tuberous. acutish or broadly cordate at base. whitish. cardio-active glycosides. and slightly margined. of a deep-green color. Constituents Saponins. Properties Used in the treatment of various skin conditions and ailments. which are broadly ovate. the limb contracted. having a green scale or sterile filament. or the upper lanceolate. angular glandular peduncles in oblong. A compress of the infusion can be applied to swellings and wounds. hesperetin. with a livid purple lip. long. It has also been reportedly used successfully for tinea. and subglobose. on axillary and terminal. with a leafy. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The leaves are opposite. 2 to 4 ft in height. and 3 to 7 in. with paniculate. adnate to the upper side. ovate-oblong. forked. dark purple. ovate. lecithin. smooth stem. rounded. petiolate. erect. The calyx is in five segments. It has been used as a wash for skin inflammations and eczema. acute. and circulatory stimulant. sharply and unequally serrated. anodyne. slightly drooping. sublabiate. quadrangular.108 FIGWORT Description Figwort has a perennial. Also used internally to reduce body temperature and blood pressure anti-inflammatory. obtuse. The flowers are small. in length. cleansing. opposite branches above. veined. and knotty root. thyrsoid panicles. 3 to 4 in. alkaloids and flavonoids. the corolla of a dull green color. ovoid.
the flowers white. with an acidulous. quadrangular. Herbalists extol its use as a lymphatic cleanser and blood purifier. GARLIC Allium sativum L. Catch-weed. coumarins. *INCI Name Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 8008-99-9 Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Allium Part Used: Bulb * Formerly CTFA. The fruit is large and bristly. Combines well with Figwort (Schrophularia Nodosa). numerous and scattered. styles 2. small. fatty acids.or 2-flowered. which grows from 2 to 6 ft long. stamens 4 and short. mucronate. Description Galium aparine is an annual. 2 or 3 lines in width. with hooked prickles. Galium is said to increase the elasticity of the skin. tannins. and midrib. and along banks of rivers. linearoblanceolate nearly sessile. and rough on the margins. flavonoids. and flowering from June to September. and bitter taste. the peduncles are axillary and 1. It can be employed in hair rinses for scaling scald and dandruff. Bedstraw Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range This plant is common to Europe and the United States. tapering to the base. procumbent. sevens.G GALIUM APARINE Galium aparine L. but are inodorous when dried. It was also used topically on burns and abrasions. Calyx 4-toothed. moist thickets. sterols. and n-alkanes. growing in cultivated grounds. Stinging Nettle. in length. or eights. and is hairy at the joints. succulent plant. and Burdock. cleansing. In a green state. The leaves are 1 or 2 in. Constituents Iridoid glucosides. retrorsely prickled stem. *INCI Name Galium aparine Extract Herb Part Used: N/S CAS #: 84625-42-3 Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Cleavers. these plants have an unpleasant odor. 109 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids. corolla rotate and 4-parted. including psoriasis. with a weak. verticillate in sixes. Properties Has been used in various skin diseases. astringent. and astringent.
and root remains should be removed before Garlic is used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. pimples. allicin — dialltrisulfide. but the cells containing numerous yellowish brown plastids. and E. the outer surface convex. beneath which is a light brown or pinkish. spasmolytic. base truncate. antiseptic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . C. taste intensely pungent and persistent. (b) a middle layer nearly circular in outline. and fructans. but an oil made from crushed Garlic and extra virgin olive oil. dry leaf. membranaceous scales. sores.750 mm in diameter. hypotensive and anthelmintic. the latter with numerous yellowish-white roots. expectorant. bulbils ovoid in transverse section 3 to 4 sided. (alliin. cohering but easily separable from the solid portion of the bulbil. membranaceous. Herbalists recommend taking Garlic oil and applying it to sores. each bulbil covered by whitish. B. and attached to a flattened circular base. apex acute. Constituents Sulfur compounds. promotes leucocytosis. You might like to try dipping bread in this mixture. Garlic does not lend itself. surrounded by whitish. (c) an innermost bright green layer consisting of a single leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the ventral surfaces lie close together. epidermis in both ventral and dorsal surfaces of small tabular cells. compound. trace minerals.110 GARLIC Habitat and Range Central Asia. Odor when broken or bruised powerfully alliaceous. Description Bulb subglobular. thin and coriaceous layer of epidermis. scale-like leaves. Vitamins A. It has been applied successfully to swellings. about 0. Properties Cosmetically. cultivated extensively. in place of butter. scordinins. The Garlic oil is not the essential oil. and narrowed into a thread-like fibrous portion. with 8 to 15 bulbils. Garlic is diaphoretic. Garlic is a source of organic sulfur. and acne. However. The membranaceous scales. bacteriostatic. Internally. g-glutamyl). It is said to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides and help prevent platelet aggregation. the tissues resembling those of the outer fleshy scale. for obvious reasons. antiviral. Italy is a large producer. 4 to 6 cm in diameter. peptides. Structure: Bulbil with three distinct portions: (a) the large fleshy scale consisting chiefly of parenchyma enclosing scattered vascular bundles. then wrapping or placing a bandage over the sore (infection) and changing the dressing daily.
and alkaloids (gentiamine). The cortex is of variable thickness and yellow-brown. xanthones. The outline is very irregular on account of wrinkles.GERANIUM 111 GENTIAN Gentiana lutea L. The cambiam zone is dark brown. The crown terminates in a circular stem scar or in leafy scales surrounding the undeveloped stem. GERANIUM Geranium maculatum L. swertiamarin). amarogentin. *INCI Name Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Gentian (Gentiana lutea) Extract Habitat and Range Central and southern Europe. but pliable when it is moist. It is recommended for loss of appetite. and middle western United States. Wild Alum Part Used: Rhizome Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 97676-22-7 Family: Gentianaceae Synonyms: Yellow Gentian Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Eastern and central North America.5 dm in length. The taste is first sweet. sialagogue. but are usually shorter. sweroside. gastric stimulant. Constituents Secoiridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . *INCI Name Geranium maculatum Part Used: Rhizome Family: Geraniaceae Synonyms: Wild Geranium. phenolic acids. The wood is distinctly radiate near the cambium but less so near the large brownish-yellow pith. deeply wrinkled longitudinally. and cholagogue. Gentian is considered one of the most useful herbs for digestive disorders and is employed in many bitter type formulations. Description Gentian root occurs as broken pieces and rarely as entire roots. anti-inflammatory. bitter. These roots measure up to 8. The rhizomes are vertical and simple or branched. cleansing. Properties Gentian is an astringent. volatile oils. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and rough with fibers from leaf bases. The texture is non-starchy and slightly waxy. Cranesbill. The odor is aromatic. and to 37 mm in diameter. polysaccharide. it increases the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. then strongly bitter. The fracture is short and brittle when the root is dry. The color is light or dark yellowish-brown. that of the root.
Description Rhizome cylindraceous, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, and strongly tuberculated, from 2.5 to 10 cm and from 3 to 14 mm in diameter; surface marked with root scars and remnants of slender roots, longitudinally wrinkled; externally dark purple-brown; internally light purple-brown; fracture short, nonfibrous, the section shows a thin bark, a distinct cambium, irregular in outline, large central pith, wood indistinct, the fibrovascular bundles few and at unequal distances. Odorless; taste strongly astringent. Structure: A more or less irregular cork layer consisting of about 10 rows of tangentially elongated cells, the outer layers with brownish walls and a Wild alum (Geranium malvlatom) brownish amorphous content, the inner layers with colorless walls; a layer of about five rows of tangentially elongated oval cells; a wide layer of nearly isodiametric parenchyma containing either starch, rosettes of calcium oxalate, or tannin; distinct groups of sieve separated from the central cylinder by a broad, continuous zone of cambium; fibrovascular bundles few, radially arranged with tracheae and tracheids and narrow medullary rays; very large pith, the cells containing starch or, in a few instances, rosettes of calcium oxalate. Properties Astringent, tonic, styptic useful for sore mouth and indolent ulcers. Can be used in douches, as a deodorant wash, in bath, for oily skin in creams, lotions, hair rinses, shampoos, and conditioners. It is also good for swollen, aching feet and hemorrhoids. Constituents High in tannins, gum, and resin.
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GINGER Zingiber officinale, Roscoe *INCI Name Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oil Habitat and Range Cultivated in The West Indies. Description Jamaica ginger occurs as a mixture of irregularly branched rhizomes and broken pieces. All surfaces are completely peeled. The rhizomes measure up to 12 cm in length, up to 3.5 cm in height, and up to 1 cm in width. The rhizome is horizontal, and the ends of the branches have circular or oval sunken stem or bud scars. The texture is starchy, resinous, and fibrous. The color all surfaces is yellowish-brown. The upper surface has several branches which terminate in Ginger (Costa Rican) sunken stem scars. All the surfaces are striated longitudinally, and have a few projecting thread-like strands of conducting tissue. The undersurface frequently has short, undeveloped branches, or longer branches that normally continue the growth of the rhizome. The fracture is brittle and uneven. The outline is oval. This is caused by lateral compression. The cortex is thin. The endodermis is yellowish and encloses the large stele; it has scattered masses of conducting tissue and oleoresin cells. The color is light yellow. The odor is strongly aromatic and agreeable; the taste is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. Properties A circulatory stimulant, and an additive used in food for its flavor and its aromatic characteristic. It is carminative, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, and antiemetic. Ginger oil is used in fragrances. Ginger has many medicinal properties too numerous to mention in this reference. However, it has been used in hair-stimulating tonics. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger is also antiseptic and has been used for treating bacillary dysentary. The essential oil of Ginger has been used topically to relieve arthritic pain. It is usually diluted in olive oil at a level of 20 to 25% essential oil. Constituents Volatile oil (zingiberene, curcumene), oleoresin (gingerols and shogaols), fatty acids, and starch. Part Used: Rhizome Dried rhizomes Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Jamaica Ginger Part Used: Rhizome
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GINKGO Ginkgo biloba L. *INCI Name Ginkgo biloba Extract Leaf Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90045-36-6 Family: Ginkgoaceae Synonyms: Flying Moth Leaf, Buddha’s Fingernails, Duck-foot Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range United States and China. Description Large deciduous tree. Tree trunk erect, forming a dense crown when old. Bark gray, deeply cracked. Branches long and short. Leaves on long branches single; on short branches clustered. Leaves fan-shaped, bi-parted at apex, bases cuneate, upper margins undulate or irregularly shallow-parted, both surfaces yellowish-green, containing numerous parallel veins. Blooms in summer. Fruit seeds are drupes, obovate or ellipsoid.
Properties Vasodilator, increases circulation, improves sebaceous secretions, decreases capillary hyperpermeability, improves tissue irrigation, and activates cell metabolism, particularly in the cortex (by increasing glucose and oxygen uptake). Ginkgolide B is inhibitor of platelet-activating factor, together with the activities of the flavonoids as radical scavengers, can explain the numerous properties of Ginkgo extract. Ginkgo is anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic. Constituents Mainly two groups of compounds: flavonoids and diterpenes. The flavonoids are about 20 flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin and biflavones: amentoflavone, bilobetol 15-methoxybilobetol, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, and sciadopitysin. Flavanols and proanthocyanidins are also present. The diterpenes are ginkgolides A, B, C, J, and M. They have a very specific hexacyclic structure.
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GINSENG Panax quinquefolium L. *INCI Name Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Extract Part Used: Dried roots Roots CAS #: 90045-38-8 Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: American Ginseng, Sang, Redberry, Five Fingers Part Used: Root
Habitat and Range Ginseng is found sparingly in the rich, moist soil in hardwood forests from Maine to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern Georgia and Arkansas. Ginseng has long been cultivated in small areas in the northern and central United States and on the North Pacific coast.
Ginseng root (american) cultivated
Description Excerpts from various old journals: Ginseng is a native of most of the middle and northern states, and extends on the mountains far south, growing in rich soil and in shaded situations, and flowering in July. C.S. Rafinesque1 states that the Jesuits, knowing the plant from their sojourns in Tartary found it afterward, toward 1718, in Canada and instituted the trade in this root with China. The root is somewhat fusiform, 2 or 3 in. in length, and about an inch in diameter, and sends off a few delicate fibers. When dried, it consists of a soft, yellowishwhite corrugated bark, enclosing a central, woody substance. It has a faint smell; its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic. Water or alcohol takes up its
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properties. Large quantities of it are now gathered and sent to China, where it commands an enormous price, as the Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. The American drug is cheapest (about $1.86 per pound); next ranks Korea ginseng at $16.50 per pound); and highest in price is the genuine Chinese Ginseng. The latter is seldom found in stores, and the finest qualities command the price of from $60 to $100 for a weight of about 580 grains. In Korea, the cultivation and trade in Ginseng is a government monopoly.2 Ginseng is also grown in Japan, but is considered inferior to Korea Ginseng. The genuine Chinese Ginseng is the root of Aralia Ginseng. A. Meyer (Panax Ginseng, Nees) an east Asia plant. Altogether, five commercial grades of Ginseng are distinguished in China. It is often adulterated by mixing it with the root of some species of Convolvulus and other roots. (For the cultivation of Ginseng in America, see Reference 3). Ginseng is becoming very scarce and, unless a method of cultivation becomes practical, bids fair to be exterminated. The price now is from $4.00 to $7.50 per pound and advancing. Today 1998 prices for ginseng are from $100 to $450 per pound. Properties Present-day cosmetic uses of Ginseng: said to be an excellent skin conditioner in masks, packs, moisturizing lotions, night creams, etc. Ginseng is supposedly most efficacious when applied to the skin for its alleged rejuvenating effects. It has also been used internally in amnesia, dizziness, headache, tiredness, convulsions, impotence, and lack of appetite, among others.
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Constituents At least 18 triterpenoidal saponins were isolated; these are called ginsenosides or panaxosides, and they are glycosides of oleanolic acid, 20-S-protopanaxadiol and 20-S-protopanaxatriol. Other constituents are a trace of volatile oil; 7 to 9% ginseng polysaccharides (panaxans); pectin; free sugars; vitamins B1, B2, B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin; choline; fats; minerals; polyacetylenes, among others.
1. C.S. Rafinesque, Med. Floa of the U.S., II, 53, 1880. 2. See Am. J. Pharm., 597, 1887; 51, 1897; 251, 1898. 3. Am. J. Pharm., 411, 1891.
GOLDEN ROD Solidago virgaurea L. *INCI Name Golden Rod Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Virgaurea, Herba solidaginis Part Used: Flowers and leaves
Habitat and Range Native to the U.K., now naturalized in Europe as a garden plant and as an escape in lowland forests and woods along rivers. Description Golden Rod is a perennial herb up to 75 cm tall, upright, with oblong-lanceolate, sessile, finely toothed stem leaves, bearing a head of compositous flowers each with a yellow disk and 6 to 12 yellow ray florets. Stem, longitudinally striated, shining red-violet. Covering trichomes of the leaves are very long, uniseriate, 3 to 10 celled; those of the florets are multicellular biseriate; glandular trichomes of the compositous type are present. Taste is astringent. Flowers from July to October.
Golden rod (Solidago)
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Properties The infusion is used as a face wash for oily skin with large open pores. It is also used in a bath to tone up flabby skin and muscle, probably due to its tannin content. However, it also contains flavonoids that could help to reduce inflammation, capillary fragility. It has been used as a diuretic. Externally, it helps to heal wounds and persistent sores. Internally, it is diaphoretic, antiseptic, carminative, and diuretic. It is principally used in low-grade inflammation of the nasopharynx with persistent catarrh. Constituents Volatile oil, flavonoids, saponins with polygalic acid aglycone and an astringent principle. GOLDEN SEAL Hydrastis canadensis L. *INCI Name Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Extract Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Root Extract Part Used: Herb N/S Family: Ranunculaceae Synonyms: Orange Root, Eye Balm, Ground Raspberry, Yellow Root Part Used: Root and rhizome
Habitat and Range Connecticut to Vermont, to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri. Description Hydrastis occurs as entire and as broken pieces of the rhizome and roots. The rhizome measures up to 6 cm in length and to 13 mm in diameter; the roots measure up to 30 cm in length and to 3 mm in diameter. The rhizome is horizontal and is simple or branched; the upper surface has many circular, slightly depressed stem scars, or short stem bases, or portions of stems. The stems are fibrous, longitudinally furrowed, and greenish-brown. They are surrounded at the base by numerous thin yellow scales. The texture is slightly fibrous. The color varies from yellowish to dark grayish- or to reddish-brown. The surface of the rhizome is annulate and longitudinally Golden seal (root) striated, that of the roots striated longitudinally. The fracture is very brittle and even. The outline of the rhizome and roots is cylindrical. The cortex of the rhizome is thick. The wood has several isolated masses of radial conducting cells and a greenish-yellow pith. The cortex of the roots is yellowish-green. The wood is minute and yellowish. The odor is slightly aromatic. The taste is bitter. Properties Golden Seal has a wide and varied reputation. It makes an excellent yellow hair dye. It was used by the Cherokee Indians and passed on to the early American settlers for use as a dye and medicinal Golden Seal Root has been employed in eczema, pruritus, otorrhea, and conjunctivitis. It can be used in cases of acne, dandruff, mouth washes, and as an astringent.
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Herbalists use Golden Seal as a blood purifier and also for catarrh (mucosal inflammations) gastritis, and dispepsia. Golden Seal contains hydrastine, which is said to be vasoconstrictor, choloretic, spasmolytic sedative, and antibacterial. Berberine is also choloretic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and sedative. Canadine is said to stimulate uterine muscle and hydrastine hydrochloride and hydrastinine hydrochloride have been used to control uterine hemmorrhage. Golden Seal is a very expensive herb and if you want to use it for its yellow color, Berberis vulgaris is suggested, as this is very high in Berberine, which gives Golden Seal its yellow color. Constituents Isoquinoline alkaloides (hydrastine, berberine, canadine), chlorogenic acid, lipids, resin, starch, sugar, and small amount of volatile oil.
GOTU-KOLA Hydrocotyle asiatica Centella asiatica L. *INCI Name (Centella asiatica) Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Thick-leaved Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, March Pennywort, Water Navelwort Part Used: Leaves and aerial part
Habitat and Range Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., a weakly aromatic-smelling plant native to parts of India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the western South Sea Islands, Australia, Madagascar, and southern and middle Africa. Description Has been utilized as a medicine in India since prehistoric times and is probably identical with the plant manduka parni. Fresh extracts of the plant seem to have been used for medicinal purposes by the people of Java and other islands near
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the Malay Peninsula for many years as both topical and internal agents for the healing of wounds and relief from leprosy. A slender, creeping, perennial plant, Centella asiatica flourishes in and around water and damp swampy areas, but is often observed growing along stone walls or other rocky, sunny areas and at elevations of approximately 700 meters in India and Ceylon. Plants of Centella asiatica have constantly growing roots and long, often reddish string-shaped stolons that are characterized by long internodes and roots at each of the nodes. Smooth-surfaced leaves, borne on furrowed petioles, that can reach a length of 15 cm or more originate from the axils of scale-like leaves at the nodes. Each leaf blade is round to reniform and deeply cordate, reaching an average of about 1.5 to 3 cm in width. The leaf margin can be smooth, crenate, or slightly lobed. Usually 3 to 6 red flowers arise in a sessile manner or on very short pedicels in axillary umbels at the end of 2 to 8 mm long peduncles. Small bracts surround each flower. The fruit, formed throughout the growing season, is approximately 5 mm long, with 7 to 9 ribs and a curved, strongly thickened pericarp. Seeds are laterally compressed. Depending on environmental circumstances, the form and shape of Centella asiatica plant changes greatly. Frequently, in shallow water, the plant will form with only floating leaves. In dry locations, numerous roots are formed and the leaves are small and thin. Properties Originally found in India and Pakistan, (Centella asiatica or Hydrocotyle asiatica) or Indian Pennywort, proliferates in hot and humid climates. It is presently being used in numerous herbal energy stimulants1 for strengthening the body,2 significantly improving the learning abilities in mentally retarded children.3 Other clinically tested uses include improving circulation by thinning the blood,4,5 exerting limited sedation on the cholinergic mechanism in the central nervous system.6 Considering what Gotu kola has done from a medicinal perspective for skin problems in other countries, one is tempted to speculate whether these same therapeutic successes could be translated into similar cosmetic miracles. Centella is a small herbaceous plant growing at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in damp areas. Centella contains vallejin, a bitter principle, and a mixture of triterpenoid glycosides, the most abundant of which is asiaticoside (C48H78O19), and madecassoside (C48H78O20) which on hydrolysis produces asiatic acid, glucose, and rhamnose. It also contains traces of an alkaloid, volatile oil, and pectin.7 The active principle in Gotu kola — asiasticoside and madecassoside act as detergents and dissolve the waxy covering of the bacillus that causes leprosy and skin
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tuberculosis and penetrates the greasy film surrounding the herpes virus. Asiaticoside also helps heal ugly skin lesions common to lupus erythematosus and herpes simplex by promoting a rapid thickening of the skin and an increased blood supply to the connective tissue.8 This constituent is also responsible for accelerated growth of hair and nails as well.9 A special salve made of the leaf sap of the plant has been applied topically to wounds, minor cuts, and abrasions in the Philippines with some success.10 And certain Ayurvedicbased cosmetic preparations containing Gotu kola leaf and root have appeared in various parts of India; lip balm for chapped lips, hand lotion for rough, dry “dishpan” hands, an ointment for insect bites and stings, and finally a hair tonic for certain scalp problems.11 Constituents Essential oil, sterols, flavonol glycosides, polyalkynes, and saponins. These are not glycosides, but esters in the 28-position of a triasccharide (alpha-L-Rha 1- 4 Beta-D-Glc 1-6BetaD-Glc 1-) and of acids derived from ursane: asiatic acid and madecassic acid.
1. R. Petras, Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), unpublished monograph, p. 6. 2. M.V.R. Appa Rao, et al., Study of mandookapami and punomovo for their rosayana effect on normal healthy adults, Nagariun, 120, 33-41 July 1969. 3. M.V.R. Appa Rao et al., The effect of mandookapomi (Centella asiatica) on the general mental ability (medhya) of mentally retarded children, J. Res. Indian Med., 8, 9-13, 1973. 4. C. Allegra et al., L’estralto di Centella asiatica nelle fiebopatie degli arti inferiori, Clinca Terapeutica, 99, 506-13, 1981. 5. M. Weiner, Weiner’s Herbal, Stein & Day, New York, 1980, 94. 6. B. A. Velazco Traditional herbal practices and motherhood” Philippine J. Nur. 50:96, 1980. 7. E. F. Reynolds, Martindale 28th ed., The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1984. 8. P. Boiteau and A. R. Ratsimamanga, Asiaticoside. extracted from Centella asiatica. Its therapeutic uses in the healing of experimental or refractory wounds, leprosy, skin tuberculosis, and lupus, Therapie, 11, 125-149, 1956. 9. Weiner, cp, cit. 10.M. A. Weiner, Ethnomedicine in Tanga, Econ. Bot., 25, 446, 1971. 11.Dr. R. Labadie. Centella Asiatica in perspective: An evaluative account, Unpublished paper delivered at a joint workshop sponsored/organized by the European Ayurvedic Society and the Wellcome Trust, London, England, Sept. 4, 1985.
GRAPEFRUIT Citrus paradisi, Mac Fad. *INCI Name Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus (Citrus grandis) grandis) grandis) grandis) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Oil Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S Volatile oil from peel N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-43-5 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Shaddock, Pomelos Part Used: Fruit
Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Extract Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Seed Extract
Habitat and Range The tree is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Florida, California, and elsewhere.
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Descriptions The fruits are very similar to sweet and bitter orange but are usually larger in size, sometimes weighing more than 1 kg. The color is yellowish, and the epicarp appears smoother because the underlying shizo-lysigenous oil glands are not protruding upward. The odor is characteristic and aromatic, the taste is acrid, slightly bitter, and characteristic. Properties Tonic, refreshing exfoliating. Can be used in creams and lotions. Constituents Flavonoids, fruity-acids, essential oil that contains 96 to 97% monoterpenoid hydrocarbons (e.g., limonene, myrcene). GREEN TEA Camellia sinensis L. *INCI Name Camellia sinensis Extract Camellia sinensis Oil Part Used: Leaves Leaves Family: Theaceae Synonyms: Tea Part Used: Leaf
Habitat and Range The tea shrub has been cultivated from time immemorial in China, Japan, and Indonesia. Description The full-grown tea leaf is from 5 to 10 cm long, dark green in color, glossy on the upper surface, lanceolate or elliptical in outline, and blunt or acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base into a short stalk; the margin is distantly and shortly serrate, the serrations terminating in characteristic, glandular teeth that readily break off and are often absent from mature leaves. When quite young, the leaves are covered with silky hairs, but as they mature these are lost, and the surface becomes almost glabrous. This difference is readily observed in commercial tea, the bud still bearing numerous hairs, while the larger leaves are glabrous or nearly so.
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tannins (catechins. wherever anti-oxidants would benefit a product. theobromine. lotions.. hair rinses. shampoos. etc. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ferulic). which can be used in various sun-care products. gallo catechins). theophylline). conditioning.GREEN TEA 123 Properties Has been used as a poultice to reduce swellings. creams. Constituents Alkaloids (caffeine. Green tea contains anti-oxidants. and phenolic acids (caffeic.
phenolic acids. and central and northern Asia. Laevigata (Poiret) *INCI Name Crataegus monogina Crataegus monogina Part Used: Berries. with five parts. which has to date shown no signs of toxcicity. purple-brown to brown in color.) C. Description The fruits are small berries. and frost bite. flowers or leaves Berries Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit May Blossom Part Used: Flowers. Properties Flowers.C. it has been used as a wash for itching. Cosmetically. The taste of the fruit is similar to that of apple. and dimeric procyanidin. 125 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . vitexin glucosides. catechin. Hawthorn (leaves and flowers) * Formerly CTFA. fatty acids. and externally wrinkled. Constituents Flavonoids (vitexins. Hawthorn is used for its ability to stimulate blood circulation and for its flavonoid content. sores. Medically. Hawthorn is presently being used by herbalists as a cardio-tonic. Monogyna (jacq. Externally. and berries Habitat and Range This shrub grows abundantly in woods and thickets throughout Europe. Hawthron contains no digitalis-type glycosides and has been of benefit in treating angina pectoris. berries are astringent and also aid in circulation. leaves. It is said to increase coronary and myocardial circulation The oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed orally. One end of the fruit is cup-shaped. quercetin and glucosides).H HAWTHORN Crataegus oxyacantha L.
Alkali intensifies the color of aqueous solutions of lawsone. Henna owes its dying properties to the presence of lawsone. Pharm. however. It will add body and highlights to hair. Sci. When blended with Indigofera Tinctoria. It can be used in shampoos. astringent. fading on the addition of acid. Della Loggia. HENNA Lawsonia inermis L. Calendula..126 HENNA 1. Description Leaves greenish-brown. l. opposite. shortly petiolate. oblong or broadly lanceolate. Henna has also been employed as a deodorant. as henna. it colors the hair in various shades from brown to black. small. It will not impart any color to the hair. etc. and conditioners. Henna imparts a rich auburn tint to hair. various shades of red can be achieved by incorporating herbs such as Rhubarb. triangular pitted seeds. 51. hair rinses. and useful to treat insect bites and skin irritations. However. Henna is one of the world’s oldest dyes and has been used for tinting the hair red. Neutral Henna is obtained from Lawsonia inermis L. Persia. entire. It is also said to be cooling.. 1 to 2 cm wide. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Neutral Henna is an excellent conditioning agent. in an aqueous solution. acids destroy its properties. et al. (2-hydroxy. *INCI Name Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Extract Part Used: Flowers. 4-napthoquinone). brown. simple. spherical fruits with thin pericarps and numerous. 1983. 319. fruit. with occasional stems and brown. 2 to 3 cm long. Chamomile. is acid and in order to be efffective as a hair dye must be in an alkaline solution. Herbalists use the leaves to soothe fevers and headaches. and leaves CAS#: 83-72-7 Family: Lythraceae Synonyms: Mignonette Tree Part Used: Leaves and fruit Habitat and Range A shrub indigenous to Egypt. Other botanicals can be mixed with Henna to achieve different color varations and highlights. deepening with alkalies. often imported in coarse powder. glabrous. tapering at the base. mucronate. and decolorized by a special extraction process. Arabia. decoction orange-brown. India. R.
HONEY 127 Henna Constituents Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1. Honey obtained from heather. HONEY Apis mellifera CAS#: 91052-92-5 Family: Apidae Synonyms: Mel Part Used: Saccharine fluid from the comb Habitat and Range West Indies. It becomes partially crystalline. California. phenolic acid. various parts of Africa. The specific rotation of honey is from +3° to –10°. and New Zealand. translucent. and tannins. fatty acids. and semi-solid on keeping. orange blossom. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the odor and taste depending upon the nature of the flowers from which the nectar was collected. while that from species of Eucalyptus is the least agreeable. owing to the separation of dextrose as crystals. It has an agreeable characteristic odor and a sweet taste. flavonoids. nearly white to pale-yellowish or yellowish-brown fluid. and clover is considered to have the finest flavor. (glucosides of apigenin. Australia.4-napthoquinone). Description Honey is a viscid. Chile. luteolin).
the veins are elevated. formic acid. extensively cultivated in eastern United States. The rachis is flexuous and hairy. The taste is pungent and bitter. and tannins. Constituents 70 to 80% of dextrose and levulose in about equal amounts and 14 to 20% water. lupulone. Constituents Resinous bitter compounds (humulone. volatile oil (2methylbut-3-en-2-ol). and alleviates pain and itching. The outline varies from ovate to oblong-cylindrical. bactericidal. and as nutritive and demulcent and can be used in face packs. wax. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The color varies from yellowish-green to yellowish. flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin). it will reduce swellings. In combination with Chamomile.brown. The odor is aromatic. will give body to the hair. *INCI Name Hops (Humulus lupulus) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Extract Hops (Humulus lupulus) Oil Part Used: Strobiles N/S Volatile oil-cones of female plants Family: Cannabinaceae Synonyms: Lupulus Part Used: Strobiles Habitat and Range Europe. Hops is a sedative. and the other is incurved and encloses an orange-colored achene. Konker-tree Part Used: Bark and seeds Habitat and Range This tree is largely cultivated in this country as an ornamental shade tree and occasionally escapes from cultivation.128 HOPS Properties Honey is chiefly used in pharmacy as a component of cough mixtures. Useful in treatment of dandruff. one margin is flat. The bracts are imbricated in the fruit. *INCI Name Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Extract Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) Part Used: N/S N/S CAS#: 90045-79-7 Family: Hippocastanaceae Synonyms: Ippocastanum. and phenolic acids (ferulic and chlorogenic) HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum L. consisting mainly of humulene. Bark Bongay. HOPS Humulus lupulus L. Hops is a strobulus. Description Hops occur as a mixture of entire compressed and broken fruits. bitter principles. sores. The strobiles measure 5. tetters. humulene. It contains small quantities of sucrose. face creams. and pollen grains.8 cm or less in length and 3 cm or less in width. dextrin. The individual bracts are thin and papery. Asia. hypnotic. volatile oil. and discoloration. and hair conditioning. It has been used on crural ulcers. xanthahumol). tannins. Properties Hops fruits contain volatile oil. ringworm. The outline of the bracts varies from nearly rotund to oblong-ovate.
The leaf has been used to treat eczema. and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. bitter taste. The nut. is subglobular. and throughout its internal structure presents a brown or brownish color. The nut has a slight. fawn-colored. Properties Astringent. The aqueous infusion is bitter. and tannin. The inner bark has a rough. is nearly odorless. and swellings. The aesculin aglycone aesculetin is also used in suntanning preparations. Anti-inflammatory. hand creams. *INCI Name Horseradish Part Used: Root Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Red Cole. with a shining. vasoconstrictor. aesculin). in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray hilum. It is given for lung © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . one can observe an elevated ridge terminating in a bulbous extremity. The plant has long. Constituents Saponins (aescin. flavonoids (kaempferol glucosides. increases circulation.25–0. It has been used in cellulitis. nearly an inch in diameter. The internal portion is starchy. It yields its properties to water and diluted alcohol. stimulates digestion and circulation. Horseradish extract has been used in hair tonics to stimulate hair growth. lotions. The root has antimicrobial properties. The surface of the nut is slightly corrugated. from 1 to 1 in. aescin has a sealing effect on the capillaries. Properties Cosmetically. and non-astringent.HORSERADISH 129 Description Horse Chestnut bark is of a gray color externally. tendonitis. large rough leaves. showing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences sparingly distributed. iron gives a green precipitate. Passing from the hilum around to the opposite surface. varicose veins. as well as the glycoside (aesculin) due to its abiltiy to absorb UVB radiation. infusion of galls and tartarHorse chestnut emetic produce no effect upon it. The bark is thin. bitter taste.5%) has been incorporated into various cosmetic preparations. The extract of Horse Chestnut (0. Aesin has anti-exudative and edema-inibiting properties. compressed. and is tough and fibrous in fracture. and has an unpleasant. peculiar odor. chestnut-brown testa. Gaertn et Schert. fleshy roots. phlebitis. Gelatin separates its tannic acid. when dry. yellowish-white in color. phenolic acids. sprains and various sports injuries. and hemorrhoids. In the middle of the hilum is a smaller spot. quercetin). Cochlearia Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Horseradish is cultivated and is a native of southeastern Europe and western Asia. in diameter. and a panicle of small white four-petaled flowers. Increases venous tone. and slimming products. HORSERADISH Amoracia rusticana. Description A perennial . The internal surface is whitish and smooth.
5 dm. and Eurasia. However. Alaska. mostly with sterile spores. 1 to 3. Description Spore-bearing stems 1 to 2. with loose 8 to 12 toothed sheaths. thick. it should be used with caution and low concentrations. thick. Constituents It contains sinigrin and myrosin and. a poultice of the root has been used to soothe chilblains. However. solid. 2 to 4 cm long. as the fresh juice can be irritating. yields 0. teeth of the sheaths lanceolate. Greenland. 2 to 3 mm. high. 10 to 14 furrowed. Horseradish Extract has been used as a hair tonic to stimulate growth. cones peduncled. branched.5 dm. which would validate its use on blemished. rarely with a few branches. greasy skin. South Carolina. branches 3 to 4 angled. 5 to 10 mm. after crushing and moistening.06% of a volatile oil containing allyl isothiocyanate. high. California.130 HORSETAIL GRASS and urinary infections and used in a poultice for rheumatism and bronchitis. sterile stems decumbent to erect. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 3 to 5 mm in diameter. *INCI Name Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Extract Horsetail (Equisetum hiemale) Extract Part Used: Sterile caules Sterile caules Family: Equisetaceae Synonyms: Shavegrass Part Used: Aerial Horsetail grass Habitat and Range Wet banks. Has a regenerative cleansing and disinfectant effect. In the fall the sterile stems sometimes bear small cones 4 to 10 mm long. HORSETAIL GRASS Equisetum arvense L. causing the skin to blister. acuminate.
Can be added to shampoos and conditioners. Horsetail Grass is used medically to treat various urinary disorders and poultices of Horsetail Grass have been used to help the healing of wounds. palustrine alkaloid. spreading. southern Europe. and diverging. second whorls. The leaves are opposite. the branches are rod-like. The floral leaves are like those of the stem. Constituents Flavonoids (quercetin luteolin and protogenkwanin glucosides. astringent. and external bleeding. flat. flat. sometimes elliptical. gangrenous ulcers. lower lip trifid. sometimes narrower. Its stems are quadrangular. scarcely shorter than the calyx. emarginate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . emarginate. The flowers are bluish-purple. sunny sites. sessile. Outer bracts lanceolate-linear. Upper lip of the corolla. Used for putrid wounds. acute. apigenin). and combines well with Comfrey for skin disorders. minerals. and 1 to 2 ft in height. anthers with linear divaricating cells. HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis L. It is diuretic. with the middle obe larger. woody at the base. entire. seldom white. *INCI Name Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84603-66-7 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Isop Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range Well-drained.HYSSOP 131 Properties Horsetail Grass is an excellent source of soluble vegetal silica. and borne in racemose. Stamens 4. with the middle of the corolla erect. usually oblong-linear. Description Hyssop is a perennial herb. erect. healing. Will add strength and sheen to hair. and equistetolic acid. acute. but smaller. punctate. phenolic acids. saponin (equisetonin). silicic acid. kaempferol. and 1 ribbed underneath. very much branched. rather thick. protruding. spreading. green on each side. or lanceolate. consisting of 6 to 15 flowers.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . phenolic acids. marrubin. flavonoid glycosides. and resin. gum. ursolic acid. Recent reports state that Hyssop extract shows antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus. Has been used to aid healing of wounds and ulcers. Tannin.132 HYSSOP Properties Hyssop can be employed in baths as a diaphoretic in facial steams for cleansing the pores. oleanic acid. Constituents Volatile oil.
I IVY (GROUND) Glechoma hederacea L. Also useful in cough preparations. the teeth lanceolate-subulate. Europe to Caucasus. radicating at base. though often purplish beneath. The floral leaves are of the same form. The flowers are bluish-purple. creeping stem. marubiin. gray. decongesting tonic. The two anthers of each pair of stamens meet with their two divaricate cells. about three together in axillary whorls. with a prostrate. with a varegated throat. cordatereniform. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of apigenin [cosmosiim]. * Formerly CTFA. and from a few inches to 1 or 2 ft long. North America. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. Description Glechoma hederacea is a perennial. square. roundish. volatile oil. hairy herb. quercetin [isoquercitrin]). amino acids. The leaves are petiolate. opposite. the upper being the largest. 133 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the limb oblique. triterpenoids (ursolic acid). crenate. -hydroxy-10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid. hairy. luteolin [cynaroside]. *INCI Name Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) Extract Part Used: Herb CAS#: 84082-54-2 Family: Lamiaceae Synonym: Gill-over-the-ground Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Moist soil. curved. forming the appearance of a cross. and glaucous on both sides. The corolla is Hedera helix (ground ivy) about 3 times as long as the calyx. Properties Useful for control of cellulite when applied topically. phenolic acids. villous. The calyx is long.
control of cellulite. This plant is common all over Europe. It is acrid. The palmately lobed leaves are the parts used. Ivy has been used in face packs. it can cause dermatitis in certain individuals. anthelmintic. or Ivy gum). The edges are translucent and of a garnet hue. its yellowish-green flowers bloom from August to October. antimutagenic. *INCI Name Ivy (Hedera helix) Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Part Used: Dried leaves and stems Leaves and stems Proper name for IVY Family: Araliaceae Synonyms: English Ivy Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Rich soil. with a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. Description An evergreen climber. which clings to surfaces by its adventitious roots. and when heated emits a pleasant. It can be incorporated into shampoo and hair conditioners for treating dandruff. faintly bitter. Europe. The former possesses a peculiar. and introduced into North America. and comes in yellowish or red-brown irregular pieces. exudes from the incised bark.134 IVY (COMMON) IVY (COMMON) Hedera helix L. Properties Anti-fungal. The gum-resin (Gummiresina Hederae. and has been used as a wash for sores and swellings. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . molluscicidal. sun or shade. Scandinavia. rather fragrant odor. However. aromatic odor. and is cultivated in many parts of the United States.
