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Acknowledgements
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Revision techniques 4 The heart. energy and exercise so
How to use this Revision Guide 5
Homeostasis 52
Health, exercise and sport 54
Question types in GCE Biology 6
Topic 7 checklist 56
Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species
ResultsPlus: Build Better Answers 57
Survival
Practice questions 58
Topic 5: On the wild side 8
Topic 8: Grey matter 60
Photosynthesis | 8
Responding to the environment 60
Photosynthesis 2 10
Neurones and nerve impulses 62
Energy transfer, abundance and distribution 12
Vision 65
Investigating numbers and distribution 14
The structure of the human brain 66
Speciation and evolution 16
Brain development 67
Greenhouse gases and the carbon cycle 18
Learning and habituation 69
Impacts of global warming 20
Effects of imbalances in brain chemicals 70
Topic 5 checklist 22
Uses of genetic modification 72
ResultsPlus: Build Better Answers 23
Topic 8 checklist 74
Practice questions 24
ResultsPlus: Build Better Answers 75
Topic 6: Infection, immunity and forensics 26
Practice questions 76
Decay and decomposition 26
Unit 5 specimen paper 78
DNA profiling 28
Unit 5 comprehension practice 82
DNA and protein synthesis 30
Unit 6: Practical Biology and Investigative Skills 84
Infectious diseases and the immune response 32
Getting started with your investigation 84
Infection, prevention and control 34
Planning 85
Topic 6 checklist 36
Planning- trial investigations 86
ResultsPlus: Build Better Answers 37
Observing and recording 87
Practice questions 38
Dealing with data 88
Unit 4 specimen paper 40
Interpreting and evaluating 89
Unit 5: Exercise and Coordination
Answers to in-text questions 90
Topic 7: Run for your life 44
Answers to practice questions 95
Muscles and movement 44
Answers to specimen paper questions 99
L Energy and the role o= ATP in respiration 46
Index 102
Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain 48
L
.
I

l
l
Check the spec.
If you use resources from
elsewhere, make sure they cover
the right content at the right level.
Getting started can be the hardest part of revision, but don't leave it too late. Revise
little and often I Don't spend too lon
g
on any one section, but revisit it several times,
and if there is something you don't understand, ask your teacher for help.
Just reading through your notes is not enough. Take an active approach using some of
the revision techniques suggested below.
Active I

works best when
Test yourself
Make sure you don't end up just copying out your notes in full. Use some of these
techniques to produce condensed notes.
• Tables and lists to present information concisely
• Index cards to record the most important points for each section
• Flow charts to identify steps in a process
• Dia
g
1 ams to present information visually
• Spider diagrams, mind maps and concept maps to show the links between ideas
• Mnemonics to heir you remember lists
• Glossaries to make sure you know clear definitions of key terms
Include page references to your notes or textbook. Use colour and hi
g
hlightin
g
to pick
out key terms.
Using a variety of approaches will prevent your revision beco-ing boring and will
make more of the ideas stick. Here are some methods to try.
• Explain ideas to a partner and ask each other questions.
• Make a podcast and play it back to yourself.
• Use PowerPoint to make interactive notes and tests.
• Search the internet for animations, tests and tutorials that you can use
• Work in a group to create and use games and quizzes.
Once you have revised a topic, you need to check that you can remember and apply
what you have learnt.
• Use the questions from your textbook and this revision
g
uide.
• Get someone to test you on key points.
• Try some past exam questions.
I
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Þ ~
Welcome to your Edexcel A2 Biology Revision Guide, perfect whether you're
studying Salters Nuffield Advanced Biology (the orange book), or the 'concept-led'
approach to Edexcel Biology (the green book).
This unique guide provides you with tailored support, written by senior examiners.
They draw on real 'ResultsPius' exam data from past A-level exams, and have used this
to identify common pitfalls that have caught out other students, and areas on which
to focus your revision. As you work your way through the topics, look out for the
following features throughout the text.
ResultsPlus Examiner's Tip
These sections help you perform to your best in the exam by highlighting key
terms and information, analysing the questions you may be asked, and showing
how to approach answering them. All of this is based on data from real-life A-level
students!
Resuli:sPius Watch Out
The examiners have looked back at data from previous exams to find the common
pitfalls and mistakes made by students- and guide you on how to avoid repeating
them in your exam.
Quick Questions
Use these questions as a quick recap to test your knowledge as you progress.
Thinking Task
These sections provide further research or analysis tasks to develop your
understanding and help you revise.
Worked Example
The examiners guide you through complex equations and concepts, providing step­
by-step guidance on how to tackle exam questions.
Each topic also ends with:
-opic Checklist
This summarises what you should know for this topic, which specification point
each checkpoint covers and where in the guide you can revise it. Use it to record
your progress as you revise.
ResultsPius Build Better Answers
Here you will find sample exam questions with exemplar answers, examiner tips
and a commentary comparing both a basic and an excellent response; so you can
see how to get the highest marks.
:�actice Questions
Exam-style questions, including multiple-choice, offer plenty of practice ahead of
the exam.
Both Unit 4 and Unit ' conclude with a Specimen Paper to test your learning. These
are not intended as timed, full-length papers, but provide a range of exam-style
practice questions covering the range of content likely to be encountered within
the exam.
The final unit consists of advice and support on research skills, giving guidance on
Practical Assessment to help you write better individual investigations.
Answers to all the in-text questions, as well as detailed, mark-by-mark answers to the
specimen papers, can be found at the back of the book.
We hope you find this guide invaluable. Best of luck I
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Control
Organism
Repeat
Measure
Same
-Are you investigating simply with I without a particular factor?
What range of values are you looking atl
-Are you using organisms of the same sex I age 1 size I species?
-Take readings more than once and average
-What are you measuring? How will you measure this? What units?
-Which variable(s) are you keeping constant?
Other HSW questions may concentrate on ethical issues surrounding topics such as
gene therapy or GM foods.
¡r1C¡Q¡C¨c¨Or O\ _|òQH5
The graph below shows the results of a survey in America, on the incidence of heart
disease in adults aged 1 8 and older.
Using the information in the graph, describe how the 1ncidence of heart disease is
affected by age and gender.
(3)
soo

