Introduction of shaper machine 
The metal working shaper was developed in

the year 1836 by James Nasmyth.  The shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool used for producing flat surfaces  Sometimes irregular or curved shape also produce by shaper.  It is widely used in machine shop  It is easy to setup and operate.

Image of shaper machine

Working principle 
The job is held in the suitable device (vice)

clamped rigidly on the machine table.  The cutting tool is held in the tool post mounted on the ram of the shaper.  The ram move in reciprocate motion so it cut the material from work piece during the cutting stroke.  The job is given a feed motion perpendicular to the direction of tool movement.

 Generally cutting action take place in the forward

stroke, which is also known as cutting stroke.  No cutting material take place during the return stroke of the arm its called the idle stroke.  At the end of one cycle consisting of one to and fro motion of cutting tool.

which supports all the other parts of the machine. .Principle parts of shaper  Base : it consist of a heavy cast iron structure.  Column: it act as a housing of eclectic circuits and operating mechanism of shaper.

 Table: it is box type construction with T-slots cut on it to hold vice and the job rigidly. semi circular in shape. which is inside the column .  Ram: it is reciprocating part of shaper.  It gets it drive from quick return mechanism.

It is also provides vertical and angular feed movement of the tool and allow tool to lift automatically to provide relief during idle stroke. Tool head: The tool head of shaper is used for holding the tool rigidly. .

. According to the movement of the ram.Classification of shaper According to the length of the stroke  30 cm shaper  45 cm shaper  60 cm shaper 2.  Horizontal type  Vertical type 1.

According to the type of the drive  Geared type  Crank type . According to the type of design of the table  Standard shaper  Universal shaper 4.3.

  According to the type of the cutting stroke Push type shaper Draw type shaper .6.

2.Horizontal shaper:  it is very popular type of shaper.  In this shaper ram is holding the tool head reciprocate in the horizontal axis. . Vertical shaper:  The ram holding the tool reciprocates in a vertical axis. 1.

 Vertical shaper may be crank drive or hydraulic drive. groove or slots. In some of the vertical mechanism provision is made to allow the adjustment of the ram to an angle of about 10 degree from the vertical position. .  It is for key way.

This type of shaper in not very widely used 3. .Crank shaper  This is the most common type of shaper in which crank and slotted mechanism is used to give the reciprocating motion to the ram. 4. Geared shaper  The reciprocating motion of the ram is given by means of a rack and pinion.

. Draw type shaper  In this type shaper the metal will remove in the backward stroke 5.  Metal is removed in the forward stroke. 6.Push type shaper  This is the most general type of shaper.

. 7. vertical and horizontal. to give the feed. STANDARD OF PLAIN SHAPER:  A shaper is termed as standard or plain when the table has only two movements.

Shaper size and specification  Length of stroke  Maximum vertical travel 610mm 475mm 450mm 3 HP of table  Maximum horizontal Travel of table  Power of the motor .

 Approximate net weight  Floor space required 1750 kg 1981 x 1067 (mm) .

 It required the forward stroke move slowly and backward stroke move fats to reduce machining time .Quick return mechanism  In the standard type shaper metal is remove by the forward stroke and return stroke goes idle.  During this operation period reduce the machining time it is necessary to reduce the time taken by the return stroke.

This mechanism is known as quick return mechanism 1. Crank and slotted link mechanism 2. Hydraulic mechanism  .

Crank and slotted link mechanism Slotted link mechanism A .Ram C .Crankpin A E .Bull Wheel G .Clamping nut B .Link D D .Slot .Slotted crank B F .

 Slotted link mechanism is very common in mechanical shapers. The mechanism is simple and compact.  It converts the rotary motion of the electric motor and gearbox into the reciprocating motion of the ram  The slotted link mechanism gives the higher velocity during the return non cutting stroke than during its forward cutting stroke thereby reducing the time wasted during the return stroke .

.  The bull wheel has a slot. The crank pin A is secured into this slot. The bull gear is driven by a pinion which is connected to the motor shaft through a gearbox with four. eight or more speeds available. at the same time it can slide in the slotted crank B.

This makes the slotted crank to oscillate about its one end C. When the bull wheel rotates. the crank pin A also rotates and side by side slides through the slot in the slotted crank B. The intermediate link D is necessary to accommodate the rise and fall of the crank .  This oscillating motion of slotted crank (through the link D) makes the ram to reciprocate.

the longer is the stroke.  Similarly.  The cutting stroke of the ram is completed while the slotted link goes from left to right. . The position of the crank pin A in the slot in the bull wheel decides the length of the stroke of the shaper. during return stroke crank pin changes its position from right to left.  The further it is away from the centre of bull wheel.

Way value F .Hydraulic Shaper Drive Mechanism A .Pump G .Return stroke B .4.Motor .Base E .Cutting Stroke D .Shaper ram C .

the ram is driven by a hydraulic cylinder. . However.  A lever operates a valve that varies the quantity of oil delivered to the rain cylinder and thereby governs the ram speed. A hydraulic shaper has the same major parts as the mechanical one.  The speeds of the shaper ram and the feeds of the work table are controlled by hydraulic mechanism.