. and fatty acids. flavonoids. malic acid. hederacoside C (5%). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .IVY (COMMON) 135 Constituents Triterpenoid saponins comprising the hederagenin glycosides. phenolic acids. hederacoside.and -hederin and the oleanolic acid glycosides.
Jaborandi leaf * Formerly CTFA. The margin is entire and slightly revolute.J JABORANDI Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes *INCI Name Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 84696-42-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Large-leaved Jaborandi. and the veins are elevated. The branches of the midrib meet to form a large inner and a small outer wavy vein that runs parallel to the margin. smooth. The odor is slight. The taste is salty and bitter. and stems. dull. The leaves are compound. The upper surface is yellowish-green. Pernambuco Jaborandi Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Brazil and Paraguay. 137 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the midrib is large and elevated and its branches are elevated. stalks. The outline varies from oblong to oblong-oval. The under surface is yellowish-green.5 cm. Description Large-leaved Pilocarpus occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the leaflets. The blades are asymmetric. The blade has a maximum length of 15 cm and a width of 4. The petiolules of the leaflets are stout and they measure up to 8 mm in length. tapering and rounded or acute at the base. The apex is slightly tapering and emarginate.
and induces bronchoconstriction and bradycartia.138 JASMINE FLOWERS Properties Has a reputation as a stimulant for hair growth. Description A climbing woody perennial 10 to 15 m with pinnate leaves and clusters of white. Constituents Alkaloids (pilocarpidine. It contains pilocarpine. and sweat hypersecretion. and also have a pleasant fragrance used in perfumes. jaboric acid. more than half as long as the corolla tube. Constituents Essential oil. jaborino. Pilocarpine is an atropine antidote. and mullein as a hair tonic. eugenol. Pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic. Properties The extract of the flowers are soothing to the skin. JASMINE FLOWERS Jasminum officinale L. gastric. isopilocarpine). very sweet-scented flowers. with 3 to 7 lance-shaped entire leaflets. It can be used in shampoos. antiglaucoma agent. Flowers about 2 cm across in clusters of 3 to 8. It contracts the pupil of the eye and decreases intraoccular pressure. benzyl alcohol. isamone. hair tonics. It induces salivary. Combines well with Nettles. hair rinses. Jasmin flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . lotions. colocynth. widely grown for ornament and sometimes self-seeding in southern Europe. and farnesol. gels. containing benzylacetate. and soaps. skin creams. and lotions to stimulate the follicle. *INCI Name Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Extract Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) Oil Part Used: Flowers and leaves N/S CAS#: 90045-94-6/84776-64-7 Family: Oleaceae Synonyms: Common Jasmine Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Native of Asia. calyx linear. volatile oil. It increases intestinal motility. pilocarpic acid. the terminal leaflet larger. conditioners. Leaves opposite. tincture of Capsicum.
and many trace minerals and micronutrients. algin. skin care products. benefits the skin. 139 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Part Used: Whole plant N/S Family: Lessoniaceae Synonyms: Pacific Kelp Part Used: Whole plant * Formerly CTFA. Properties Kelp is of the Phaeophyta brown algae family. wherever an ingredient is needed for adding minerals and micronutrients to a formulation.K KELP Macrocystis pyriferae Agarth *INCI Name Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) Extract Habitat and Range Grows along the entire Pacific coast. Description Vesicles large. softening. see Chapter 7. (For additional information. Nourishing. potassium. Constituents Iodine. dissolving. each bearing an expanded blade. Kelp can be used in bath formulae. skin conditioning (general) dissipates tumors. hair products. restoring.
bulbous stems partially concealed by the leaf sheaths which together with their blades are from 3 to 4 ft long and i in. antipyretic. dandruff. The flowers are in branched panicles. Approximately 30 species have been identified. Constituents Essential oil (citral) saponin. Lemon grass * Formerly CTFA. wide. antioxidant. and similar skin problems. southern India and Sri Lanka. triterpenoids. 141 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and lotions. Properties Can be used in herbal bath blends and hair rinses.L LEMON GRASS Andropogon citratus DC *INCI Name Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Extract Lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) Oil Part Used: Herb N/S Volatile oil N/S CAS#: 89998-14-1 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Madagascar lemongrass Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Open. and alkaloid. Description This aromatic grass has clumped. analgesic. Antimicrobial properties. creams. Said to normalize overactive oil glands. shampoos. becoming leaf blades and a branched panicle of flowers. and antifungal. Lemon grass oil has a very pleasant lemonlike odor and can be used to fragrance soaps. tropical habitats in dry soil.
Liquiritral Radix Part Used: Root and stolon Habitat and Range Central and western Asia. Constituents Essential oil. flavonoids. When taken on an empty stomach. and Hungary. Lemon juice has been applied to sunburn. Description The outer lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer separated from the fresh fruit by grating or paring and consisting of the epidermis. Russia.) Burman F. Use full strength in hair rinses to lighten hair (blond). distinctive. Properties Healing antiseptic. dilute it with water. Liquorice Root. Glycyrrhizae Radix. southern Europe. *INCI Name Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Glycyrrhiza Glabra Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza.142 LEMON PEEL LEMON PEEL Citrus limonia (L. Sweet Wood. bacteriastatic. cleanse the skin. Lemon juice has also been applied to the skin to remove freckles. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and cleansers. phenolic acids. giving relief. numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastides. It is aromatic and astringent. *INCI Name Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum ) Juice Extract Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Juice Powder Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Oil Lemon (Citrus medica Limonum) Peel Extract Part Used: Fruit peel N/S Fruit Fruit Fruit Peel and volatile oil N/S Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Limionis cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Widely cultivated in Florida and United States. and close the pores. skin creams. (The essential oil contains over 150 compounds. taste aromatic.) LICORICE ROOT Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and large oil glands with globules of the volatile oil. odor fragrant. Herbalists use it internally to alkalize the system. skin bleach.
Also used for gastric and duodenal ulcers. It is used as expectorant and for masking the taste of nauseous medicines. Internally. Its odor is distinctive. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. the thicker rhizomes having distinct corky patches. longitudinally wrinkled. Anti-inflammatory. antibacterial. its odor is distinctive and its taste is sweetish and slightly acrid. including dermatitis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Russian Licorice Root: Nearly cylindrical. it is yellowish-brown or dark brown in color. The upper portion is more or less knotty. variable in length and from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. the thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds. Properties Good for skin eruptions. pruritus. when deprived of the outer corky layer. somewhat tapering. it is externally pale yellow. and cysts. antiviral. eczema. anti-infectant. Externally. sometimes split longitudinally. antiphlogistic. Internally. it is yellow and radiate. antiseptic.LICORICE ROOT 143 Description Spanish Licorice Root: More or less cylindrical pieces variable in length and from 5 to 20 mm thick. pale yellow and shows a radially cleft wood. its taste is sweetish. its fracture is coarsely fibrous. antihepatotoxic.
4-hydroxychalcone. chalcones (isoliquiritigenin. licoisoflavanone. Basswood. triterpenoids (liquiritic acid. lignin. licoricone.). © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . glycyrrhizin yields glycyrrhetinic (or glycyrrhetic) acid and three molecules of glucuronic acid. liquiritin. amino acids.). isoliquiritin. and an aroma-rich volatile oil. licuraside. bracts CAS#: 84929-52-2/ 68916-81-4 Family: Tiliaceae Synonyms: Linden. glycyrol. Other constituents are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (licoflavonol. gum wax. isoglabrolide. bracts N/S Flowers. B-amyrin. 18-B-glycyrrhetinic acid.7-dihydoxyflavone. 2 to 20% starch. coumarins. *INCI Name Linden (Tilia americana) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Extract Linden (Tilia cordata) Oil Linden (Tilia platyphyllos) Extract Linden (Tilia tomantosa) Extract Linden (Tilia vulgaris) Extract Part Used: Flowers. kumatakenin. 3 to 14% sugars (glucose and sucrose). amines. glabrone. limestone. On hydrolysis. glabronin etc. liquiritigenin. Lime Tree Part Used: Inflorescences and bracts Habitat and Range Rich temperate woodland. licoisoflavones A and B. glabrolide.144 LINDEN FLOWERS Constituents The major active constituents is the sweet triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin (also known as glycyrrhizic or glychrrhizinic acid) in concentrations from 2 to 20%.). sterols. bracts Flowers. bracts N/S Flowers. Europe. neoisoliquiritin. etc. neoliquiritin. glyzarin. etc. 4’. White Wood. rhamnoisoliquiritin. licochalcones A and B. Linn Tree. LINDEN FLOWERS Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. echinatin. formononetin. glycyrrhetol. glabrol. licoric acid.
Internally. linear. When fresh. Emollient. odor is agreeable. are oblong or lanceolate. It is also a diaphoretic (produces sweating). The taste is mucilanginous and sweetish. The petals are five and whitish.LINDEN FLOWERS 145 Tilia (flower and leaf) Tilia americana (Basswood) year and older Description Linden flowers are borne in cymes. Properties Used as a sedative and for eye care. generally somewhat united at their bases so as to form five clusters. and the peduncles are partly united to a greenish-yellow. or approach yellow. which are axillary. For bruises and to reduce swelling. faint. when dry. Linden is used as an arterial relaxant and to help alleviate catarrh of the respiratory tract. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaf-like bract.
lotions. gum.146 LOVAGE Constituents Flavonoids (glycosides of quercetin and tiliroside. volatile oil. kaempferol). Constituents The rhizome and root contain 0. J. creams. Angelica levisticum Part Used: Rhizome and roots of 2.to 3-year old plants Habitat and Range Native to the mountains of southern Europe. The rhizome and root are aromatic. dark green. caffeic). Koch *INCI Name Lovage Part Used: Rhizome and roots Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Smellage. sterols. and resin are also present.5 to 1. W. composed of 70% phthalides with lesser amounts of terpenoid compounds. LOVAGE Levisticum officinale. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Lovage oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. tannins. naturalized in North America. D. cultivated in central and southern Europe. celery-scented leaves and hollow stems. The oil possesses sedative and diuretic properties. Smallage. The fruit is a cremocarp. and perfumes. Coumarins.0% volatile oil. mucilage. Maggi Herb. Umbels of greenishyellow flowers appear from mid to late summer. high amount of uronic acid. Description Lovage has large. phenolic acid (chlorogenic.
147 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Part Used: Fronds CAS#: 84649-72-9 Family: Polypodiaceae Synonyms: Venus Hair Part Used: Fern MALVA FLOWERS Malva sylvestris L. primary forks. The fronds are few but well developed in the early part of the summer. adiantoxide. Description They are among the most graceful and delicate of the North American ferns. The latter are obliquely triangular-oblong. *INCI Name Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: High Mallow Part Used: Flowers * Formerly CTFA.M MAIDEN HAIR FERN Adiantun capillusveneris L. They consist of long. blackish. the taste being slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. The odor is slight. Constituents Adiantone. the upper margin being incisely lobed and serrate. first into two recurving. the surface is glaucous and very smooth. *INCI Name Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern and central United States. tannin. it is known to give body and sheen to hair. and then into several spreading pinnae. phenolic acids and their sulfates. pedately branching at the summit. The rhizomes are horizontal. quinic acid. mucilage. each of which bears numerous regularly alternating pinnules. slender. astragalin. Properties In rinses. and shining frond bases. and with blackish roots.
curved peduncle. The texture is herbaceous. greenish-gray bracts. The involucre consists of oblong-lanceolate. blotchiness. and phenolic acids. hairy. The blade measures 11 cm or less in length and 12 cm or less in width. British Columbia to Mexico. naturalized in North America. The odor is not distinct. Description High Mallow occurs as a mixture of entire and broken leaves. MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis L. Goldbloom Part Used: Petals and flower head © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . the veins are palmate. The individual flowers are yellow. thick. Constituents Anthocyanidins (glycosides of malvidin. spasmodic colitis. The apex of each lobe ends in a large tooth. distinct. and insect bites. Description Marigold occurs as entire ligulate florets mixed with a few flower heads. Relieves itching. The margin is three to seven lobed and crenate-dentate. protective. malvin) (polysaccharides) mucilage. and fruits. Part Used: Flowers Flowers Flowers Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Calendula. mostly ligulate. Holligold. Medicinally used in cough preparations. Useful in eye preparations. The taste is mucilaginous. Emollient for sensitive skin. The petioles of the leaves measure 3 cm or less in length. The outline varies from reniform to orbicular. niacin. and slightly elevated. These flowers are oblanceolate.148 MARIGOLD Habitat and Range Europe. and have a maximum length of 26 mm. Properties Soothing and softening. The upper surface is slightly hairy and varies in color from dark green to yellowish-green. the veins are elevated. flowers. two to three-toothed and two to six-veined. Mary-bud. The blade is cordate at the base. *INCI Name Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis Extract Calendula officinalis Oil Habitat and Range Southern Europe and parts of Asia. The flower heads have a short. The under-surface is pubescent and yellowish or brownish-green in color.
The basal part of the flower is incurved and encloses a bifid stigma. The tubular flowers are small and five-lobed. The receptacle is rough. The seeds are angled and dark brown. The odor is slight. The taste is slightly salty and bitter. Properties Calendula contains a volatile oil Saponin, a yellow resin calendulin, and a bitter principle. Calendula has been employed as an aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antihemorrhagic, styptic, spasmolytic, vulnerary, emmenagogue, mild diaphoretic; topically it has been used for crural ulcers, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, anal eczema, and proctitis, lymphadenoma, inflamed cutaneous lesions, conjunctivitis, and as an eye lotion. Constituents Volatile oil, saponins, flavonoids, calendulin, sterols, fatty acids, calendic acid Marigold and oleanic acid, triterpenoids, tocopherols, flavonol glycosides of isorhamnetin and the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The sesquiterpene lactone calendin is the xanthophyll degradation product loliolide.
MARSHMALLOW ROOT Althaea officinalis L. *INCI Name Althea officinalis Althea officinalis Extract Habitat and Range Europe, Asia; cultivated. Description Althaea occurs as peeled, entire, or as small cut pieces of the peeled root. The roots are simple or branched and straight or twisted. The branches are usually separated when the root is peeled. Entire roots measure up to 35 cm in length and up to 22 mm in diameter. Stems have never been observed. The texture is fibrous and starchy. The color varies from gray to Part Used: Dried roots Roots Family: Malvaceae Synonyms: March Mallow Root, White Mallow Root Part Used: Root
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yellowish-white. The surface has numerous long, projecting bast fibers, deep, longitudinal furrows, and many slightly elevated dark brown root scars. The fracture is very tough and uneven. The outline of sections of entire roots is irregular and wavy. The cortex is thick, and when magnified shows fine concentric dark-colored zones of sieve and mucilage tissue. The cambium zone is dark colored. The wood is indistinctly radiate near the cambium. The central portion appears structureless and starchy. The odor is very slight. The taste is starchy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Properties Mucilaginous, soothing, emollient, used for irritated skin, cough preparations. Constituents Mucilage including an acidic polysaccharite with MW of ca. 30,000 and other polysaccharides, althein, asparagine, flavonoids, starch, tannins. MELISSA Melissa officinalis L. Balm *INCI Name Balm Lemon Part Used: Leaves, flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Synonyns: Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Common Balm Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops
Habitat and Range A native of southern Europe, especially in mountainous regions, but is naturalized in the south of England, and was introduced into the United States very early.
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Description The root stock is short, the stem square and branching, grows 1 to 2 ft high, and has at each joint pairs of broadly ovate or heart-shaped, crenate or toothed leaves that emit a fragrant lemon odor when bruised. They also have a distinct lemon taste. The flowers, white or yellowish, are in loose, small bunches from the axils of the leaves and bloom from June to October. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. History: In Greek, Melissa means “honey.” In the past, the oil has been adulterated with citrus oils and lemon grass oil. The famous Melissa water was made in medieval times in Italy by the Carmelite monks. The water was called Carmelite. Properties Melissa oil is soothing and has toning properties. It has been used as a flavoring for various beverages and liquors. It was also used to treat insect bites, stings, cold sores, and wounds. Melissa can be incorporated into lotions, bath oils, and massage oils. The oil has recently been shown to be active against the herpes simplex virus proven in clinical trials.1 Constituents Volatile oil 0.2% Citral, Caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, Linalool, Citronellal, Limonene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids.
1. Wobling R. H. and Leonhardt, K; Local therapy of Herpes Simplex with dried extract from Mellissa officinalis, Phyto Medicine, 1 (1), 25-31, 1994.
MILLFOIL ................................ See YARROW MILK THISTLE ....................... See THISTLE MIMOSA Acacia floribunda Willd. *INCI Name Acacia floribunda Part Used: Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Sweet Acacia, Huisache, Popinac Absolute, Part Used: Flower, sometimes the root
Habitat and Range Believed to be a native of the Old World, now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Florida. Description Thorny shrub to small tree, 3 gm high with green compound leaves having gray-white hairs. Inflorescences are yellow and very fragrant, 4 to 8 cm in diameter, tan pods 8 to 15 cm long.
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Properties In cosmetics, the absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. It has been used as an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, antirheumatic, and stimulant. The root has been used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Constituents The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents, composed mainly of benzyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, farnesol, and geraniol. The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids, hydrocarbons, and waxes. MISTLETOE Viscum album L. *INCI Name Mistletoe Part Used: Herb Family: Loranthaceae Synonyms: Viscum, Folia Visci, Stipites Visci, Birdlime mistletoe Part Used: Herb
Habitat and Range Parasitic on woody angiosperms and gymnosperms native to Britain, but now widespread in most of Europe and has been naturalized in one California county. Description Parasitic shrub, stem yellow-green, up to 100 cm long; leaves opposite, obovate-oblong, 2 to 8 cm long; flowers in cymes, unisexual, four-merous; berry white; odor distinctive. Properties Hypotensive, cardiac depressant, sedative. It has been used for supportive therapy of nonspecific irritation in malignant tumors and degenerative inflammatory joint diseases. It has been indicated in arterial hypertension, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive headache, chorea, hysteria, as well as sores and abscesses. Constituents -Phenylethylamine, tyramine, and related compounds; polypeptides, including viscotoxins I, II, III, IVb (II, III, IVb identical to viscotoxins B, A-2 A-3, respectively); glycoprotein lectins, including viscumin and lectins I, II and III; phenyl propanoids, including syringin, syringenin-apiosyl glycoside and 4,4”-diglucoside (eleutheroside E); caffeic and gentisic acids, polysaccharides, etc.
Mistletoe (viscum album)
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MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus L. *INCI Name Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 90064-13-4, 84012-25-9; 84650-17-9 Family: Scrophulariaceae Synonyms: Common Mullein, Great Mullein, Mullein Dock, Velvet Dock, Aaron’s-rod, Adam’s-flannel, Old-man’s-flannel, Blanket Leaf, Bullock’s Lungwort, Cow’s Lungwort, Clown’s Lungwort, Candlewick, Feltwort, Flannel-leaf, Hare’s- beard, Velvet Plant Part Used: Leaves and flowers
Habitat and Range Mullein is a weed found in fields, pastures, along roadsides, and in waste places, its range extending from Maine to Minnesota and southward. It is also spreading in the western states. Description This plant is easily recognized by its tall, straight stem, its large flety or flannel-like leaves, and its long, dense spike of yellow flowers. During the first year, it produces only a rosette of downy leaves followed from June to August of the second year by the long flowering stalk. The densely hairy, erect stem sometimes reaches a height of 7 feet. The thick, felty leaves are from 4 to 6 in. long. Properties Mullein has been used as a demulcent, diuretic, astringent, anodyne, antispasmodic pectoral. Herbalists have used it both internally and externally. In the form of a fomentation, applied
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to inflamed piles, tumors, ulcers, and various swellings as a discutient (reduces swellings). Recently, several companies have employed it in smoking to relieve symptoms of asthma. The broken leaf rubbed onto the skin to help alleviate the irritation caused by the stinging nettle. Constituents Fatty acids, verbascoside, hesperidin, minerals, mucilage, vitamins, saponins, aucubin, catapol. MYRRH Commiphora molmol, Engler *INCI Name Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Extract Habitat and Range Eastern Africa. Description Myrrh occurs as irregular masses of agglutinated tears. Myrrh is an oleo gum-resin. The outline of the pieces is irregular. The pieces have a maximum length or width of 12 cm and a thickness of 8 cm The texture is waxy. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. Part Used: Resin N/S CAS#: 85085-50-3 Family: Burseraceae Synonyms: Gum Myrrh Part Used: Oleo-gum-resin
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Myrrh is used in incense. It was also used in the embalming process of the ancient Egyptians. Constituents 30 to 60% water soluble gum. and acrid. and rough because of numerous projecting tears. 3 to 8% volatile oil containing sesquiterpenes. sore throats. carminative. Also used as an astringent to mucous membranes. antifungal. and used in veterinary medicine for open wound treatment. engler) The surface is dull. As a gargle or mouthwash for inflammations of the mouth and pharynx. The odor is aromatic. Properties Myrrh has been used as an antiseptic. 25 to 40% alcohol-soluble resin. Frankinsense and Myrrh are burnt during ceremonial mass. diaphoretic. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and anti-inflammatory. Used for halitosis. bitter. The taste is pungent. The fracture is conchoidal. It is said to promote granulation. for example. mildly expectorant. diuretic. History: Myrrh was highly valued for thousands of years and was one of the gifts brought to the infant Jesus. It is said to bring forth the gods. powdery.MYRRH 155 Myrrh (Commiphora molmol.
Properties Flowers are made into a toilet water called “eau d’ange. and nerol).2 to 0. Constituents Yields 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . on bruises and hemorrhoids. cineole. and myrtenol (mainly as acetate. and blue-black berries.5% volatile oil composed of -pinene. geraniol. creamy white flowers. *INCI Name Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Sweet Myrtle Part Used: Leaves and flowers Habitat and Range Mediterranean region in well-drained soil. The leaves are antiseptic and astringent and are used in decoction.156 MYRTLE MYRTLE Myrtus communis L.” added with the leaves to acne ointment and dried for potpourri. camphene. Description Dense evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves and flower buds.
and epistaxis malaena... nervous eczema.. kaempferol....... See WATER CRESS NETTLES Urtica dioica L.. minerals (high amount).... common to Europe and the United States... acetyl choline. serotonin). flowering from June to September... Nettles has been used as an astringent. Constituents Flavonoids (glucosides of quercetic.. sterols. Properties Nettles extract is prepared from the dried aerial parts of the plant... armed with minute rigid hairs or prickles. As a hair tonic it prevents hair from falling out and renders it soft and glossy. Great stinging nettle Part Used: Aerial parts of young plants Habitat and Range This is a well-known plant.. Urtica urens L.. dull-green plant..N NASTURTIUM . and in gardens.. and for cutaneous eruptions. growing in waste places. and isorhamnetin). formic and citric acids.... in hedges. by woodsides. Stinging nettle at 30 157 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC ... herbaceous. which transmit a venomous fluid when pressed. beta-carotene. amines (histamine. Stimulates hair growth. choline... Description This plant is a perennial. Nettles are an excellent source of chlorophyll. (smaller plant with same constituents) *INCI Name Nettle (Urtica dioica) Nettle (Urtica dioica) Extract Part Used: Dried plant N/S CAS#: 84012-40-8 Family: Urticaceae Synonyms: Stinging nettle.
two-veined palet or scale. Description Pale yellow or pale yellowish-green. Texas. the former surrounding the grain except on the ventral side where there is a distinct longitudinal groove. at the opposite end a dense mass of long slender hairs which also occur less abundantly over the surface of the fruit. above the center. at the micropylar end of that occurs a wart-like excrescence or caruncle. *INCI Name Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena (Avena Sativa) Bran Sativa) Bran Extract sativa) Extract sativa) Flour sativa) Kernel Extract sativa) Kernel Oil sativa) Meal sativa) Meal Extract sativa) Protein sativa) Starch Part Used: Kernels Kernels Grains Kernels N/S N/S Kernels Kernels Kernels N/S CAS#: 84012-26-0 Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Groats Part Used: Grains Habitat and Range Maine. a scar or. Oats (Avena sativa) T cut #1 at 20 Oats (Avena sativa) L. remains of a straight or slightly twisted awn (presence of strongly twisted awn indicates Wild Oat). a distinct longitudinal groove on the ventral side. rarely.5 cm in length and about 3 mm in diameter. fruit or naked grain tapering toward either end. and the Yukon. showing the more or less broken upper part of the lemma and palet. cut #2 at 12 * Formerly CTFA. slightly protruding and with an elliptical scar. thinly membranous. within the groove a narrow. tapering toward each end. taste starchy. the apex pointed. Florida. up to 1. the latter usually exhibiting a minute stalk at the base. Odor slight. the base somewhat contracted. 159 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .O OATS Avena sativa L. outer surface of the lemma glabrous with five or more longitudinal veins on the dorsal surface.
OLIVE LEAF Olea europoea L. the cells with taper-pointed ends and up to about 1 mm in length and spongy parenchyma composed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. some of which give rise to unicellular. Constituents Saponins (avenacosides A and B. the cells filled with protein. The fruit is a drupe with a mesocarp rich in oil. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rarely over 25 ft in height. bent here and there. including treatment of chronic skin conditions: dermatosis. leaves CAS #: 84012-27-1 Family: Oleaceae Synonymns: Oliva Part Used: Fruit. entire and coriaceous. eczema. the latter fitting into the concave side of the former and each with heavily silicified walls. with grayish bark and small white tetramerous flowers grouped in racemes. leaves contain triterpenoid saponins (furostanol type). Fruit: epicarp of longitudinally elongated cells. shingles. subsessile. less heavily developed tissue. Palea: margins with numerous sharp-pointed. remaining tissue of endosperm composed of parenchyma chiefly filled with starch grains. these are elongated thick-walled. broad spindle-shaped embryo about 2 mm in length embedded in the endosperm near the micropylar end. outer layer of endosperm usually one cell thick. lignified. have a grayish-green upper side and a whitish underside with a sheen as a result of the presence of a fine down that can easily be scraped off. avenacin). The leaves are opposite. The mucilage of oat can be employed in suntan lotions as a UV absorber. *INCI Name Olive Leaf Part Used: Fruit. lignified walls. partially beaded. leaves Habitat and Range Mediterranean region. polyphenols. hypodermis of about three layers of cells otherwise resembling the glume but with thinner. between the elongated cells a few crescentshaped or circular cells. There is another fraction of oat that is being tested as an anti-oxidant and preservative. elliptical stomata up to about 0. oat extract has been used to treat nervous exhaustion. It can be identified microscopically by the presence of many shieldshaped covering trichomes and of scerides clearly visible in the powder. Extract of oat contains several interesting compounds Beta-glucan showing promise in helping to reduce cholesterol and is said to be the active ingredient in oat bran. unicellular hairs with lignified walls. Description The tree is small. a few elliptical stomata and near the margin straight or slightly curved unicellular nonglandular hairs with thick lignified walls. Properties Benefits the skin.160 OLIVE LEAF Structure: Lemma: outer epidermis chiefly of elongated cells with beaded and heavily silicified and lignified walls and rounded ends. highly refringent and truncate. Medically. a tea brewed from the green tops of oats is reported to lower uric acid levels in blood. and herpes. pointed hairs. other layers of tissue of pericarp and seed-coat of more or less collapsed cells. straight or slightly curved. sleeplessness.040 mm in length and in rows parallel to the keel. The drug tastes bitter. hypodermis composed of about five layers of fibers with thick.
1992. 7. Onion has been shown to be antihypercholesterolemic. oleuroside and unconjugated secoiridoid — type aldehydes. The leaves also contain triterpenes and flavonoids as rutin and apigenin and luteolin glycosides. few of them have been studied experimentally... M. *INCI Name Onion Part Used: Fleshy bulb Family: Alliaceae Synonyms: Onion Habitat and Range Native of western Asia. 57. Planta Med. A. ONION Allium cepa L...ONION 161 Olive leaves and flowers Properties Olive leaves have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties externally. Planta Med. and antimicrobial. and red globe onions. et al. Zarzuelo. 1991. Constituents It contains several secoiridoids. hypoglycemic. 2. yellow globe. diuretic and more) to the olive leaf. ligustroside. oleuropein which is the chief constituent (60-90 mg/g). Properties The juice of onion is said to stimulate hair growth. 417. et al. Description A perennial or biennial herb with hollow leaves and a taller and thicker scape (flowering stem). Gonzalez.2 m high. 513. ll-demethyl oleuropein. also hollow. diuretic. 58. hypotensive. hypoglycemic. 1. Tradition attributes numerous properties (febrifuge. up to about 1. has long been cultivated worldwide and much varied the most common varieties being white globe. It has been widely © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antifungal.11-dimethyl ester of oleoside.
these are acted upon by the enzyme alliinase. reddish-orange. 2 to 2 cm long. introduced to Europe. acute. very sweet-scented. Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Part Used: Flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide turns into the S-oxide of Z-propenethial viz. releasing pyruvic acid and alkyl thiosulfinates. Description Leaves. Raw onion applied to bee stings or insect bites is an old remedy to help alleviate the symptoms. and the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives). by addition on the alkyl and alkenylsulfonic acids. 1-propenesulfenic acid. white. 7 to 8 cm globular. with bitter rind and sour flesh.162 ORANGE BLOSSOM used as a vegetable and condiment. fructans. ORANGE BLOSSOM Citrus aurantium Flores *INCI Name Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Extract Orange (Citrus aurantium Dulcis) Flower Oil Orange (Citrus autantium dulcis) Flower Water Habitat and Range Native of Asia. Constituents Fresh onion bulb contains flavonoids. 5 to 8 cm with shallowly indented margin and broadly winged leaf stalk. the latter are quite unstable and rapidly turn into disulfides. The latter then leads to a series of 1-(methylsulfinyl)-propyl alkyl-(or alkenyl-)disulfides. Fruit. oblong-oval. and sulfur-containing compounds that are cysteine derivatives: trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Flowers. Upon bruising or crushing the bulb. alkyl and alkenylcysteines.
2 to 0. minute pits. It is often used as a flavor enhancer. It is used as a bitter aromatic to stimulate secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the appetite. Description In irregular bands (ribbons) or elliptical. neohesperidose (2-0. isomeric with rutinose = 6-rhamnosylglucose) is responsible for the bitter taste. used for oily skin and acne. with limonene as main constituent. and more highly methoxylated lipophilic flavonoids like sinensetin. tangeretin. 0. inner surface whitish. more astringent than rose water.-l-rhamnopyranosyl-B-d-glucopyranose. amara *INCI Name Citrus aurantium amara Part Used: Rind Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: Seville Orange Peel. non-bitter flavonoids. aromatic wash. short. conical projections and linear. anastomosing fibrovascular bundles. ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) Citrus aurantium L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. The oil and distillate are used in aroma therapy formulations. from 3 to 6 cm in length and with recurved edges. Aurantii Amari Cortex Part Used: Peel Habitat and Range Northern India. and bitter substances. Cultivated widely in the subtropics. with many slight. acutely pointed pieces (quarters). 1% up to more than 2% essential oil with limonene as the main component. fracture hard. such as hesperidin.5%). roughened from fine reticulate ridges and numerous. outer surface yellowish or reddish or greenish-brown. Constituents Essential oil (ca.ORANGE PEEL (BITTER) 163 Properties Astringent. rutoside. skin creams to prevent capillary fragility. It is also given internally. var. Properties Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. considerable amounts of pectin. somewhat curved. Constituents Bitter-tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohesperidin and naringin. nobiletin. furanocoumarins. taste aromatic and bitter. the sugar component of which. odor fragrant and aromatic.
and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. sinensis Osbeck. bitter and carminative. Flavonoids. Sweet orange peel Description The outer. Constituents Volatile oil containing d-limonene. and methyl ester of anthranilic acid. taste pungently aromatic. Can be used in hair rinses to add sheen and luster. *INCI Name Ctirus sinensis Osbeck Part Used: Rinds CAS#: 61788-55-4 Family: Rutaceae Synonyms: C. citral. parenchyma cells of the sarocarp with chromoplastids. naringin.164 ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) ORANGE PEEL (SWEET) Citrus aurantium var. It is also an aromatic. globules of volatile oil. orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and consisting of epidermal cells. Aurantii Dulcis cortex Part Used: Fruit peel Habitat and Range Northern India. quercetin. Cultivated in Florida and California. skin creams for its flavonoids. schizo-lyzigenous oil glands. It prevents capillary fragility both internally and externally. Properties The oil is used in aroma therapy for treatment of anxiety and nervous depression. odor fragrant. and hesperidin. citronellal. sinensis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
*INCI Name Pansy (Viola tricolor) Extract Habitat and Range Cultivated grounds.g. p-coumaric acid. acne. impetigo. Properties Used as a healing tonic. 1 to 3 cm across vertically. but sometimes up to twice as long. magnesium tartrate. scoparine. meadows. antipyretic. usually predominantly violet with varying amounts of yellow and white. anthocyanidin glycosides. gaultherin. mucilage. rutin. Description Flowers mostly tricolored.1 cites use for mild seborrhoec skin complaints. saponins. tocopherol. leafy. stipules variable. Constituents Essential oil.. heart-shaped to lance-shaped. pruritus. lance-shaped entire middle lobe. salicylic acid and its derivatives (methyl ester) gentisic acid. and carotenoids. flavonoids. arabinose. and also induces perspiration (diaphoretic) Used for various skin conditions.P PANSY Viola tricolor L. Petals usually longer than the sepals. tannin. PAPAYA Carica papaya L. e. galacturonic acid. spur short. but often palmately lobed with a larger. usually little longer than the calyx appendages. eczema. rheumatism. used as a gargle for inflammation of the throat. *INCI Name Papaya (Carica papaya) Papain Papaya (Carica papaya) Extract Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Extract Part Used: N/S Enzyme from fruit Fruit N/S CAS#: 84012-30-6 Family: Caricaceae Synonyms: Pawpaw Part Used: Fruits and leaves Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84012-42-0 Family: Violaceae Synonyms: Heartsease. style enlarged at the apex with a rounded head with a hollow at one side. anti-inflammatory. 165 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Monograph 6. seborrhoea of the scalp in nursing infants. Johnny jump-up Part Used: Aerial parts * Formerly CTFA. very variable in size. Exerpt from German Commission E. violutoside. Leaves variable.
Constituents Proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). long petioled. Properties Derived from the leaves of the Melloon Papaw tree.166 PAPAYA Habitat and Range Tropical America. The leaves have been used from time immemorial by the Indians to wrap meat and foul wounds. Naturalized in southern Florida. vitamins. The fruit is a large melon-like. which resembles sinigrin. The inflorescences consist of racemose cymes of yellow. Carpaine. and minerals. carpinine (an alkaloid). palmately 7-lobed leaves whose lobes are in turn divided into secondary lateral lobes. with large. The seeds contain a glycoside (caricin). shampoos. in weight and with a salmon-pink or yellow flesh and a central cavity in which are found numerous blackish spheroidal seeds. Papaya carica © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . staminate and pistillate flowers. C14H2502N. edible berry up to about 15 lb. etc. Contains proteolytic enzymes used in face masks. Description A tree attaining the height of about 20 ft. Papaya carica seed at 10 skin care.
PAPER MULBERRY 167 PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Tabl. m = outer lamella. upper surface dark green and rough due to abundant unicellular prickly hairs carried on small multicellular dome-shaped protruberances.4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1. Odor faint. Kr´ = crystal rosettes. margin dentate to crenate. Paper Mulberry fiber cross-section. Constituents The main inhibitor of tyrosinase has been isolated and found to be 5-(3-[2. It seems to be more promising than kojic acid. kr = individual crystals. Young apical leaves are 2 to 5 palmately lobed. ascorbic acid or hydroquinone. Properties Extracts of root bark are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme. the key enzyme responsible for melanin formation. Description It is a highly branching tree with a longitudinally wrinkled stem showing transverse lenticels.2-benzenediol. Veget. ms = latex tubes. p = parenchyma. taste woody and characteristic. Hanausek) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Vent. and B. lower surface is wooly due to uniseriate multicellular (2 to 3 celled) trichomes abundant over the veins. or hydrids of both *INCI Name Paper Mulberry Bark Part Used: Root and root bark Family: Moraceae Synonyms: Paper Mulberry Part Used: Root and root bark Habitat and Range Commonly found in many parts of the world.4-dihydroxyphenyl] propyl)-3. Leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate. q = group of large fibers. (After T. Regn.F. papyrifora. The roots are brown longitudinally striated.
cylindrical and striated stem about 0. Germany. spasmolytic. and starch. fruit. P.8-triene (9%). fruit. emmenagogue. Odor characteristic. and Hungary. taste faintly sweet. the isolated mericarps are curved and tapering. Carum petroselinums Part Used: Root.05 to 0. and others. 8-methoxypsoralen. The commissural surface is slightly channeled.168 PARSLEY PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum. stout. compound umbels. *INCI Name Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Oil Part Used: Aerial parts N/S Volatile oil N/S Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Brandy Mint. Belgium. hortense. Constituents The root contains small amounts of volatile oil. and antimicrobial. leaves Habitat and Range Native to the Mediterranean region. The outer surface has five yellow narrow ribs.3. Properties The plant and its essential oil are used as carminative. apiole (18%). p-mentha-1. W. The tap root is fusiform. Furocoumarins including bergapten. PEPPERMINT LEAVES Mentha piperita L. psoralen. trifoliate stalked leaves and terminal.7 m high and 1 mm wide with alternate. apiin. Lamb Extract Mint Part Used: Aerial parts Parsley herb © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (Mill. above-ground herb. Other parts of the plant contain 0. isopimpenillin.3% volatile oil containing myristicin (20%). aromatic. yellowwhite externally up to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. extensively cultivated in California. Apium petroselinum. diuretic. The fruit contains 2 to 7% volatile oil and 13 to 22% fixed oil. The color varies from yellow to greenish-brown. The fruit is an ovate cremocarp. expectorant. leaves Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: P. Flavonoids are mainly apiin and luteolin.) Nym. B-phellandrene (12%). green. France. sativum. Description A non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with much branched. The odor is aromatic and the taste is pungent. Hill *INCI Name Parsley Part Used: Root. antirheumatic. and imperatorin. ex A. above-ground herb.
rosemarinic). The blade measures up to 7.3 cm in width. mildly sedative. cultivated in Japan and the United States. sitosterols. broad. the texture is fibrous. Description Peppermint occurs as a mixture of entire and broken pieces of the flowering tops with detached and entire and broken leaves. rutin. The fracture is tough and incomplete. and small amounts of sesquiterpenes. antiseptic. The cortex and wood are thin. The andraecium consists of four stamens of equal length. triterpenes. naturalized in North America. The pith is white. The nodes are enlarged.5 cm in length and to 3. ursolic acid. The outline varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate. flavonoids (luteolin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The apex is acute. Constituents Volatile oil (1 to 3%). cineole. They measure up to 9. The under surface is light green. The odor is aromatic. The stems are simple or branched. The outline is quadrangular. south to Florida and Alabama. large. as its action is not solely based on its essential oil content. chlorogenic. The under surface is light green. as it contains flavonoids. The fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the persistent calyx. and the color varies from green to purple. Properties Stimulant. menthofuran. The margin is sharply serrate. its color varies from light to dark purple. and the veins are slightly depressed. notably viridoflorol. four-lobed above. The corolla is united and tubular below. hesperidin). menthyl acetate (1 to 10%). The principal components of the volatile oil are (–)-menthol (35 to 55%). carminative.5 cm in length and to 32 mm in width. menthone (10 to 40%). The taste is pungent and finally cooling. The surface is striated longitudinally and channeled on its four sides.PEPPERMINT LEAVES 169 Habitat and Range Europe. tonic. its five teeth are subulate. cholagogue. and the veins are more prominent. Peppermint extract can be incorporated into stimulating shampoos and conditioners. The upper surface varies in color from yellowishgreen to purple. the internodes are of variable length. The flowers are arranged in dense. The bracts are lanceolate. The calyx is campanulate. Nova Scotia to Minnesota. phenolic acids (caffeic. spasmolytic. hair tonics. interrupted spikes. the leaves are opposite decussate. and minerals. and the veins are slightly depressed. The gynaecium consists of one pistil with a fourcelled ovary and a two-parted style. The petiole of the leaves measures up to 15 mm The blade is rounded at the base and tapers slightly into the petiole. and solid or hollow.