400
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18-44 4S-64 6S-74 7S and over
Key
_ female
¸ male
You almost always get one mark for stating the general trend-in this case that the
incidence of heart rate increases, with increasing age, for both genders. You can then
concentrate on individual aspects of the data. In this case, what stands out most is that
females have a lower incidence of heart disease than males, except in the 18-44 age
group. You may also comment that the difference between the incidence in males and
females is largest in the 65-74 age group.
Finally, there is always one mark for manipulation of data. Note that this must
be manipulation -you don't get marks for reading off the graph and stating the
numbers, you have to do something with them!
=�¹CrO�O QUC5?ÌOÐ5
In the A2 units (Topic ì and Topic 5) you will come across questions with larger
numbers of marks, perhaps up to 6 or 7 marks in the question.
Questions in these units are designed to be synoptic-in other words, they are
designed for you to show knowledge gained in earlier units. Bear this in mind when
you answer the question: try to include relevant knowledge from your AS course when
answering these questions.
Remember, too, that if the question is worth 6 marks, you need to make six
creditworthy points. Think about the points that you will make and put them together
in a logical sequence when you write your answer. On longer quest1ons, the examiners
will be looking at your QWC (Quality of Written Communication) as well as the
answer you g1ve.
Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival
¨
• -_P sr
• €c ewe"
. c-V I . r, `
In Topic 7, Run for your life, you will
meet a very similar substance to
NAOP, called NAD. It too accepts
electrons but try not mix up the two.
Photosynthesis involves the r,.duction of carbon dioxid� (CC_to carbohydrate_
These carbohydrates can be used to provide egy in respiration (see Toprc 7 T he
hydrogen for this process comes from the spl itting of water by light, the waste oxygen
being released into the atmosphere .
This can be summarised like this:
ZH20 from the soil
/
4H
02
;co, f<Om <h• "m"Ph'"
Z('H20)
Diagram showing the main steps in photosynthesis. Light energy splits
strong bonds in water to give hydrogen and oxgen (which is released
to the armosphere)_ The hydrogen is stored in a fuel (glucose) by
reducing carbon dioxide to carbohydrate.
If you imagine the above happening three times, you have C6H1206, which is glucose
(and a number of other sugars, see Topic || AS).
So, the overall equation is:
The splitting of water by light is called photolysis. T he energy for this step is first
trapped by a pigment molecule called chlorophyll.
The overall process is achieved in two linked stages called the light-dependent
reactions and the light-independent reactions.
light-dependent
reactions
reduced NADP
light-independent
reactions
Summar of photosynthesis showing the linked light-dependent reactions (in which water is split
and ATP and reduced NADP are made). and the light-independent reacti ons (in which the energy
from ATP and reducing power from reduced NADP are used to make sugar).
Green Book 5.1 Orange Book 5.2
Topic 5: On the wild side
¯D6 î¡@DTOC{CiOC�T /Cõ÷I|´|¹:
In this process, a pair of electrons from chlorophyll is boosted to a higher energy level
by the light energy it has trapped. Here they are accepted by an electron acceptor
and then passed along a ch�:n of carriers. Energy released is used to convert ADP
and inorganic phosphate (Pi) into ATP This process is called photophosphorylation
(the light-driven addition of phosphate) The electrons then enter another chlorophyll
molecule. The electrons eventually pass to NADP with the hydrogen from water
to form reduced NADP. The ATP and reduced NADP are then used in the light­
independent reactions to make carbohydrate from carbon dioxide.
Key
-"� flow of electrons in non-cyclic
photophosphorylation
- y flow of electrons in cyclic photophosphorylation
increasing
energy
level
light
chains of electron carriers
NADP
+ 2H+
.
f
reduced
NADP
Diagram showing light-dependent reactions. Photosystems PSI and PSI/ are the two special chlorophyll
molecules which can release their electrons when struck by light
Q1 Name the substance which provides reducing power (electrons) and
the one which supplies energy for the light-independent reactions of
photosynthesis.
Q2 What is:
a reduction
b oxidation 7
� H '
� Eminer tip