.way valves.  When the ram reaches far end of the stroke the position of the for way valves is changed by the action of pilot valves.  Oil from the other side of the cylinder is return to the sump via 4. In these mechanism oil supply under pressure by the pump to the left side of the cylinder where it is used to push the piston and with it ram of the shaper  Flow control valve is used the regulate the oil supply.

.  The cutting speed of the ram remain constant throughout most of the stroke. Now oil enter from the right side and return through the left side.

 Power consumption is low . Advantages and disadvantages: The control of rate of flow and pressure is quite easy.  The drive has built the protection against overload  Moving parts are less  Drive has self lubricating properties  Its smooth and jerk free.

. Disadvantages : Primary cost is high  Not suitable for difficult job  Oil leakage is major problem  Any change in the properties of the oil due to temp. variation may lead to slight variation in the draive.

Shaper feed mechanism  The feed of the shaper usually obtain by the means of ratchet and pawl  Pawl and ratchet type mechanism is used to move the small distance of machine parts such as shaper table  The pawl is move back and forth with help of eccentricity pushes the ratchet through one or more teeth in each forward stroke while it just slide over the ratchet teeth in the backward stroke .

. The angular displacement of the ratchet screw is converted into linear movement of the sliding member.


The slotter has the vertical ram and a hand or power operated rotary table. In some slotter m/c the ram inclined at 100 to either side of the vertical position when cutting inclined surface.Slotting Machine  Introduction: 1. 2. . Slotting machine is use for key way . A Slotting machine or slotter may be consider as a vertical shaper. 3. 4.

Principal parts of slotter .

. Base: The base is rigidly built and is cast integral with column.  Cross-slide: the cross-slide is mounted on the guideways of the saddle. The top of the bed and the front face of the vertical column are accurately to provide guide ways for the saddle and ram.  Saddle: The saddle is mounted on the guideways and moved towards the column.

At its bottoms it carries the cutting tool. A slot is cut on the body of the ram for changing the position of the stroke.  Ram: Ram reciprocates vertically up and down. Rotary table: The rotary table is a circular table mounted on the top of the cross-slide.Its rotate by hand or by automatic device. .

It is designed It is designed large amount of metal from large casting.Types of slotting Machines  Puncher slotter  Production slotter  Tool room slotter  Puncher slotter: The puncher is the heavy duty machine with power full motor. The length of the stroke is also large. .

 Production Slotter: This is the common type of slotter used for general production work. The drive of the ram is by means of slotted disc and connecting ram.  Tool Room Slotter: This slotting machine is of precision type is used for very accurate machining. It is lighter machine and is operated at very high speed. .

P required :457 mm :915 mm :762 mm :7.5 HP .Specification of Slotter  Maximum stroke  Diameter of rotary table  Longitudinal movement  H.

keyways and grooves.Operation performed on a slotter  Machining flat surface  Machining cylindrical surface  Machining irregular surface  Machining slots. .



such as a rack and pinion gear. but larger. instead of the cutter moving above a stationary work piece. or by a hydraulic cylinder. The work table is moved back and forth on the bed beneath the cutting head either by mechanical means. .Planer machine  A planer is a type of metalworking machine Tool  That is some what similar to a shaper. and with the entire work piece moving beneath the cutter.

 Planers and shapers were used generally for two types of work:  generating accurate flat surfaces  and cutting slots .

Principle parts of Planner machine .



A cross rail fitted between the two columns may carry one or two tool heads that can slide horizontally on the cross rail. one on each side of the bed.  It consists of mainly a massive bed on which the worktable reciprocates. . and two vertical columns or housing.  Each column carries a tool head that can be slide up and down on the column.Double Housing Planer  It is the most common type of planer.

 All the tool heads can be clamped in position. and can be used collectively or individually depending on the requirements .

The column and the cross rail carry single and double tool heads respectively. This type of machine permits machining of wide work pieces. .Open Side Planer  Open side planer consists of only one vertical column or housing on which the cross rail is mounted.


the table and the work piece resting on it remain stationary and the tool reciprocates across the work surface. . Pit type planer is preferred for very large work. where the weight of the work piece and the tool required table would make reciprocating movement difficult.Pit Type Planer  Construction and Working of Pit Type of Planer  A pit type planer differs from other planer in the sense that.

 The job is either mounted on a stationary table. . if required. and hence the name pit type planer. The entire unit travels along the horizontal ways and fro and. thus the tool moves past the work surface during operation. Once or two tool heads are mounted on the cross rail and two side tool posts the housings. or on the floor inside a pit.


.Edge Type Planer  This type of machine is used for  machining the edges of heavy work pieces. The work piece is clamped on the bed and the side mounted carriage supporting the cutting tool is reciprocated along the edge of the work piece.

3. Less time is required to setting the job. Large space required. More than one tool can used simultaneously. More time is required to setting the job. It is use for small size and light work piece. Planer 1. Generally single tool is used. machine. Less space required. It is comparatively light 2. 5. heavy machine. 4.Deference between Shaper and Planer Machine Shaper 1. 3. . It is comparatively 2. 4. It is used for large size and heavy work piece. 5.

. Palner consume 120 HP. Machine cost is less 6. 8. 7. 7.6. Stroke length is small 8. Machine cost is high. Shaper consume 15-20 HP.Stroke length is small.

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