5 to 3 cm broad. Vinca rosea has been used to treat cancer. Studies show that the vincamine in Periwinkle increases cerebral blood flow. corolla blue. in Connecticut. vasodilator. firm. as well as Europe. and ursolic acid. leaves ovate to oblong. Minnesota. PINE BARK Pinus silvestris L. Vinca minor should not be confused with Vinca rosea. flavonoids. *INCI Name Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine Pine (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus (Pinus toeda) Bark N/S Extract palustais) Needle Extract palustris) Oil palustris) Tar palustris) Tar Oil pumilio) Needle Extract sylvestris) Bud Extract Part Used: N/S N/S Volatile oil-N/S Wood Wood N/S N/S Family: Pinaceae Synonyms: Scot’s Pine.170 PERIWINKLE PERIWINKLE Vinca minor L. a drug used in Europe to improve cerebrovascular circulation Periwinkle vinca minor in the elderly. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Alkaloid (vincamine). 1 to 6 dm long. truncate. and Georgia. Vinca contains vincamine. the lobes obovate. vulnerary sedative. dark green. Description Stem spreading. entire. shining. Has also been used to stop external bleeding. native of Europe. however. *INCI Name Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Extract Great Periwinkle (Vinca major) Extract Habitat and Range Roadsides and around dwellings. 1. Red or Yellow Deal Part Used: Bark Part Used: Aerial parts N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-41-9 Family: Apocynaceae Synonyms: Myrtle Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Canada and the United States. trailing. a standardized extract should be used. they are different. This botanical can be used in formulations where increased circulation is desired. hypoglycemic. Properties Used as a hemostatic. tannins. astringent. hypotensive.
very small. In a radial surface. and applied to sores.35 to 0. long and the leaves and stalks proportionately small. tannins. swellings. leaving smooth surfaces. The medullary rays. in fields.8 and its odor is somewhat resinous. Pine bark extract can be incorporated into formulations for its anti-oxidant activity. channeled petiole. The flowers are white. the seeds numerous. and insect bites. imbricated. Plantago major L. The leaves are ovate. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . appear as very fine whitish lines and are biseriate. and in grass plats. malonic acid. arising from a fibrous root. Ripple-grass. somewhat toothed. Ribwort Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Plantain is a well-known herb. quercetin. dihydroconiferyl alcohol. but resin ducts occur in the central and outer parts of each annual ring. cuts. dihydro-beta-sitosterol. The stamens and styles are long.to seven-nerved. the autumn wood of the annual rings appears as dark vertical lines. which are the medullary rays. aromatics. growing in rich. moist places. PLANTAIN Plantago lanceolata L. which number about four or five per mimetre of arc. by the roadsides. Properties Astringent. pinnicorretin. It flowers from May to October. as a poultice to bring boils to a head. Constituents Contains oils. dark band of autumn wood. dihydroquercetin. parahydroxybenzoic acid. n-nonacosane. and abruptly narrowed into a long. and borne on a cylindrical spike 5 to 20 in. proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). abietic acid. The tangential surface shows resin ducts as on the radial surface and also very minute inconspicuous paler dashes. *INCI Name Plantain (Plantago lanceolate) Extract Plantain (Plantago major) Extract Part Used: Leaves Leaves CAS#: 85085-64-9/ 84929-43-1 Family: Plantaginaceae Synonyms: Rib Grass. an occasional ray appearing wider than the others.PLANTAIN 171 Description The wood is rather soft and buff in color. long. balsamic. appearing as brownish vertical streaks. campesterol. shikimic acid. resin ducts run parallel to the grain in small numbers. ferulic acid. Parenchyma is present in very small amounts surrounding the resin ducts and is only visible with a microscope. smoothish. it has a density varying from about 0. numerous. Certain extracts of Pine Bark (Pinus maritinus) are employed as very powerful anti-oxidants. and is common in Europe and America. It has a straight grain and splits readily longitudinally. numerous medullary rays cross the grain and appear as narrow light-colored horizontal bands. Description This is a perennial acaulescent plant with a round scape 1 to 3 feet in height. five. the tar was used for burns and itchiness. quinic acid. Vessels are absent. but are not more numerous than 15 per centimeter of arc in any annual ring. raffinose sequoyitol. Small plants are frequently found with the spikes only to 2 in. each of which contains a strong fiber that can be pulled out. the annual rings are well marked and each is bound externally by a narrow. pinitol. beta-sitosterol tetracosanol-(1) vanillic acid.
The bees collect the resins from the buds of conifers. which the bees use to line their hives and seals up the holes and cracks. sterols. and palmitic acids). asperuloside. essential oils. PROPOLIS Apis millifera L. for healing. There are two types of plantain: broadleaf (major) narrow leaf (lanceolata). fixed oil (linoleic. Propolis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . polysaccharides. and for cell proliferation. oleic. tannins. and phenolic acids.172 PROPOLIS Plantain Properties Has been used to soothe and take away the sting of insect bites. catapol. balcalin. apparently. allantoin. they both have the same virtues. Herbalists use the leaf for the relief of bee stings by chewing the leaf and then applying it to the sting or insect bite as a poultice. Constituents Mucilage. *INCI Name Propolis Wax Part Used: Resinous substance beehives Family: Apidae Part Used: Resinous parts of plants collected by bees Properties The sticky resin collected by bees from plants. apigenin. aucubin.
Application of Propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. 4. Tyler. and anti-inflammatory. 1990. and pinobanksin).1 Propolis has shown in clinical trials to aid in wound healing.E. and pinobanksin. 32(1). J.1 The extract has been shown to enhance epithelial growth upon application to dental sockets. 1980. and caffeic acid. pinocembrin. Philadelphia. Magro Filboo. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of Propolis extracts. ArnzneimittleForschung. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. 2. The New Honest Herbal. V.F. essential oils. Sch.2 The antimicrobial activity is apparently due to the presence of flavonoids. 1987. de Carvalho Ac. Stickley Co. antiviral.PROPOLIS 173 is said to be a natural antibacterial. galagin. One study shows promise in stimulating the immune system.. 1847. Dent.. balsam. 3. 30(1). pollen. Nihon Univ. wax. and to treat fungal and bacterial infections. p-coumeric acid benzyl ester. Hiadon B. galangin...3 Diethyl ether extracts have been shown to possess cytostatic activity against human cultured KB (nasopharynx carcinoma) and HeLa (carcinoma cervicls uteri) cells in vitro. fungicidal. 1. et al. G.2 Constituents Resin. minerals flavonoids (pinocembrin. It also contains p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and caffeic acid mixture.
it was used to make a dandruff shampoo and can be used where a lather would be useful. Used internally in bronchitis and in homeopathic preparations for sore throat. 3 to 8 mm in thickness or in small chips. Saponaria so well that they may well be regarded as varieties of this species. It is about 18 meters high and has been introduced into India and California. Pa e p p i g i i Wa l p a n d Q. conical projections or transverse. channels. and Peru. meaning soap because the bark forms a lather with water. Upon microscopic examination. these species appear to resemble that of Q. longitudinally striate. Panama Wood Part Used: Dried inner bark N/S Habitat and Range The plant is a large tree indiginous to Chile. inner surface yellowish-brown. Quillaja bark (inner) soap bark Chile and Peru Properties The name Quillaja is derived from the Chilean vernacular quillean. fracture uneven. Smegmandermos deC. Historically. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional patches of the dark brown periderm. and occasional circular depressions. Quillaia is used as an emulsifying agent for tars and volatile oils. * Formerly CTFA. taste very acrid and unpleasant. with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate. odor slight sternutatory. outer surface nearly white. The powder was formerly known as sneezing powder.Q QUILLAIA Quillaja Saponaria Molina *INCI Name Quillaja saponaria Quillaja saponaria Extract EU NAME: Quillaia saponaria Part Used: Dried bark Inner Bark CAS #: 68990-67-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Soap Bark. Quillaia is also used to form a froth in beverages. Bolivia. Some of the Quillaia bark of commerce is d e r ive d f r o m Q . finely wrinkled. 175 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . coarsely fibrous. Description In flat pieces of variable size.
QUIN QUINA Cinchona succirubra Pavon *INCI Name Cinchona pubescens Extract Cinchona succirubra Extract Habitat and Range South America. Quillaia saponin is a mixture of acylated triterpenoid oligoglycosides (acylated saponins). Part Used: Bark Bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Red Peruvian Bark Part Used: Bark of stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The color varies from yellowish to reddish-brown. frequently measures up to 8 mm thick. The outer surface of the stem bark is longitudinally furrowed. and the color varies in color from a yellowish-brown to brownish-black. gypsogenin. The inner surface of both the stem and root bark is finely striated and frequently fissured. a neutral saponin. Ecuador. quilled.176 QUIN QUINA Constituents A mixture of saponins. free acids (quinic acid). The fracture is tough and uneven. The bark is flat or chip-like. Used in hair tonics to stimulate growth. to 7 cm in width. the former is antimalarial and the latter is an antifibrillant. Internally. overlapping quilled. triterpene glycoside (quinovin 3-quinovoside). quinidine. shallowly fissured transversely. calcium oxalate sugars. or in the older barks deeply fissured transversely. Constituents Alkaloids (quinine. The pieces of stem bark measure up to 10. quinine and quinidine. and to 6 mm in diameter. The taste is strongly bitter and astringent. Description Red cinchona occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. quinamine). The fractured surface is granular in the outer portion and fibrous in the inner portion. or compound quilled. tannins. partially quilled.8 dm in length. cinchonine. are used. Quillaia-sapotoxin (C17H26O10). Remineralizing protein. its important alkaloids. quillaic acid (C19H30O10). which is nearly always chip-like. and volatile oils. The odor is not distinct. cinchonidine. The root. uronic acids. Properties For mineralizing face packs and hair care ointments.
triangularly compressed. with water. present in the epidermis of the testa. Quince has been used to soothe the sores of herpes and various forms of ulcers. The cotyledons contain fixed oil aleurone grains and a small amount of amygdalin and emulsin. Properties The mucilage is used as a soothing vehicle in skin lotions and other cosmetics. It is used to reduce inflammations and swellings. ovoid or oblong. being coated with mucilage. taste mucilaginous and characteristic. Description The seeds are separated from the pear-shaped fruit adhering more or less firmly together. Mill *INCI Name Quince Part Used: Seed Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Pyrus cydonia. The seeds are up to 10 mm long and 6 mm broad. but cultivated in the warm regions of the United States and Europe. Constituents The seeds contain about 20% mucilage. internally showing a whitish embryo of two fleshy cotyledons and a hypocotyl. outer surface reddish-brown and covered partially or completely with a whitish hardened mucilage. It is also used as a suspending agent. Quince seed © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .QUINCE 177 QUINCE Cydonia oblonga. the seed coat swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass. Golden Apple Part Used: Seed Habitat and Range Indigenous to Persia.
purplish and more or less brown from drying. contains over 40 compounds. *INCI Name Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Red Clover Blossoms. Properties Historically. volatile oil. eugenol. including methyl salicylate. stamens diadelphous (nine and one). consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers. and furfural. and C23–C31 hydrocarbons and alcohols. salicylic and p-coumaric acids. phenolic acids. It has been used to wash eczema and psoriasis sores. petals united into a tube below. and esters. Red Clover was one of the ingredients in the Hoxsey formula (formerly used as an alternative cancer treatment). * Formerly CTFA. Medicinally. style slender. starch. 179 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . which may or may not be accompanied by diminutive Red clover trifoliate leaves.R RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense L. Constituents Flavonoids. tapering. longer than the four nearly equal calyx teeth and shorter than the narrower fifth calyx tooth. then slightly bitter. Honeysuckle Clover Blossoms Part Used: Flowers Habitat and Range Southern British America and the United States. genistein. isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides. phenolic acids. mostly from 12 to 25 mm in length and width. daidzein. crowded together and clothed at the base with broad. calyx teeth subulate. pointed ciliate stipules of a pale green color with darker veins. Mildly anti-spasmodic. Odor faintly aromatic and somewhat tea-like. shriveled. Description Inflorescence ovoid with rounded summit. Red Clover flowers have been used as a blood purifier for chronic skin diseases. the standard longer than the wings but when recurved appearing shorter. biochanin A. taste sweetish. benzyl alcohol. 2-phenylethanol and anthranilate. volatile oil. Flowers from 12 to 15 mm in length. sitosterol. fatty acids. Flavonoids: isoflavones formononetin. Its extracts are used to alleviate symptoms of menopause.
such as hand creams. leaving a space about 0. but abundant in cornfields and waste places throughout Europe. with an entire margin. an unpleasant heavy odor and slightly bitter taste. doubtfully indigenous to England. emollient. the fine ends of the veins unite by arches. dark violet claw. with a short. lotions. Constituents Anthocyan glycosides. thimble-shaped. The numerous veins run from the base toward. etc. The petals are mostly used for the coloring matter they contain. terminal leaflet broadly ovate. Description The two hairy sepals of the bud fall off as the four delicate crumpled petals expand. those of the floral branches threefoliolate. terminal and often with branches from the upper axils. somewhat smaller. ovate.15 to 0. Maine. the bright scarlet color changes to a dingy violet. hair rinse. rounded or cordate at the base. armed with bristles or weak prickles. *INCI Name Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Extract Part Used: Flowers Family: Papaveraceae Synonyms: Ahiphenalm Part Used: Flower Habitat and Range The red poppy is a common herb. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Can be used in any formulation requiring emolliency. double-serrate. especially mecocyanin (= cyanidin 3-sophorside). peduncle and pedicels finely tomentulose and with small recurved prickles.180 RED POPPY RED POPPY Papaver rhoeas L. when fresh. and are then employed in the fresh state. the margin and anastomose freely by very fine branches. RED RASPBERRY LEAVES Rubus idaeus L. they are smooth and shining above. leaves of the turions pinnately five-foliolate. Rhode Island. fruit red. about 5 cm wide and broadly elliptical. mainly rhoeadine.25 mm wide destitute of veins just within the margin of the petal. They have. shortacuminate. erect. The latter are of a bright scarlet color. light-colored. and Minnesota. By drying. *INCI Name Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry Raspberry (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus (Rubus idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) idaeus) Extract Juice Leaf Extract Seed Part Used: Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-76-0 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Framboise Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Around dwellings. Description Stem biennial. inflorescence short-racemose. Quinoline alkaloids. finely tomentose when young. Properties Soothing.
lactic acid. Dried and whole. minerals. The Red Reishi is a traditional form with reddish cap and off-white to yellowish underside. protein. nervousness. Reishi can be employed topically in creams and lotions for its anti-inflammatory properties. and beta-carotene. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antioxidant. termed ganoderic acids from A to Z. hepatitis. mycelium Family: Ganodermataceae Synonyms: Herb of Spiritual Potency. riboflavin. Constituents Ascorbic acid. Internally. it comes in various sizes and shapes. insomnia. a cold infusion makes an effective gargle or mouthwash for bleeding gums. Mushroom of Immortality Part Used: Whole mushroom (mycelium and fruit body) Habitat and Range Far East. B. Miraculous chi. ellagic acid. Japan. fragarine. consult a qualified physician before using. and antibacterial properties. and inflammations. and North American coastal rainforests. China.). Red Raspberry is also recommended by herbalists to be taken throughout the pregnancy to help strengthen and tone the uterus. and C. succinic acid. A series of tritepenoids. Note: However. Ling-Zhi (Chin. Happy Herb. Auspicious Herb. REISHI MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum *INCI Name Ganoderma lucidum Part Used: Fruit body. Description The Ancient Reishi has a brown cap and white underside. and chest and heart diseases. thiamine. Constituents Polysaccharides. It is a high-potency strain cultivated in China and has a more even size and shape. Herbalists recommend an infusion of Red Raspberry Leaf tea be taken during pregnancy to aid in childbirth and for morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy due to hormonal changes. have been isolated. granoderan A. gallic acid. Properties Reishi extracts possess anti-inflammatory. mouth ulcers. malic acid. Ergosterol derivatives. it is used as an adaptogen and has been used as immunostimulant in neurasthenia.REISHI MUSHROOM 181 Properties Used as an astringent.
The wood has a yellowishbrown outer zone and a nearly black central zone. and it tapers into the main root. The outline of sections of small roots is cylindrical. Description Peruvian krameria occurs as whole and broken roots mixed. that of the wood. of the wood. of the larger roots. The odor is not characteristic. Part Used: N/S Family: Fabaceae Synonyms: Peruvian Rhatany Part Used: Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . very tough and hackly. dark reddish-brown. The entire surface can be of a uniform brown color. which has numerous branches. The texture of the cortex is granular.5 cm in diameter at the crown.182 RHATANY RHATANY Krameria triandra R. The taste is astringent. The crown bears numerous short stem bases. The surface of the smaller roots is nearly smooth. The color is dull reddish-brown. The fracture of the cortex is very brittle and hackly. The cortex is not so thick as that of the Savanilla Krameria. and P. fibrous. of the larger roots. rough and scaly. *INCI Name Krameria triandra Extract Habitat and Range Peru and Bolivia. The color of the smaller roots is light reddishRhatany root (krameria triandra) brown. These are branched and measure up to 30 cm in length and up to 9.
except where this has been cut away during the preparation of the drug. immediately within the secondary xylem. ratanine). the rhomboid meshes of which are about 1 to 1. the cortex has been removed. being about 8 to 10 cm long and 4 cm thick. Within the cambium is a ring. The outer surface can also exhibit occasional small dark points or projections. Dark areas may still be found here and there. “Rounds” are formed from rather smaller rhizomes. On many pieces of Shensi rhubarb. which when carefully shaved off. barrel-shaped or conical. and scattered throughout the remainder of the pith are star-spots and irregular markings composed of more or less parallel straight or undulating reddish-orange lines embedded in a starchy. showing that they are leaf traces. in the form of a fine yellow powder. there may be seen upon the surface numerous groups. of radiate secondary xylem with reddish-orange medullary rays. to give a good appearance. Constituents Gum.” The “flats” are formed from large rhizomes. each being filled by a number of fine vertical. face creams. etc. benzofurans (ratanhiaphenols I. resulting from the use of a knife for cutting away the bark. RHUBARB Rheum palmatum L. but not the whole of the normally developed radiate secondary phloem and xylem. which is done after drying so as to remove discolored patches. which are not divided longitudinally and consequently are cylindrical. after-shave lotions. and the white tissue is phloem or xylem parenchyma filled with starch and calcium oxalate. about 5 mm wide. officinale. This pattern is therefore evidence that in paring the rhizome.5 mm long. The outer surface is commonly dusted over with powdered rhubarb. III. tapering slightly toward each end and are about 7 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick at the middle point. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . appear as radiating white and reddish-orange lines. which have been divided longitudinally and are plano-convex. tannins (proanthocyanidines). reddish-orange lines embedded in a whige matrix. After removing the powder.5 mm wide by 2 to 2. contains tannins and is said to be hemostatic. the remainder of the surface is occupied by the large pith. and may also show marks produced by filing or scraping. there is visible a delicate network of white lines. The inner surface of a “flat” shows numerous transverse placed parallel reddish-orange lines. If the trimming has been very severe.RHUBARB 183 Properties Very astringent. *INCI Name Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: R. is an almost continuous ring of star-spots. parenchymatous matrix. Can be used in hemorrhoid creams. Description Rhubarb rhizome occurs in pieces that are described as “flats” and “rounds. of radiating dark reddish-orange lines known as star-spots. The smoothed. transversely cut surface may show just within the outer margin a fairly continuous cambium line with portions of phloem external to it. In the periphery of the pith. the surface shows flattish longitudinal areas. each about 3 to 8 mm in diameter. The reddish-orange lines are the medullary rays seen in a tangential section of the rhizome. mouth wash. and N-methyltyrosine. Chinese Rhubarb Part Used: Peeled rhizome and big roots Habitat and Range China and Tibet. which result from the sectioning of abnormal vascular strands occurring in the pith. II.
The complex structure of this drug is due to the fact that it is a very fleshy rhizome.8-dihydroxy-anthraquinones. it is very gritty between the teeth. Constituents Hydroxyanthracene derivatives. it is often rhein. of which many aglycones have been identified. rhein. the sugar residue is glucose on C-8 (and C-8 in diathrones). (+)-afzelechin. Barbados. respectively) and rheinosides A–D have been isolated. With its high tannin content. Properties Blond tint for hair can be combined with Henna. Rhubarb exerts an astringent action and has been used in low doses as an antidiarrheal. 40%) of the hydroxyanthracene complex. the mechanism is described under Aloes. which occurs in considerable quantity in large cluster crystals. Rhubarb also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The drug possesses a characteristic empyreumatic odor and bitter. 2. especially flavanols such as (+)-catechin. In most cases. there is a seasonal variation from anthraquinone to anthrone forms. This is applied to the hair and left to dry. Usually 5 g of ground root are boiled in white wine (1 liter) until half is evaporated. the outer surface showing little sign of shrinkage during the drying. These occur to a small extent as free anthraquinones but predominantly as anthraquinone monoand diglycosides (60 to 80%) and through dimerization as homo. it is used as a stomachic. and physcion. and compact. emodin (= rheumemodin = frangula-emodin).184 RHUBARB The drug is firm. aloeemodin. when chewed.5% calculated as rhein). which varies from bright pink to dull grey in color. but in one investigation. mainly of glycosides based on five 1. the fractured surface. A very complex mixture is present. Rhubarb has a laxative effect similar to other drugs containing hydroxyanthracene derivatives. chrysophanol. In small amounts. Sennosides A–F (E and F being oxalates of A and B. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . due to the bitter taste. The predominant aglycone varies. exhibiting numerous small dark reddish-orange lines alternating with white ones. usually 3 to 5% (Ph. but up to 12% depending on source and method of assay/calculation. heavy. also (+)-catechin 5. astringent taste. it breaks with an uneven short fracture. min. the internodes of which are so closely approximated as to be almost suppressed and having an abnormal development of bundles in the pith.and 7-0-glucosides.or heterodianthrone glycosides (10 to 25%). and (+)-gallocatechin. a characteristic due to the calcium oxalate. It is then rinsed out. Mono-anthrones are generally absent in dried Chinese material although in the living plant. physcion 8-0-B-D-gentiobioside was found to be the main constituent (ca. Flavonoids.Eur.
ROSE (PALE) Rosa centifolia. Tannins. Petals obovate or obcordate retuse. Cosmetic Nomenclature Part Used: Rosa centifolia Habitat and Range Western Asia. approx. Properties The volatile oil of Rose is widely used in cosmetics and perfumery. also dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives. shaking well and allow to stand until cold. slightly bitter. Other constituents of the oil are: nerol. Constituents The volatile oil of Rose is characterized by high free alcohol content. of both the condensed (procyanidin) type and the gallotannin type. acetate esters of previously mentioned alcohols. glycerol. gallic acid. l-linalool. Description The plant usually occurs as a mixture of unexpanded cone-shaped flower buds and some petals. eugenol and eugenol methyl ether. L. 3 or 4 drops to 1 liter of warm distilled water. nearly mature flower buds Pale rose petals © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5 to 10%. Minor constituents are citral. free and in combined forms with glucose. it can be prepared by using rose oil. and astringent. and traces of carvone. mainly l-citronellal and geraniol. a by-product in the distillation of the rose oil. catechins. odor fragrant and rose-like. Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Cabbage Rose.ROSE (PALE) 185 Phenolic carboxylic acids. Moss Rose Part Used: Dried petals. the ratio of l-citronellol to geraniol should not exceed 3. French Rose. however. filter. Other constituents include starch and calcium oxalate. and procyanidins. phenylethyl alcohol. taste sweetish. pink. One example would be rose water. including galloylglucosides known as lindleyin and isolindleyin.0.
Part Used: Leaves Volatile oil from flowers CAS#: 84604-14-8 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Rosemary Part Used: Leaves and flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . flavonoids. and zeaxanthin. bright red and glossy externally and bears at its summit the scars left by the fall of five sepals. as is the inner epidermis of the thalamus. essential oil. *INCI Name Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. kaempferol-3-glucoside. isoquercitrin. low. Dog Rose Part Used: Fruit Habitat and Range The fruits are collected from plants growing wild in Great Britain. mildly astringent.5 to 3. capric acid. Description A bushy. they are refrigerant. Rose hips also act as a fixative for various herb preparations.2 cm wide. vanillin. gallocatechin. linoleic acid. lycopene. The achenes themselves are hairy. opposite. which bears numerous achenes on its inner surface. boron. Wild Brier. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate from 1. tannins. leucoanthocyanins. magnesium. epicatechin. ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis L.186 ROSE HIPS ROSE HIPS Rosa canina L. alpha-tocopherol. perennial shrub attaining a height of about 1 m and bearing aromatic.5 cm in length and up to 2. it will add highlights to light hair. and slightly diuretic. The styles attached to the achenes just project through the opening at the apex of the fruit so that the stigmas appear as a bunch at the summit. evergreen. Rose hips Properties Rose Hips are widely used for their high Vitamin C content. rubidium. malic acid. succinic acid. The bulk of the fruit consists of the succulent hollow thalamus. sessile. citric acid. pectin. xanthophyll. Description The fruit of R. much branched. rubixanthin. catechin-tannins. invert sugars. sucrose. When combined with various other hair preparations. Constituents Ascorbic acid. protein. linear leaves and verticillasters of pale blue flowers. coriaceous. *INCI Name Dog Dog Dog Dog Dog Rose Rose Rose Rose Rose (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa (Rosa canina) canina) canina) canina) canina) Extract Hips Extract Hips Oil Leaf Extract Seed Extract Part Used: Fruit N/S N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84696-47-9 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Hip Tree. linolenic acid. canina is ovoid or urn shaped and about 2 cm long.
Constituents Essential oil. characteristic. boron. Rosemary © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Properties Tonic. lotions. protein. The oil is used in fragrances. hair conditioners. and showing a prominent midrib. lower surface wooly. borneol. Rosemary can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. and triterpenic acids. The extract can be used in shampoos. creams. taste pungently aromatic. Its basic external use is in hair lotions. diaphoretic.ROSEMARY 187 upper surface dark green. camphoraceous. stimulant. tannin. glandular-punctate. odor aromatic. rosmarinic acid. An extract of the plant combined with sodium borate and applied cold is said to be one of the finest hair washes known. diosmin. margin revolute. and bitter. etc. flavonoids. Rosemary also contains anti-oxidants. Topically. camphor. It is a surprisingly effective remedy for the control of scurf and dandruff. phenolic acids. it is used to increase circulation. for its effect in stimulating the hair follicle to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. astringent.
ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. ursolic acid. salvin. estrogenic compounds. *INCI Name Sage (Salvia officinalis) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Extract (Salvia officinalis) Oil Habitat and Range Mediterranean regions. can be used in mouth rinses and gargles. Constituents Volatile oil. and tannins. venation pinnate-reticulate. it will control dandruff and loss of hair (if the papilla is dormant and not destroyed). phenolic acids. camphors. texture velvet-like. margin crenulate. It is antibacterial. astringent. midrib and veins prominent. pinene. petiole up to 4. From an underground fibrous root system. fungistatic. beta-sitosterol. caryophyllene. In early summer. an extract of sage is used to cleanse old ulcers and wounds. the reticulations being very small. the upper branches bear blue. Leaves opposite. base rounded or subcordate.6 cm in breadth. odor strongly aromatic on crushing. pubescent stem with branches opposite. upper Sage surface grayish-green (gray and densely pubsecent in young leaves) with depressed midrib. Meadow Sage Part Used: Leaves * Formerly CTFA. there arises a grayish. Russian folk medicine claim it to be aromatic. flavonoids. Sage is also reported to bring dark hair back to its normal color. densely pubescent. saponins. cineole. It is said that if massaged into the scalp.5 cm in length. uneven or lobed. long petiolate. protein. borneol. carnosolic acid. It can be applied to insect bites and also has anti-oxidant properties.S SAGE Salvia officinalis L. lamina elliptical. stimulating. linalool. 1 to 2. rarely pink or white bilabiate flowers followed by blackish nutlets borne in open cups. antiseptic. much branched. to 1 ft high. Description A perennial low shrub or subshrub from 6 in. for inflammed tissue of the oral cavity and throat. 189 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and disinfectant (against inflammations). thujone. 2 to 10 cm in length. taste aromatic and bitter. Properties Cosmetically. Part Used: Dried leaves Leaves N/S CAS#: 84082-79-1 Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: True Sage. lower surface grayish or pale grayish-green. carminative. apex acute or obtuse. Sage Garden Sage.
being only occasionally arranged in small radial groups. Black Snakeroot. It has been used to treat internal bleeding. mountainous regions of tropical Africa. Constituents The important constituent is volatile oil (sp. slender stems with white or pale pink summer flowers followed by fruits with hooked bristles. –13° to –21°). carvings. the vessels are mostly solitary. SANICLE Sanicula europaea L.973 to 0. alterative. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is also used in perfumery. it is not secreted by or contained in any particular cells or glands. and erect. It is said to be anti-inflammatory. a volatile oil is deposited in the heartwood and is found in all the elements of the wood. and inflammed skin. White Saunders Part Used: Heartwood Habitat and Range It is distributed throughtout India and the Malay Archipelago. burns. In Yellow Sandal Wood. North and South America. Description Sanicle has a creeping rhizome. heavy. palmately lobed leaves. o. Properties Sanicle has been used for healing wounds and bruises and as a gargle for sore throats. L.r. of which it contains over 90%. astringent. vulnerary. White Sandal Wood. C15H24O (probably a mixture of . 0. Properties The wood is used as a source of volatile oil that has a very pleasant note and is used to fragrance creams. hard. hemorrhoids. and for the manufacture of boxes.190 SANDALWOOD SANDALWOOD Santalum album. Self heal Part Used: Whole herb Habitat and Range Central and northern Europe. *INCI Name Sandalwood Part Used: Heartwood Family: Santalaceae Synonyms: Yellow Sandal Wood. and similar articles.and -santalols). hemostatic. and lotions. Sandalwood Oil is a stimulant and disinfectant to the whole genitourinary tract. Description Sandalwood logs are about a meter in length and up to 15 to 20 cm in diameter. the odor strong and fragrant. and a stomachic. The transverse surface shows alternating lighter and darker zones. consisting of the heartwood only of the tree. and dense. depurative. wounds. Asia Minor. *INCI Name Sanicle Part Used: Whole herb Family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Wood Sanicle. the medullary rays are very fine and close together. This is yellowish or pale reddish in color. pectoral. It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders. gr. The taste is slightly bitter. of which the wood yields from 2 to 5%. The chief constituent of the oil is the alcohol santalol. or as a perfume. but easily split.985.
chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. essential oil. saponin. and a bitter principle.SANICLE 191 Constituents Tannins. Sanicle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . resin. Mucilage.
occasionally compressed. Fan Palm Part Used: Fruit Saw palmetto Saw palmetto berries Habitat and Range This palm is found in sandy soil from North Carolina and Arkansas to Florida and Texas Description Ellipsoidal or ovoid. with a few © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .192 SAW PALMETTO BERRIES SAW PALMETTO BERRIES Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) *INCI Name. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa serralata) Extract Part Used: Fruit CAS#: 84604-15-9 Family: Palmae Synonyms: Palmetto. externally brownish-black to bluish-black. Dark Palmetto.5 cm in diameter.5 to 3 cm in length and from 1 to 1. smooth and somewhat oily. from 1.
J. and the base either with a short stalk or stem scar.. Pharm. 1.P. sito sterols. They are said to be very nutritious... SEAWEED. These pieces measure up to 3 dm in length. et al. Tarayre. The fractured surface is very fibrous and of light pinkish-gray color... and slightly acrid. lauric acid. Odor pronounced... Constituents Anthranilic acid. as is also the inner layer of the sarcocarp... Ulmus rubra Muhl. ferulic acid. epicarp and sarcocarp together forming a thin coriaceous shell enclosing a hard but thin endocarp.7 dm in width.. 41. enclosing a hard...... such as anorexia nervosa. beta-sitosterol. beta-sitosterol isolated from the berries has shown estrogenic activity. Ann. to 17 cm in width. The bark is flat or slab-like and partially quilled.. *INCI Name Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Bark Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) Extract Part Used: Dried bark Bark Family: Ulmaceae Synonyms: Red Elm Part Used: Dried inner bark Habitat and Range Quebec to North Dakota. or as cut and sawed pieces. tough. more or less angular depressions due to the contraction of the sarcocarp.. The outer surface varies in color from pinkish-yellow to reddish-brown. myristic acid.. and lotions. They are said to promote the growth of new flesh. The taste is sweet and mucilaginous. The inner surface varies from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown.. oleic acid. Herbalists have used them in wasting diseases. reddish-brown seed.. taste sweetish.. beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside.. which is externally reddish-brown and somewhat fibrous. It has been shown to possess anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity... and to 1.. and to 3 mm in thickness. it is coarsely striated longitudinally. somewhat flattened. which measure up to 3 dm in length. palmitic acid. a native of the southern United States. were eaten by the Indians.SLIPPERY ELM BARK 193 large. inner layer of endocarp smooth.6 dm in thickness. skin creams. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . aromatic. capric acid.. to 1.See CHAPTER 7 SLIPPERY ELM BARK Ulmus fulva Mich. when cork patches are present. apex marked by the scar of the style.1 Saw Palmetto extract (lipidic) can be employed in hair conditions. Franc. The fracture is very strong. mannitol. 1983. it has Sllippery elm (bark) numerous partially detached bast fibers. south to Florida and Texas. and stearic acid.. Saw Palmetto contains fatty acids. lipase. and incomplete. 559. ellipsoidal or ovoid... The sawed pieces are usually arranged in bundles...... arabinose. Description Elm Bark occurs as a mixture of cut and broken pieces. caproic acid. The odor is distinct. aromatic. Properties Sabal berries.
lotions. starch. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Mucilage in abundance. *INCI Name Saponaria oficinalis Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots CAS#: 84775-97-3 Family: Caryophyllaceae Synonyms: Bouncing Bet Part Used: Aerial and root Habitat and Range Roadsides and waste places.194 SOAP WORT Properties Emollient. 3 to 5 ribbed. Properties Soap Wort can be used in hair shampoos as it is very high in saponins. Constituents Approximately 5% saponin. and Saskatchewan. The beverage industry uses it to put a head on beer. L-rhamnose. leaves oval or ovate. and tannin. cleansing lather that does not sting the eyes or make the hair brittle. boils. It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases. etc. and other beverages. Description Glabrous perennial. minerals. Its surfactant properties give it favor in the film industry during the manufacture of film to keep it clean. hair conditioners. polysaccharides.2 cm long. North Carolina. starch. New Brunswick. and wounds. healing. Nova Scotia. chemicals that foam when added to water. native from Europe. Colorado. hexosan. protein. 5 to 8 cm long. 1 to 5. Soap Wort produces a gentle. d-galacturonic acid. Massachusetts. *INCI Name Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Extract Part Used: N/S CAS#: 89957-58-4 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Lad’s Love Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Around dwellings. SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum L. New Mexico. SOAP WORT Saponaria officinalis L. calyx tubular. Florida. petals pink or white. Contains mucilage (a blend of polyuronosides). ulcers. pentosans. flowers in dense corymbiform cymes. and beta-carotene. It can be used to emulsify oil. stem 3 to 6 dm high. soothing. Can be used in creams. and tannins. Has been employed as a healing agent for abscesses. Colorado. tannin (minute). capsule oblong. blades obcordate.
poultices. Properties Used as a nervine. disinfectant. Properties Southernwood is known as a stimulant. New studies are being conducted utilizing St. Nova Scotia. 2 to 10 mm wide. conditioners. uric acid. Manitoba. uterine tonic. corolla 2 to 2. Medically. quebrachitol. 1 to 3 cm long. frostbite. petals obovate. leaves. John’s Wort ing. guanine. JOHN’S WORT Hypericum perforatum L. obtuse. It is used locally for its emollient properties in relieving aches for treatment of sunburn. disk-florets 15 to 20. JOHN’S WORT 195 Description A much branched shrub. having antibacterial properties. slightly tomentose beneath. 10 to 12 mm long. John’s Wort for HIV virus and hypericin is showing substantial activity against the HIV-1 virus. umbelliferone. native to Europe. 4 to 6 cm long. St. Colorado. about 3 mm high and 5 mm broad. rutin. sepals 3 to 4 mm long. flowers cymose. and scopolin. bruises. lower leaves petioled. Constituents Essential oil. scarious. ray florets about 10. John’s Wort is said to be healSt. stimulant. capsule ovoid. California. glandular-punctate. tannin. emmenagogue. choline. toothed above the middle on one side. tonics. chlorogenic acid. acute or acuminate. 5 to 10 dm high. Used in aromatic baths. the rest broadly oval. isofraxidin. etc. British Columbia. and for skin conditions. leaves linear to oblong. and anodyne. Description Stem much branched 3 to 7 dm high. it is presently being employed as an antidepressant. with revolute margins. ST. and stems CAS#: 68917-49-7/84082-80-4 Family: Guttiferae (Hypericaceae or Clusiaceae) Synonyms: Hypericum Part Used: Flowering part Southernwood Habitat and Range Waste places and fields. heads numerous. the outer linear-lanceolate. Its stimulating properties are useful in shampoos. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . antiseptic. astringent. and superficial burns. Virginia. *INCI Name Hypericum perforatum Extract Part Used: Flowers. and anthelmintic.5 cm broad. caffeic acid. scopoletin.ST. bracts canescent. twice pinnately dissected into linear-filiform divisions.
and Virginia. protein. tannins. and an antibiotic substance hyperforin. John’s Wort St. resin sitosterol.196 STRAWBERRY LEAVES St. New Mexico. phenolic acids. STRAWBERRY LEAVES Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G. flavonoids.) *INCI Name Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Juice Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Leaf Extract Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Seed Part Used: Fruit Dried fruit Fruit Fruit N/S N/S CAS#: 84929-78-2 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Woodland Strawberry Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Woods. John’s Wort (flower) at 10 Constituents Volatile oil. mannitol. saponin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . hyperoside. hypericin-like substances. Manitoba. Newfoundland. hypericin.
quercetin). flavonoids (glucosides of kaempferol. mostly acute. Constituents Tannins (ellagic acid. It is said that the pulp rubbed on the face will leave the skin smooth and tight. seldom over 1. very rarely leafy-bracteate. rhombic-obovate. fatty acids. It would also be useful in facial scrubs and skin cleansing creams. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . sharply and deeply serrate.5 dm high. 5 to 7.STRAWBERRY LEAVES 197 Description Leaflets 3 to 8 cm long. scape slender. fruit elongate-ovoid. ellagitannins. very thin.5 cm long.5 mm in diameter and 1 to 1. Properties Frageria has been used in face packs and to whiten the teeth. condensed tannins). and phenolic acids. very soon glabrate on both sides. seldom much exceeding the leaves.