You will not be expected to recall
details of photosystems but you
may be expected to understand
their roles if they are part of an
exam question.
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Eminer tip
:
¯: � • � • : •
Never try to answer a question witl
just a diagram, always include sam
explanation of what is going on.
Q1 The diagram shows the results
of an experiment in which air
containing isotopes 1802 and
water containing H2160 was
bubbled through a suspension
of algae.
'On·0n!ròllOn
CrOxyg0n
l50!O[0!!
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1imelUIÞ
Say how these data support the ide
that the oxygen given off by plants i
photosynthesis comes from water.
Green Book 5.1 Orange Book 5.2
Un|1 4.The Natural uv|!0lu£u'and Species `u|v|voÍ
The light-dependent reactions make ATP and reduced NADP which are then used in
the l i ght-i ndependent reactions (Calvi n cycle). The reduced NADP proviO.s reducing
power ,e. ecIrons or hydrogen) and the ATP provides the energy for the process of
maki ng carbon di oxi de i nto carbohydrate.
The key steps in the Calvin cycle are shown in 'he diagram.
1 Carbon dioxide combines with a 5-carbon
compound ca'led ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP).
This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ribulose
bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBISCO), the
? The 6-carbon compound formed is unstable and
immediately breaks down into two 3-carbon molecules,
glycerate 3-phosphate (GP).
J This 3-carbon compound is
reduced to form a 3-carbon
sugar phosphate called
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
(GALP). The hydrogen for the
reduction comes from the
most abundant enzyme in the world.
b 1en out of every 12
GALPs are involved in
the recreation of RuBP.
The ten GALP molecules
rearrange to form six
5-carbon compounds;
then phosphorylation
using ATP forms RuBP.
6ADP
Outline of the Calvin cycle.
ÍTF
L
6RuBP (SC) 12GP (3C)
(10GALP)
12GALP
¯
(3C)
Ü
o
6ATP ,, ,zo~t|;
o
!
glucose (6C)
(hexose)
reduced NADP from the light­
dependent reactions. ATP from
the light-dependent reactions
provides the energy required
for the reaction.
12ADP + 12P;
4Two out of ever y 12 GALPs formed
a� icvo�cd in �ec�ation�a
6-carbon sugar (hexose) which can be
converted to other organic compounds,
for example amino acids or lipids.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) provi des energy for chemi cal reactions in the cell.
æææ

.

Be careful when discussing NADP,
what it is and what it does.
• NADP has electrons/hydrogen
added to it in the light-dependent
reactions of photosynthesis. It
becomes reduced NAOP.
• NADP and ADP are not related in
photosynthesis and do different
things. One does not get converted
into the other.
Diagram showing some of the
fates of the glucose made in
photosynthesis.
When energy is needed, phosphate is removed from the ATP to give ADP and a
phosphate. The energy is released when the phosphate forms bonds with water. In the
photosynthesi s l i ght-dependent rea´lions, ATP i s made usi ng energy from l i ght.
ATP ADP ¬ Pi ~ energy
I n photosynthesis, the ATP made is used as a source of energy i n the l | gh!i ndepende`l
reactions. ATP is also used widel y in organi sms as a way of t|a|sferring energy. It is an
intermediate between energy-producing reacti ons and those that need energy.
Some of the glucose made in the Calvi n cycle is used by the plant in respi rð'i on. The
rest is used to synthesise all the molecules on whi ch the plant relies, for example other
simpl e sugars, polysaccharides, ami no aci ds, l | pi ds and nucleic aci ds.
DUCì�IC
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Green Book '.1 Orange Book '7
.
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Topic b. On '¯8W¦¦U´|u8