Bitter buttons. tanacetin. The oil of Tansy has also been used as a blister on race horses. Also said to be an insect repellant. The plant contains a volatile oil that is poisonous. * Formerly CTFA. phenolic acid. yellow flower heads are produced in terminal clusters from about July to September. Tansy Description Tansy is a strong-scented herb with finely divided. anthelminitic. The volatile oil is distilled from the plant on a commercial scale in Michigan and Indiana. fern-like leaves and yellow. occurring as a weed along waysides and fences from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. and as a compress for rheumatic pains. thus giving the leaf a somewhat fern-like appearance. The entire leaf is about 6 in. for which there is a reasonably constant demand. and spasmolytic. Scented Fern. carminative. button-like. sesquiterpenes. and branching near the top. resin. *INCI Name Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Part Used: Aerial parts N/S CAS#: 84961-64-8 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Tanacetum. The roundish. which are again divided into smaller lobes having saw-toothed edges. 1 to 3 ft high. Ginger plant. flat-topped. erect stem. Hindheal Part Used: Aerial Habitat and Range This is a garden plant introduced from Europe and now escaped from cultivation. The leaves and flowering tops.T TANSY Tanacetum vulgare L. usually smooth. Parsley Fern. tannin. are collected at the time of flowering. It has a stout. English Cost. somewhat reddish. has been used as a wash to treat scabies. and quercetin. long and is divided almost to the center into about seven pairs of segments or lobes. 199 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Essential oil containing about 70% thujone. button-like flowers. Properties Tansy is a vermifuge.
including treatments for sunburn. terpinene. It is found in numerous product forms. involucral bracts spiny-tipped. insect bites. which is present from 40 to 47% in higher qualities. upcurved. cymene). in a flattened rosette. and vaginal infections. capsule. while the rest consists mainly of oxygenated terpenes. abrasions. Flower heads 3 to 8 cm long. constantly renewable tree. About one third of the oil is composed of terpene hydrocarbons (pinene. leaves oblong lanceolate with acute apex. ringworm. sparingly branched biennial. sore throat. stings. streamsides. Over-wintering leaves.200 TEA TREE OIL TEA TREE OIL Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel *INCI Name Tea Tree Oil Part Used: Leaves and young twigs Family: Myrtaceae Synonyms: Australian Tea Tree Part Used: Leaves and young twigs (volatile oil) Habitat and Range It is indigenous to Northern. 0. stem © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents The leaves yield by steam distillation approximately 2% of a pale yellow volatile oil with a pleasant terpenic odor. TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum L. Description Tea tree is a fast growing. particularly 1-terpinen-4-ol. oral infections. lanceolate. burns. Bark. conical. spiny heads of rose-purple or whitish-violet flowers. bronchial congestion.0 ml high. boils. fruit. lice. and the like. with prickly stems and midveins of leaves. Properties The volatile oil has been used by Australian Aborigines for the treatment of cuts. Description A stiff. attaining approximately 20 ft in height. athlete’s foot.5%). with a broad range of health claims. flowers maturing in a narrow zone from below upward. abrasions. It was also used as an antiseptic by Australian soldiers during World War II. either singly or with other ingredients. scabies. erect. The trees are now commercially grown in stands. New South Wales. pimples. and Australia. and dense. while cineole is low (about 2. punctate due to the presence of abundant underlying schizogenous oil glands. *INCI Name Dipsacus fullonum Part Used: Family: Dipsaceae Synonyms: Brushes and Combs Part Used: Root and root stock Habitat and Range Waysides. thickets.5 to 2. cuts. spongy.
1 It is said that Milk Thistle Extract has the unique ability to regenerate liver cells. S. It has been very effective for mushroom poisoning (amanita phalloids).. Taste and odor. It is said to contain saponins. their bases fused around the stem to form a “cup” often containing water. A decoction can be used externally to relieve itching of the skin in pruritis or to aid wound healing or ulcers. TOMATO Solanum lycopersicum L. TX. The fruiting heads were once used to tease or scratch up the nap on cloth. 1955. THISTLE Silybum marianum (L. yellow spines. American Botanical Councin. which is composed mainly of silybin together with silydianin and silychristin. Milk Thistle Part Used: Fruit and seed Habitat and Range Throughout Europe. and magnesium. fatty acids. dark green. taxifolin). Properties The dried root and root stock were formerly used as expectorants in bronchitis and diuretics. especially if given within 48 hours of diagnosing the poison in order to prevent liver damage and coma. glucosides. Mary Thistle. flavonoids (keampferol. 1. The seed holds the active principle and is used to treat liver disorders. fruit Seeds CAS#: 90131-63-8 Family: Solanaceae Synonym: Love Apple Part Used: Fruit © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . stems. Milk Thistle Bibliography and Abstracts. quercetin. Constituents Flavolignans mixture (termed silymarin). Blessed Milk Thistle. slight Properties Thistle has been used as a treatment for infections. St. both orally and also by intravenous injection. Ed. Constituents Little is known about the constituents of the plant. Also used in homeopathy. Austin. purple. and tannins. solitary with sepal-like bracts ending in sharp. Foster. The root and root stock are short and erect.TOMATO 201 leaves lanceolate.) karsten *INCI Name Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Extract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) oil Part Used: Leaves. Flowerheads rayless. Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Description Leaves spiny. with a crenate margin and conspicuous white veins. The injection gives better results. rare in Britain. entire or toothed.) Gaertn *INCI Name Lady’s Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extract Part Used: N/S Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Prickly Thistle.
much branched. menstrual disorder. flavonoids. Description The rhizome of tormentil is cylindrical. lycopene. diarrhea. and phytosterols. subglobose. -hydroxy acids. and sore throats. Tomato has astringent properties and can be used on sensitive skin. sore gums. glycine. Colorado. and dentate. rinses. acne. aspartic acid. corolla yellow. sensitive skin. 10 to 15 mm broad. stem 3 to 10 dm high. ellipsoid. to add sheen. cyclohexanol. cystine. Properties Tormentil is a powerful astringent. ascorbic acid.5 to 1. glucose. conditioners. It can be employed in creams. lotions. 0. New York. vitamins. brown or blackish externally.) Raeusch *INCI Name Rhizome Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Extract Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. antihemorrhagic. styptic. branching and more or less curved. Part Used: Roots CAS#: 90083-09-3/ 85085-66-1 Family: Rosaceae Synonyms: Potentilla. Erect Cimquefoil Part Used: Rhizome © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and reddish within. lobed.5 to 8 cm long. hair tonics. Properties Fruit: astringent. etc. mouth rinse. gargles. somewhat fusiform. Description Viscid-pubescent. It contains a red coloring principle that appears to be identical with rhatany-red. Texas. and California. Constituents Proteins. red or yellow. It has a slight aromatic odor and a very astringent taste. fruit through cultivation very variable. It can be incorporated into shampoos. and from 0.5 cm thick. from 2. minerals. or pear-shaped. Florida. and considerable quantities of a peculiar tannin. facial muds. glutamic acid. leaves two-pinnatifid. that can be used for hemorrhoids. or any formulation that needs astringency at low levels.202 TORMENTIL Habitat and Range Waste places and around dwellings. TORMENTIL Potentilla tormentilla Stokes Potentilla erecta (L.5 to 10%. abscisic acid. An extract of tomato has been used topically to treat acne.
Description Finger or long turmeric occurs in curved or nearly straight cylindrical pieces. caffeic. Indian Saffron. waxy appearance and tough horny consistency. Occasionally. China. or show large circular scars where these have been broken off. They are hard and heavy. Curcuma longa Part Used: Prepared rhizome Habitat and Range Native of southern Asia and is cultivated in India. longitudinally wrinkled. by which not only is the starch © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . quinovic. This appearance of the interior of the rhizomes is due to the prolonged boiling they undergo. internally. and marked with transverse rings (leaf scars). The smoothed transverse surface exhibits a paler (or sometimes darker) ring separating the stele from the cortex. *INCI Name Turmeric Part Used: Prepared rhizome Family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Curcuma domestica Val. a red pigment. and other tropical countries. tormentillin. p-coumaric and sinapic acids. Java. they bear short knob-like branches. and break with a short fracture. Curcuma. TURMERIC Curuma longa L. bluntly tapering at each end..TURMERIC 203 Tormentil root at F-11 Constituents 20% catechol and hydrolysable tannins (agrimonin). The outer surface is of deep yellowish-brown color. they have a uniform dull brownish-yellow.
when chewed. It is widely used as a spice and is an essential component of curry powder and other condiments. etc. 2-7% essential oil. ar-turmerone. zingiberene. A complex acidic arabinogalactan. hypotensive.204 TURMERIC gelatinized. antibacterial. previously restricted to certain scattered cells. monodesmethoxycurcumin. it colors the saliva yellow. The drug has a characteristic aromatic odor and taste. guaiane. curlone. and anti-edemic. and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. antifungal. The earlier described p-tolyl methyl carbinol is no Tumeric doubt an artifact formed during distillation of the essential oil. Properties Curcumin is reportedly a potent antioxidant. but the coloring matter. consisting of curcumin (diferuloylmethane).. becomes uniformly diffused throughout the rhizome. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . is also present. the high content of bisabolane derivatives distinguishes turmeric from other Curcuma species. Constituents 3 to 5% yellow pigments that are not volatile in steam (curcuminoids). ukonan A. and antimutagenic. Turmeric has shown to be anti-inflammatory. It is also choleretic. comprising mainly bisabolane. and germacrane sesquiterpenes: turmerone. anti-arthritic. The abundant starch is largely gelatinized.
relaxant.V VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis L. The fracture of the roots is very weak and brittle. valerenic acid acetyl valerenic acid). phenolic acids. The surface of the rhizome is rough from root scars and is annulate. cultivated in Germany. and has one or more stem bases and numerous leaf scales. The taste is sweet. and disagreeable. and to 3 mm in diameter. Rhizomes measure up to 4 cm in length. The outline of entire rhizomes and roots is cylindrical. alkaloids (valerianine. acevaltrate. It is sedative. Properties Valerian has been employed as a wash for sores and pimples. Wood is small. isovaltrate. and valepotriates (valtrate. central and cylindrical. Garden valerian Part Used: Rhizome and root Habitat and Range Europe and Asia. Constituents Essential oil. actinidine). Roots are wrinkled longitudinally. valerosidatum). The odor is strongly and persistently unpleasant aromatic. Texture is nonfibrous and waxy. naturalized in New York and New Jersey. Pith is white or grayish-white. Cortex of the root is thick and yellowish-brown. The wood has a yellow ring of con(Photo courtesy of Bio-Botanica®) ducting tissue. pungent. and spasmolytic. and baldrinal. bicyclic monoterpenes (valerenal. * Formerly CTFA. and to 2 cm in diameter. Belgium and England. However. Cortex is thick. Rhizomes of German Valerian are usually entire. The rhizome is vertical. fatty acids. Roots are branched or simple. Valerian has a very unpleasant odor that would have to be masked. Color varies from gray to yellowish-brown. The cambium Valeriana (Young root) zone is distinct. Roots measure up to 18 cm in length. *INCI Name Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis) (Valeriana Officinalis) Extract Part Used: Dried rhizomes and roots Rhizomes and roots CAS#: 8008-88-6 Family: Valerianaceae Synonyms: Valerian root. Description Occurs as a mixture of the entire rhizome and roots and of cut sections of the rhizome with roots. Roots are folded and held together with a blade of dried grass passed twice around the roots and tied. simple or branched. 205 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
206 VALERIAN Valeriana (Young leaf) Valeriana officinalis © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and superficial and limited burns. aucubin. numerous slender panicled spikes 2 to 6 in. Wild Hyssop. contraceptive. in addition to verbenin. gout remedy. Has also been used for skin infections and as adjunctive emollient and itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders. Properties The plant is known to be used as an antispasmodic. Verbena officinalis L. False Verbain. verbenelol. tannin.VERVAIN 207 VERVAIN Verbena hastata L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and against sunburns. *INCI Name Verbena officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts CAS#: 84961-67-1 Family: Verbenaceae Synonyms: Verbain. artemitin. and verbascoside (caffeic acid glycoside). long. volatile oil. Nebraska. 4 to 7 feet high. and Arizona. straight. finely haired herb has an erect. diuretic. Simpler’s Joy. anorexic (appetite suppressant). ursolic acid. four-sided stem. Ironweed Part Used: Aerial parts Habitat and Range Verbain is found in moist fields. meadows. Constituents Iridoids. verbenalin. hastatoside. caffeic acid. Description This rather rough. usually branched above with broadly lance-shaped. and waste places from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and Florida.
Properties Tonic restorative. open crown. astringent. ophthalmia. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Extract Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shell Extract Walnut (Juglans regia) Extract Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut Walnut (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans (Juglans regia) regia) regia) regia) regia) Leaf Extract Leaves Oil Seed Shell Powder Part Used: Leaves N/S Husks and shells N/S Dried leaves Nut meats N/S N/S CAS#: 84012-43-1 Family: Juglandaceae Synonyms: Persian Walnut Part Used: Leaves and bark Habitat and Range Eastern United States in rich woods from New Brunswick and Quebec to Georgia. *INCI Name . vermifuge. * Formerly CTFA. rheumatism. styes. light gray on the branches and on older trunks. The wood is light brown. The kernel is sweet. The leaves are alternate. scabbing pruritus.W WALNUT Juglans regia L. Used for skin complaints. 209 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . serrate leaflets that are glabrous above and pubsecent beneath. Juglans nigra L. disinfectant. soft and coarse grained. used alone or in combination with Henna Extract. depurative. blisters. The fruit consists of an elongated-ovate drupe containing a four-ribbed nut pointed at one end. eczema. Walnut Extract is an old-fashioned hair dye. and edible. round-topped. glandular disturbances. Description A forest tree with short trunk and broad. deep. west to Minnesota and Kansas. and varicose ulcers. The bark varies from nearly smooth. oily. with 11 to 17 ovate-lanceolate. scrofula. imparipinnate. gout. irritation of the eyelid.
WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale R. Properties Antiscorbutic (high Vitamin C content). threonine. it looks rather yellowish. valine.4-naphthagulone) Alphahydrojuglone (1.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Externally. 5. biotin. and its glycoside -hydrojuglone. Mexico. tyrosine. caffeic acid. South America. leaves pinnate. phenylalanine. 1. which some authors claim to be the cause of cancer and AIDS.210 WATERCRESS Note: When the hair is first dyed with Walnut Extract. and Europe.1 Constituents Juglone (5-hydroxy-1. it will strengthen and thicken hair. about 2 mm long. and nitriles (3-phenylpropionitrile and 8methyl-thiooctanone nitrile). tryptophan. somewhat curved. fruiting pedicels divaricate. Juglone has antiseptic and antifungal properties. aspartic acid. California. methionine. about 4 mm long. 4. alanine. and kaempferol. petals white. high in protein. siliqua 1 to 2 cm long. Note: Watercress is also heat sensitive. proline. cystine. 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (C9H9NS). thiamine. Constituents Watercress (Nasturtium efficinale) at 10 Glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) e. Rheumatism and nervousness. West Indies. gluconasturtiin. British Columbia. amino acids. protein. glutamic acid. ellagic acid. Virginia. arginine. tannin. glycine. its action being both detergent and healing. hyperin. 3 mm thick. Description Aquatic perennial. folacin.-Trihydroxynaphthalene). lysine. *INCI Name Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves CAS#: 84775-70-2 Family: Cruciferae Synonyms: Water Pepper Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Nova Scotia.g. with 1 to 11 orbicular to oblong-lanceolate sinuate leaflets. -carotene. histidine. ascorbic acid. many trace minerals. It is taken internally to rid the body of various parasites. beak about 1 mm long. but in the course of a few days the full rich warm brown color develops. spatulate. Clark. Also used for treating freckles and clearing the complexion in combination with honey. tumors. Watercress was used as a poultice on atonic ulcers. lymphatic or edematous swellings. Rubbing on scalp. leucine. A Cure For All Cancers. sepals oblong. and diastase. destroying most of its active principles.
sprouts. Creeping Wheatgrass. taking possession of cultivated ground and crowding out valuable crops. Scutch Grass.WHEAT GRASS 211 Watercress WHEAT GRASS Triticum vulgare (Vill. Quitch Grass. Dutch Grass. westward to Minnesota and Missouri. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. It occurs most abundantly from Maine to Maryland. Quake Grass. Chandler’s Grass Part Used: 2 to 4 in. of young grass. Fin’s Grass. Couch Grass. Durfa Grass. Durfee Grass. and new growth Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Extract Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Germ Oil Unsaponifiables Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Gluten Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Protein Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Starch Habitat and Range Like many weeds. and is spreading on farms on the Pacific slope. Twitch Grass. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .)Hackel *INCI Name Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum (Triticum vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) vulgare) Bran Bran Extract Extract Flour Germ Part Used: N/S N/S Grains Kernels Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Embryo of kernel Endosperm N/S N/S Family: Gramineae Synonyms: Dog Grass. Devil’s Grass. Wheat Grass was introduced from Europe and is now one of the worst pests with which the farmer must contend.
-carotene.. which are thickened at the joints.. fatty acids. trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes. thickets... are carefully cleaned...... yellowish wood bundles. flavonoids.. and when in flower resembles rye or breadless wheat. 6 to 20 mm thick. thin outer layer. surface more or less Wild yam scaly from the partly detached. more or less detached..212 WHITE NETTLES Description Wheat Grass is rather coarse. and hair conditioners. 1 to 3 ft high.. slender tough roots or thorn-like root remains in circular depressions on the sides and underneath. elongated. Colic Root. and dermatitis. remaining tissue consisting chiefly of longitudinally elongated thick-walled porous. lotions... Can be used in various dermatological preparations and in shampoos. bearing scattered nodular projections. and dried... an outer layer composed of several rows of parenchyma cells with yellowish walls occasionally developing as a thin cork layer. *INCI Name Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Extract Part Used: Rhizomes Family: Dioscoreaceae Synonyms: Rheumatism Root. externally pale brown.. afterwards acrid.... Structure: Rhizome: epidermis thin-walled. Contains diosgenin and plant sterols. The root stocks.. eczema.. its range extending from Rhode Island to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.. The flowering heads are produced from July to September. Description Knotted and woody...See ROSE HIPS WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa L.. a few rows of tangentially elongated thin-walled parenchyma. bent and branched. and phenolic acids.. creams.. creeping root stock. China Root Part Used: Root and rhizome Habitat and Range Wild Yam grows in moist.. and stem scars on the upper surface.. with numerous collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout. long. Over 240 compounds have been identified. partially lignified parenchyma containing starch. are produced from a long.. insipid. taste starchy. cut into small pieces about in. Its smooth hollow stems. amino acids. Odorless. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .. Constituents Vitamins. often compressed. with numerous small. scattered. It is most common in the central and southern portions of the United States. the fractured surface whitish or pale yellowish. fracture short but tough..See NETTLES WILD ROSE BERRIES. Properties Reduces inflammation and benefits the skin in treating boils. WHITE NETTLES. collected in the spring..
odor slightly aromatic. Constituents Phenolic glucosides (salicin. slightly lignified parenchyma. fracture short fibrous. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . longitudinally striated. Wild Yam extract can be used in various creams and lotions for its steroidal saponins. antiseptic. naturalized sparsely in North America. anti-inflammatory. Willow Bark was originally used by the American Indian for headache. Sections of the root made close to the rhizome do not exhibit an endodermis. shampoos. spasmolytic and mild diaphoretic. diosgenin. triandrin. antirheumatic. Description It occurs in flat pieces or quills 1 to 2 cm in width and of varying length. cinnamon brown to pale reddish. Contains steroid-like substances. stele with a continuous zone of heavily lignified fibers. taste astringent and slightly bitter. However. ascorbic acid. alternating small groups of tracheids and sieve tissue and a pith composed of thick-walled. fragilin. the inner and radial walls being heavily thickened and slightly lignified. populin. porous slightly lignified parenchyma. salicortin. *INCI Name Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract Willow (Salix alba) Flower Extract Willow (Salix alba) Leaf Extract Habitat and Range Europe. flavonoids. cortex composed of thin-walled. in older bark dull. It was formerly taken internally to relieve rheumatism and other inflammations. vimalin). as it contains salicin. European Willow Part Used: Bark Black willow Properties Willow Bark is an astringent used for cuts and sores. dioscorin. yellowish-brown to dark brown. tannins (gallotannins and catechin-type tannin). Properties Wild Yam has been used as an anti-inflammatory. It can be used in hair conditioners. irregularly wrinkled. WILLOW BARK Salix alba L. dioscin.WILLOW BARK 213 raphides of calcium oxalate occasionally present in the parenchyma cells. and trace minerals. White Willow. minerals. inner surface. endodermis distinct. as this could vary among different manufacturers. greenish-brown. It has been used in hair tonics to increase circulation and stimulate the follicle. it should be standardized for its salicin content. Constituents Steroidal saponins. analgesic. outer surface in young bark smooth. Root: epidermal cells with yellowish thin walls. rinses. Part Used: Bark N/S N/S N/S CAS#: 84082-82-6 Family: Salicacae Synonyms: Cortex Salicis. etc. and antipyretic.
forking branches with smooth. and borne on short stalks. long. The seed capsule does not mature until the following season. flavonoids. Winterbloom. brown bark.214 WITCH HAZEL WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana L. and alcohols. Tobacco Wood Part Used: Bark and leaf Habitat and Range Temperate zones. Striped Alder. Witch hazel bark © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . scattering the shining black. eastern United States. Constituents Essential oil. The leaves are from 3 to 5 in. and twigs CAS#: 68916-39-2 Family: Hamamelidaceae Synonyms: Snapping Witch Hazel. Wych-hazel. The extract is indicated for colitis and hemorrhoids. *INCI Name Hamamelis virginiana Water Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Hazel (Hamamalis virginiana) Distillate Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract Part Used: Flowers Plant material Twigs. and leaves Bark. bark. due to its high tannin content. yellow flowers. thick. Properties The bark and leaf extract of Witch Hazel is very astringent and should not be confused with the distillate. when it bursts open. saponins. It has a crooked stem and long. eastern Canada. more frequently reaches a height of only 8 to 15 ft. Description Witch Hazel. Spotted Witch Alder. and polyphenols. while it may grow to 25 ft in height. which is mainly a weak solution consisting of essential oil. leaves. which do not appear until late in autumn or in early winter after the leaves have fallen. A peculiar feature of the plant is the lateness of the thread-like. tannin. hard seeds with great force and to a considerable distance. esters.
Gypsywort. Virginia Hoarhound Part Used: The entire herb. American Water Hoarhound. Wolf Foot. to 2 ft in height. and Nebraska. rather narrow. Therefore. bitter. Gypsyweed. They are followed by four nutlets. *INCI Name Stachys officinalis Extract Part Used: Aerial parts Family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Buglewort. Carpenter’s Herb. Properties Wood Betony is sedative. tublar. are small. pointed. It is said to be vulnerary (healing wounds) and decongestant. smooth. slender. Constituents Alkaloids. The leaves are about 2 in. in length. Paul’s Betony. shady places from Canada to Florida. and are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. the leaves were applied to purulent wounds and ulcers. and dark green or of a purplish tinge. gathered during the flowering period Habitat and Range Wood Betony is a native herb frequenting wet. but a disagreeable bitter taste. Wood betony © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Missouri. thread-like runners and a bluntly four-angled. Externally. erect stem from 6 in. mint-like odor. Description This herb has long. including betonicine. Water Bugle. Green Archangel. it can be used in various skin preparations where healing is wanted. Gypsy Herb. The plant has a rather pleasant. and stachyerine. which appear from about July to September. The whitish flowers.WOOD BETONY 215 WOOD BETONY Betonica officinalis L. and bell-shaped. Sweet Bugleweed. Purple Archangel.
and the iridoids asperuloside. soothing to the nerves. antineuralgic. anti-arthritic. wines. bitters. coumarin. with four petal lobes. brittle stems and whorls of six to nine elliptical. Properties Woodruff is anesthetic. of new-mown hay. Odor. antiseptic. etc. in loose clusters. anti-inflammatory. Flowers small. monotropein. vermouths. citric acid. It is used in the food flavor industry and in alcoholic beverages. unbranched. *INCI Name Woodruff (Asperula odorata) Extract Part Used: Flowers and leaves Family: Rubiaceae Synonyms: Sweet Woodruff Part Used: Herb Habitat and Range Grows in woods of Britain and Europe. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .216 WOODRUFF WOODRUFF Asperula odorata L. when dry. tannin. white. Description A short perennial. quadrangular. Used in aromatherapy. with slender. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve throbbing pains from a bang on the head. Woodruff has been used topically to increase venous circulation. astringent. forwardpointing bristles. Woodruff Constituents Fixed oil. pointed leaves edged with tiny. calming. and has been employed in hemorrhoid preparations with other botanicals.
camphene. consist of numerous small. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Absinth. used as an external antiseptic. Odor aromatic. *INCI Name Mugwort (Artemisia absinthium) Extract Part Used: Flowering herb CAS #: 84775-45-1 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Absinthium. are divided into small leaflets. chamazulene. drooping. ovoid or hemispherical and arranged in panicles. isovaleric acid. choleretic. the inner linear with membranous margins. approximately 100 identified constituents. anthelmintic. aromatic. protein. It is cultivated in some localities. yellow heads. artabsin. Warmot Part Used: Aerial part Habitat and Range Wormwood. thujyl alcohol. and anthelmintic. much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 ft in height.WORMWOOD 217 WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium L. Properties Formerly employed as an eyewash for diseases of the eye. insignificant. Flower heads greenish-yellow. 1 to 2 mm in diameter. naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country. tannins. absinthin. rutin. Constituents Essential oil. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. two to three pinnately divided. thujone. Description This shrubby. -carotene. Wormwood is an ingredient in vermouth. is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. Old Woman. taste bitter. 2 to 3 mm long. for the production of the volatile oil it contains. p-coumaric acid. the lobes ovobate or lanceolate entire or toothed. Madderwort. the involucral bracts occurring in two whorls. Description Part Used Leaves 5 to 12 cm long. Many herbal preparations for expelling worms contains Wormwood. and the grayish-green leaves. Bitter stomachic. Also used to clean atonic wounds. and antipyretic. which are from 2 to 5 in. The flower clusters appearing from July to October. the florets tubular. Mingwort. the lower lobe is petiolate. especially in Michigan and Indiana. long. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs.
.. Closely related forms occur in the western states.. Gordoloba. Yarrow Milfoil.. Bloodwort... Achillia Part Used: Dried flowering aerial parts Habitat and Range Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields...... Description This weed is from 10 to 20 in.. white flower heads. astringent.... Green Arrow..... It * Formerly CTFA... *INCI Name Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Extract (Achillea millefolium) Oil Part Used: N/S Flowering herb CAS#: 84082-83-7 Family: Asteraceae Synonyms: Millefolium... feathery. dark green leaves... and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada.. Thousand-leaf. Old-Man’sPepper.. Cammock. hypotensive.... Frequent applications locally as a skin lotion are said to improve the complexion by removing pimples or scabbing.See WILD YAM YARROW Achillea millefolium L. Carpenter Grass... It has a strong odor.....Y YAM. the plant produces flat-topped panicles consisting of numerous small.. Dog Daisy. antipyretic... diuretic. 219 Yarrow © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Thousand-Leaf Clover.... pastures. Sanguinary. high and has many finely divided.... From June to September. Soldiers’ Woundwort. Nosebleed. Properties Yarrow is diaphoretic. and is urinary antiseptic.
spasmolytic. Description Narrow Dock has a deep spindle-shaped root from which arises an erect. green flowers © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and along roadsides. long. Yarrow has a firming effect on the connective tissue. flavonoids. and furrowed stem. and varicose ulcers. attaining a height of from 2 to 4 ft. carminative. Constituent Volatile oil (including linalool. achillin). Broad-leaved Rumex. *INCI Name Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) Extract Part Used: Roots Family: Polygonaceae Synonyms: Narrow Dock Root. it is also used in hair care preparations. Broad-leaved Dock Root. Yellow Dock Root Part Used: Root Habitat and Range This troublesome weed is now found throughout the United States. dense clusters formed by drooping groups of inconspicuous. alkaloids (achilleine). Curled Dock Root. sesquiterpenes (achillicin. it is stomachic. angular. injuries. The stem is branched near the top and is leafy. phenolic acids. and cholagogue. YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus L. bearing numerous.220 YELLOW DOCK is said to promote healing and is also cleansing. and tannin. Internally. blue colored chamazulene). It has been used for cuts. among rubbish heaps. camphor. in cultivated as well as in waste ground.
lapathinic acid. Properties Astringent for itchy skin. from 6 to 8 in. swellings. Tarweed Part Used: Leaves Habitat and Range Yerba santa is common on the Pacific coast.YERBA SANTA 221 Yarrow dock (Rumex crispus) arranged in circles around the stem. Bear’s Weed.The root. The root is large and fleshy. short stemmed or stemless. and tannin. chrysophanic acid. with long stalks. only 3 to 6 in. usually from 8 to 12 in. emodin. protein. These are followed by the fruits. along the coastal ranges from central California north to Oregon. which are in the form of small triangular nuts like buckwheat grains. yellowish cortex. The drug occurs as lightweight cut and split fragments of cylindrical outline with grey-brown cork. *INCI Name Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) Extract Part Used: Leaves CAS#: 85085-31-0/68990-14-7 Family: Hydrophyllaceae Common Names: Mountain Balm. As the clusters ripen. Treatment with aqueous alkali rapidly turns the fragments an intense dark red color. in length. long. et Tor. nepodin. and eruptive diseases. they become rusty brown. either left entire or split lengthwise into halves or quarters. Consumptive’s Weed. and carefully dried. collected late in the summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have turned brown. tapering or spindle shaped. Constituents Anthraquinone glycosides. The lower leaves of the yellow dock are blunt. while the upper leaves are narrower. psoriasis. Gum Plant. in length. They are washed. and pale radially split wood. sores. surrounded by three very small veiny leaves. YERBA SANTA Eriodictyon californicum (H and A) Bent. with few or no rootlets. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
and the Congo. acetic acid. whitish or pale blue flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the plant. It is also used to make the bitter flavor of quinine and has been used to treat insect bites. Properties Yerba Santa is an aromatic used in steam inhalations to relieve the symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. in length and are covered with a resinous substance that makes them appear as if varnished.222 YOHIMBE BARK Yerba santa leaf Description This evergreen shrub. chrysoeriodictyl. cerotic acid. essential oil. YOHIMBE BARK Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. has a smooth stem that exudes a gummy substance. dark green. Constituents Resin. which reaches a height of from 3 to 4 ft. Gabon. butyric acid.) Perre *INCI Name Yohimbe Bark Part Used: Trunk bark Family: Rubiaceae Synonymns: Yohimbe. eriodictyol. leathery leaves are from 3 to 4 in. tannin. Schum. The narrow. eriodictyonic acid. Corynanthe yohimbi Part Used: Trunk bark Habitat and Range Widespread in the forests of Cameroon. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . The rather showy. and eriodyctyonine.
Description Low. with narrow brown margins. allo-. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Kronenthal. spreading. Grass Cactus Part Used: Root Habitat and Range Dry plains. L. Constituents It contains from 1 to 6% isomeric alkaloids. oblong or conical-ovoid. Properties Yohimbe extract is said to inhibit melanin biosynthesis and is sometimes used in cosmetic preparations as a bleaching agent. the most important of which is yohimbine. It is also being used for arthritis internally. at low doses. sometimes 2 dm long. tannin. 1998. and protein. it is hypotensive and peripheral vasodilator. sepals and petals lanceolate. and Nevada. fleshy. minerals. pendent. tigogenin. is sympatholytic.1 Yohimbine.YUCCA 223 Description Evergreen tree attaining 30 m height. coarsely filiferous. Yucca has been used to treat inflammation and various skin diseases. concave. pseudo-. Personal communication. the major alkaloid. YUCCA Yucca baccata. shagreen roughened. Texas.. samogenin. it is hypertensive and at higher doses. smilagenin. Kansas. about 7. Yucca CAS#: 90147-57-2 Family: Agavaceae Synonyms: Spanish Yucca Bayonet. Soap Yucca Root. It also contains corynanthine. Constituents Sarsapogenin. The outer surface is reddish-brown and covered with grayish lichen patches. however. Torr Yucca brevifolia. Soap Weed.5 cm long. Properties Yucca contains saponins. The drug occurs as flattened or quilled pieces 75 cm long and 4 to 8 mm thick. usually with stout prostrate branched caudex. and epiallo-yohimbine. saponin. style slender. Colorado. 1. leaves rigid. hence its aphrodisiac effect. about 6 dm long and 5 cm wide. Arizona. Roezl. Engelm *INCI Name Yucca aloifolia Extract Yucca brevifolia glauca Extract (Manihot ultilissima) Extract Yucca schidigera Extract Yucca vera Extract Part Used: Leaves and roots N/S Roots Leaves Leaves and roots Leaves and roots Yucca schidigera. R. elongate. Has been used in dandruff shampoos as a foaming agent. fruit large. The inner surface is finely striated and golden brown.
224 YUCCA Yucca © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
Henna Used to dye hair red. Cocus nucifera Crabapple In combination with malt vinegar. Indigofera tinctoria Jacob’s Ladder The plant (when boiled in olive oil for an hour or so) will color Polemonium coeruleum the oil black. makes an excellent hair rinse. Arnica Arnica montana Black Walnut Juglans nigra Boxwood Boxus sempervirens Cassia Cinnamomum cassia Catnip. when massaged into the scalp is said to keep the hair dark and keep it from falling out. Coconut Palm The oil is good for thickening thin hair and giving it luster. See “Folklore” section. The extract of the green hulls has been used to dye the hair. The leaves contain buxine. Helps Equisetum arvense to add sheen and elasticity. Indian The extract of Indian Hemp has been used to prevent the hair Canabis sativa cultivated in from falling out and also as a hair conditioner. However.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 225 6.The extract supposedly makes an excellent hair restorer. Catmint Chamomile Matricaria recutita Cinnamon See Cassia. Galls Used to dye the hair black. Humulus lupulus Indigo An extract is used to intensify the color of black hair. Effective for removing dandruff from the scalp. Horse tail is also taken internally for the same purpose. Malus sylvestris Contains phosphorus. Lavender officinalis Leopard’s Bane See Arnica. This oil is used to dye gray hair jet black. not essential oil. The botanical extract. which is known to stimulate the hair nerves around the follicle and is said to promote hair growth. It also makes a valuable hair dressing. Hops See “Folklore” section.2 HAIR CARE BOTANICALS Arnica helps stimulate the hair follicles. Hemp. Oak. Horse Tail A natural source of vegetal silica will help with split ends. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . it should not be applied to open wounds or cuts. it prevents Cynoglossum officinale the falling of the hair. Should not be cold regions confused with Canabis sativa cultivated in temperate regions. The wood chips are boiled and applied to dye the hair a rich auburn color. It coats the hair shaft without penetrating it. It will also impart a glossy coat to the hair. Quercus robus Ginger Stimulating to the hair follicle. Dark brown contains juglone. Lawsonia inermis Hound Tongue It is said that when the oil is rubbed into the scalp. Lavender See “Folklore” section. Oak galls contains gallotannic acid.
The extract contains thymol. leaving it silky and glossy. The oil-soluble extract is blended with coconut oil and rubbed into the hair as a restorer. Complexion lotion: to tighten skin and help smooth wrinkles. it imparts a healthy glow to the hair. See Stinging Nettle. Hair rinse: accentuates the color of blonde hair. An aqueous solution of the extract is used as a rinse to darken and condition the hair. Can be used in deodorants. and some protein. The fluid extract of the leaf has the reputation as a hair restorer and toner. The oil can be combined with rosemary and sage for the same purpose. Combines well with rosemary to darken hair. Blended with yogurt and a beaten egg. It is also said to help relieve the inflammation caused by shingles and to be good for sore muscles when the oil is rubbed on. and mouthwashes. The essential oil is used to add sheen. An extract of the yellow flowers is used to tint the hair a rich golden yellow. The aqueous solution of the extract is used to darken the hair and also as a hair rinse to prevent the hair from falling out and to add sheen. A source of potassium and iodine. Lemony fragrance. it will darken the hair. Combined with chamomile and rosemary to make a lotion said to rid the head of scurf and prevent the falling of hair. Vitamins A and D. make it soft and shiny. It supposedly makes an excellent rinse after shampooing. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . See Lichwort. and help keep it free of dandruff. borneol. Louis Pasteur suggested combining it with rosemary as a hair restorer and tonic. Contains a yellow dye. It also helps to remineralize. Combined with rosemary. The extract is used to give luster to dry hair and prevent the falling of hair. It also makes a soothing cream or lotion. The tincture is used as a hair restorer. and linalol.226 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Lichwort Parietaria officinalis Maiden Hair Asplenium rutamuraria Marigold Flower Calendula officinalis Marjoram Origanum marjorana Mullein Verbascum thapsus Nettles Pellitory of the wall Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Saffron Crocus sativus Sage Salvia officinalis Sandalwood Santalum album Sea Kelp Fucus vesiculosis Southernwood Arthemisia abrotanum Stinging Nettles Urtica dioica Thyme Thymus vulgaris Vervain Verbena officinalis (sacred herb) An oil of pellitory and rosemary is said to promote hair growth when rubbed into the scalp. Said to prevent the falling of hair when rubbed into the scalp. It is antiseptic. An extract of Nettles has been used to stimulate hair growth and condition hair. which the extract is said to color the hair a rich gold. An extract of the yellow or orange flowers is used to color and add golden highlights to the hair.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is said that when blended with rosemary.HAIR CARE BOTANICALS 227 Walnut Juglans regia Wormwood Artemisia absinthium The husks yield dark hair dye. Contains the bitter glucoside absinthin. it will prevent the falling of hair if regularly rubbed into the scalp.