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Where UOes phc1c�yn1hesís huppeÞ?
In all eukaryotic cells there are memorane-bound structures cal l ed organel les. These
are the sites of speci al ised processes withi n the cell. For photosynthesis, plant cells
have a structure called the chloroplast. The di agram shows the functions which each
part carries out.
Thylakoid membranes- a_S.of
interconnected flattened fluid-filled
sa� Proteins, including photosynthetic
pigme�ts andelectron carriersare
-
embedded in the membranes and are
involved in the light- dependent reactions.
J|A loop - chloroplasts
contain genes for some
of their proteins.
Stroma- the fluid surrounding
the thylakol ¤e:branes.
~
•Contains al'the enzymes rt eeded
to carry out the light-independent
reactions of photosynthesis.
Thyla koid space
-
fluid within
the thylakoid membc>
contains enzymes for photolysis.
Starch grain -stores
the product of
photosynthesis.
�������Granum - a stack of

thylakoids joined to
A smooth outer membrane - which
is freely per meable to molecules
such as L0_ a¤0 |_0.
one another. Grana
(plural) resemble
stacks of coins.
Asmooth inner membrane -which contains many transporter
molecules. These are membrane proteins which regulate the
passage of subst ances in and out of the chloroplast. These
subs|anccsinclude sugars and proteins synthesised in the
cytoplasm of the cell but used within the chloroplast.
0
1 There are two steps where ATP is used in the Calvi n cycle. Where are they?
02
Whereabouts i n the Calvi n cycle is RUBISCO used and what does it do?
03
Copy and complete the tabl e of chloroplast functions below by suggesti ng,
for each structure wi thi n the chloroplast, the features that are adapted for
these functi ons.
Û

thylakoid membrane
thylakoid space
ǦoIUH
s¹roma
outer membrane
inner membrane
ºº�¯�´
r
��
R

li ght ·CE¦EHUEH¹ |EðC¹IOHS
photolysis of vd¹Eí
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[lOvlOCS 3 Sl¹C for ligh¹depeIdent reactlOns
li ght lnUE[CnCEnt re3CtioHs
fully permeable
[0¦H0dDíCto many substances v¦l´l HEE0 to
EH¹E¦or IEdvE I¦ECOICrCpl aSI
Much of what is discussed lnthis
topic can be summarised in the
form of diagrams or flowcharts.
But just reproducing such a
diagram in an examination will
rarely lead to full marks. Unless
the diagram is supported by some
text it WlíI not demonstrate your
understandi ng of the topic. If you
have a good memory and have
remembered, for example, the
Calvin cycle diagram accurately,
use this as a 03S/5for your answer,
not your answer!
. � . +..
Ü1 Look at the diagram of the Calvi
cycle on page ¡u.Wor k out hoV
many carbon atoms are involver
at each stage (RuBP, LU_,GP,
GALP, glucose).
ÇIe8u
B
oo
k 5
.
1 Orange bUUk '.z
|
Uni t 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival
Always double check that you have
copied numbers down correctly
and always do a rough calculation
with rounded numbers to get a
rough idea of the likely answer. Here
-what is J000/25O00?Well J/2!is
about J/21which is
1
/8, which is
about !2%
Plants make glucose in photosynthesis. Thi s can be turned into other molecules
i ncl udi ng starch, cellulose, proteins and fats. Thi s bi omass is food for both humans
and every other li vi ng thi ng on Earth, i ncludi ng the plants themselves.
The rate at whi ch energy is i ncorporated i nto organi c mole::ul es i n the plants i n
photosynthesis is called gross pri mary productivity (GPP). Plants use some of the
organi c molecul es in respi rati on (see Topi c /) I f we fi nd out the fi gure for GPP and
take away the amount of energy used i n respi rati on |), what is left is the rate at
which energy is transferred into new pl ant bi omass that ca1 be eaten by herbivores or
decomposers. This is called n et pri mary productivity (NPP). Al l of these variables are
measured i n energy uni ts (ki l ojoules) per square metre per year (kJ m-
2
year
1
) fixed in
photosynthesis or used in respiration.
The relati onshi p between GPP NPP and | is:
NPP ~ GPP- R
LDerggIIBDSÎGI
Herbivores eat pl ants. The energy i n the food is transferred from the primary producers
(pl ants) to the herbivores. They use much of the energy in respiration for movement
in the body. Some energy is lost as heat to the envi ronment. The rest i s available for
other ani mal s or decomposers. This can al l be summarised in an energy flow diagram.
2O0OO
·
1
`C

C
�� M


´
¯

totalsunl¦ght:7.1 X 106
lightabsorbed
by plants:
4.5×106
trapped in glucose= 4090
producers
food
2920
primary
consumers
storage
584O
153J0