Hops. Rosemary. Thyme. Grapefruit. Rhatany. Nettles. Horsechestnut Papaya. Wild Indigo. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Garlic. White Lily. Blackberry Leaf Aloe Vera. ethanol. 1. Plantain. Echinacea. Eucalyptus. Rosemary. Bayberry. Onion. Birch. White Willow. Myrrh. Benzoin. Orange Peel. Botanical preparations can be supplied in different forms. Burdock. Uva Ursi Quassia. Arnica Lemon. Lavender. Hawthorn Angelica. Comfrey. Arnica. Horsechestnut. Myrrh. The amount of extract in a formulation should be determined through information provided by the extract manufacturer or through experimentation. Calendula. propylene glycol. Raspberry. Cardamom Seed. Sandal Wood. Oats. Hops. Tormentil. Artichoke. Myrrh. Artichoke. Southernwood. Balsam Peru. glycerin. Nettles. Catnip Camellia Sinensis. Peppermint. Soap Root. Vinca Minor. Rosemary.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 229 6. Inc. that is. Lady’s Mantle. Anise. Bayberry. Pineapple. Orris. Bioflavonoids Echinacea. Rosemary. Sandalwood. powders or extracts. Slippery Elm. oil. Lavender. Nasturtium. Thyme. White Willow. Chamomile. Pansy. Asparagus. Bio-Saponins™ Aftershave Antibacterial Anti-dandruff Anti-oxidants Antiseptics Astringents Breath sweeteners Cellulite Cleansers Bio-Botanica. Wild Alum. Lemon Grass. Lemon. Bilberry. Bistort. Quassia. Myrtle.3-butylene glycol. Witch Hazel. Burdock. Violet. refer to the index). The herbs listed (common names) have been employed for a particular use. but only a brief review of uses (for further information. Witch Hazel. etc. Comfrey. Use Acne Botanical Red Clover. Parsley Broom Flowers. Birch. either when applied topically or taken internally. Tumeric. in various vehicles as water. Calendula. Bay Laurel. Golden Seal. Lemon. Rose. Thyme. Lemon. Cucumber. Bay Laurel Grapefruit. Yarrow. Sage. Tomato. Althea. Fenugreek. Chaparral. Chamomile. Milk Thistle. Bladderwrack. Corn Flower. Calendula. Papaya. Lemon. Cinnamon Agrimony.3 BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE The following table is for quick folkloric reference. Sage. Lavender. Chamomile. Ginkgo. This list is in no way intended to be comprehensive. Yarrow. Black Walnut. Rosemary. Juniper Berries. Tilia. Oak Bark. Proanthocyanidins. Soap Bark.
Nettles. Chaparral. to stimulate Healing Insect repellant Itching. Jaborandi. Chamomile. Slippery Elm. Sage Jaborandi. dark Hair. Comfrey. Sage. Cedar. Witch Hazel. Southernwood. Southernwood. Elder. Comfrey Root. Rose. Citronella. Cucumber Chamomile. Anise Rosemary. Orange Flowers. Red Clover. Olive. Black Walnut hulls Chamomile. Orris Root. Rosemary. Orange Peel. Tilia. Flax. Southernwood. Sage. Blonde Henna (Neutral) Sage. Coriander. Pansy. Witch Hazel Bark. Neem. etc. Cardamon. Fenugreek. Yarrow. Dandelion. Quinine. Aloe Brunette Deodorants Eczema Emollients Eye Gingivitis Hemorrhoids Hair. Patchouli. Yellow Dock. Pine Tar. Sage.* Centella. White Willow Bark. Orange Flowers. Capsicum. Phytoplenolin®. Southernwood. Golden Seal. Roseberries. dry Hair. Elder. Plantain. Catnip Bayberry. to relieve Nails. Lemon Peel. Nettles. Use Red hair Blonde hair Botanical Beet. Garlic. Calendula. Pilewort. Rosemary. Quince. Cucumber. to add highlights Black Walnut. Horsechesnut. Rosemary. Lavender. Black or Neutral Henna. Golden Seal. Oregon Grape. Comfrey. Myrrh. Witch Hazel. Fenugreek. Echinacea various oils. Capsicum. Cade. Pansy. Thyme. Myrrh Pennyroyal. Red Henna. Quassia. Elder Flowers. Rosemary. Horsetail Grass. Peach Leaf. Capsicum. Oak Bark.230 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE The following botanicals could be used in various hair preparations. Broom. Chickweed. Flax Horsetail Grass. Jaborandi. Basil. Alfalfa. Lemon Peel. Chamomile. Red Clover. various seaweeds. Centella. Cucumber. Rosemary. Fenugreek. to add sheen Hair. Raspberry. Melilote. Cowslip. Chamomile. White Willow Balm of Gilead. Wild Alum. Tea. to add highlights Marigold. Comfrey. Comfrey. Thyme. Birch. Quince Seed. Rhatany. Basil. Corn Flower Water. Oats. Calendula Oil. Cleavers. Wormwood Chamomile. Bayberry Bark. Burdock. Sarsaparilla. Horseradish. Parsley. Fennel. Camphor. Althea. Raspberry. Thyme. Brown Henna Rosemary. rinses. Capsicum. Pansy. Quince Seed. Comfrey. to strengthen © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Peppermint Aloe. Echinacea. split ends Scalp. Eyebright. Primula Flowers. White Willow Aloe Vera. Chamomile. Eucalyptus. Cantharides. Echinacea. Onion. Plantain Horsetail Grass. Chamomile. Raspberry. Horsetail Grass. Marigold Golden Seal. Butchers Broom Chaparral. to add highlights Hibiscus. Golden Seal. Seaweed. Arnica. Capsicum Bistort. Mullein Flowers. Rosemary. Yarrow. Figwort. Comfrey. conditioners. Hops Chamomile. shampoos for tinting and adding highlights. Malva Flowers. Feverfew. Nettles. Purple Loosestrife. Grapefruit. Red Poppy. Lavender. Sage. Citrus Bioflavonoid.
Corn Flower. Violets. Licorice Cleavers. Althea Root. Quince. Tilia. Jaborandi. Capsicum.206 for Centipeda. Dandelion. Golden Seal. Lavender. Arnica. this would depend on the strength of the extract and the menstruum used to extract. Fennel. however. Calendula. John’s Wort. Blue Flag. Birch. Lemon Grass. Orange Peel. Elecampane Skin. Peach. Phytoplenolin®* Golden Seal. Evening Primrose. Cucumber. Cucumber. Grapefruit. Echinacea. Comfrey.Yarrow. Slippery Elm.BOTANICAL QUICK REFERENCE TABLE 231 Use Rubefacients Shingles Skin. Valerian. Yarrow flowers. Mullein. 1998. John’s Wort. Capsicum. Slippery Elm bark. Hawthorn. Horsetail grass. Calendula. Plantain. Apples. Centella. Horsechestnut. Plantain. Fennel. Oils. Cleavers. Witch Hazel. John’s Wort. St. Comfrey. Lavender. Poke Root. Lemon. Garlic. White Willow Bark Mistletoe. White Pond Lily. Bayberry. Red Clover. Althea Root. Lemon. Comfrey. St. Echinacea. Lemons. (not to be applied to open wounds) Calendula. Capsicum. Chickweed. Comfrey. Witch Hazel. Calendula. Cinchona.) Aloe Vera. Ginseng Caraway. Passion Flowers. Bistort (There are many herbs that have astringent properties. Tilia. Chamomile. Capsicum. Rose. Elder Flowers. St. Orange Flowers. Dandelion. Red Poppy. Bistort.Vinegar. Seaweeds. Arnica. to heal * Bio-Botanica’s patent # 5. Pine. oily Soothing Spots Styptics Sunburn Varicose Wounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Chamomile. Apple. Slippery Elm. Witch Hazel. dry Botanical Cantharides. St. Uva ursi Wild Alum. Meillot. Wild Alum Althea. Sept. Dulse. Bayberry. Aloe Vera. Comfrey. Colts Foot. Sage. Jamaican Dogwood Aloe Vera. Oats. Licorice. Chamomile. Wormwood. Citrus bioflavonoids. John’s Wort. Primula Flowers. Pansy.804. Parsley. Nettles. Croton. Thuja. Wild Alum Milk Thistle. Hawthorn Berries. Yarrow. Seaweed.
Ginger. 6 to 20 cm long and 2. which are coriaceous. Its stem is erect or prostrate and covered with closely appressed. The nuts are spherical. It is said to be hemostatic and has antibacterial properties. The powder is used on abscess. Folkloric Use The powdered herb is styptic.) STEUD. Folkloric Use Applied to the scalp to help promote hair growth. internally used to blacken hair. and 4 to 5 mm in diameter. The panicles are terminal or axillary and the flowers are small. The flower heads are axillary or terminal and the involucre is campanulate with 5 to 6 bracts. wedeloclactone. elliptical shaped.5 to 5 cm wide. Han lian cao (Eclipta prostrata) The achene of the tubular flower is trigonous and that of the ligulate flower flat and tetragonous. beard. nourishes the blood. elongated. 1. and fleshy. and an ovary which are 2 to 3 celled. Licorice root. it strengthens the spleen. aril white. The calyx has 5 lobes and there are 5 petals. yellowish brown. yellowish-white.LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU 233 6. and eyebrows. etc. The Chinese use it for premature graying of hair. The seeds are also spherical. The opposite leaves are elliptically lanceolate. tannin. The hermaphroditic flowers are tublar with four lobes. short stiff hairs. Constituents Saponin. HAN LIAN CAO Eclipta prostrata Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is an annual herb that grows 20 to 60 cm high. sores.4 ORIENTAL BOTANICALS USED IN COSMETICS The following is a brief overview of selected botanicals used by the Orientals in cosmetics. 8 stamens. nicotine. Vitamin A. ecliptine dimethylwedelolactone. The flowers are polygamous. They are covered with rust-colored stellate hairs. can be found in the main section. Internally. rough. and tonifies the heart. wounds. The female flowers are white and ligulate. etc. Family: Sapindaceae Description The plant is an evergreen tree which grows up to 10 m high.5 to 2 cm in diameter. 3 to 10 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide. Common botanicals such as Lotus. The alternate leaves are paripinnately divided with 2 to 6 leaflets. It grows in fields and ditches. LONGAN FRUIT — LONG-YA-ROU Euphoria longana (Lour. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
234 SHE CHUANG ZI Longan fruit (long yan rou) Constituents Glucose.) Cusson Family: Apiaceae Fruit Part Used: Folkloric Use The Chinese say this herb is an effective antiseptic wash for eczema. She Chuangzi Cnidium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . choline. antiparasitic. Vitamins A and B. adenine. protein. Flower contains fucosterol (C29 H48 08) MW = 412. vaginal itches. tartaric acid. etc. yeast infections.70. sucrose. ringworm. pruritus. fats. SHE CHUANG ZI Cnidium monnieri (L.
imperatorin. cnidiankin. berry-like fruits. bornyl isovalerate. folic acid. Constituents Saponins. It is also said to promote blood production. and arabinose. It is said to nourish the vital fluids. weak pulse. The Chinese believe that because Ginseng is so rich in nutrients.GINSENG — REN SHEN 235 She chuangzi cnidium 11 Constituents Essential oil (L-pinene. choline. amino acids. columbianetin (C14H14O4). columbianadin (C19H20O5). etc. Astragalin. heart palpitations. and various trace elements that when it is incorporated into cosmetic formulations. isopimpinellin. Family: Fabaceae Folkloric Use The Chinese reportedly use this herb for prolapsed womb. and help to prevent the skin from wrinkles. amino acids. When using Ginseng internally. used as an aphrodisiac. bears minute flowers in an umbellate form. any citrus and turnips. Betaine. It is an astringent. improves circulation in the skin. palmate leaves. it could nourish. diabetes. ginsenosides. possibly by having a positive effect on the skin metabolism. It is usually found growing in the shade of trees. a glucoside C20 H20 011. Folkloric Use Ginseng has been used by the Chinese as an energizing tonic to the lungs and spleen. dihydrooroseiol. insomnia. avoid black tea. Ginseng is said to help promote the secretion of sexual hormones in both men and women. alloimperatorin. HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. asthma. deficiency of energy. isoborneol). L-camphene. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .) Bge. ostol (C15H16O3). dilates the blood vessels. edultin. and can be used in hair tonics for its vasodilating properties. cnidiadin. hypertension. GINSENG — REN SHEN Panax Ginseng Family: Araliaceae Description The true ginseng plant has five parted. The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. xanthotoxol. moisturize. astragalin-glucose. and has red. sugars. It is said to accelerate the healing of wounds and reduce edema. dyspepsia. It is reported to be a cardio tonic. lack of appetite. B-sitosterol.
antibacterial. resin. sugar fatty oil. To list all would take several pages. trichosanic acid. These are a few of the constituents. protein. essential oil. Constituents Triterpenes. Gua-lou-ren Trichosanthes © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . tricosanthin.236 SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Chinese panax (ren-shen) Constituents Panaxosides. and antifungal properties. saponins (ginsenosides). trichokaurin. The root has antipyretic. SNAKE GOURD — GUA LOU ZI Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim. Family: Cucurbitaceae Folkloric Use The kernels of the seeds are used. (C18H30O2).
and is analgesic. nosebleeds. it has been used in coughing of blood. reduces swelling. San qui (Noto ginseng) Oriental Materia Medica a Concise Guide Oriental Healing Arts Institute pp 53. Constituents Saponins. etc. ginsenosides. dissolves clots. It is a highly effective styptic when applied to traumatic wounds. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . helps to promote circulation. both internally and externally.NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI 237 Chinese Ginseng (Panax shinseng) NOTOGINSENG — SAN QI Panax notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng Panax pseudoginseng Wall. Rb2-Rb. It is said to heal without leaving scars. blood in the stool. According to Chinese tradition. Rb1 Rg1 Rg2 Ra. and Re. traumatic injuries. Internally. The Chinese say it is the best drug for any type of serious bleeding. this herb can be used safely in large doses. Family: Araliaceae Folkloric Use This herb is said to be hemostatic.
GARDEN BURNET — “DI YU” Sanguisorba officinalis L. 1/3 in. There are a few tuber roots at the end of a woody stem that are used as medicine (Radix sanguisorbae). Constituents Flavonoids. which separates into sanguisorbigenin and valeric acid upon hydrolysis. with few (6 to 10) pointless scales. glucose. glucose. rhamnose. eczema and has been used for snakebite and insect bites. and arabinose. Family: Typhaceae Dried pollen of the mature flower Part Used: Folkloric Use The pollen from this plant is used as a hemostatic and astringent. anti-inflammatory. U. Family: Rosaceae Part Used: Rhizome Description This herb has a height of about 50 to 150 cm and belongs to the Rosaceae family. stearic acid. Folkloric Use This herb is hemostatic and astringent and has been used internally for blood in the stool and urine. II. White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Description Evergreen tree with the leaves in four (4) rows on the two-edged branchlets. sitosterol. Di-yu sanguisorba Constituents Saponin (sanguisorbin) C38H60O7. It is also said to be anti-bacterial. It is also said to be effective for pruritus. fructose. L-typhasterol. An oil is extracted from the root and applied to burns. having a strong aromatic odor when bruised. tannin. Arbor vitae Thuja occidentalis L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . long. and a slightly bitter taste. It has almost no odor. Vitamin A.238 COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG COMMON CATTAIL — PU HUANG Typha latifolia L. The cross-section is pinkish or light yellowish-brown in color with fibrous bundles arranged in ray-like white spots. ziyuglycoside I. Cones oblong. ARBOR-VITAE — CE BAI YE Thuja orientalis L. palmitic acid. xylose. essential oil.V. It is also used to arrest bleeding in dysentery. absorbtion and anti-tyrosinase activity.
in height. astringent. It is a hemostatic. Its stem is erect and white cottonly. tannin. and antipyretic. having pale. and antiviral properties. Vitamin C. resin. The terminal flower head has a round hair involucre. the base tapers into a winged petiole. reddish-purple. soft durable wood. anthelmintic. The flowers are tubular. which has hairs on both surfaces. flavonoids. The Chinese use it for all forms of hemorrhage. 15 to 30 cm long. The basal leaves are clustered. Constituents Thujone. Extensively cultivated as an ornamental bush. The apex is acute and its margin is spinescent. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and is said to have antibacterial. obovate-lanceolate shaped. TIGER THISTLE — DA JI Cirsium japonicum DC Family: Asteraceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 0. Folkloric Use The leaves and the stems contain the actives in this herb. becoming smaller on top.-fenchone. The cauline leaves alternate with an amplexicaul base. pinene. shoddy bark and light. and hermaphroditic.TIGER THISTLE — DA JI 239 Ce bai ye biota (leaf and bark) The tree is approximately 20 to 50 ft. L. and pinnatipartite. caryophyllene. fenchone.5 to 1 m high. 5 to 8 cm wide.
essential oil. The bracts oblong-lanceolate shaped. It is said to be antiviral hemostatic. 2 to 3 cm long. Bletilla bai-ji Folkloric Use This herb is astringent. -amyrin. skin infections. mucilage (bletilla glucomannan).F. antifungal. and 2 to 6 cm wide. antibacterial. its apex acute and the labellum abovate. and the flowers are rose-violet in color. and antibacterial. It is also emollient when mixed with oil and is applied to burns and abscess and other skin irritations. The stem is thick and sturdy and the 3 to 5 leaves are lanceolate shaped. hemostatic. B-sitosterol BLETILLA — BAI JI Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. It is used in traumatic injuries. and promotes the healing of the flesh.240 BLETILLA — BAI JI Cirsium japonica Folkloric Use This herb is said to be very effective when applied externally to scaly types of skin diseases. The perianth is in 6 segments. B-amyrin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . reduces swelling. stigmasterol. Constituents Taraxasterol acetate. starch. The racemes are terminal with 3 to 8 flowers. The tuber is thick and fleshy. Family: Orchidaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb that grows 30 to 70 cm high. Constituents Glucose. with 5 longitudinal ridges on the inner surface. anti-inflammatory. and in abscesses. Their base runs into a long sheath. 15 to 30 cm long.
ipterocopal. boils. The trees are cut down in April or May while fruiting. asiatic acid. It has been used in ringworm. Antibacterial. erythrodiol. tannin. Constituents D-borneol.CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO 241 BORNEO CAMPHOR TREE — BING PIAN Dryobalanops aromati Description The tree is straight. See “Botanical” section for further description. The dark green. odor strongly aromatic. It has been successfully applied to abscesses. Folkloric Use This herb is said to be analgesic. fat. B-caryophyllene. style 1. terminated by an epigynous calyx with 4 incurved teeth about 3 mm in length. stearic acid. They are met within crevices or cells in the body of the tree. which alternate with the calyx teeth. the solid inferior ovary more or less cylindrical. wax. esculetin. crowded. ovary 2-locular. CHINESE MOXA WEED — YIN CHEN HAO Artemisia capillaris Thunb Folkloric Use this herb is antipyretic. Constituents Scoparone. hydroxydammarone II. antiparasitic. stamens numerous. followed by a slight numbness. with a tall stem sometimes 20 ft thick. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . chlorogenic acid. overtopping with its high crown other large trees to the extent of some scores of feet. acetyl eugenol). having antipyretic properties. dryobalanone. oval. and somewhat 4-angled. dark brown. conjunctivitis. sores. caryophyllene. and incurved. antibacterial. montanic acid. and surmounted by a light brown globular portion consisting of 4 imbricated. and more frequently in the swellings of the branches as they issue from the trunk. Constituents Clove oil (eugenol. glandular-punctate petals. Folkloric Use This oil is a stimulant and local anesthetic. oleic acid. analgesic. taste pungent and aromatic. and the whole of the immense trunk is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of crystallized camphor. One tree can yield as much as pound. cold sores.5 mm in length. etc. capillarisin. The acorn-like fruit is compared by the Chinese to that of cardamom. with numerous ovules. palmitic acid. humulene. and antiviral. linoleic acid. caffeic acid. CLOVE TREE — DING XIANG Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae Description From 10 to 17. and nasal mucositis. pointed leaves are tough and camphoraceous. essential oil. the largest of which rarely exceeds half an inch across. arachidic acid.
and the calyx is companulate and slightly oblique. and allergic reactions. 3 to 4 cm long. It is used for vaginal infections. itchy skin. The stamens are 10 and free.242 KUSHEN Yin chen hao atemesia KUSHEN Sophora flavescens Family: Fabaceae Description The plant is a deciduous subshrub that grows up to 3 m high. Folkloric Use It is antipyretic. flavonoids. constricted between the seeds. The corolla is papilionaceous. Excellent remedy for sores. and 1 to 2 cm wide. The raceme is terminal. pruritus. yellowish-white. which are globose and black. Ku shen sophora © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Constituents Alkaloids. sores. and other skin ailments. The leaves are alternate. The stem is erect with many branches. with leaflets that are elongated elliptical shaped. The pods are cylindrical. and the branchlets are sparsely pubescent. 10 to 20 cm long. imparipinnately divided.
It is said to be a natural antibiotic. tannin. jatrorrhizine. Coptis teeta (False Golden Seal) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN Coptis shinensis Franch Folkloric Use Antipyretic. columbamine. It is applied externally to swollen. fraxin. probably for its high berberine content and relatively low price. Constituents Aesculin. it has been used for inflammation of the mouth and tongue. coptisine. aching. obakunone. obakulactone. fraxetin. palmatine. It is supposedly an antiphlogistic eyewash. and red eyes. Constituents Berberine. magnoflorine. Antiinflammatory.MISHMI BITTER — HUANG LIAN 243 Ash bark (Qin Pi) NORTHERN ASH — QIN PI Fraxinus bungeana Folkloric Use This herb is also antipyretic and said to help promote vision. aesculetin. Has been reportedly used as an adulterant in Golden Seal Root powder (Hydrastis canadensis). red. and swollen eyes. used as an eye wash for sore. ferulic acid.
ovate shaped. The floral whorl consists of 2 flowers.5 to 1. The Ban zhilian (scutellaria barbata) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .5 cm wide. The pedicel is 1 to 2 mn long and pubsecent. tetragonous and grows 15 to 40 cm high. Don Family: Lamiaceae Description The plant is a perennial herb. Its stem is erect.244 BAN ZHI LIAN Coptis BAN ZHI LIAN Scutellaria barbata D. The leaves are opposite. The calyx is bilabiate. 1 to 3 cm long. their margins sparsely serrate. congregating in terminal and axillary laterial racemes. and 0.
Some experimentation is being done for its use in cancer of the lungs. French. and often purplish in color. The leaves are cuneate-oblong or obovate shaped.5 cm wide. gamma-linolenic acid. Can be used in cosmetics as a source of GLA.. beta-cyanin. The flower has 2 sepals. fleshy. and English consume this plant in salads. Italians. with their upper surface dark green and under surface dark red in color. snake bites. boils. antiphlogistic. Its stem is cylindrical. There are 3 to 5 flowers terminally. 1 to 1. Folkloric Use This herb is antipyretic and hemostatic. The Chinese.3 cm long. Constituents GLA. with 4 to 5 involucral bracts that are membranous. 8 to 12 stamens. betanin. and grows 20 to 30 cm high. and intestines. It is used to reduce swelling. PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulaca oleracea Family: Portulacaceae Description The plant is an annual herb. decumbent or slanting upward.PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN 245 corolla is pale bluish-purple in color. stomach. The capsule is conical with its lid dehiscent containing numerous black seeds.5 to 1. Constituents Portulal. Purslane Purslane (whole plant) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 5 yellow petals. abscesses. and 1 pistil with 4 to 6 lobed stigma. The nutlets are spheroidal and tubeculate. Folkloric Use Antipyretic. gamma-linolenic acid. It is also a good source for GLA. There are 4 stamens of didynamous type and a 4-lobed ovary. betanidini. 1 to 3 cm long and 0.
246 PURSLANE — MA CHI XIAN Portulacca purslane Ma chi xian (Purslane) root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 247 6.1 Japanese Botanicals Cross-Reference Table CAS Number 9000-01-5 68917-51-1 84696-13-9 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 8001-97-6 97676-24-9 1393-63-1 Not identified 68650-44-2 84695-98-7 84-82-61-1 94349-67-4 9000-05-9 Not identified 84012-15-7 Not identified 8028-8-6 68916-04-1 84082-63-3 84649-88-7 Not identified Not Identified Not identified 84012-38-4 84775-39-3 84776-23-8 Not identified 68916-73-4 465-42-9 7235-40-7 9000-07-1 84929-61-3 8015-88-1 Not identified 84649-86-5 Not identified Not identified 8015-92-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-28-3.4. 84929-25-9 Not identified Not identified 84929-63-5 8015-97-2 8000-34-8 Not identified 84696-05-9 INCI adopted name Acacia Algae Extract Bladderwrack Extract Aloe Aloe Aloe Aloe Althea Extract Annatto Apple extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Gum Benzoin Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Oil Buckbean Extract Burdock Root Extract Lappa Seed Oil ** ** Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Camelia Oil Capsicum Beta Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil ** Chamomile Extract ** Matricaria Extract Chamomile Oil ** ** Cinchona Extract ** ** Clematis Extract Cloveleaf Oil Clove Oil ** Comfrey Extract Japanese name Acacia Algae Extract Algae Extract (2) Aloe Extract Aloe Extract (1) Aloe Leaf Powder Aloe Powder Althea Extract Annatto Apple Extract Apricot Extract Avocado Extract Balm Mint Extract Barley Extract Benzoin* Birch Bark Extract Birch Extract Birch Sap Bitter Orange Peel Extract Bitter Orange Peel Oil Buckbean (Bogbean) Extract Burdock Root Extract Burdock Seed Oil Burnet Extract Burnet Extracted Powder Butcherbroom Extract Calamus Root Extract Calendula Extract Calendula Powder Camelia Oil* Capsicum Tincture B-Carotene Carrageenan Carrot Extract Carrot Oil Cattail Extract Chamomile Anthemis nobilis Extract Chamomile Distillate Chamomile Extract Chamomile Oil Chamomile Powder Chlorella Extract Cinchona Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract Citrus Unshiu Peel Powder Clematis Extract Clove Extract Clove Oil Cnidium Rhizome Extract Comfrey Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
90028-20-9 470-82-6 84625-32-1 8000-48-4 97-53-0 Not identified 84625-39-8. 84603-61-2 70955-25-8 89998-01-6 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84696-11-7.248 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Comfrey Leaf Powder Concentrated Glycerin Corn Cob Meal Cornflower Distillate Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed Oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil Defatted Rice Bran Dried Chlorella Echinacea Leaf Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract Fermented Tea Extract Gardenia Blue Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Herb Ginger Extract Ginger Tincture Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extracted Powder Ginseng Powder Glycerin B-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glycyrrhiza Extract Glycyrrhiza Extracted Powder Glycyrrhizinic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract CAS Number Not identified 56-81-5 Not identified Not identified 68916-70-1. 90045-78-6 Not identified 90045-79-7 INCI adopted name ** Glycerin Corn Cob Meal ** Cornflower Extract Corn Oil Corn Starch Cottonseed oil Crataegus Extract Cucumber Extract Cucumber Oil ** ** Coneflower Extract Eucalyptol Eucalyptus Extract Eucalyptus Oil Eugenol Evening Primrose Oil Fennel Extract ** ** Gardenia Extract Garlic Extract Gentian Extract Geraniol Geranium Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginger Root Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Extract Ginseng Glycerin Glycyrryetinic Acid Licorice Extract Licorice Extract Glycyrrhizic Acid Grape Extract Grapefruit Extract Grape Leaf Extract Grape Seed Oil Guar Gum Honeysuckle Extract Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 97676-23-8 84775-66-6. 97676-23-8 1405-86-3 Not identified 90045-43-5 84929-27-1 8024-22-4 9000-30-0 84603-62-3. 85085-33-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8008-99-9 97676-22-7 106-24-1 Not identified 84696-15-1 84696-15-1 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 90045-38-8 56-81-5 471-53-4 84775-66-6. 84012-18-0 8001-30-7 9005-25-8 8001-29-4 8057-51-0.
97676-23-8 INCI adopted name ** Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract ** Ivy Extract Japanese Angel Extract ** ** ** ** Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil ** Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder ** Lettuce Extract White Lily Extract Basswood Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macadamia Nut Oil Mallow Extract ** Matricaria Oil ** Wild Mint Extract Wild Mint Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Flower Arnica Extract Birch Extract Burdock Root Extract Calendula Extract ** Ginseng Extract Licorice Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 84929-31-7 Not identified Not identified 84776-66-9 84776-67-0 68916-81-4. 84082-80-4 Not identified 84082-54-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 61789-91-1 Not identified 84603-69-0 9000-36-6 92456-63-8 8000-28-0 Not identified 8008-56-8.JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 249 Japanese name Horse Chestnut Extracted Powder Horsetail Extract Hydrangea Extract Hypericum Extract Hypericum Oil* Ivy (Hedera helix) Extract Japanese Angelica Extract Japanese Coptis Extract Japanese Valerian Extract Job’s Tears Extract Job’s Tears Oil Jojoba Alcohol Jojoba Oil Jujube Extract Juniper Extract Karaya Gum Kiwi Extract Lavender Oil Lavender Powder Lemon Extract Lemon Juice Powder Lentinus Extract Lettuce Extract Lily Extract Linden Extract Locust Bean Gum Loquat Leaf Extract Macademia Nuts Mallow Extract Mallow Powder Matricaria Oil Meadowfoam Oil Mentha Herb Mentha Oil Mistletoe Extract Mugwort Extract Mulberry Root Extract Nettle Extract Oat Extract Oatmeal Oat Powder Oil-soluble Arnica Extract Oil-soluble Birch Extract Oil-soluble Burdock Root Extract Oil-soluble Calendula Extract Oil-soluble Coix Seed Extract Oil-soluble Ginseng Oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza Extract* CAS Number Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-49-7. 84929-52-2 9000-40-2 Not identified Not identified 84082-57-5 Not identified 8002-66-2 Not identified 90063-97-1 Not identified 8031-76-3. 84929-55-5 Not identified Not identified 84012-40-8 84012-26-0 Not identified Not identified 8057-65-6 84012-15-7 84649-88-7 84776-23-8 Not identified 90045-38-8 84775-66-6.
84929-52-2.250 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Oil-soluble Hop Extract Horse Chestnut Extract Horsetail Extract Hypericum Extract CAS Number Not identified 90045-79-7 Not identified 68917-49-7. 84082-80-4 Not identified 68916-81-4. 84082-80-4 68917-49-7. Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 84604-14-8 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 84082-83-7 8001-25-0 84775-89-3 84012-28-2 Not identified 90045-89-9 8023-79-8 8002-75-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-33-9 84012-34-0 84012-34-0 Not identified 8002-03-7 84929-40-8 Not identified 84082-70-2 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 90082-87-4 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identified 8002-13-9 INCI adopted name Hops Extract Horse Chestnut Extract ** Hypericum Extract Hypericum Extract ** Basswood Extract Loquat Extract Matricaria Extract ** Mulberry Root Extract Peach Leaf Extract Placental Lipids Rosemary Extract Sage Extract Sage Extract ** White Nettle Extract Rose Extract Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Restharrow Extract Orange Extract Bitter Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya ** Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Room Extract ** Peppermint Extract ** ** Philodendron Extract Pine Cone Extract Plum Extract Quince Seed Quince Extract ** ** Red Raspberry Extract Grape Extract Rapeseed Oil Oil-soluble Hypericum Extract (2) Oil-soluble Japanese Angelica Extract Oil-soluble Linden Extract Oil-soluble Loquat Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Matricaria Extract Oil-soluble Mixed Plants Extract Oil-soluble Mulberry Root Extract Oil-soluble Peach Leaf Extract Oil-soluble Placental Extract Oil-soluble Rosemary Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract Oil-soluble Sage Extract (2) Oil-soluble Walnut Extract Oil-soluble White Nettle Extract Oil-soluble Wild Rose Extract Oil-soluble Yarrow Extract Olive Oil Ononis Extract* Orange Extract Orange Extract Orris Root Extract Palm Kernel Oil Palm Oil Papaya Powder Paprica Color Parsley Extract Peach Extract Peach Kernel Extract Peach Leaf Extract Peanut Oil Peony Root Extract Peppermint Distillate Peppermint Extract Perilla Extract Perilla Extract* Phellodendron Bark Extract Pine Cone Extract Prune Extract Quince Seed Quince Seed Extract Quince Seed Extract Powder Raspberry Extract Raspberry Extract (2) Red Grape Extract Refined Rape Seed Oil © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
84696-37-7 Not identified 9005-25-8 8016-60-2 84606-12-6 Not identified 84603-93-0 84604-14-8 8000-25-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 8001-23-8 Not identified Not identified Not identified 84082-79-1 84082-79-1 Not identified 84603-58-7 Not identified Not identified Not identified 68917-51-1 Not identified 8008-74-0 Not identified Not identified Not identified Not identifed 84775-97-3 84776-91-0 8008-79-5 Not identified Not identified Not identified 111-01-3 Not identified 90131-36-5 Not identified 8001-21-6 84082-81-5 90147-36-7 97766-44-4 84650-60-2 84650-60-2 84929-51-1 8007-46-3 89-83-9 90063-53-9 INCI adopted name ** Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil ** Rice Starch Rice Bran Wax Cabbage Rose Extract ** Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil ** Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil ** ** Saffron Crocus Extract Sage Extract ** ** Sambucus Extract ** ** Scutellaria Root Extract Algae Extract Algae Sesame Oil ** ** Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Saponaria Extract Soy Germ Spearmint Oil ** Spirea Extract ** Squalane ** Strawberry Extract ** Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Extract Chinese Tea Extract Chinese Tea Extract Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Basswood Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .JAPANESE BOTANICALS CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 251 Japanese name Rehmannia Root Extract Rice Bran Rice Bran Oil Rice Germ Oil Rice Starch Rice Wax Rose Extract Rose Fruit Extract Rose Hips Oil Rosemary Extract Rosemary Oil Rosemary Powder Rose Water Safflower Extract Safflower Oil Safflower Red Safflower Yellow Saffron Crocus Extract * Sage Extract Sage Extracted Powder Sage Powder Sambucus Extract Saponaria Extract Saxifrage Extract Scutellaria Root Extract Seaweed Extract Seaweed Powder Sesame Oil Shiitake Mushroom Extracted Powder Shikon Extract B-Sitosterol Soapberry Extract Soapwort Extract Soy Extract Spearmint Oil Spermaceti Spirea Extract Sponge Cucumber Gourd (Loofah) Extract Squalene Stevia Extract Strawberry Extract Sunflower Seedcake Sunflower Seed Oil Sweet Clover Extract Swertia Herb Extract Tea Extract Tea Extract (2) Thyme Extract Thyme Oil Thymol Tiliaceae Extract CAS Number Not identified Not identified 68553-81-1.
84696-19-5 Not identified 11138-66-2 84082-83-7 INCI adopted name Tomato Extract ** Tragacanth Gum Tumeric Extract Turpentine Walnut Shell Powder Watercress Extract Arnica Extract ** Coltsfoot Extract ** Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil ** Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Rose Extract ** Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract ** Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 90083-09-3 9000-65-1 Not identified 8052-14-0 Not identified 84775-70-2 8057-65-6 Not identified 84625-50-3 Not identified Not identified 84012-44-2 8006-95-9 Not identified 9005-25-8 84012-23-7 84012-23-7 84696-47-9 Not identified 84776-98-7 Not identified 68916-39-2.252 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Japanese name Tomato Extract Tormentilla Root Extract Tragacanth Tumeric Extract Turpentine Oil Walnut Shell Powder (1) Watercress Extract Water-soluble Arnica Extract Water-soluble Coix Seed Extract Water-soluble Coltsfoot Extract Wheat Bran Powder Wheat Flour Wheat Germ Extract Wheat Germ Oil Wheat Germ Powder Wheat Starch White Nettle Extract White Nettle Extract Wild Rose Extract Wild Rose Oil Wild Thyme Extract Witch Hazel Distillate Witch Hazel Extract Witch Hazel Granular Powder Xanthan Gum Yarrow Extract * No official English name ** INCI adopted name to be assigned CAS Number 90131-63-8 85085-66-1.
covered with numerous black dots.BENDUC NUT 253 6. two coumarin compounds (psoralen and isopsoralen). Leaves petiolate. corylifolean. isopsoralidin. shiny. Constituents Furanocoumarins. Seeds are hard. and saponin in the seed coat. Local applications of oleoresinous extract made from the seeds are beneficial in the treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphillic origin. Microchemical tests revealed the presence of ligin. alkaloids. seed one smooth and uniform with straw-colored hard testa. Description It is an erect herb. etc. Flowers are dense. Kal-karanj Nuts. chalcones. Fruit small subglobular. Leaflets about 10 pairs. The essential oil has a powerful effect against skin streptococci.5 INDIAN BOTANICALS BABCHI Psoralea corylifolia Linn Family: Pepilionaceae Babchi seeds Seed Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Grows throughout India. ovate or oblong and inflated. Properties Seeds are applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. campesterol group. and amygdalin in the palisade cells of the seed coat. Flowers yellow. sharp recurved spines. Description Main leaf axis has stout. pitted black. glabrous slightly compressed. and gray with thick testa. and Sri Lanka. bark and leaves Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range Found throughout parts of India. and protein in kernel. circular. Burma. corolla yellow or bluish-purple. hairs few. hairy tip acute. roots. The root and its © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Several species grow in the United States. perianth covered withspines. nonvolatile terpenoid oil. starch. globular. oil. sporalidin. simple. The testa and tegmen are separable and the embryo consists of two elongated uniform cotyledons. Essential. and flavones. ellipticoblong. firm. BENDUC NUT Caeselpinia bonducella Family: Caesalpiniaceae Bonducella Nut. tannin.
flower head white. BHRINGARAJ Eclipta alba Hassk. sessile. and sulfurcontaining peptides. The leaf has characteristic non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces. The hairs on © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . oblong. Description An erect or prostate annual herb. COSTUS Saussurea Lappa Family: Asteraceae Kust. margin toothed. reducing sugar. and for infectious diseases. upper leaves smaller. with flat receptacle cyprella narrowly oblong with ribbed pappus. Properties The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargements and in skin diseases. Seeds also contain protein. borne on convex flower heads.254 BHRINGARAJ powder do not show any fluorescence in UV light. Constituents Oil. glycoside bonducin neutral saponin. Kustha Synonyms: Parts Used: Roots Habitat and Range Northern India (Himalyas and Kashmir). Constituents Contains large amount of resin and alkaloid ecliptine. aspartic acid. The endodermis is indistinct. A paste of herbs mixed with sesame oil is used for elephantiasis. Properties Valuable for dispersing swellings. basal are large. arginine. Family: Asteraceae Bhringaraj. arresting hemorrhage. Few layers of cork cells are present. starch. This plant is a common weed in rainy season and moist situations throughout India. Description It is a perennial herb 3 to 6 ft high. phytosterol. an alkaline ethanolic extract gives green fluorescence in UV light. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in cosmetic formulations. lanceolate. and citrulline. Leaves opposite. Maka Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range India. A diterpene ( -caeselpin) is also isolated from seed kernels and benducellin. Flowers about 2 cm long. it is said to soften the skin and help remove pimples. The root has diarch primary xylen with normal and secondary growth. and skin diseases. sterols. Leaves membranaceous. bluish-purple. with winged petiole. four flower heads clustered together at the top of stems. The stem is circular in outline with a ring of collateral endarch vascular bundles and central parenchymatous pith. However.