^
¯¯
food
700
secondary
consumers
- detri¹us
15000
15000
decompo>
·
|/C/gyflow through the trophic levels of a
forest ecosystem. Ln|/:|im-2 year ´
|·1¬ |·|cjoo/esì
From this di agram we can calculate the efficiency of energy flow from one trophi c
level to the next, for example from producers to primary consumers. Fi rst we have to
fi nd out how much energy i s avail able to pri mary consumers:
energy trapped- energy plants use net primary
(GPP) i n respiration ,|) productivity (NPP)
44 090 20 000 24 090 kJ m-
2
year-
1
The transfer efficiency from producers to primary consumers is the amount transferred
to the primary consumers, 2920 kJ m-
2
year-
1
di vi ded by the amount potenti al ly
avai l abl e to them (24 090 kJ m-
2
year-
1
). `Othe answer i s:
efficiency of transfer " _` 100 ¨ 12.12%
Energy transfer efficiencies between trophi c levels vary greatly in di fferent ecosystems. A
rul e-of-thumb 10% is often quoted, but you wi ll fi nd values that differ widely from thi s.
Green Book './ Orange d00k '7
`.
1Op|6 b. 'ul¦´ VIC side
. 9
D?51rllu1lCD =DU ðluiUðD<e
lI c´¸ !cDlcl c S]´´´S O´´\]I´S c S]´·!!!´ niche C´l´!JI´C D¸ ´IV!OIJ´!lcI
·O´C¹lOIS (biotic c´C abioti< factors) c´C lÌ´ Vc¸ l!cl l!´ S]´·´S \S´S l!´
Ìc0Ilcl 'lOOC, SÌ´Il´!, Sìl´S, l´´CI´_ lJ´S¸ ´l´} '!´ CSl!·D\l¡OI 'V!´!´ l!´¸ c´´)
c!C c0\´Cc´·´ 'DOV |c!¸)c!´ C´l´!JI´C D¸ l!´S´ ´O!ClIO!S 'ÌcI_´S !l!´S´
´O´CIlOIS·c´ l!´!´lO!´ I´cC lO ·!cI_´SICSl!0\lOIc´Cc0\´Cc´´´
Primary succession Du]]´´S VÌ´I c!c!´c VÌ·! S C´VOC O!I!´ S lI!Sl colonised
0¸S]´´I´S ,\S\c¹I¸II´!·´c´CcI_c´ O! 0c!´!O´´)l!cl ´c!´O]´ II l!´ !cISÌ
·OICl!O!S !´S´ c!´ ·cII´C pioneer species !´¸cIl´!lD´ ´´V!O!J´Il Ic Vc¸
lÌcl Jc´´S Il c´ \IS\l¬0I´!OJ´lO! l!´J, 0\l S\lc0!´lO! ´´VS]´·´S lO ´SlcDIIS!
`!´ I´V S]´´´S O1l´I!´{Ic·´l!´´XSl!_ S]´´´S A SIIIc! {IO´´SS O´´\!S lJ´ c´C
c_c!, l!IO\_! Slc_´S r´OV´ cS seres, \!lI c Slc0I´ ´OJJ\!!l¸ S !´c·!´C '!Slc0I´
VOOC!cIC¸ ¹O! ´XcJ{I´¸ l!´´SC´ 0\l !´V O´´S OllÌ´ScJ´S]´·I´S_IOV lO!IIlD´
_c{ 1ÌSS ô climax community l!l!´SU´´´SSO´SlcIlSVl! IìVI´_lÌ!_Sc¡!´cC¸
]I´S´Il, lO! ´Xc!{I´!_!c7I´_ SlO]]´C ´ c !´cCOV, VÌ´! lD´I D´´cJ´ VOOCÍc´C,
lÌSS´cII´CS´·O!Cc!¸S\··´SSìO'
ise the area and this allows the
eve¦oonenrof tall trees. The grazers which might
the tree seedlings are discouraged by the often spiny
shrubs. Woodland is the climax community. I n the UI
the woodland is usually oak, ash and pine.
embryo dunes
ust behind the pioneers comes

couch grass which can build
dunes by trapping sand. It has
long sand-binding roots and
faster when buried.
building dunes fixed dunes
Marram grass nexrarea.
This plant can resist water loss by having
stomata on the inner surface of its leaves
which can roll up in dry weather. It also
faster when buried.
Succession in a sand dune system.
¹ wide variety of species now coloni
some. of them nitrogen fixers which
improve the levels of this important
nutrient in the soil. All add more
organic matter, improving water
holding capacity too.
Q1 |´V!Il´l!´ ´Ç\clOI NPP ¬GPP- | I´l´!JS O! |, I´ | ¬
Q2 VDcl Sc ´´Ì´´
ÛJ Here is another exanple of part of an energy flow diagram:
energy fixed in photosynthesis
!d ` 10
4
kJ m-2year-1
energy in new biomass of
primary consumers
0.1 X 10
4
kJ m-2year-1
respiration
Energy |!Ovfrom producers to consumers in a grassland
¹1 ` !ܯ
Calculate the efficiency of transfer from producers to consumers.
Biodiversity increases as
succession progresses, but at the
end it may go down again, as just a
few species dominate the climax.
OI´´I buuK ¯.z Oiange doÍJ
Unit 4: The Natural |hv|!ul08l! ólu Species Survival
voodlÕnd woodIandec¿e
How can we j¹ð·l·ðII¡ investigate where O¹_cIS!S live (distribution) and how many
there are (abundance)? The answer depends on what kind of habitat we are ! and
what we want to find out. A core practical is to carry out such an investigation.
If there appears to be a change across the area, a transect is the preferred method. If
two areas appeared di fferent and we wanted to compare them, we could take random
samples within each ò¹Cð I n both cases we would use a piece of equi pment called a
quadrat to estimate JOuOOJD.C.
openarea
Left: - transect with quadrats u:ed to investigate distribution and abundance of plant species on a woodland edge.
Right: Quadrats used to investigate distribution and abundance of plant species in grazed and ungrazed areas.
Candidates often confuse the idea
of a !|30S00!with the idea of a
qu30|3l. Make sure you do not mix
them up.
In your answers try to make sure
you talk about practical methods
you have actual experience of,
and an appropriate method for the
organism being discussed. Your
method should aim to produce valid
and reliable data.
Green HOOk 5.2
In ei ther case, the usual methods to ´Sl!cl´ abundance VO\IC be:
• Either count the i ndi vi dual s in a quadrat� this is not easily done with many plants,
such as grasses, but quite possible with organi sms such as l i mpets.
• Clfind the percentage cover of each species� thi s i s the most common method
with plants. These estimates are best made usi ng a quadrat that i s divided up i nto
smal l er squares and counti ng the number of squares or part squares occupi ed by
each species ! turn_ If, as S usual , there are 100 squares ! the quadrat then the
number of squares and part squares covered make up the percentage cover for
that pl ant.
A di fferent method involves the use of a point quadrat, in which pi ns are lowered
systematically on to the vegetation, any 'hits' on the pi ns bei ng recorded. These hits
are added together to give percentage cover using the equation:
O
hits
Yocover=
h t
. x100
1 s ~ m1sses
Orange HOuK 5.1
w
1Op| cb. Üh ¦l´\líU SUE
'´ O!C´! lO ðISV´I C\´´lOIS ð0O\llD´ O´l!0\lO´ ð´C ð0\´Cð´´´ ]ðll6!´´ ¸O\ DðV6
1O\´C I´ ¹!´ !ð0lðl¸O\ðI´ SluC,|´__ ,OU v|ll ð¡´O I´´C lO l6ðS\!6 ð I\!0´! O!
¹ð´lO!´
�� � ��������
..

• •
eneìq, |npu! U.e a l|qh! ne!ìe
na!e |nIOìna!|On aLOU! ìa|nlall anO !enpeta!Uìe can Le
OL!a|neO íìOn pULl|s|eO .Ouìce.

!OpOq´
aph, 1OpOqìap||cal .uìve,. nea.Uìe !le .|ape OI !he 'and
:Urve,Oi.´ level||nq eOu|pnen! can Le U.eO -!|e
.|nple.! ne\hOO Leìnq !O U.e ranq¦nq pOle. and
c||nOne!eì.
'
Ox,qen ava|¦aL|'¦!, U.e an O·,qen prOLe
ed,p||c IJc!Oì.

pH U.e a pH pìOLe Oì sO|l pH ·ì!
n:neial. !aìOenei. Ie.! ||!. can !e.! !le leve¦. O! |npOi!an!
nu!ì¦en!. .uch a. n|!ìa!e, phO.pla!e anO pO!a..¦Un
,NFK)
vaIeì 'O|l .anple can Le veìq|ed, Oì|eO .¦Ov¦, |n an Oven
anO ìeve|qheO !O q|ve !he na.. O! va!eì
Oìqar|c na!!eì 1|e dì, sO|l sanple can Le ve¦q|eO, LUìn! |n a cìuciL|e
anO ìeve|qheO ín, Oìqan¦c na!!er |. LUìn! O!!. vl¦cl
accOUnI. !Oì an, O:!!eìence ¦n na..