Properties The dried root powder is useful as a hair wash and an astringent stimulant. Description A medium tree. In old samples. gooseberries Dried fruit or fresh ripe fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Found both in the wild and cultivated state in India. Constituents Roots of Sanssurea Lappa contain an odorous principle composed of two liquid resins — an alkaloidal solid resin and a salt of valeric acid. Flowers are small. The fruit is subglobular. Family: Euphorbiaceae Amla. phyllanthe emblic. stipulate. greenish-yellow. It has a pleasant characteristic aromatic odor. mucronate. Leaves simple. terpene alcohols. The surface of the fruit is smooth and marked with six-spaced divisions. apex subacute. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . EMBLIC MYROBALAN Emblica officinalis Gaertn Phyllanthus emblica L. Properties A fixed oil extracted from fruit is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. The color of root is dirty gray to light yellow.EMBLIC MYROBALAN 255 fruits about 1 to 7 cm long. unisexual. isodehydrocostus-lactone and isozaluzanin C. Mature fruits have yellow mesocarp and yellowish-brown endocarp. Feathery. slightly broader than long. forming fluffy fruiting flower heads. entire. linear oblong or elliptic. with small shallow conical depressions at either end. arranged densely on the branchlets. Emblic myrobalan is used in many ayurvedic and cosmetic preparations. Its ointment is applied to wounds and severe ulcerations and is used for reducing tumors. Stem bark is light brownish-gray. The mesocarp is acidulous in fresh fruits and acidulous and astringent in dried fruits. The oil and root contains camphene. slightly recurved.but white internally. the external surface is yellowish-brown and the internal surface is light brown.
Bark is tough © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Amla fruit is a rich natural source of Vitamin C. and luteolin. the upper pair with a small appendage at base. pod woody. also in Sri Lanka and Thailand. flowers. very short. insecticidal. odorant. exserted. and root Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range Small herb found throughout India. such as antistress. tulsi. The leaves yield ursolic acid. margin serrate. of which 70% is eugenol and its methyl ester. Other components of the oil are caryophyllene terpinene-4-ol. opposite. it generally contains one perfect and one abortive seed of the shape and size of a broad bean. Leaves pinnate. hairy along the veins. smooth and shining. antihepatotoxic. Properties Holy Basil has been reported to have a very broad spectrum of activity. antidiabetic. 2 to 4 inches long.256 HOLY BASIL Constituents Nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. A. antispasmodic. taste bitter. Description Small flowering tree with shiny green leaves laden heavily with racemes of rose-colored flowers. antiviral. seeds. subcoriaceous. Each flower consists of. bitter. antispermatogenic. camphor. in terminal raceme-like panicle. Flowers small. elliptic-oblong. Description Ocimum sanctum is an annual herb. CNS-depressant. cotyledons very oily. pubescent calyx. antipyretic. Fresh leaves reportedly cure hemorrhage. HOLY BASIL Ocimum sanctum linn. Family: Lamiaceae Basilic. apex thick and blunt. ovate compressed. Constituents The leaves contain highest percentage of essential oil. corolla 2-lipped. stamens 4 in 2-pairs. point decurved. Fruit contains 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. antihistaminic. krishna tulsi. decyladehyde. filament slender. Leaves are simple. apigenin. Sri Lanka. antiulcer. and carvarol. style 2-lobed. Pinnata Family: Fabaceae Karanja Synonyms: Parts Used: Seeds Habitat and Range India. antibacterial. INDIAN BEECH Pongamia glabra P.& Bpinene. antifungal. sacred basil Leaves. testa light-red.
pectin. Berries are soft and yellowishgreen in color when ripe. The bark contains alkaloids. the leaves are used in a bath for painful joints. spirally incurvate. Ritha Fruit Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range South India and cultivated in Bengal. the roots are used for relieving gout and rheumatism. tough. the skin is shriveled. then bitter. singly. the berries are the color of a raisin. taste bitter and somewhat aromatic. smooth. called Pangamol or Hongay oil. the testa is double. firm and fleshy. The inner shell enclosing the seed is thin. Properties The seeds. Constituents Saponins. Emarginatus. INDIAN FILBERT Sapindus trifoliatus L. the pulp translucent. yellow within. When dry. pongamol. the outer very thick and hard. and butyric acid. S. The pulp of the fruit has a fruity smell and its taste is sweet at first. Constituents The seed contains 27 to 36% of bitter fatty oil. pongamin. and the juice of root is used for cleansing of ulcers and sores. pengaglabrone. glucose. and as an anthelmintic. kaemferol. the kernel yellowishSapindus soap nuts green oily. Description The fruit grows in clusters on large tree. pointing to lower and inner angle. and translucent. rheumatism. sitosterol. The other active principles of oil have been identified as karanjin. 6-methoxyfuroflavone. Starch and rhomboid crystals are observed under the microscope. each berry is the size of a cherry. The oil is used to treat scabies. herpes. Mokarossi) Family: Sapindaceae Soapnut.INDIAN FILBERT 257 with white granular fracture. where it is woody. The seed is black. Properties Used by the Indians from earliest ages as a detergent. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. and other cutaneous diseases. . All parts of the plant when crushed yield yellow juice. the size of large a pea. cotyledons unequal. and oil derived from seeds are used as remedies for skin diseases. Radicle at the base of the seed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . leaves. A bath prepared from the leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pain. (S. except at the scar. the inner membranaceous. with a peculiar pungency. thick. neoglabrin and glabrosaponin. The root bark is rustybrown externally.
and tonic. round violet colored and seeds light black. Description A climbing plant. Spikenard Rhizomes and roots Synonyms: Part Used: © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . gum. These are covered by thin brownish fiber that peels off showing a red-brown bark marked by longitudinal furrows. fruit long. A paste made of the roots with honey is applied over swellings.258 INDIAN MADDER Sapindus (with berries) soap nuts INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Family: Rubiaceae Manjista. leucoderma. alterative. deobstruent. Leaves heart shaped. flowers small yellow in color. and sugar. Root consists of short stock. It also has anodyne properties. Garance Roots Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. The taste is sweetish at first. and xanthine. and discoloration of skin. skin diseases such as ulcers. coloring matter. inflammations. freckles. from which numerous cylindrical roots diverge. Properties The roots are astringent. garancin. then acrid and bitter. Constituents Roots contain resins. Coloring matter consists of a red crystalline principle purpurin and yellow principle glucoside manjistin. alizarin. INDIAN NARD Nardostachy jatamansi DC Family: Valerianaceae Muskroot. scaly.
A transverse section of rhizome shows a brown bark and porous wood. slightly curved. and bitter extractive matter. greenish-brown to dark brown in color. It is a good substitute for valerian. Bhutan. Rhizomes long. Pods broadly oblong. Senna is also a safe purgative. n-hexaconsanol. nardol. B-sitosterol. The bark consists of two to eight layers of cork cells. A ketonic principle called jatamansone has been isolated from rhizome. Tracheids and few fibers. is used to dye the hair black. Flowers in racemes. The paste is also useful for removing pimples. Roots contain valeranone. calarenol. internal color is reddish-brown and odor is highly aromatic. sugar. These layers occurs in the outer cortex. Vessels with scalariform and spiral thickening. Its infusion is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections. and flatulence. oblong or ovate. woody covered with fibers from the petioles of withered leaves. The wood is characterized by the presence of numerous vessels scattered uniformly. and combined with Henna. starch. and contain obvate. Himalaya (11. nardostechone. Leaves are paripinnate and leaflets glabrous and yellowish-green. and Nepal. Properties A plaster made by mixing powdered leaves with vinegar is recommended in skin affections. Constituents The rhizomes and roots contain up to 0. dark brown. Senna Leaves and pods Synonyms: Parts Used: Habitat and Range India. seeds. valves papery smooth.000 ft) extending eastward from Kumaon to Sikkim. INDIAN SENNA Cassia Angustifolia vahl Family: Caesalpiniaceae Tinnevelly Senna. Epidermal hairs are few. Corolla 5-lobed. resin. Description The plant bears a stem more or less pubsecent upward and often glabrous below. Properties Roots are used in the preparation of a medicinal oil and in perfumery.000 to 15. Description An herbaceous plant. nervous headache. Senna pods (Tinn) © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . valeranal. Leaves usually in pairs sessile.INDIAN SENNA 259 Habitat and Range The plant is found in Alpine. Stomata are paracytic (Rubiaceous type). n-hexacosanyl arachidate.5% essential oil. which also contains sesquiterpenes. mainly in palpitation of heart. Flower heads usually with pubsecent bract. The secondary cortex is characterized by the presence of oleoresin cells. n-hexacosanyl isovalerate.
Constituents Senna contains about 1.3 to 1.5% anthraquinone derivates, which are present in both the free and combined state. These glucosides have been termed Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, and Sennoside D. There are also other more pharmacologically active glucosides, such as aloe-emodin dianthrone-diglycoside. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from Senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxy musizin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside; the former is found in Alexandrian Senna and later in Indian Senna. Besides these glycosides, Senna also contains yellow flavanol coloring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin, isorhamnetin, sterol, muscilage, calcium oxolate, and resin. KAVACH Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Family: Papilionaceae Cow-itch plant, Cowhage Seed, roots, and legume
Synonyms: Parts Used:
Habitat and Range India, Sri lanka, and Burma. Description A climbing green shrub, leaves trifoliolate, flowers axillary, pendulous racemose, purple, pods curved, ribbed, turgid, densely covered with persistent pale brown or gray bristles, seeds black. A transverse section of root shows central porous wood that forms a major part of the root and an outer thin bark. The cork is narrow and light black in color with patches of rhitidoma. The seed coat is hard, thick, and glossy. The embryo fills the seed and consists of two large fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons contain oval-shaped starch grains. Tannin, resin, anthraquinone, fat, oil, and saponins are present. Properties An ointment prepared from the root is applied for elephantiasis. The seeds are astringent and tonic; they possess slight insecticidal activity. Leaves of the plant are applied to ulcers. The hairs were formerly used as vermifuge to expel ascarides. An infusion can be applied externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. It is useful in Parkinson’s disease. Constituents Mucuna Pruriens is reported to be good natural source of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). It also contains a few amino acids. Seed contains alkaloids such as mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, and choline. The seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and a sterol.
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NEEM Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Family: Meliaceae Persian Lilac Bark, seeds, and leaves
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range A large evergreen glabrous tree found all over India and tropical Africa. Description Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipimnate, leaflets 9 to 15 in. long, subopposite lanceolate serrate with acute acuminate apex. The trunk and older branches are covered with moderately thick, brown rough bark. The tender parts are glabrous with a thick cuticle. The official part consists almost exclusively of secondary phloem showing alternating zones of soft and hard bast. Properties Useful in eye diseases, intermittent fevers, as well as persistent low fever. Oil is useful in leprosy, scrofulas, skin diseases, ulcers, and wounds. The bark has a reputation for being tonic, and the leaves and oil from the seeds are recommended as anthelmintic, antiseptic, and antiparasitic. Dried leaves and oil from seeds have long been used as an insecticidal due to azadirachtin. Constituents Terpenoids, diterpenes and more than 50 highly oxidized tetraner-triterpenoids like azadirachtin, nimbolide, nimbidinic acid, azadirone, and nimbin.
Neem (whole plant)
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PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria L. Family: Lythraceae Spiked Loosestrife, Sage Willow, Purple Willow-herb, Milk Willow-herb Aerial portions like flowers, leaves, and stems
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Europe, Asia, Africa, and any water-retentive land. Description The Purple Loosestrife is a herbaceous perennial plant found in damp locations. It has a creeping root stock. The quandrangular stem bears opposite decussate lanceolate leaves. The purplish-red or pink flowers (6 sepals, 6 petals, 2 6 stamens, and 2 carpels) are grouped in elongated terminal or lateral spikes. It has a somewhat astringent taste and no odor. Properties Astringent leaves tighten skin, counter wrinkles, and add sheen to blond hairs. It is used as an eyewash for ophthalmia, sore eyes, and brightens eyes and reduces puffiness. It shrinks blood capillaries, reducing over-reddened skin and curbing nosebleeds. The flowering plant is intestinal disinfectant for treating diarrhea and food poisoning. It acts as an antibiotic, sore throat gargle, and is given for fever and liver problems, to cleanse sores, and to stop bleeding wounds. It is used for sores, ulcers, and various skin diseases. It is effective as a local wash or douche for leucorrhea. The Purple Loosestrife flowering top can be used to treat the subjective symptoms and venous insufficiency and symptoms of piles.
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Constituents Anthocyanins, flavone-c-glucosides such as orientin, vitexin. It also contains polyphenolic tannins, pectin, essential oils. RED SANDAL Pterocarpus Santalinus Family: Fabaceae Santal rouge, Santalinus, Raktachandan Wood
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range Southern India.
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Description The wood sinks in water. Bark is blackish-brown. When injured, it exudes red juice; wood is dark red, externally hard, when rubbed against a hard surface it gives red-colored aromatic pasty exudate. Leaves alternate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long, flowers yellowish, on a recemose inflorescence. Properties The wood of the tree is astringent and tonic. Its decoction is given in chronic dysentery, its powder is given with milk for bleeding piles, the wood is administered in bilious disorders, skin diseases, and as a diaphoretic. Constituents Two red pigments have been isolated: Santalin A and Santalin B. It also contains sesquiterpenes (isopterocarpolone, ptercarptriol, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol) and triterpenes, (acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, pterostilbine), and pterocarpin. SIKEKAI Acacia Concinna, DC Family: Fabaceae Rassaul, Sige Pods
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description The Sikekai is a large tree. Sikakai is the name given by Tamils to a large flat pod or legume containing separate, small, oval, dark-colored seeds. Pods are strap-shaped, straight, with broad sutures, narrowed to a short stalk, depressed between the seeds. Properties The leaves are used as an acid ingredient in food instead of tamarind, and the bark is used in tanning. Traditionally, Indians boil pod powder in water and decoction is used for washing hair. The pods, ground up and formed into an ointment, make a good application in skin disease. Constituents Saponins, alkaloids, malic acid, gum coloring matter, tannin, resins. Saponins isolated from seeds are mixtures of acacinin A, acacinin B, and concinnin. Acacinin A comprises acacie acid and carbohydrate moeities of glucose, arabinose, xylose, fructose and rhamnose. TEAK TREE Tectona grandis Family: Verbenaceae Sagwan, Sag Wood, fruit, tar oil, and seed
Synonyms: Parts Used:
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Habitat and Range India, Burma. Description It is a huge tree, bark ash colored, and scaly branches numerous, spreading, young shoots are 4-sided, sides channelled. The wood has a characteristic aromatic odor. The tar obtained from it is black and opaque when properly made, but when prepared from partly dried wood, it is mixed with sap and forms a grayish-brown emulsion. The seeds are small and oily, giving a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar odor. Properties Externally, a plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in bilious headache and for inflammatory swellings. Internally, it is beneficial for dyspepsia. The charred wood in the form of a paste with poppy juice is applied to swellings of the eyelids and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is astringent. The oil is used for hair growth. Constituents Resins and an essential oil. Nut contains fixed oils. Heartwood contains anthraquinone-2carboxylic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxaldehyde, tectol, and dehydrotectol.
WHITE LEADWORT Plumbago zeylanica Family: Plumbaginaceae Chitraka, chitra The roots
Synonyms: Part Used:
Habitat and Range India. Description A perennial shrub with rambling branches. Leaves ovate with short amplexicaule petiole with a dilated base. Spikes branched, the rachis gladular. Flowers bisexual, calyx persistent, tubular; 5 ribbed, corolla tube, slender. Base and style glabrous. Capsule included in persistent calyx, opening transversely near the base. The root is light yellow when fresh and reddish-brown when dry. Internal color is brown. Fracture short, taste acrid and biting.
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Constituents Roots of Plumbago zeylenica contain an acrid crystalline principle called plumbagin. a decoction of the root is recommended for scrofulous and other glandular swelling. It is also cultivated. petiolate and alternate. Licorice powder. Powdered root is very useful for impotence or seminal debility. globose. rheumatism. tapering. zeylinone. gastric stimulant. and spermatorrhoea. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out by giving to any constitutional disease like syphilis or rheumatic fever. withanine. binaphthoquinone and some other pigments. and of a light yellowish-brown color externally. The root is seldom branched. plump. somniferinine. loss of muscular energy. One or more fairly long tuberous roots and short stem. borne to gather in short exillary clusters. The dried root is of uniform appearance. and extraction with 45% alcohol yields highest percentage of alkaloids. Leaves simple. senile debility. as in enlarged glands. For improving sight. Fresh green root in the form of paste is applied to the affected parts. grayish or hoary. and starchy. and pseudowith- © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . erect. A tincture of the root is employed as an antiperiodic. fracture short. a mixture of W. smooth. branching perennial. greenish or yellow flowers. It is in flower all year long. smooth. Description A small or middle-sized shrub. As a nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. Roots are used as an application in distinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling. elliptinone. WINTER CHERRY Withania Samuifera Family: Solanaceae Ashwagandha Roots and leaves Synonyms: Part Used: Habitat and Range The plant is distributed throughout the drier regions of India. Somnifera. Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles. Isolation of nicotine. and droserone. somniferine.266 WINTER CHERRY Properties Alterative. and enclosed in the inflated calyx. 3. Stem and branches covered with minute stellate hairs. withananine. It is given in doses of 2 g in emaciation of children. especially in wastelands ascending to an altitude of 5500 ft in the Himalayas. It is also effective in some cases of leucodermia and other skin diseases. It has also been reported to be a one of proven adaptogenic drug used in many Ayurvedic preparations. loss of memory.3-biplumbagin. and appetite stimulant. Roots also contain color pigments like 3-chloroplumbagin. It has also been employed in paralytic affections. Iso-zeylinone. and juice of embellic mycobalan is recommended. The powder and root heated with some bland oil is used as a rubefacient application in rheumatism. ovate hair-like branches. brittle. Fruits 6 mm in diameter. It bears small. Constituents It contains alkaloids. in all cases of general debility nervous exhaustion. Properties Roots and leaves of Withania Somnifera are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnea. It has specific action on the uterus and is an abortifacient. brain lag. white internally.
Roots also contain tropine. the plant also contains steroidal lactones such as withaferin A and withanolide. choline. pseudotropine. In addition to alkaloids. and cuscohygrine. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Leaf contains withanone and berries have amino acids.WINTER CHERRY 267 anine has been reported.
Botanical origin Abies balsamea Abies canadensis Absinthium Acacia Catechu Acer negundo Achillea millefolium Aconitum Napellus Acorus Calamus Aceta alba Acetea racemosa Acetea rubra Adiantum pedatum Aegle Marmelos Aesculus glabra Aesculus Hippocastanum Agaricus albus Agathotes Chirayta Agrimonia Eupatoria Ailantus glandulosa Aletris farinosa Alkanna tinctoria Allium sativum Allspice Alnus rubra Aloe Socotrina Alpina galanga Alstonia scholaris Althea officinalis Althea rosea Ambrosia artemisiaefolia American Aspen American Blue Vervain American Centaury American Dandelion American Gentian American Greek Valerian American Valerian Ampelopsis Quinquefolia Amygdalus persica Anacyclus Pyrethrum Synonym Balsam fir Hemlock bark Wormwood Catechu Ash Maple Yarrow Aconite Calamus White Cohosh Black Cohosh Red Cohosh Maiden-hair Bael fruit Buckeye Horse-chestnut White Agaric Chirata Agrimony Ailantus Unicorn root Alkanet Garlic Pimento Tag Alder Aloes Galangal Dita Bark Marshmallow Hollyhock Ragweed White Poplar Bark Vervain Centaury Chicory Blue Gentian Abscess Root Ladies Slipper American Ivy Peach Leaves Pellitory © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . These botanical names are useful when researching older books on botanicals as these names were commonly used prior to 1938.6 BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE The following list of botanicals is to be used as a cross-reference.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 269 6.
Apocynum androsaemifolium Apocynum cannabinum Aralia hispida Aralia nudicaulis Aralia racemosa Archangelica atropurpurea Arctium Lappa Arctostaphylos glauca Arctostaphylos Uva ursi Areca Caechu Arisaema triphyllum Aristolochia Serpentaria Armoracia Arnica montana Artanthe elongata Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium Artemisia maritima Artemisia vulgaris Arum triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias Cornuti Asclepias incarnata Asclepias Syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Ash.S. Black Ash. U.270 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Anamirta cocculus Anemone Pratensis Anemone Pulsatilla Anethum graveolens Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Apium graveolens Aplectrum hyemale Apocynum. Sweet Kava-kava Water Avens © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . White Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Aspidosperma Quebracho Aspidium Filix-mas Atropa Belladonna Aurantii Amari Cortex Aurantii Dulcis Cortex Ava Kava Avens Synonym Cocculus Indicus Pulsatilla Pulsatilla Dill May-weed Chamomile (Roman) Celery Seed Adam and Eve Black Indian Hemp Bitter-root Black Indian Hemp Dwarf Elder American Sarsaparilla Spikenard Angelica Burdock Manzanita Uva ursi Areca nut Indian Turnip Serpentaria Horse-radish Arnica Matico Southernwood Wormwood Levant Wormseed Mugwort Indian Turnip Canada Snake Root Silkweed White Indian Hemp Silkweed Pleurisy Root Black Ash American White Ash Papaw Seed Asparagus Root Quebracho Male Fern Belladonna Orange Peel. Bitter Orange Peel.
S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 271 Botanical origin Balm Balsamodendron Myrrha Baptisia tinctoria Barosma betulina Benzoin odoriferum Berberis vulgaris Betel nut Betonica officinalis Betula Lenta Black root Black Snake-root Boldoa fragrans Boletus laricis Borago officinalis Botrychium lunaroides Boxwood Brayera anthelmintica Bryonia alba Butterfly weed Calamintha officinalis Calendula officinalis Calumba. Calycanthus floridus Canada Fleabane Canadian Hemp Cancer root Canella alba Capsella Bursa-pastoris Capsicum fastigiatum Carduus benedictus Carolina Allspice Carthamus tinctoria Carum carvi Carya alba Caryophyllus aromaticus Cassia acutifolia Castanea vesca Cataria Caulophyllum thalictroides Ceyenne pepper Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens Centaurea benedicta Cephaelis Ipecacuanha Cephalanthus occidentalis Synonym Lemon Balm Myrrh Wild Indigo Buchu Fever-bush Barberry Areca nut Wood Betony Black Birch Culver’s Root Black Cohosh Boldo White Agaric Borage Consumption Brake Dogwood Kousso White Bryony Pleurisy Root Calamint Calendula Columbo Florida Allspice Fleabane Black Indian Hemp Beech Drops Canella Shepherd’s Purse Capsicum Blessed thistle Florida allspice American Saffron Caraway Shell-bark Hickory Cloves Senna Chestnut Leaves Catnep Blue Cohosh Capsicum Jersey Tea False Bittersweet Blessed Thistle Ipeca Button-bush © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U.
yellow Cinchona. bitter Ergot Columbo Horse-radish Scruvy Grass Coffee Black Cohosh Blue Cohosh Red Cohosh Colchicum Stone Root Sweet Fern Conium Lily of the Valley Gold-thread Crawley Root Coriander seed Ustilago Maydis Green Osier Bark Dogwood Swamp Dogwood © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . calisaya Cinchona. red Colchicum autumnale Collinsonia canadensis Comptonia asplenifolia Conium maculatum Convallaria majalis Coptis triloba Corallorhiza odontorrhiza Coriandrum sativum Corn smut Cornus circinata Cornus florida Cornus sericea Synonym Cherry Bark Judas-tree Cactus Grandiflorus False Unicorn Garden Celandine Balmony American Wormseed Jerusalem Oak Chicory Pipsissewa Fringe-tree Bark Cascara Sagrada Pareira Brava Water Hemlock Black Cohosh Cassia Cinchona. sweet Lemon Peel Orange peel.272 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Cerasus serotina Cercis canadensis Cereus Grandiflora Chamaelarium lutea Chelidonium majus Chelone glabra Chenopodium anthelminticum Chenopodium Botrys Chicorium Intybus Chimaphilla umbellata Chionanthus virginica Chittem bark Chondodendron tomentosum Clcuta maculata Cimicifuga racemosa Cinnamomum cassia Cinchona. pale Cinchona. blue Cohosh. Ioxa Cinchona officinalis Cinchona succirubra Cirsium arvense Citrullus Colocynthis Citrus Aurantium Citrus Limonum Citrus vulgaris Claviceps purpurea Cocculus palmatus Cochlearia armoracia Cochlearia officinalis Coffea Arbica Cohosh. red Canada Thistle Colocynth Orange peel. black Cohosh. pale Cinchona.
American Daphne mezereum Datura Stramonium Daucus Carota Deadly nightshade Delphinium consolida Delphinium staphisagria Dicentra canadensis Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea villosa Diospyros virginiana Dipteryx odorata Dog grass Dogsbane Dracontium foetidum Drimys Winteri Drosera rotundifolia Dulcamara. U. Elephantopus tomentosus Electeria cardamomum Epigea repens Epilobium angustifolium Epiphegas virginiana Erecthites hieracifolia Erigeron canadensis Eriodyction californicum Eriodyction glutinosum Erynglum aquaticum Erthyrophleum judicale Euryangium sumbul Erythreae Centaurium Erythronium americanum Erythroxylon coca Synonym Turkey-corn Navelwort Cascarilla Cubeb Watermelon Seed Dittany Cumin Turmeric Zedoary Hounds-tongue Ladies-slipper Broom-tops Chicory Mezereum Bark Stramonium Wild Carrot Belladonna Larkspur Seed Stavesacre Seed Turkey Corn Disitalis Wild Yam Persimmon bark Tonka Bean Couch grass Bitter Root Skunk cabbage Winter’s bark Sundew Bittersweet Elephant’s foot Cardamom Gravel Plant Willow herb Beech Drops Fireweed Fleabane Yerba santa Yerba santa Water Eryngo Sassy Bark Musk Root European Centaury Adder’s-tongue Coca Leaves © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 273 Botanical origin Corydalis formosa Cotyledon Umbilicus Croton Eluteria Cubeba officinalis Cucurbita Pepo Cumila mariana Cuminum Cyminum Curcuma longa Curcuma Zedoara Cynoglossum officinale Cypripedium pubescens Cysticus Scoparius Dandelion.S.
U. Frankenia grandifolia Frasera Walteri Fraxinus americanus Fraxinus sambucifolia Fucus vesiculosus Fumaria officinalis Galipea officinalis Galium aparine Galium verum Garcinia mangostana Gaultheria procumbens Gelsemium sempervirens Genista tinctoria Gentiana Catesbei Gentiana lutea Gentiana ochroleuca Gentiana puberula Gentiana quinqueflora Geranium maculatum Genum rivale Gillenia trifoliata Glycyrrhiza glabra Gnaphalium polycephalum Gonolobus condurango Goodyera pubescens Gossypium herbaceum Gossypii radicis cortex Gouania domingensis Grantum. Greek Valerian Synonym Eucalyptus Cloves Pimento Wahoo Boneset Queen of the Meadow Large Flowering Spurge Eyebright Beech Bark Eucalyptus Cannabia Indica Digitalis Strawberry Manaca Buckthorn Bark Yerba reuma American Columbo American White Ash Bark Black Ash Bark Bladder Wrack Fumitory Angustura Cleavers Ladies Bed-Straw Mango fruit Wintergreen Gelsemium Dryers’ Broom Blue Gentian Gentian Sampson Snakeroot Blue Gentian Five-flowered Gentian Cranesbill Water Avens Indian Physic Licorice Life Everlasting Condurango Net Leaf Plantain Cotton Root Bark Cotton Root Bark Chewstick Pomgranate Abscess Root © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . U. S.274 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Eucalyptus globulus Eugenia caryophyllata Eugenia pimenta Euonymus atropurpureus Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euphorbia carroliata Euphrasia officinale Fagus ferruginea Fever tree Foreign Indian Hemp Foxglove Fragaria vesca Franciscea uniflora Frangula.S.
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 275 Botanical origin Grindelia. S. Black Indian Hemp. American Hellebore. False Helleborus niger Helonias dioica Hemp. Black Hellebore. S. White Indian Hemp. Guaicum officinale Guaici ligni Haematoxylon Campechianum Hamamelis virginica Heaven tree Hedeoma pulegoides Helenium autumnale Helianthus annuus Helianthemum canadense Helebore. U. Foreign Indian Hepatica triloba Heracleum lanatum Heuchera americana Hieracium vanosum High cranberry Hippocastanum Humulus lupulus Hydrangea aborescens Hydrastis canadensis Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis Ilex paraguaensis Impatiens pallida Indian Hemp. U. Foreign Inula helenium Ipomea purga Ipomea pandurata Irdis. Canadian Hemp. Iris florentina Iris veriscolor Jacaranda procera Jamestown weed Jateorrhiza calumba Jeffersonia diphylla Jimson weed Synonym Grindelia Robusta Guaiac Wood Guaiac Wood Logwood Witch Hazel Allantus glandulosa Pennyroyal Sneezeweed Sunflower Seed Frostwort Veratrum Viride Black Hellebore Adonis vernalis Black Hellebore False Unicorn White Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Black Indian hemp Cannabis Indica Liverwort Masterwort Alum root Blood wort Cramp Bark Horse Chestnut Hop Hydrangea Golden Seal Henbane Johnswort Hyssop Paraguy Tea Jewel Weed Cannabis Indica Elecampane Jalap Man Root Blue Flag Orris Root Blue Flag Caroba leaves Stramonium Columbo Twin Leaf Stramonium © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
276 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juniperus communis Juniperus Sabina Juniperus virginiana Kalmia angustifolium Krameria tomentosum Krameria triandra Lactuca virosa Lappa officinalis Larix americana Laurus benzoin Leaf Cup Ledum latifolia Leonurus cardiaca Leucanthemum vulgare Leptandra virginica Liatris odoratissima Liatris spicata Liatris squarrosa Lignum vitae Ligusticum levisticum Ligustrum vulgare Liquidamber styraciflua Lirodendron tulipifera Lobelia Cardinalis Lobelia inflata Lobelia syphilitica Loxa bark Lycopersicum esculentum Lycopodium complanatum Lycopus europaeus Lycopus virginicus Magnolia acuminata Magnolia glauca Malva rotundifolia Marigold Marrubium vulgare Matricaria chamomilla May apple Melia Azedarach Melissa officinalis Menispermum canadense Mentha piperita Mentha virdis Synonym Butternut Black Walnut Juniper Berries Savin Red Cedar Sheep Laurel Rhatany Rhatany Lettuce Burdock Tamarac Bark Fever Bush Bearsfoot Labrador Tea Motherwort Ox-eye Daisy Culver’s Root Deer Tongue Button Snake Root Blazing Star Guaiac Wood Lovage Privet Sweet Gum Bark Tulip Tree Bark Cardinal Flower Lobelia Blue Cardinal Cinchona Pale Tomato Ground Pine Bitter Bugleweed Bugleweed Cucumber Tree Magnolia Bark Low Mallow Calendula Horehound German Chamomile Mandrake Pride of China Lemon Balm Yellow Parilla Peppermint Spearmint © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 277 Botanical origin Menyanthes trifoliata Mercurialis annua Micromeria Douglassii Milfoil Milkweed Mitchella Repens Mitella cordifolia Monarda fistulosa Monarda didyma Monarda punctata Monk’s Hood Monotropa uniflora Mountain rush Myrcia acris Myrica cerifera Myrica gale Myristica fragrans Nabalus albus Nepeta cataria Nepeta Glechoma Nicotiana Tabacum Night blooming cereus Nuphar advena Nymphoea odorata Oats Ocymum Basilicum Oenanthe phellandrium Oenothera biennis Onosmodium virginianum Ophelia chirata Origanum Marjorana Osier. pale Red Poppy Poppy Heads Squaw Vine Guarana Virginia Stonecrop Black Pepper Cinchona © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Peruvian bark Synonym Buckbean Mercury Weed Yerba buena Yarrow Silkweed Squaw Vine Coolwort Wild Bergamot Oswego tea Horsemint Aconite Indian Pipe Ephedra antisyphilitica Bay Laurel Bayberry Sweet Gale Nutmeg Lion’s Foot Catnep Ground Ivy Tobacco Cactus grandiflora Yellow Pond Lily White Pond Lily Avena sativa Sweet Basil Water Fennel Evening Primrose False Gromwell Chirata Sweet Marjoram Green Osier Swamp Dogwood Sweet Cicely Buckhorn Sourwood Peony Cinchona. S. U. Red Osmorrhiza longistylis Osmunda regalis Oxydendron arboreum Paeonia officinalis Pale Bark Papaver Rhoeas Papaver somniferum Patridgeberry Paullinia sorbilis Penthorum sedoides Pepper. Green Osier.
278 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Petroselinum sativum Peumus boldus Phellandrium Phorandendron flavescens Physostigma venenosum Phytollacca decandra Picraena excelsa Pilocarpus pennatifolia Pimpinella anisum Pimpinella saxifraga Pinus canadensis Pinus strobus Piper cubeba Piper methysticum Piper nigrum Piscidia erythrina Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Poison Hemlock Poison Ivy Polemonium reptans Polygala senega Polygonum Bistorta Polygonum punctatum Polymnia uvedalia Polypodium vulgare Polyporus fomentarius Polyporus officinalis Polytrichum Juniperinum Poppy capsules Populus candicans Populus tremuloides Portulaca oleracea Potentilla canadensis Potentilla tormentilla Princes pine Prinos verticellatus Prunella vulgaris Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pterocarpus marsupium Pterocaulon pycnostachium Ptelea trifoliata Pulmonaria officinalis Punica granatum Synonym Parsley Boldo Leaves Water Fennel Seed Mistletoe Calabar Bean Poke Root Quassia Jaborandi Anise Seed Saxifrage Hemlock Bark White Pine Cubeb Kava-kava Black Pepper Jamaica Dogwood Plantain Leaves Mandrake Conium Poison Oak Abscess Root Senega Bistort Water Pepper Bearsfoot Polypody Spunk White Agaric Hair Cap Moss Poppy Heads Balm Gilead Buds White Poplar Bark Purslane Cinquefoil Tormentilla Pipsissewa Black Alder Heal-all Cherry Bark Cherry Bark Kino Indian Black Root Wafer-ash Lungwort Pomegranate © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 279 Botanical origin Purging agaric Pycnanthemum montanum Pyrethrum Parthenium Pyrus malus Queen’s Delight Queen’s root Quercus alba Quercus infectoria Quercus rubra Quercus tinctoria Quillaia bark Quillaia saponaria Red Bud Red clover blossoms Red Osier Red Pepper Rhamnus catharticus Rhamnus Frangula Rhamnus Purshianus Rheum officinale Rhododendron maximum Rhus glabrum Rhus toxicodendron Ricinus communis Robinia Pseudo-acacia Rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rottlera tinctoria Rubus strigosus Rubus villosus Rumex acetosella Rumex crispus Ruta graveolens Sabadilla Sabbatia angularis Sabbatia Elliotti Sabina Safflower Saint Ignatius bean Salix alba Salix nigra Salvia officinalis Salvia Sciarea Sambucus canadensis Sambucus nigra Synonym White Agaric Mountain Mint Feverfew Apple Tree Bark Stillingia Stillingia White Oak Bark Galls Red Oak Bark Black Oak Bark Soap Tree Bark Soap Tree Bark Judas Tree Clover Tops Swamp Dogwood Capsicum Buckthorn Berries Buckthorn Cascara Sagrada Rhubarb Great Laurel Sumach Poison oak Castor Oil Plant Locust Pale Rose Red Rose Kamala Raspberry Leaves Blackberry Root Sheep Sorrel Yellow Dock Rue Cevadilla Centaury Quinine Flower Savin American Saffron Ignatia Bean White Willow Bark Black Willow Sage Clarry Herb Elder Flower European Elder © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .
280 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Botanical origin Sanicula Europeae Sanicula marilandica Sanguinaria canadensis Santalum album Santonica. U. Saponaria officinalis Sarothamnus scoparius Sarracenia flava Sarracenia purpurea Sassafras officinalis Satureja hortensis Scilla maritima Scoparius Scouring rush Scrophularia modosa Scutellaria lateriflora Sea-wrack Senecio aureus Senecio gracilis Silphium laciniatum Simaba cedron Simaruba excelsa Simaruba officinalis Solanum dulcamara Solidago odora Sorbus americana Spicewood berries Spigelia marilandica Spikenard comp Spirea tomentosa Stafftree bark Staphisagria Statice caroliniana Stigmata maidis Stellaria media Sterculia acuminata Sticta pulmonaca Stillingia sylvatica Strychnos ignatia Strychnos nux vomica Stylosanthes elatior Sumbul Sweet flag Symphytum officinale Symplocarpus foetidus Synonym European Sanicle Black Sanicle Blood Root Sandalwood Levant Wormseed Soapwort Broom Tops Trumpet Plant Pitcher Plant Root Sassafras Summer Savory Squill Broom Tops Equisetum Hyemale Figwort Scullcap Bladder-wrack Life Root Senecio Rosinweed Cedron Seed Quassia Simaruba Bark Bittersweet Golden-rod Mountain Ash Fever-bush Berries Pink root Horehound Comp Hardhack False Bittersweet Stavesacre Marsh Rosemary Corn Silk Chickweed Kola Nut Lung-moss Stillingia Ignatia Bean Nux vomica Stylosanthes Musk-root Calamus Comfrey Skunk Cabbage © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S.