.O|l !e·!Ure 'O|l !ex\uìe chaì!. can Le U.eO \O a..e.. ¦I !|e .O|l |.
na|nl, cla, .|lI Oì .and
Q1 |X]Ið´VDðl ð´´Cð]DI´!ð´lO! l: ð!C _IV´ |||CC´Xðl]I´S
Q2 cX]Ið´lD´ l´ð¹I´Q Ol lÌ´´´ VOICS
´ìCD´ l!ðIS´Cl q\ðC!ðl
Q
3
'DOOS´ ð Dð0lðl yO\ ð!´ !ðlIð! VlD ðIC l|´¯ three 0IOl´ ðIC three
ð0Ol´ !ð´lO!SV!´Ì |iQh¯ ¨OO!|OlCISl!0\lO´ ð´C ð0\´Cð´C´ O! ðI
O!_ð´Sl !´ l
Û1 The !a.|e shows the data obtained ¦n a study of a sand-dune system.
z 3 ¬ ' 6
20 80 250 500 650 1800
0.4 0 ' 0.9 2.8 6.4 z..¬
8 16 / z
FloI the data in this table |¤ a suitable form on one sheet of ,a,cì+ |cc¤til, a¤, patterns and
comment on them.
¯ =
!¦´´l d00K ..z Orange �;,+
Unit 4: lC NclUIðI Environment c!O `|CcIES JdlVVðÍ
\void wl¦ting phrases like 'survival
1f the fittest' and 'struggle for
:xistence'. They will get you no
narks without proper explanation.
The theory of ´VOÍ\lIO! IS c0O\l !OV c!O V!y O!Çc´!S!S !cV´ ´!c!_´O OV´I l!´
What c´l\cÍ!y ´Dc!_CS´ allele frequency 'lD´ I´ÍclIV´ !´´Ç\´´´y ' 'c ]c´lI´\Ic´ cI!´I´
in c ]O]\IclO´) Ne�Urise !´O! ´c!CO! ´Dc´_CS ! the |l/ wDi´h makes \]
_´´´S (gene mutati ons) cJC ´I´cl´ VcIclO! VIlD!! l!´]O]\IclO! '´´´ c _´´´
'\lclIO´ !cS cQ|´cICO_l S ûClCO \]O! 0yl!t ´¹´´lO| ]re:sUlCs | ¯hC e´vÍ rO_!j��
|3¹.|3|:2|-c¯O| /[c([c|2CnO||.

>pCc.31tc
If l!´C´cS ]\l forward c0OvC were cII lDcl VcS l´VO¡VCC, species VO\IO ´Dc!_´ 0\l
lD´!´ VO\ÍC be no !´V S]´´CS '´ O!C´! for c new S]´´´S lO lO!J, ]c!l O1c´ ´XSlI!_
]O]\IclO´J\Sl 0´´O!´ reproductively isolated !lu 3Oe+�¯ This \:\cIIy
Dc]]´!S when c bc´I| e´ comes between two or !OIC]c´lS of ð!´7.Sl´Ç]O]\ÍclO!
'V´I lIlC¸ natural election !cy ´c\S´l!´Cl!´I´!l ]¯!l¯ of lDC]O]\ÍclIO´ to
CDc´Ç´ lO S\´! c! C7l´´ll!ðl ¡DCy Cc! !O 'O!_CI´lC´0´CCO lO]IOC\´´ fertile
O|¯]!´Ç c!C lDIS !cK´S l!´J lVO O! more different S]´´´S
|3OI¹3¹ i$OI3t¦on
tEm|O´aI ¦$oI 3t|oU
mE¹!3U¦c3I !¯oI3tIon
|E|3vlOUl3Í ISolation
Q3¹E¹lC ¦SOI3¹IO!

3

OjIo �US O´´Ujy C|¹¹-|
w
3DI¹o¹S ¹ the +�-~·+
so CO not meet to DIEEC
.
`jE·lES EX¦S¹ In the same 3lE3 DU! 3IE 3CiIv´ 'Ol

lEjlOCUC¹IOH 3¹ CIÍÍElE!¹ times.
The reproductive O:Q3ìS HOIOHQEí '¦¹ ¹OQEI¦-l

|OjUI3!¦O!S do not lE´jO!U to each other's
IEjlOCUC¹¦VE CisjIays
�ale and fE

m¦E gametes from two |OjUI3

¹¦OUS 3I-

¦UjIy ICj�

t

iIE V¦

c��h�r •

� �� �� � ��� � ��� � ~ ¯ ¯¯

� � �
|yOIIO s!E´IIity |E3I¹Iy individuals jlOCUCEO ¹lOI ¹|E ÎatiìQ of tVO
|yLl¦C inviability
O¦f!E´Elt sjE´iES cannot themselves |EjIOUU´E ,EQ
¹|´ UUIE)
'´C¦VIUU3IS jìOCUCEC from the ¹o¹¦!Q OÍ two different
SjE´¦ES 3íE 'O¹Ie3Ìt|y 3!U CO UO¡SUIV¦VE

'!C´! Book '~ Orange Book ;¯
1Op| cb. Ul ¦le wild side
4~
NGW GVÎOGDCG
Darwin's theory was very controversi al in its day and still is for some people. There are
now new types of evidence supporting the theory avai l abl e to us:
• The DNA molecule i s the same in al l organisms. Thi s supports Darwin's idea of
descent from a common ancestor.