Viburnumdentatum Viburnum opulus Viburnum prunifolium Viola tricolor Virginia creeper Virginia snake root Viscum flavescens Wild Cherry Wild Ginger Xanthoxylum Fraxineum Yellow Jessamine Zea Mays Zingiber. U. Zingiberis officinalis Synonym Tansy Dandelion Water Germander Tea Arbor Vitae Thyme Basswood bark European Linden Ailantus glandulosa Clover tops White clover Fever-root Beth-root Couch-grass Damiana Coltsfoot Squill Nettle-root Bellwort Valerian Cedadilla Mullein Vervain White Vervain Speedwell Black Haw Arrow-wood Cramp-bark Black-Haw Pansy American Ivy Serpentaria Mistletoe Cherry Bark Canadian Snake Root Prickly ash Gelsemium Corn (Silk) Ginger Ginger © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .S. U. S.BOTANICAL CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 281 Botanical origin Tanacetum valgare Taraxacum Dens-leonis Teucrium scordium Thea Chinensis Thuja occidentialis Thymus vulgaris Tilia americana Tilia parviflora Tree of Heaven Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Triosteum perfoliatum Trillium erectum Triticum repens Turnera aphrodisiaca Tussilago farfara Urginea maritima Urtica dioica Uvularia perfoliata Valeriana officinalis Veratrum sabadilla Verbascum thapsus Verbena hastata Verbena urticifolia Veronica officinalis Viburnum.
) Juglans nigra L. Chondrus crispus See Daucus carota L. Rhamnus purshiana DeCandolle © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Capsicum annum/frutescens L. See Huang-Qi See Oats Psoralea corylifolia Linn Melissa officinalis Populus candicans Berberis vulgaris L. See Holy Basil Scutellaria barbata D. Thuja orientalis Thuja Occidentalis Arnica montana L. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.F. Gaertn Medicago sativa L. Alnus glutinosa L. Aloe vera L. See Marshmallow Pyrus malus L. Don Laurus nobilis Artostaphylos uva-ursi Sprengel Apis mellifera Caeselpinia bonducella Eclipta ala Hassk Vaccinum myrtillus L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 283 6. Irish Moss Carrot Cascara Bark Scientific name Erythronium americanum L. Betula alba L. Ruscus aculeatus L. Ficus-indica L Calendula officinalis L. Optuntia. Bletilla striata (Thunb) Reich B. Agrimonia eupatoria L. See Bilberry Borago officinalis Dryobalanops aromatica Buxus sempervirens Arctium lappa L. Fucus vesiculosus L. Cynara scolymus L.7 INDEX OF BOTANICALS by Scientific and Common Names Common name Adders Tongue Agrimony Alder Alfalfa Aloe Althea Root Apple Arbor Vitae (Oriental uses) Arbor Vitae Arnica Artichoke Asragalus Avena Babchi Balm Balm Of Gilead Barberry Basil Ban Zhi Lian Bay Laurel Bearberry Bee Pollen Benduc Nut Bhringaraj Bilberry Birch Black Cohosh Black Walnut Bladderwrack Bletilla Blueberry Leaf Borage Borneo Camphor Tree Boxwood Burdock Butcher’s Broom Cactus Flowers Calendula Capsicum Carageenan.
Emblica officinalis Gaertn Gnaphalium polycephalum Euphrasia officinalis L. See Echinacea Typha latifolia Coriandrum sativum L. Saussurea lappa See Watercress Primula officinalis L. Symphytum officinale L. See Coleus Galium aparine L. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Sambucus nigra L. purpurea. Larrea divaricata Cav. Taraxacum officinale Weber Taraxacum officinale Weber Harpagophytum procumbens DC Echinacea angustifolia E. Matricaria chamomilla/recutita L. Centaurea cyanus L. Symphytum officinale L. See Gotu-Kola Centipeda cunninghami A. spp.284 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Catnip Centella Centipeda Chamomile Flowers Chaparral Cherry Bark. Villars Artemisia capillaris Thunb Chlorella vulgaris See Quin-Quina Clematis vitalla L. & Aschers. Scrophularia nodosa L. Gentiana lutea L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Trigonella foenum graecum L. Zea mays L. Zingiber officinale © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . (DC) Coville Larrea tridentata Prunus Serotina EHRH Stellaria media L. Br. Wild Chickweed Herb Chinese Moxa Weed Chlorella Cinchona Clematis Herb Clove Coleus Root Coltsfoot Leaves Comfrey Leaf Comfrey Root Cone Flower Common Cattail Coriander Fruit Corn Flowers Corn Silk Costus Cress Cowslip Flowers Cucumber Dandelion Leaves Dandelion Root Devil’s Claw Echinacea Elder Flowers Elecampane Emblic Myrobalan Everlasting (Life Everlasting) Eyebright Fennel Seed Fenugreek Figwort Forskohlii Galium Aparine Garden Burnet Garlic Gentian Geranium Ginger Scientific name Nepeta cataria L.) Briq Tussilago farfara L. Syzgium aromaticum Coleus forskohlii (Willd. Cucumis sativus L. Inula helenium L. Allium sativum L. Geranium maculatum L.
INDEX OF BOTANICALS 285 Common name Ginkgo Ginseng (oriental uses) Ginseng Golden Rod Golden Seal Gotu-Kola Grapefruit Green Tea Han Lian Cao Hawthorn Henna (Indian) Henna (Neutral) Holy Basil Honey Hops Horse Chestnut Horseradish Horsetail Grass Huang Qi Hyssop Indian Beech Indian Filbert Indian Madder Indian Nard Indian Senna Ivy (Ground) Ivy (Common) Jaborandi Jasmine Flowers Kavach Kelp Ku Shen Longan Fruit Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lemon Peel Licorice Root Linden Flowers Lovage Maiden Hair Fern Malabar Nut Malva Flowers Marigold Marshmallow Root Melissa Scientific name Ginkgo biloba L. Citrus paradis.) Burman F. Lawsonia alba Lawsonia inermis L. Limm Malva sylvestris L. Schert Equisetum arvense L. Calendula officinalis L. Astragalus membranceus (Fisch) Bge Hyssopus officinalis L. Aesculus hippocastanum L. Mac Fad. Pinnata Sapindus trifoliatus L. Apis mellifera Humulus lupulus L. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Solidago Virgaurea L. Panax Ginseng Panax quinquefolium L. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Jasminum officinale L. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Rubia cordifolia Nardostachy jatamansi DC Cassia angustifolia vhl Glechoma hederacea L. Amoracia rusticana. Hedera helix L. Mucuna pruriens (stickm) DC Macrocystus pyriferae Sophora flavescens Euphoria longan See Melissa Andropogon citratum Citrus limon (L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Melissa officinalis L. Levisticum officinale Adiantun capillusveneris L. Tilia officinalis/Tilia cordata Mill. Althaea officinalis L. Gaertn. Camellia sinensis L. Ocimum sanctum linn. Centella asiatica L. Eclipta prostrata Crataegus oxyacantha L. Hydrastis canadensis L. Justicia Adhatoda. et. Pongamia glabra P.
or hydrids of both Petroselinum crispum. Veget. Vent. Citrus aurantium Flores Citrus aurantium Citrus sinensis Viola tricolor L. Mentha piperita L. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . ssp. Trifolium pratense L. & P. Vinca minor L. papyrifora. Nasturtium officinale R. Plantago lanceolata Plantago major L.L. Allium cepa L. Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. Papaver rhoeas L. Rosa centifolia Rosa canina. Pterocarpus Santalinus Ganoderma lucidum Krameria triandra R. Commiphora molmol. Lythrum salicaria L. Olea europoea L. Regn. Rheum rhabarbarum L. Tabl. Engler Myrtus communis L. Carica papaya L. Viscum album Coptis shinensis Franch Verbascum thapsus L. Portulaca oleracea Quillaja Saponaria Molina Cydonia oblonga Cinchona succirubra pavon Raphanus sativus L. Fraxinus bungeana Panax notoginseng Avena sativa L.286 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Millfoil Milk Thistle Mimosa Mistletoe Mishmi Bitter Mullein Myrrh Myrtle Nasturtium Neem Nettles Northern Ash Notoginseng Oats Olive Leaf Onion Orange Blossom Orange Peel (Bitter) Orange Peel (Sweet) Pansy Papaya Paper Mulberry Parsley Peppermint Leaves Periwinkle Pine Bark Plantain Propolis Purple Loosestrife Purslane Quillaia Quince Quin Quina Radish Red Clover Red Poppy Red Raspberry Leaves Red Sandal Reishi Mushroom Rhatany Rhubarb Rose Rose Hips Scientific name See Yarrow See Thistle Acacia farnesiana Willd. and B. Pinus silvestris L. Rubus idaeus L. Azadirachta indica (Melia aradirachta) Urtica dioica L.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC . DC Ulmus fulva Michaux Ulmus rubra Muhl. Nasturtium officinale Triticum vulgare Plumbago zeylanica See Nettles See Rose Hips Doscorea villosa L.INDEX OF BOTANICALS 287 Common name Rosemary Sage Sanicle Sandalwood Saw Palmetto Berries Seaweed She Chuang Zi Sikekai Slippery Elm Bark Snake Gourd Soap Wort Southernwood Spirulina St.) Acacia Concinna. See Green Tea Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel Tecona grandis Dipsacus fullonum Silybum marianum (L. Salvia officinalis L. Trichosanthes kirilowii Saponaria officinalis L. Withania Samnifera Hamamelis virginiana L. Artemisia abrotanum L. Hypericum perforatum L Fragaria vesca americana Porter (G.) Gaertn Cirsium japonicum DC Lycopersion esculentum Lycopersion lycopersicum (L. Salix alba L. Curcuma longa Cucuma longa Valeriana officinalis Verbena hastata Verbena officinalis L. Betonica officinalis L.) Tanacetum vulgare L. Juglans nigra L. Sanicula europaea Santalum album Serenoa serrulata Serenoa repens (Bartram) See Chapter 7 Cnidium monnieri (L. Juglans regia L.) karsten Potentilla tormentilla Potentilla erecta L. John’s Wort Strawberry Leaves Tansy Tea Tea Tree Oil Teak Tree Teasel Thistle Milk Tiger Thistle Tomato Tormentil Turmeric (Indian uses) Turmeric Valerian Vervain Walnut Watercress Wheat Grass White Leadwort White Nettles Wild Rose Berries Wild Yam Willow Bark Winter Cherry Witch Hazel Wood Betony Scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Eriodictyon californicum Pausinystalia yohimbe (K.) Perre Yucca baccata. Yucca brevifolia. Gentiana lutea L. Artemisia absinthium L. Engelm © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Torr. Schum. See Wild Yam Achillea millefolium L.288 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Common name Woodruff Wormwood Yam Yarrow Yellow Dock Yellow Gentian Yerba Santa Yohimbe Yucca Scientific name Asperula odorata L. Rumex crispus L.
Seaweeds contain an abundant supply of trace minerals. etc). this Desk Reference will focus on marine plants (algae. cosmetics. mineral. These cell walls are resistant to decay and form deep deposits of diatomaceous Earth in lake and sea beds. and sometimes in seawater. Some people have been known to drink small quantities of it to add trace minerals to their diet. The harvested kelp is placed in large vats. which in turn serve as food for other marine animals. The collection of large quantities of some marine algae could upset this delicate balance of the ecosystem. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms): Contain silica cell walls. Many medical practitioners and folk healers recommend seawater for its various healing benefits. phytoplanktons. Seawater holds an abundant supply of vegetation and marine life. Cyanophyta (Blue Green Algae): These contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are microscopic. Xanthophylls. and also for the production of methane gas from kelp as a substitute for natural gas. and vitamin content. (Yllow Green ): Fresh water. sea grasses. as well as vitamins. Seaweeds can be used in hair preparations for their protein. and various saltwater preparations have been used by the people all over the world. There are several phyla of marine flora (algae) to be discussed. and sterols.1 MARINE ALGAE Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. They are also used as thickeners in jams. Seawater. Some folk healers recommend bathing in seawater to help relieve the pain of arthritis and rheumatism. etc. Rhodophyta (Red Algae): Color comes from red pigments. Sea plants are essential to the ecosystem. high in carotenoids. 3. e 8. 9. mud baths. The bacteria consume the kelp and produce methane gas as a byproduct. and certain types of bacteria are added to the vat. as these plants are a breeding and nursery ground for invertebrates and fish. 6. which contains sodium chloride and trace minerals. Cryptophyta — Contain green. There are companies marketing sea salt to the natural food stores to be added to food. bath. blue. It is said that life started in the seas.7 Marine Natural Products 7. including: 1. and many researchers feel that the sea holds the secret to life itself. 4. 2. However. 7. sauces. A new antibiotic was isolated from Sargassum-type 289 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 10. weeds. Approximately 85% of water is seawater. Chlorophyta (Green Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water and also in salt water. and have even been used to put a head on beer. It is used for its moisturizing and remineralizing benefits to the skin. Chrysophyta (Golden Brown Algae): Predominantly found in fresh water. Research is going on to find new chemicals in seaweed for use in medicine. ice cream. The sea holds an endless source of life. Haptophyta — A relatively new division of what was formerly thought as chrysophyta. body rubs. and are a source of new natural phytochemicals. 5. and red pigments. Phaeophyta (Benthic Brown Algae): Xanthophyll fucoxanthin. Dinophyta (Pyrrophyta): These are usually found in the phytoplankton and are microscopic. Xanthophyta.
g. anticoagulants. and incorporation into creams and lotions where it acts as a thickener. such as ursolic acid derivates. and C. cranberry. polyphenols. These types of chemicals have been used as antibiotics. it does not melt until it reaches 100°C. diterpenes. acetylenes. anthelmintics. proteins. second. Elastic fibers in skin are also rich in these amino acids. and polysaccharides. Algin is used as a stabilizer in fruit drinks. They contain a vast source of natural phytochemicals. Seaweeds are rich in compounds pertinent to the cosmetic industry. and herbicides. and other fruits. the same as they do in the waxy coating on apples. B12. This allows incubation at higher temperatures. Agar is also used as a suspending agent in bulk-type laxatives. and lycine).. prunes. seaweed can play © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . prostaglandins. for example. furanoterpenes. lipids. carotenoids. One of its oldest uses is as a medium in bacteriological work. Kelp is also the main source for algin. emulsions. terpenoids (sesquiterpenes. nutrients must be added to Agar as it is quite unique. fucose polymers. • Polygalactosides react with the proteins in the outer surface of the skin and hair. it is resistant to microorganisms and. First. Sea algae are rich in non-essential and essential amino acids (e. Each ton of freshly harvested kelp will yield approximately 50 to 60 pounds of finished algin. pharmaceutical.290 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Phytoplankton. sulfur compounds. Why the interest in marine plants? They offer a whole new armamentorium for the food. and vitamins. marshmallows. 600 brown seaweed that appears to kill certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. steroids). Seaweeds are also much higher in protein than land vegetables. Agar is an extract of certain marine algae. mainly from some gelidium species. They are good sources of iodine and Vitamins A. • Fucose polymers are very hygroscopic and act as hydrating agents. For example. and imparts slip. and ice cream as a thickening agent. pears. • Ursolic acid and its derivates can form oil-resistent barriers on skin and hair. growth substances. emulsion stabilizer. For plating microorganisms. proline. cardiac substances. Ion–ion interactions form a protective moisturizing complex. B2. and cosmetic fields. glycine. Therefore. Agar is a very mucilaginous carbohydrate.
creams. Alaria esculenta Alaria contains the following nutrients: Vitamins (E. antioxidant. and zinc. a synergestic effect was exhibited. Mg. phosphorus. fat. as determined by measurement of inhibition of a marker enzyme B-glucuronidase and is also a slight counter-irritant. including iodine. iron. digitata tested vs BHT using sunflower seed oil or methyl linoleate showed 2 the activity of BHT to induce oxidation but was not effective in reducing oxygen uptake. shampoos. C. palmitic. myristic. Recent literature suggests that mannitol is useful as an anti-inflammatory. broadspectrum. C (more than triple all the above seaweeds). helping to maintain the skin’s elasticity by increasing its hydration. mannitol. Porphyra umbilicalis Porphyra is high in vitamins A. and contains the same vitamin and mineral group as Alaria. magnesium. iodine. Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Contains an anti-inflammatory. and lauric acids). lotions. In addition. and iodide ions. and antiglaucomic. It is said to contain a low-toxicity. B12. protein. B3. plus it has almost double the protein of all the above algae. is used as a suspending agent and a protective colloid. It is used for its lubricating and emollient properties in cosmetics. etc. It is consumed by many natural food enthusiasts. B 2. Ca). It is often referred to as Atlantic Kelp and has a higher iodine content than Pacific Kelp. Co. It contains fucosterol as the major sterol and cholesterol as the minor sterol. K. and glutamic acid. B3. It also has shown anticoagulant properties. plus all minerals and vitamins in Alaria. calcium. it contains alginic acid (a polysaccharide). and was found to stabilize Sargassum lysosomal membranes in vitro. Algin. Fe. potassium. salads. A). minerals (Zn. particularly fluoride. Ascophyllum nodosum A good source of minerals. Palmaria is also very tasty and is used in chowders. Mn. B. L. B6.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 291 an important role in cosmetics as a moisturizing agent. it has a high content of potassium. galactose. Sargassum fluitans (Gulf Weed) Sargassum weed is used in the treatment of goiters and lithiasis. F. digitata) This plant is rich in calcium. both in vivo and in vitro. B12. This would suggest its use in sun products and after sun care for skin and scalp treatment © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It is a brown weed containing C12–C20 saturated fatty acids (arachidonic. P. and carbohydrates. and ointments. Laminaria longicruris (L. and mannitol. It can be added to various cosmetic and hair care products for its nutritative value. Na. I. B. It also contains substituted phenols and polyphenols known for their antioxidative activity. B6. sodium. However. oleic. potassium. There are traces of chloride. phosphorus. Palmaria palmata This sea plant is high in minerals. Cr. Solimabi1 states that Sargassum species appear to have anti-tumor activity. bromide. which is a polysaccharide. which suggests its use both in hair and skin treatment products. Sargassum contains fructose. in combination with Vitamin E. antimicrobial agent.
Lyngb. fucans. a well-known anti-inflammatory. ( Bladderwrack) Bladderwrack has been used internally for obesity. Chlorella grows in fresh water throughout the world. or phosphate esters of glycosyl diglycerides and sulfated C18–C30 aliphatic alcohols. polysaccharides.000). which means it is a self-sufficient. and all life functions can take place within this one single cell. Eisenia compared favorably with that of phenylbutazone butazolidin. which is partially as the iodide and partially bound to protein or amino acids. in tests on lyosomal membrane stability in vitro. It is very high in: Vitamin A activity Beta-carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Vitamin B12 55.292 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE cosmetics. phlorotannins. a brown seaweed found growing off the coast of the Northern Atlantic.2 The following algae were tested for the reduction of Herpes virus (HSV-1) plaque formation and reduction of influenza virus (WSN strain).9 mcg/100 g © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Halidrys siliquosa L. as well as HIV-induced syncytium formation. F. It was noted that the extract inhibited the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. (Edible Sea Urchin) Ascidia obliqua alder Ascidia mentula O.4 Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) Chlorella is a green micro-alga.500 IU/100 g 180. plus a linear polymer with various sequences of: B-(1 4)-Dmannuronic and a-(1 4)-L-guluronic acid residues. The Japanese consumption of Chlorella products is over $100 million per year. single-cell. diiodotyBladderwrack rosine plus iodine derivatives of thyronine. polyphenols (phloroglucinols of high molecular weight >10.6 Fucus contains trace minerals. containing all the essential amino acids. alginic acid.02 to 0. rheumatism. sulfonate.469 mg/100 g 613 mg/100 g 125. Echinus esculentus L. Shown to have positive effects were: Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux Fucus serratus L. sulfated. Eisenia contains a complex polymer.1%).3. mainly iodine (0. It is a single-cell protein. the Pacific. This was done during studies to isolate antiviral compounds from marine organisms. Muller Ceamium rubrum (Hudson) C.8 mg/100 g 1. and the Baltic Sea. AgardH Fucus vesiculosus L. (a-(1 2)-L-fucose-4-sulfate residues). polar lipids. Recently anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. Lyngbye Laminaria saccharina Lamouroux Chondrus crispus. sterols as free fucosterol. Chlorella contains over 60% protein. and as a massage for cellulite. It is often called the anti-fat herb and is also used in sun and after-sun products.
B.26 w/w% 2.6% 421 cal Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A activity -carotene Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Thiamine Riboflavin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Niacin Pantothenic acid Folic acid Biotin Para-aminobenzoic acid Inositol Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper Fatty Acids Unsaturated Saturated 81.29 w/w% 3.2% 4.. Spirulina Spirulina.7 mg 125.64 w/w% 1. It is found in both brackish and fresh water.78 w/w% 6.70 w/w/% 2.63 w/w% 5.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 293 Typical Analysis of Chlorella General analysis Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Carbohydrate Crude fiber Crude ash Calorie Amino Acids Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Cystine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tryosine Phenylalanine Ornithine Tryptophan 3. The only difference is that the chlorophyll structure contains magnesium while the hemin structure contains iron.8 mg 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . It contains 10 times more chlorophyll than spirulina and almost 30 times more than alfalfa.29 w/w% 2.08 w/w% 0.64 w/w/% 5.59 w/w% 3. Army showed that chlorophyll-rich foods may be effective in decreasing the effects of radiation.2% 55. called the Chlorella Growth Factor.S. it was found that a chlorophyll-rich diet doubled the life span of animals exposed to fatal doses of radiation.0% 20..5 mg 4.20 w/w% 2. the cells actively move in a corkscrew fashion.38 w/w% 3.6 mg 315 mg 167 mg 71 mg 0.8% 18.500 IU/100g 180.A.06 w/w% 0.9 mcg 15.6% 60. In a controlled study.5% 11.80 w/w% 0.3 mg 26. Fujimaki of the Peoples Scientific Research Center at Koganei in Tokyo discovered a physiologically activating substance that accelerates the growth and development of new cells in organisms in Chlorella.6 mcg 0.6 mg less than 1 IU 23.08 mg Potter. Chlorophyll has been used as a blood builder. 14-15. Moreover. The Emerald Food.8 mg 1. Tests performed by the U. et al.46 w/w% 1. Chlorella.40 w/w% 4. pp.09 w/w% 3.469 mg 613 mg 1.6 mg 165 mg 205 mg 959 mg 0.1% 0. a blue green algae (cyanophyta).93 w/w% 3. Chlorella also contains a growth factor.9 mcg 191. Chlorella is a good source of chlorophyll.45 w/w% 2. Chlorella can also help reduce the harmful effects of radiation. is a trichome composed of a single spiral-shaped cell.8 mg 1. as the chlorophyll molecule resembles that of hemin. Dr.
Na. Spirulina.294 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Spirulina is an excellent source of protein (approximately 55 to 70%). at 600 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . etc.A. Ge. B3. P.A. lipids (4 to 7%). B6. Cu. Analysis of 10 grams dehydrated Spirulina gave: -carotene (Provitamin A) Vitamin E ( -tocopherol 0. Cr.40) B1. Spirulina would work well in hair care and skin care products. Mn. Pantothenic acid Chlorophyll Phycocyanin Carotenoids G. Mg. Spirulina contains approximately 200 mg of glycolipids and approximately 10 mg sulfolipids per 10 grams. B2. carbohydrates (15 to 25%). Biotin. the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that the naturally occurring sulfolipid portions of the glycolipids found in blue green algae were active against the AIDS virus in test tube experiments. Linoleic acid Enzyme activity (superoxide desmutase 22500 units) and minerals Ca. carotenoids. K. G.L.L. as it is high in plant protein. B12 Folacin. Fe. minerals. and minerals (5 to 10%). Se 14 mg 2300 IU 1100 mg 1500 mg 37 mg 100 mg 80 mg In August of 1989. vitamins.. Zn.
Isolation and structure elucidation of a number of very potent antibiotics and cytotoxins as bioactive metabolites produced by microorganisms from the oceans. Diverse and bioactive molecules as curacins A–D. plant. The Archae are also common in “extreme” marine environments. and the Eucarya (fungi and related organisms).12 5. as a soothing demulcent. or hopefully anti-HIV agents. The growing interest in marine natural products is such that one out of every four original publications in the field of medicinal natural products deals with marine natural products. Related unicellular microorganisms. the following being some examples: 1. It was used during World War I on the throats of soldiers who had been gassed.9 2. Included in this category are all major forms of microbial life the Archea. or temperature.14 u © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .2 BIOMEDICAL POTENTIALS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS With the current trend aimed at discovering newer antimicrobial. 7. which although poorly known. pressure. Oahu. melemeleones. a series of new cyclic acyldepsipeptides have been isolated. Thus. including phaeophyta.8 The results obtained are quite promising. cyanophyta. and from a Gram-negative bacterium cultured from a piece of wood collected at Kailua Beach Park. fungicidal or activity against yeast and mold. but no chemical study has been reported. barbamide. were isolated from marine organisms. once considered “lower fungi” and now classified as distinct from the fungi. and imidazole disulfides. Marine fungi represent a massive resource that remains largely unexplored. bactericidal. anti-inflammatory. are major organisms in the world’s oceans. the Bacteria. scientists are now working hard on re-isolation of known compounds from marine macroorganisms such as algae. This seaweed can also be used as a thickener and stabilizer. sponges. and malyngamides J–L were isolated from cultured and fieldcollected marine blue green algae Lyngbya maj scula . microcolin C. These microorganisms are quite abundant and culturable. Significant compounds. Accelerating flow of structurally new cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic substances have been isolated from certain exceptionally promising marine animals. kalkitoxin. soft corals. Many of the classes of algae discussed show antimicrobial activity. and ascidians. such as the curacins. Identification and structure of new anti-HIV and anti-tumor secondary metabolites from a variety of microbial. From ascidians collected in the Northern Mariana and Marshal Islands. the search is only beginning. It has been used to treat and soothe sore throats.11 4. Unfortunately. having distinct anti-cancer properties. bacteristatic.10 3. are common in marine environments. Bacteria represent a major resource in the world’s oceans. antillatoxin. and marine organisms. two new classes of heteroaromatic alkaloids — the didemnolines and the arnoamines — were discovered. such as those of elevated salinity. where dolastatin 102 is now in clinical trial. with large numbers (106 cells per ml) found in common seawater. The cosmetic industry continues to search for a natural or naturally derived antibacterial. anticancer. It is even more noteworthy that over the past 10 years. penazetidines.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 295 Chondrus crispus (Carageenan. activity seems to be different for the same algae collected in different geographical areas.13 6. Illustrative of such anti-cancer drug candidates are the dolastatins. An area where interesting research is going on is that of antimicrobial activity. Irish moss) This is another seaweed that is collected along the shores of New England and eastern Canada. and chlorophyta. considerable interest has developed in exploring the natural products chemistry and biomedical potential of marine microorganisms.
16 9. and true symbionts from sponges. Cyanovirin-N. An extract of Lamellamorpha sp. fungi. which display a variety of pharmacological activities. (described as “Dream” sponge) was one of the most potent ever detected and yielded new representatives of the calyculins. Isolation and culture of over 3000 marine bacteria. the eudistomins.19 12. A series of B-carboline derivatives. tunicates. which produce anti-tumor compounds. and the theonellapeptolides. and cytotoxic activities.15 8. antimicrobial.296 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Gorgonian 7. Isolation of a number of novel secosteroids from marine invertebrates. and gorgonians.17 10. has been isolated and identified from cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum. including corals and sponges. including potent antiviral. a unique anti-viral protein. the swinholides. One such group of steroids are the 9(11)-secosteroids from gorgonians of the genus Pseudopterogorgia.20 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . actinomycetes. have been isolated from the Floridan Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum.. The procedures are currently used for cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing of Taxol from needles of the ornamental yew taxus media. and the marine anticancer agent bryostatin 1 from Bugula neritina. Successful culture of marine microalgae such as dinoflagellate Amphidium sp.18 11.
Isolation of Microcolin C. C.37 30. a biologically active novel sester terpene-hydroxybutenolide from the Caribbean sponge Dysidea etheria. Production of the anti-cancer algal natural product Halomon in vitro. cytotoxic natural products. were identified as potential prototypes for the development of new antimalarial agents. a novel.26 19. Microcolins were found to possess extremely potent immunu osuppressive activity.22 15.27 20.25 18. New antimycotics. makaluvone. A new class of Discorhabdin derivatives have been isolated from three New Zealand Latrunculia sponge sp. B. E. Isolation of a novel imidazole compound that inhibits HIV protease effectively from a marine Verongia sp. Biosynthetic investigation of the Bryostatins. which are macrocyclic lactones from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. and anti-tumor promoting properties.32 25.24 17. Cyclomarin A. have been isolated from the Red Sea sponge Latrunculia magnifica.31 24.36 29. potent HIV-1 inhibitory protein from the Sponge Adocia spp. Several new classes of compounds. D.30 23. Diamirone B. Extracts from these sponges were strongly cytotoxic against the P388 murine leukemia cell line. including halichondramide swingolide and other marine compounds. phorboxazole A and B. The compound was found to be a protein phosphatase inhibitor. Isolation of Dysidiolide. Both compounds exhibit exceedingly potent cytostatic activity against a variety of human solid tumor cell lines.29 22. Phorbas sp. latrunculin B and swinholide A.MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS 297 13.35 28. a cyclic peptide with anti-inflammatory activity. A novel bicyclic sesquiterpene has been isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. They have shown remarkable antineoplastic. Cytotoxic cembranoids have been isolated from the soft corals Sinularia giberosa and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Isolation of antifungal cyclic peptides microsclerodermins A and B from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani.28 21. Some of these are defensive agents of the host organisms and others exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. discorhabdin A.21 14. Asperizine and Asperic acid are novel marine fungal natural products isolated from a culture of Aspergillus niger obtained from the sponge Hyrtios proteus.40 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Two new bis-oxazole macrolides. immunopotentiating.38 31. was isolated from a marine streptomyces sp. HIV-1 inhibitory proteinaceous substances have been isolated from Verongida Sponges.39 32. bioactive against several types of human tumor cell lines halogenated monoterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Portieria hornemarnii. and veiutamine have been isolated from the Fijan sponge Zyzzya fulginosa. Isolation and characterization of adociavirin. Many novel.33 26. a new lipopeptide from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya maj scula . including makaluvamines A. were isolated from the marine sponge. Macrocyclic bromotyrosine tetramers (bastadins) have been isolated from the marine sponge Lanthella basta and found to be agonists of Ry1 R — the S R Ca2+ channel of skeletal muscle. and F.23 16. Okoadene and Mailidene.34 27. A variety of bioactive (11)-secosteroids have recently been isolated from marine corals (gorgonians and sponges).
16. Andersen. ibid P 31. N. 1985. Perry. K... J. Fernandes.P. 1993. de Silva. Lidgren. H... E.E. G. R.. Mendola. 14..R.. Natural Prod.. D.A. pp. Forenza. B. 17. Haughey. Carney. 33. O’Keefe. Lam. M. J. Rodriguez.. ibid O 7. 19. J.. Suecica.A. ibid P 36. Pettit. Janda. ibid S 23. and Hamann. H... S. Smith... G. ibid O 10. Mokinski. 32. Ind. Andersson. Chan. B. Bringano.. O’Keefe.S.B.. Kloareg. Zheng. and Kelly-Borges.. B. 56(4). P. M. Varoglu. K. Slate.. M. M. T. Bewicke. 14-15..J. Lassota.. K. D.. Chikarmane. Andrew.. Maranda..-P. Carte’.. S.A. Fulton. S. K.. R. ibid P 151. P. Ferrante. Rea. et al. J.C.T. and Russel G.-D. J.K. B. and Baker.J. J. M..M.. Sheehan.... © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . P. A. J. Fractionation and analysis of fucans from brown algae. K. J. T. Gulakowski. 34.A.. Barrows.... 28. 3.. Lloyd. J. J. ibid P 155. 8. and Cardellina. L.A.. Sci. Crews... L. L. Hong. B..A.. Brzezinski.. L. Ph. S.. J. Baker. ibid P 27. R. Brielmann.. Goins... Plubrukarn. B.. 2441-2446.. Shoemaker. 18. and Munro. ibid P 156. McCombs. G.. ibid S 14. Castor. and Rodriguez. Hemling. and Francis. 4.. B. Gerard. J.J.298 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE REFERENCES 1. Phytochemistry.. B. McCarthy. G. Y. Linton. and Gerwick. ibid P 28. L. and Walter. S.. R. M. Fucus Vesiculosus L. Javor.J.. El Sayed. T. Dhyana.. Gerwick.. ibid O 36. 40.-R.. L.A. S 8. O 50. and Thompson.H. and Gould. McMahon.. J. J. D.. Boyd.E. and Ireland. and Leahy. Wilkins. 23.. L.. R. Schumacher. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magneti Resonance spectoscopy. ibid S 15.. 6. Allen. S.A...Y. P. Potter. 13. R.E. 401-414..S. T.. R.G. P. ibid P 30.. C. W. Lill. and Crews. July 27-31. S.. Ragan. J. W.. J.-Y.. Dumdei.. Yoshida. Shangxiao. P. ibid P 149. 38. J. T.. 64... Duh. Major. J. 12. Chlorella.H. Screening of biological activity. and Molinski. C... J. ibid S 22. Blunt. McInnes. Mabeau. 36. 180. Nakao.. and Scheuer. ibid P 145. Santa Cruz (UCSC).. G. J.. P. and Hung.. Pomponi.. J. El-Sayed. D. and Munro. Gunasekera. Studies of Swedish marine organisms. Mar. M.. Hamel. Coleman. Lawry. T.P. 37. ibid O 11. Chem. Blunt. 15. R.A. Zhang. L. G. Sci..G... Davidson. 304-313. Abstracts of papers presented at 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) University of California. 25.A. R. Al. B. 1983... L.R.G. D. D. Xie.... 35. D. 478-488.. 20(6). S.. Heath... M. 1996.. N.E. D. M. 29.. A. P. 31.P. Hargraves.J. H. 5.W. 2. and Scheuer. Abstr.. R. P. W.. P. Gustafson.. 7. ibid O 26. Acta Pharm. 29.S.C. and Bauer. Hook.. ibid P 19.J. 26. D. Westley. C. 1996.K.. and Harrigan. Gerwick.. B. M.. W. Searle.J.. B. Green. K. S...J.. 1990. ibid O 38. Dunbar.F. Harrison. Yoo. Mendola. ibid S 9. ibid P 25. Venables..A.J. McMahon. Franklin. M. Solimabi. and Kerr. J. Cardellina. Meeting. I.W.. Bohlin. 10. M. M..J. Harrigan.M. UCSC. T.M. Jayatilake. ibid P 26.. I.... ibid O 25.. Wright. P.. 27..R. J. H.. Beutler. 1258. 24. B..W. J.... 20. 30. ibid P 150. C.. S.J. 63.. M. Pharmaceut... 1975. Copp.. S. Janus. A... and Joseleau.T. The Emerald Food. Papers presented at the 37th Annu.H.. and Kelly. Beverly A. Can.. F. G. L. and Bair.. K. Gush. 11.K. 1977. R.A. ibid P 141.. The high molecular weight phloroglucinols of the marine brown algae.D. D.. J.. M. 39. and Boyd. Ogren. C. McKee. and Yavor.A. W. Haygood. D.. Haden. 6. S.F. Gulakowski. H.... and Afzelius.P. ibid P 9. 9. July 27-31. Magni. M.... 22.A. J... and Crews. L. Schmitz. Clark. J.T. Erim. 21. Freyer. O’Sullivan. Kerr. A. and Hamann.R. J. ibid P 154. ibid O 49..F. and Wang.
/Lipo Chemicals. The formulations are presented here solely for their educational value as the author or publisher cannot anticipate all conditions under which this information or the products of manufacturers in combination with botanicals may be used. Inc.2) with Sequence 5..00 6. In main kettle. NJ 07504.10 0. sol’n) INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Citric Acid a b c d Bio-Botanica Inc.10 0. 3. 2. PROCEDURE: 1.10 q.10 0.00 q. Adjust pH to 9. 5.8 Formulations The following formulations were supplied at the courtesy of LIPO CHEMICALS INC.00 10.d Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Citric Acid (25% aq. 5. Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. The author or publisher assumes no liability resulting from infringement of any patent.2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. Therefore.2 (±0. 207 19th Avenue. 8. Henkel.5 (±0.00 10. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. Patterson.1 NATURAL SAPONINS BASE SHAMPOO Formulation: Percent 47. Rohm & Haas. 299 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Adjust pH to 5. Formulators are advised to make their own tests to determine safety and suitability of each such product or product combination for their own purposes.s. being sure polymer is completely dispersed. combine Sequence 1 ingredients at room temperature. 4.s. either alone or in combination with other products.00 0. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. the author or publisher accepts no responsibility for the results obtained by the application of this information for the safety and suitability of these products.60 21.
2) with Sequence 2 ingredient. being sure polymer is completely dispersed.300 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. Add Sequence 6 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous.00 20. 3. 7.f Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA 1:1 Horsetail Extract 5:1 PGa Comfrey Leaf Extract 5:1 PGa Rosemary Extract 5:1 PGa Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGa Sodium Hydroxide (50% aq.00 6. Inc.3% sol)e Lipamide MEAAd INCI name Water Saponins Cocamidopropyl Betaine Cocamide DEA Horsetail Extract Comfrey Leaf Extract Rosemary Extract Matricaria Extract Sodium Hydroxide Acrylates/Steareth-20 Methacrylate Copolymer Decyl Polyglucose Avocado Oil Citric Acid Polyquaternium-10 Acetamide MEA Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.10 q. Adjust pH to 5. 10.s.00 1. Adjust pH to 9.00 0. sol’n) Aculyn 22 Thickenerb Plantaren 2000c Lipovol Ad Citric Acid (25% aq.10 q. Rohm & Haas. Inc. Henkel.2 NATURAL SHAMPOO Description: A natural. Slowly add Sequence 3 ingredient and continue mixing. Amerchol. Procedure: 1. sol’n) UCARE Polymer LR 30M (1.s.2 (±0.00 0.10 0. 2. 6.2) with Sequence 5 ingredient. 5.5 (±0.00 a b c d e f Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 Raw material Deionized Water Bio Saponins™ a. gentle shampoo for everyday use Formulation: Percent 31.10 0.10 0. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 4. Bio Saponins™ Trademark of Bio-Botanica Inc. under slow to moderate sweep mixing to prevent aeration and until homogenous. 6. Lipo Chemicals. In main kettle. Add Sequence 4 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogenous. at room temperature.50 15. Add Sequence 7 ingredient slowly and mix until batch is homogeneous. high-foaming. combine Sequence 1 ingredients.00 10.
5.45 0. Aqualon. switching to keep mixing as the batch thickens.FORMULATIONS 301 8. Goodrich Co. Inc. In main kettle at room temperature.00 0. Add premixed Sequence 4 to batch. disp’n) CMC-7MFc (2% disp’n) Deionized Water Triethanolamine. Add Sequence 2 to Sequence 1 under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and mix until batch is uniform. 3.10 0.50 3.00 1.95 0.10 5. Procedure: 1.30 1 1 Deionized Water Uniphen P-23a Water Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben 22.3 CELLULITE GEL BASE Description: An elegant gel base similar to “Clarin Concentrated ‘Cellulite’ Control Gel” Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 65. Add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients. 99% Ground Ivyd 5:1 PG Bladderwrackd 5:1 PG Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A (200 pf) Microencapsulated Mineral Oil Cellulose Gum Water Triethanolamine Ground Ivy Extract Bladderwrack Extract Caffeine SD Alcohol 40-A Mineral Oil (and) Gelatin a b c d Lipo Chemicals. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . 2. 4.00 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 Carbopol 940b (2% aq.10 0. Add Sequence 6 to batch and mix until beads are uniformly dispersed. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing until the Carbomer is completely dispersed. B.(Induchem).50 1. Inc. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. Add Sequence 5 to batch and mix until uniform.F. 6.
In main kettle. combine Sequence 1 ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 557°C until propylparaben is completely dissolved. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals.302 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8.00 0.4 ALL NATURAL BLOOMING BATH OIL Formulation: Percent Sequence 15. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .10 0.10 0. add Sequence 3 to correct shade.s. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.10 q. add Sequence 2 ingredients to batch and cool to 25°C. 2.00 5.96 63.54 5.10 0. Cool to 30°C.00 10.5% Sol’n in PG) INCI Name Sweet Almond Oil Sesame Oil Lanolin Oil PEG-4 Dilaurate Oleth-2 Propylparaben Vitamin E Arnica Extract Chamomile Extract Comfrey Extract D & C Green #6 a b c Lipo Chemicals. At 30°C. 3.10 0. Inc. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Raw Material Lipovol ALMa Lipovol SESa Lipolan Ra Lipopeg 2-DL Lipocol 0-2a Propylparaben Vitamin E USP-FCCb Arnica 5:1 PGc Chamomile 5:1 PGc Comfrey 5:1 PGc D & C Green #6 (0. At 25°C. Inc. Procedure: 1.
Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 86. Begin cooling. 60526d Parsol MCSe Neo Heliopan OSf Uvinul M-40g BHA Benzoic Acid Hybrid Safflower Oil Lanolin Oil Jojoba Oil Sweet Almond Oil Olive Oil Coconut Oil Coca Butter USP Aloe Extract Tocopheryl Acetate Octyl Methoxycinnamate Octyl Salicylate Benzophenone-3 BHA Benzoic Acid Lipo Chemicals. In main kettle. Inc.10 0.5 NATURAL SUNSCREEN OIL SPF 8+ Description: A blend of natural oils and sunscreens providing UV protection in an emollient natural base.02 0.50 0. Procedure: 1. Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals.10 0.10 0.05 6. Haarmann & Reimer Corp. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. 3.00 4.10 0. Inc.10 0.00 2. Package © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Maintain temperature until batch is uniform and all powders are dissolved.10 0.50 0. combine ingredients under moderate Lightnin’ mixing and heat to 75–78°C .FORMULATIONS 303 8. Fanning Corp. Cool to 25°C. BASF. Givaudan Corp.28 0. 2.05 a b c d e f g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lipovol SOa Lipolan Ra Lipovol Ja Lipovol ALMa Lipovol Oa Lipovol C-76a Fancol CB Extrab Aloe Vera Oilc Vitamin E Acetate No.
05 0.80 0.7 AFTER-SUN MOISTURIZING GEL WITH ALOE Formulation: Percent Sequence 31.00 5. aqueous spray-on moisturizer which leaves the skin with a soft feel. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw Material INCI Name 92. Cool to 60°C.10 0. Procedure: In main kettle.88 45.82 0. Switch to paddle stirrer and add premixed Sequence 3 ingredients.75 0. 10% sol’n Supplier B.00 0.10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Deionized Water Lipocare HA/ECa Liponic EG-1a Slippery Elm Bark 5:1 PGb Chamomile Extract 5:1 PGb Wild Alum Extract 5:1 PG Water Echinacin Glycereth — 26 Slippery Elm Extract Matricaria Extract Cranesbill Extract a b Lipo Chemicals.s. combine ingredients under Lightnin’ mixing at room temperature until batch is clear and uniform. 8.6 SPRAY MOISTURIZER Description: A high humectant.304 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE 8. Cool to 30°C and add Sequence 4.30 0.10 0.25 0.05 20. Inc.00 0. Add Sequence 2 and mix until homogeneous. 3. 2. Spl Phosphoric acid. Inc. Bio-Botanica/Lipo Chemicals. (2% disp’n) Liponic EG-1 Methylparaben Propylparaben Unicide U-13 Trisodium EDTA Aloe Vera Gel Triethanolamine.00 0. 99% Water Slippery Elm Bark Ext.70 2. Goodrich Lipo Chemicals Lipo (Induchem) Bio-Botanica/Lipo Bio-Botanica/Lipo Manufacturing Procedure: 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Heat Sequence 1 ingredients to 75°C under Lightnin’ mixing until all materials are dispersed and solubilized. F. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Raw material Water Carbopol 940.10 g. 4.
00 a b c d 4 5 5 Lipocare HA/ECd Triethanolamine.F.00 3 Lubragel MSb 35.)c Liponic EG-1d Unimoist U-125a 5.10 0. Goodrich.FORMULATIONS 305 8. 99% Hypan SA100H 25. Formulation: Percent Sequence Raw material INCI name 25. Heat combined Sequences 1 and 2 to 80°C to remove air and to obtain clarity.00 0. Switch to slow sweep mixing and cool to 60°C.20 0. 99% Deionized Water Lipo (Induchem). Procedure: 1. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . B.00 5.00 3 3 3 Carbopol 940 (2% aq/ disp. Lipo Chemicals.05 1 2 Triethanolamine.8 SUPER MOISTURIZING CLEAR GEL WITH LIPOCARE HA/EC Description: A clear nontacky moisturizing gel containing enhanced active Lipocare HA/EC — Hyaluronic Acid and Echinacin. Guardian Chemicals. 2.65 1 1 1 Deionized Water Unicide U-13a Uniphen P-23a Water Imidazolidinyl Urea Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Butylparaben Triethanolamine Acrylic Acid/Acrylonitrogens Copolymer Polyglycerylmethacrylate (and) Propylene Glycol Carbomer 940 Glycereth-26 Glycerin (and) Urea (and) Saccharide Hydrolysate (and) Magnesium Aspartate (and) Glycine (and) Alanine (and) Creatine Hyaluronic Acid/Echinacin Triethanolamine Water 0. Inc.70 1. Combine Sequence 1 ingredients under vigorous Lightnin’ mixing until homogenous.30 0. Slowly sprinkle Sequence 2 ingredient into batch under homomixer and homogenize until swollen Hypan particles are no longer visible. Lipo (Kingston). 3.00 2.
Anthataxis: Inflorescence. Abortifacient: A drug producing premature childbirth. Antheridia: Male organs of cryptograms. the fecundating material from an antheridium. Anticatarrh: Used to relieve or prevent exudation irritation of a membrane. Amentum or Catkin: A deciduous spike. indehiscent. Antiemetic: A medicine that allays or checks vomiting. Antherozoid: (Spermatozoid). Alburnum: Sap-wood of tree. as often occurs with the calyx after flowering. one-celled. like the leaves of pines. Acotyledonous: Without cotyledons. Accrescent: Increasing in size with age. It is useful when researching older books on botanicals. one-seeded fruit. Analgesic: A medicine that allays pain.9 Glossary This Glossary includes the most important general terms used in botany and therapeutics. containing the pollen. Achaenium. Angiosperms: Plants with seeds enclosed in an ovary. as these terms were commonly used prior to 1938. Anesthetic: A drug that produces insensibility to pain. Adventitious: Out of the natural or usual place. answering to the pollen of phaenogams. Andraecium: Male or staminate parts of a flower. Anther: The essential part of a stamen. Achlamydeous: With no calyx or corolla. 307 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Alliaceous: Resembling the onion family. Alterative: A medicine used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes. Anthelmintics: Drugs that destroy (vermicides) or expel (vermifuges) worms inhabiting the intestinal canal. Amplexicaul: Embracing the stem. or Akene: A dry. Anodyne: A medicine used to allay pain (externally). Adnate: Adhering to another structure. Acerose: Needle-shaped. Antilithic: Dissolves kidney and bladder calculi. or flower-arrangement. Alveolate: Honey-combed. Acrogen: A plant increasing by terminal growth only. Absorbent: A medicine used to produce absorption of diseased tissues. Antacid: A medicine used to neutralize acids in the stomach and intestines. Antihysteric: A medicine that relieves hysterical conditions. Abruptly-pinnate: Pinnate leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets. Ala: Lateral wing of papilonaceous flower. as ferns. with firm pericarp. Acuminate: When the leaf-apex forms a prolonged angle. Acaulescent: With very short (apparently no) stem. Acicular: Needle-shaped. Anaphrodisiac: A medicine that allays sexual excitement. Amenorrhoea: Failure of menstruation. Antineoplastic: Tumor reducing.
Carpophore: A beak-like prolongation of the receptacle. Antispasmodic: A medicine that prevents or allays spasms. the two anterior petals of a papilionaceous flower. Bacca: A berry. Carina: The keel.g. dehiscent syncarpous fruit. Axillary: Growing in an axil. rare in present times). Axis of a plant: The main stem or root. cinnamic). Blisters: See Vesicants. Campylotropous: Having the ovule and its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near the hilum. Castor seed). Axil: The angle between the axis and any offshoot from it. carrying buds and scaly leaves above and wiry roots below. Bulb: An underground discoid stem. Campanulate: Bell-shaped. Calceolate: Resembling a slipper in form. Aperient: A medicine that purges mildly. Antiscrofulous: Used in preventing or curing scrofulous diseases (e. Aphrodisiac: Excites the sexual organs. a pulpy. Capsule: A dry. Carminative: A medicine that expels gas from the stomach or alimentary canal. Calcarate: Spurred. Capitulum: The inflorescence of composite family. Bracteate: Possessing bracts.g. Antipyretic: A medicine that reduces the temperature of the body. Cambium: The zone of formative tissue. Calyx: The outside whorl of floral leaves. indehiscent fruit from an inferior ovary. stiff hairs. Auriculate: Possessing two lobes or ears. Appendages: Superadded parts. Attenuate: Tapering to a point. Bi-: Signifying double. Bitter: Applied to bitter tasting botanicals that are used to stimulate the appetite. Carcerule: A dry fruit composed of concentric akenes separating at maturity.308 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Antiperiodic: A medicine that relieves periodic diseases. Ascidium: A pitcher-shaped modified leaf. Antiphlogistic: A medicine that allays or checks inflammation. Aril: A fleshy growth from hilum of (and often covering) seed (e.g.. with two leaves. meristematic cells. Antiscorbutic: A remedy for scurvy. Capitate: With globose head. as bi-foliate. Carpel: A leaf modified into a pistil. the hilum and the chalaza being together. Caruncle: A localized fleshy growth arising from the microphyl (e.. Cardamon). Balsamic: A resinous substance containing balsamic acids (benzoic. Atropous: With erect ovule. carrying the ovary.g. Antivenereal: A medicine used to cure venereal diseases. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cardiac: A medicine that acts on the heart. Bulblets: Little bulbs in the axils of the stems. Apetalous: Without petals. Bracteoles: Secondary bracts between the primary bracts and the leaves.. tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck. Antiseptic: Any agent that checks the growth or action of microorganisms on living tissue.. Bristles: Sharp. Arillode: Similar to Aril but arising from the microphylar edge (e. Nutmeg). Astringent: An herb that causes contraction or constriction of tissues.
GLOSSARY 309 Caryopsis or Grain: A superior. Corymb: A raceme with flowers elevated to one level. accompanied by an excessive secretion of mucus. Centrifugal: Flowering commencing at the summit. Connivent: Having parts turned inward. outer layer. Circinate: Curved like young fern fronds. Chlorophyll: The green pigment of plants. Costa: The midrib. Catkin: A deciduous spike of unisexual flowers. Corolla: Inner whorl of floral envelope. Cone: Scaly fruit of Coniferae formed by fertilization of female flowers. Caulescent: Possessing a visible stem.. Condiment: A substance used to season food. Comose: Having hairs at the summit. one-celled. Caudale: Having a hairy style. underground stem found in monocotyledons with usually distinct nodes. Caustics: Medicines that destroy the skin by burning or by corrosive oxidation. become joined. Corrective: Aids in restoring to a healthy state. Cespitose: Tufted. Coriaceous: Leathery. Cotyledons: Rudimentary leaves of embryo. Convolute: Rolled up. Connate: where two parts. Conidia: Spores produced asexually. Cordate: Heart-shaped. Cathartic: A purgative. Counter-irritant: A medicine used to produce irritation in one part in order to relieve pain in another. Corona: A cup-like or rayed process between stamens and corolla. Caulis: The stem. Cell: The unit of plant tissue consisting of a cell wall enclosing certain contents.g. Connestral: Part intervening between anther cells. Cremocarp: A schizocarpic fruit of two carpels face to face upon a common axis. Conduplicate: Folded face to face in vernation. with the dry pericarp united with the testa. Contorted: Twisted. Centripetal: Flowering commencing at the base. Catarrh: Irritation of a membrane usually of the respiratory tract. upright rhizome. usually distinct. indehiscent fruit. Collenchyma: Parenchyma thickened in angles of cells. Chalaza: The point of union between the coats of a seed and the nucleus. It is derived from an inferior ovary (e. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Cohesion: Attachment. Caudex: The axis. Also a name given to a short. Coma: Hair-tufts confined to parts of testa. thick. Cilia: Marginal hairs. one-seeded. Umbelliferous fruits). Cholagogue: A medicine causing a flow of bile. Claw: Lengthened and narrowed base of some petals. Clavate: Club-shaped. tuber-like. Corm: A solid. from which they hang when ripe. Cortex: The bark.
Digitate: Having five palmated leaflets arranged from a common point. or tending to fall. Cyme: A determinate flower cluster. Diecious or Dioecious: With male and female flowers on separate plants. Demulcents: Medicines applied externally to soothe and protect tissues. Dicotyledonous: With two cotyledons. Depressant: A drug that lessens the vital powers. dividing into irregular branches. Cryptogamia: Plants having no true flowers. Crispate: Curled. Depletive: A drug that reduces the vital functions. Detergent: A medicine used to cleanse wounds or ulcers. not exceeding 20 (stamens). Diatrorse: Turning to the light. Determinate: Definite. lymphatic. Deliquescent: Dissolving. Didymous: In pairs. Discoid: With convex face. Deodorant: Any substance that destroys or hides foul odors. Deltoid: Triangular. Dietetic: Any nutritious substance. Disc or Disk: A cushion-like appendage to ovary. Cuspidate: Tapering to a stiff point. Deflexed: Bent. Deliriants: Those narcotics that cause the mental faculties to become disordered. Definite: Constant. Deobstruent: Removes obstructions in bloodstream. Dentate: With sharp teeth. Deodorizer: Same as Deodorant. Cruciform: Cross-shaped. Depurative: A medicine that purifies the system by acting on (and causing) excretion. Diandrous: Having two stamens. Cupule: An acorn-cup. Diclinous: Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers. etc. Dehiscence: Splitting into regular parts. downward throughout the length. Dentifrice: A substance used in cleansing teeth. Deciduous: Falling off. Decurrent: Prolonged down the stem.310 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Crenate: With rounded teeth. Defoliation: Falling of leaves. Cuticle: The outer layer of epidermis. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Digestive: An herb that aids digestion. Cuneate: Wedge-shaped. producing intellectual confusion. Decumbent: Lying on the ground but rising at extremities. Dichotomous: Forked. Dichlamydeous: Having both calyx and corolla. Depilatory: A substance used to remove hair. Didynamous: With four stamens. Diaphoretic: A medicine that produces sweating. Culm: The hollow stem of grasses. two long and two short. Decompound: Many times compound. Diadelphous: Having stamens in two sets. Decussate: In pairs crossing alternately.
Dorsal: Fixed upon the back. Erect: Growing from the base of ovary. Echinate: Prickly. Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. Embryo: The rudimentary plant within the seed. Drastic: A medicine that causes violent reaction (e. the ovary. Duct: A tubular vessel in the plant. Ecbolics: See Oxytocics. Exogenous: Having bark. Exserted: Projected from an orifice. Emollients: Medicines applied externally to protect tissues to which they are applied. Disinfectant: A substance that has the property of destroying disease germs. Excitant: Any substance that produces increased action in any living part. Episperm: The coat of seed. without. Entire: Without marginal divisions. the outermost layer. Errhine: A medicine that increases the nasal secretions. Farinaceous: Resembling flour. purgation). Diuretics: Medicines that increase the secretion of urine. Dysmenorrhea: Painful or difficult menstruation. Fastigate: Pointing upward. Expectorant: A medicine that acts on the pulmonic mucous membrane by altering its secretion. Duramen: Heart-wood of tree. Evacuant: Medicines that expel substances from the body (purgative). Etiolated: Blanched. Escharotics: See Caustics. Falcate: Sickle-shaped. Distichous: In two opposite rows. wood. Drupe: Succulent or fleshy fruit with a hard and woody endocarp. Estivation: Mode of folding of flower bud. as in the palm and the cornstalk or inner parts. or borne on. Fertile: Capable of seed-bearing. Epicalyx: An imbricated involucre over the calyx. E: Signifies deprived of. Epidermis: The true skin. Ex-: A prefix signifying without. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . and pith distinct.g. and bark. Epigynous: Adnate to. Extrorse: Turned outward. Febrifuge: A medicine that dissipates fever..GLOSSARY 311 Discutient: Any medicine that disperses tumors. Excurrent: Central with regular lateral branches. Endocarp: Lining of carpel. Fascicle: Tufts inserted at a common point. wood. Epispastics: See Vesicants. Emmenagogue: A medicine that stimulates or regulates menstruation. Epispore: Outer integument of spore. Dissipiments: Partitions within a fruit. Endopleura: Innermost seed-coat. Epipetalous: Inserted on the petals. Endogenous: Having no distinction of pith. nearly parallel. Fibrils: Root-hairs. as the maple and the elm or outer parts.
Fid: Cleft. Gibbous: Having sacs or pouches. Glume: Scales at the base of flowers of grasses. Gamosepalous: Having sepals united. algae. Frond: The leaf-like expansion of ferns. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Fovilla: The contents of pollen grains.. Gamopetalous: Having petals united. Genus: A group of closely allied species. Homologous: Of the same fundamental nature. Gynandrous: Having stamens and pistils united. Glabrous: Smooth. Hermaphrodite: Perfect. Hybrid: A mixture of two species. Furcate: Forked. as in the cypress and juniper. Hilum: Scar left by separation of seed from placenta. Flabelliform: Fan-shaped. Gynephore: The stalk of an ovary. Foliaceous: Leaf-like. Heptandrous: Having seven stamens. Galactophyga: Medicines that arrest the lacteal secretion. Hairs: Thread-like appendages of the epidermis. Foramen: The aperture in apex of ovules. Filament: The stalk bearing the anther. Hesperidium: A berry with a leathery rind (e. Filiform: Thread-like. more swollen on one side than on the other. Gynecium: The female portion of a flower. Herbs: Plants having annual stems. Haustoria: Little roundish projections or suckers of fungi. Florets: The small flowers in a head of Compositae. Germicide: Any substance that kills parasites. orange). Galbulus: A rounded and modified cone. Galeate: Helmet-shaped. Hetaerio: Fruit formed by fleshy receptacle. Helicoid: Twisted like a snail shell. the point of attachment. as petals and leaves. Glomerule: A cymose inflorescence of globose form. Habitat: The situation or country in which a plant grows in a wild state. etc. Flocculose: Woolly. Fimbriated: Fringed.g. Gymnospermous: Having naked ovules.312 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Fibrovascular: Containing fibers and conducting elements. having both stamens and pistil (flower). Fusiform: Spindle-shaped. Hemostatics: Medicines that arrest bleeding. Flagelliform: Whip-shaped. Flexuose: Wavy. Hepatic: Referring to the liver. Funiculus: The stalk of an ovule. as bifid. Follicle: Fruit of one carpel dehiscing by ventral suture. Globose: Roundish. devoid of hairs. Germination: The first act of growth of embryos. Galactagogues: Drugs that increase the lacteal secretion.
and irritation. Inverted: Attached to top of ovary (ovules).e. Inferior: Growing below another. Keel: See Carina. Infra-axillary: Arising from the axil. Lateral: Attached to the side. i. Intine: Inner lining of pollen grains. squirrels. Internode: Interval between nodes. the lower petal of an orchid. Insecticide: Any substance that kills insects. Leaflets: The divisions of compound leaves. or appearing to have. Inarticulate: Not jointed. on the receptacle. cats. Hydrophytes: Plants living entirely in water. Jointed: Having. Incanescent: Hoary. Intoxicant: A drug that excites or stupefies. Lamina: A leaf-blade. Labellum: (Lip). Lanceolate: Lance-shaped. Knots: Broken ends of branches enveloped in woody growth.. Latex: The milk-like fluid in laticiferous vessels. Hydrophobia: Rabies caused by the bites of infected animals. two or three times longer than broad. Lacinate: Fringed. Imbricated: Overlapped. Indefinite: More than 20 (stamens). Hypogaeous: Subterranean. i. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Inflorescence: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Labiate: A monopetalous corolla with two irregular divisions. Indusium: The covering of the wori or fruit-dots of ferns. Induplicate: Having margins folded inward. Imparipinnate: Odd-pinnate. inflammation. Included: Shorter than the corolla tube (stamens). Hypocrateriform: Salver-shaped. Hypophyllous: Growing from inside of leaf. etc. Causing watery evacuations. Labium: Lower lip of labiate flower.e. Laxative: A mild purgative. as innate anther. dogs. either by mechanical or chemical action. joints or nodes. Hygrometric: Sensitive to moisture. Inflexed: Bent inward. Irritant: Any substance causing pain. Indehiscent: Not opening when ripe (fruits). rabbits.GLOSSARY 313 Hydragogue: Herbs having the property of removing accumulations of water or serum. having a long narrow tube with limb at right angles. Hypnotics: Medicines producing sleep without causing any cerebral excitement. like shingles. layer. Introrse: Turning toward the axis. Infundibuliform: Funnel-form. Hypogynous: Growing from beneath the ovary.. Involute: Rolled inward. Involucel: Involucre at the base of partial umbels. Innate: Adhering to apex. Lacuna: A space between cells. Hypanthodium: A fleshy receptacle enclosing flowers.
Napiform: Turnip-shaped. Monadelphous: Having filaments united into a tube. Monecious or Monaecious: Having male and female flowers on the same plant. with upper lobes largest. Moniliform: Necklace-shaped. Locusta: The spike of grasses. Medulla: The pith of exogens. Loculi: Cavities in lobes of anthers. Lyrate: Lyre-shaped. Ligule: A strap-shaped corolla (of Compositae). Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp. Lobe: A rounded portion or division. Mydriatic: A medicine that causes dilation of the pupil. Midrib: The large central vein in leaves. Monogynous: Having one carpel. or stigma. Leukorrhea: Whitish discharge from the vagina. with hard tubercles. Lobate: Divided into lobes. found at the ends of young stems. Masked: Labiate. Masticatory: A substance that when chewed increases the flow of saliva or which can be masticated. Multilocular: Having many cells (ovary). Monandrous: Having one stamen. Monosepalous: Having sepals united. Myotic: The contracting of the pupil. Monocotyledonous: Having one cotyledon. Liber: Inner layer of bark of exogens.314 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Legume: A two-valved pod dehiscing by both sutures. Micropyle: The aperture in seeds corresponding to the foramen in ovules. often caused by fungus infection. Multifoliate: Having more than seven leaflets. Metamorphosis: Change of one organ into another. Lithontriptic: A medicine that dissolves stone in the bladder. Lomentum: The moniliform legume. Muricate: Rough. Mucronate: With a short spine at apex. with parallel sides. leaves. but with lipclosed (flower). Monospermous: One-seeded. Mesophloem: Middle layer of bark. Limb: The free upper part of a petal. Mesophyll: The parenchyma within the epidermis of leaves. Monopetalous: Having petals united. Ligulate: Strap-like. the dissipiments remaining undivided (capsular fruits). Lunate: Crescent-shaped. and roots. Monstrosity: Deviation from ordinary structure. Medullary rays: Plates of tissue passing from pith to bark. Multifid: Many-cleft. Mericarp: The component carpels of fruits of Umbelliferae. Loculicidal: Dehiscence through the back of cells. Meristem: A kind of actively dividing cell-tissue. Lenitive: A medicine that allays pain. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Marcescent: Persistent and of a withered appearance (calyx). Linear: Narrow. style.
Pectinate: Resembling a comb (leaves). Octandrous: Having eight stamens. with lobes nearly free. Offset: A short. Pappus: The coronate calyx of Compositae. Obsolete: Suppressed. Nervation: Arrangement of leaf-veins. Parenchyma: Soft tissue consisting of thin-celled walls. Obvolute: With opposite margins alternately overlapping. Ocrea: A membranous stipule sheathing the stem. in large doses. Nut: A hard. Panduriform: Fiddle-shaped. Nauseant: An agent that causes sickness at the stomach. as in the pea-flower. Nutrient: A medicine that replaces waste material-affording nourishment. Opercular: Dehiscence where faces (valves) of anther open like a trap-door Opposite: Arrangement in pairs against each other. Pedatisected: Pedate lobes extending nearly to midrib. Palmatifid: Palmately five-cleft. Paripinnate: Equally pinnate.GLOSSARY 315 Narcotics: Powerful drugs producing stupor and. indehiscent. rounded. with lateral divisions again subdivided. and nourished by. another plant. but lobe extending only half way to midrib. as ergot. Nervine: A medicine that calms the nervous system. Node: Point where the leaf develops. Parasiticide: A substance that destroys parasites. thick runner. Pectoral: A medicine having a healing influence on the chest or lungs. Oblique: Unequal sided. Palate: Projection of lower lip of personate corolla closing throat. Obtuse: Blunt. Orbicular: Circular. Pedatifid: Pedate. the veins proceeding from a common carrier. Parietal: Attached to walls of ovaries (placentae). Paleae or pales: Chaffy inner scales of flowers of grasses. Parturient (oxytocic): A medicine that aids in childbirth. having tufts of leaves at extremity. death. Palliative: A medicine that relieves but does not cure. Nectar: Fluid secreted by nectariferous glands. Obcordate: Inversely cordate. Papilionaceous: The corolla consisting of five petals called the standard. Partite: Divided nearly to base. Pedatipartite: Pedate. apex broad (leaf). Oxytocics: Medicines that produce abortion by causing the contraction of the uterus upon its contents. one-celled fruit. Pedate: Palmate. the wings. Ovary: The part of pistil that contains ovules. Ovule: The unfertilized seed. Panicle: A branched (compound) raceme. Parasitic: Growing upon. Obovate: Inversely egg-shaped. Papillae: One-celled secreting glands on the epidermis. and the keel. Nephritic: Botanicals having an action upon the kidneys. Palmate: Having usually five lobes. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Nodulose: Necklace-shaped.
Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland. Perennial: Lasting several years and flowering annually. Perfoliate: Pairs united at base (leaves). melon. female. but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx. Phelloderm or mesophioeum: The green layer of bark. Pistil: The female organ of flowering plants. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Perfect: Containing both stamens and pistil (flower). Preventive: A medicine that prevents or hinders a disease. Poison: An agent that destroys life when introduced into the system. Phyllodia: Leaf-like petioles. Placenta: Internal projection of ovary bearing ovules. Perianth: The calyx and corolla combined (or both petaloid).316 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Pedicel: A secondary peduncle. dehiscent fruits. Protectives: Medicines used to cover inflamed or injured parts. Polygamous: With male. few-seeded. Pome: An inferior. lateral divisions from margin to midrib (leaves). Pilose: Hairy. Pinnatipartite: Pinnate lobes almost free. Perisperm: The albumen of a seed. usually of family Leguminosae. Phyllon: Greek word meaning leaf. Peduncle: A flower-stalk. Phyllotaxis: Leaf-arrangement on stem. Perigynous: Having the ovary free. fleshy fruit. Procumbent: Lying flat on ground (stem). Pentandrous: Having five stamens. and the like. Pulvinus: Cushion at base of some leaves. Pinnatisect: Pinnately divided almost to midrib. Pinnate: Resembling a feather. with petiole attached at or near the center. Pod: A general name given to dry. resembling a mouth. Polycotyledonous: With more than two cotyledons. Petals: The corolla leaves. Peltate: Shield-shaped. Periderm: The corky layer of bark. pointed cells. Pericarp: The covering or intenguments of fruits. Proliferous: Bearing progeny in the way of offshoots. squash. Pepo: A gourd-fruit. Plumule: Rudimentary bud of embryo. Phaenogamous or phanerogamous: Producing flowers. Pinnatifid: Pinnate only half way to midrib. Poly-: A prefix signifying several or many. Personate: Masked. Plicate: Plaited in fan-like folds. Pollen: The fertilizing powder of anthers. Pinnae: Leaflets of compound leaves. Prosenchyma: Tissue consisting of elongated. Phycocyan: The blue pigment of sea weeds. Petiole: Stalk of a leaf. Pubsecent: Downy. indehiscent. and perfect flowers on the same plant. Petaloid: Resembling petals. Pendulous: Hanging down. Primine: Outer coat of ovules. Purgative: A medicine that produces increased discharges from the bowels. two or more celled.
dry. such as glands. Rhizome: A prostrate subterranean stem. Scape: A slender radical peduncle. with reflexed margins (estivation). with deep notch in middle (leaves). Reclinate: Bent downward. Quadrifoliate: With four leaflets diverging from a point. Runcinate: Jagged margin. Pyxis: A capsule dehiscing transversely (by lid). Rotate: With tube short and hub spreading (corolla). Root: The descending axis of the plant (to fix and absorb nutrients). Retrorse: Directed backward. Raceme: A spike with flowers borne on pedicels. Refrigerants: That which relieves thirst and gives a feeling of coolness. a continuation of seed-stalk (when the funicle is fused with the seed-coat). and producing pustules. one. indehiscent. bearing leaves and rootlets. Rubefacient: A medicine that causes redness when applied to the skin. Rhaphides: Inorganic crystals in the plant cells (bundle of needles). Serrulate: Very finely saw-toothed. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . rooting and budding at nodes. Samara or Key Fruit: A superior. Saccate: Sac-like. Ringent: Labiate. Radical: Springing from roots.GLOSSARY 317 Pustulants: Medicines affecting isolated portions of the skin. Recurved: Bent backward. Sialagogue: A medicine that increases the secretion of the salivary glands. Setaceous: Bristle-shaped. Scales: Metamorphosed or rudimentary leaves. Raphe’ (rhaphe): Nutritive cord. Revolute: Rolled backward. its function being to support the flower organs. Sheath: See Ocrea. bristly hairs. etc. Sclerenchyma: Parenchyma or prosenchyma with thickened and hardened walls. Radicle: The embryo root (small root). Scorpioid: Rolled in a circinate manner. Reniform: Kidney-shaped. Sagittate: Shaped like an arrowhead. Rachis: The axis of inflorescence. Sclariform: Barred or striated. Retuse: Obtuse. winged. creeping.or two-celled fruit. Scarious: Thin. Sedative: A medicine that lowers functional activity. Restorative: A remedy to restore vigor or health. Putamen: Hard stone in certain fruits (drupes). Reduplicate: Valvate.. Resolvent: A medicine that removes hard tumors. Runner: A slender. Schizocarp: A fruit splitting into one-seeded indehiscent pieces. prostrate stem. Rostrate: Terminating in a beak. Serrate: Toothed like a saw. with wide lips (corolla). Receptacle: The summit of the peduncle. and shriveled. Rupturing: Dehiscing irregularly. with backward pointing teeth (leaves). Sarcocarp: A fleshy mesocarp. Setae: Stiff.
Suture: A line of junction. bearing the stigma. Thalamus: The receptacle of a flower. Stolon: A trailing and rooting branch (type of runner). and leaving a replum (Cruciferous fruits). Syngenesious: Having anthers united into a tube. Suppurant: An agent that causes the formation of pus. Spathulate: Spoon-shaped. dehiscing from below upward. Thyrsus: Branched panicle forming a pyramidal cluster. Stipitate: Stalked. leafless. spiral branch. Sinuate: Having a wavy margin. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC .318 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE Silique: A long. Squamose: Scaly. Synandrous: See Syngenesious. Spine: A pointed modified branch. Stoma: Breathing apertures in epidermis. Suspended: Attached between apex and base of ovary (ovule). Styptics: A botanical causing capillaries (tiny blood vessels) to contract and thus stop supervicial hemorrhage bleeding. Syncarpous: Having carpels cohering. and one short pair. Superior: Placed above and free from some other organ. Standard: The upper petal of a papilionaceous corolla. Stylopodium: Fleshy disc carrying styles (Umbelliferae). Subulate: Awl-shaped. Stipule: Appendages at base of petiole. falsely two-celled pod. Thorn: Same as Spine (usually for stems). Ternate: Arranged in threes. in pairs. Teniafuge (taenifuge): A medicine that expels tape-worms. Soboles: Slender rhizomes. Stigma: Portion of carpel to which pollen adheres. Sternutatory: A medicine that causes sneezing. Stipe: Petiole of Fern. Taproot: A simple conical root with branches. with short hairs. Sporangium: A spore-case. Supervolute: Rolled in on itself (vernation). Tomentose: Pubescent. Spathe: A large bract including an inflorescence. Spores: Reproductive bodies of Cryptogams. Spike: An inflorescence of sessile flowers on an elongated axis. Stomachic: A stimulant to the stomach. may be modified leaf or stem. Testa: The external integument of the seed. Stamens: Male organs of flowers. Tendril: A thread-like. Sudorific: A medicine that produces violent sweating. Stimulant: A medicine that increases functional activity. Tetradynamous: Having six stamens: four long. Strobilus: A spike of membranous imbricated scales bearing pistillate flowers at their bases. Tegumen: The inner seed-coat. Spadix: A succulent spike (within a spathe). Solvent: A medicine that dissolves solids in the system. Style: The prolongation of ovary.
Uncinate: Hooked. Lucius E. Umbel: Inflorescence with pedicels all proceeding from one place. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra (the outlet from the bladder). 529-536. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Valvate: United only by the margins. Valves: Portions detached by definite dehiscence. Volute: Rolled up. Verrucose: Covered with warts. Utricle: A superior. Vittae: Oil canals in fruit-coat of Umbelliferae (schizogenous oil ducts). Vulnerary: A medicine that causes wounds to heal (salves). Wart: A solid glandular excrescence on epidermis. or erect (upper) petal of a papilionaceous corolla. one-celled. Trichomes: Hairs. Sayre. Tricostate: Three-ribbed. Zones: Concentric bands. Whorl: A circle of leaves around a stem. Vesicants: Medicines producing a decided redness of the skin with formation of serum between epidermis and dermis. Torus: The receptacle or thalamus. Truncate: Terminating abruptly.. few-seeded fruit.GLOSSARY 319 Tonic: A medicine that gives tone to the system by stimulating nutrition. Verticel: A whorl. Vasodilator: A botanical that causes blood vessels to dilate. Toxic: Poisonous. Vexillum: The standard. * Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. Venation: Arrangement of veins in leaves. Trilocular: Having the ovary three-celled. 1895. Urceolate: Urn-shaped. Versatile: Freely swinging. Unilocular: Having one division (ovary). Vermifuge: A medicine that expels worms without killing them. Tristichous: Leaves with three-ranked phyllotaxy. Tubercles: Enlarged oval or rounded portions of root. Tuber: An enlarged portion of underground stem. pp.
Duke. Ltd. Churchill Ltd. 1971. T. Merck Research Laboratories. Wallis. J. Biddles. 7.. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and their Activities.. © 1999 by CRC Press LLC . Y. Duke. SpringerVerlag. Ehrhart & Karl. St. Tyler. 11. 1993. 13. 21. 1992. M. 9. 2nd ed. H.E. 1975. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. 1990. Huntington. K. Rockville. MD. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. Pharmacopoeia Convention of the American Institute of Homeopathy. Ltd. Boca Raton. E. Louis. 17. Vol. & A. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. Wagner and S. Bladt.. London. Vol. P. 1997. New York. Biddles. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals — A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. 8.320 BOTANICALS: A PHYTOCOSMETIC DESK REFERENCE RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS 1.. 1974. I and II. 3.. Paris.. I and II. The National Formulary XVIII. 23. Potter & Clarke. 1932. London. Gast Bank Note and Litho Co. The Merck Index.. Wall. Tease and Evans. Bisset. A.. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. FL 1992. Guenther.C.. Dover Publications. 1992. 10. 6. Foter. V. 14. Textbook of Pharmacognosy.C. CRC Press. 20. Plant Drug Analysis. Boca Raton. Notes on Parmacognosy. 1996. 13th ed. The Honest Herbal. New York. Natural Products Chemistry.. Vol. Ltd. 1964.E. Herbs of Choice. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. Youngken. Merck & Co. J. R. New Jersey. Wren.. Pharmacognosy.. U. Robert E. 1–7. New York.A. 1902. 2nd ed. 3rd ed. Tyler. Bailliere Tindall.. NY. Bournemouth.E. Vol. 1994. CRC Press. CRC Press. Mack Publishing. Nakanishi et al. John Wiley & Sons. 24. MIS Publication.. PA. Krieger Publishing. Academic Press. U. Grieve. Lavoisier. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and other Economic Plants. IL. 1936. FL. O. Medpharm Scientific Publishers. 1994.. V. Inc.. FL. 1996. 1983.. Chicago. 15. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. 1995.. G. 12.K. 4th ed. Philadelphia. Blakiston’s Son & Co. 1930. British Herbal Medicine Assoication. 16. American Medicinal Plants of Major Importance. 5. The Essential Oils. 2. Haworth Press. British Herbal Compendum. New York. 18.A. 4. 7th ed. 19. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 1995. Aug. Berlin. D. A.K. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. H. Washington. American Pharmaceutical Association. U. Boca Raton. Bruneton. N. Leung and S. 1960. 12th ed. Haworth Press. British Herbal Medicine Association. 1996.. The Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Stuttgart. 1989. MO.K.W. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. 22. 4th ed. A Modern Herbal... 1. J. J.
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