DNA and proteins contai n a record of genetic changes that have occurred by
random mutations over time, i ndicati ng gradual change wi thi n and between
species. By studyi ng DNA (genomics) and proteins ,pro:eomlcs)l!´5´ changes can
be i denti fi ed. Compari ng the DNA or ami no aci d sequences in different 5{´´I´5 can
show how cl osely ¹´I8l´D 5]´´´5 are i n evolutionary terms. The more si mil ar the
sequence, the more closely I´Icl´O the species.
• Assessi ng the >(--O of mutation in DNA has shown thatspecies !cV´ evolved over
vast periods of ti me, as Darwin thought.
q I�OB IÎD@ GVÎOCOLC
Any new evidence must be careful l y studied before it can be accepted. The scientific
process has three key aspects whi ch try to ensure reliability and validity:

dedicated scientific journals
• peer review
• scientific conferences
There are thousands of scientific journal s publ i shed worldwide. Any research carried
out must be publ i shed i n at I´c5l O´´ Ol these so that it can be read by other
scientists. However, 0´lU¹´ it ´V´´ gets to thi s stage it has to undergo a jIO´´55 CcII´C
peer review. The edi tor of the ]OU¹IcI sends a potential paper to two O¹ three Ol!´¹
scientists in the same area of work. They generally ask:
• ' 5 the paper valid? (Are the conclusions 0c5´¹ on good methods and are the data
reliable?)

'5 the paper significant? (The paper must make a useful addition to the existi ng
body C!scientific <nCw¦cO
¸
c.)
• Is the paper original? (Or has someone else already done the same work?)
Onl y if the other scientists agree that the paper is all these things can i t be publ i shed.
Conferences al l ow scientists to set out their ideas i n front of other people who work
in the same fi el d. The suggestions can be assessed but there is no need to go through
the peer review process.
Q1 What must occur for S]´´IclOI to take pl ace?
Q2 Why is 8uI/|v0Íof the l'll´5l not ´IOUÇ! for evol uti on lODc{]´I·
Û1 William Wil berforce was a fiew
critic of Charles Darwin. He
used the argument that no new
species had ever been seen to
arise. Even in dogs, where eros�
breeding had been prevented
for many generations, the
different breeds were still able
to reproduce with each other, i.E
they were the same species.
Why does this !0îshow that
Darwin's theory is incorrect?
Green buuK¯- Ör3ng8 bUOͯ·¹
Uni t 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival
400
J60
Jó0
340
320
[ 300
O
¸280
>
¯ 260
E
C
_ 240
'220
There are a number of key questions to be aSked
• Are |L_ lev8l¯r|sing and is there global warming?
• Does o|e cause the other7
• How bad wi l l it get and can we do anythin_ to combat it?
To answer these questions we need !C |CC¦ at evidence from many different sources.
V/huÍ ìS 1he CV»Gen¨C ?Or glOUal WmmínQ`
��

temperature ¨Long¯term data sets allow changes in temperature to be analysed¿ e.g. the
records Central England Temperature series has records from 1ibÜ to the present.
tree rings Studying the size of tree rings is CòÌÌ6C O£DUIOCDIODOÌOgy. If the climate is
warmer and wetter then the rings are wider. We can look at tree ring widths
__over dÛÛÛ years into the past and can tell a lot about the climate from them.
pollen data Pollen grains are preserved in peat bogs. By sampling at different levels in the
peat we are sampling at different ages. Analysis of the pollen can tell us which
plants were growiH_ and so what the climate was like when the peat was
formed.
ice cores
2007level��
2.5
0
-2.S
-5.0
-7.S
-10.0
Air trapped in ice when it was formed thousands of years ago can be analysed.
This gives us information about temperatures and '!_ levels in the past.
It seems that we are in a warm period of the cai!¦> his!ory_ but is !¦is
caused by ¹isi ng C´_ levels?
Carbon dioxiue ifl the atmosphere i s known as a greenhouse gas. I t al lows
radiation to reach the Earth from the Sun. Some of this energy is trapped
by CL_ and the Earth warms up. This i s the greenhouse efect. Other
gases al so have thi s effect. for exampl e methane.
solar radiation
(visible and
ultraviolet)
160 120 80 40 0
Age/1 000 years before present
Changes in temperature and CL¸
concentrations over the past IôUUJU¡CJ/¯.
Remember that just because there
is a correlation it does not mean
that one thing causes the other
to happen. They may both be
fluctuating in stܵfor some other
reason.
Some infrared
emitted by the
Earth's surface
escapes and cools
down the Earth.
Some infrared
is absorbed by
greenhouse gases,
warming the
troposphere.
i nfrared radiation
from the Earth
Most solar radiation
is absorbed by the
Earth's surface,
which warms up.
Inputs and outputs of Cn6/gyï: the Earth's atmosphere.
Green Book '3 Orange Book b.·,5.4, 5.5
1O]Í6 b. On the wild side
The data support the theory of gl obal warming betng ' Jsed by humans, due l argel y
to CL_and methane emissions. So, the next question is, how bad wil l it get?
fOHQUIGI mOUe¡¡ÎDg
Any attempt to predict climate change in the future must rely on very complex
computer model s to extrapolate from what we know to what might happen. These
model s get better al l the time but they are l i mi ted by lack of computi ng powe
-
r,
-
sufficient data and_knovyledge of how the climate functions. Some factors such as
carbon dioxide emi ssi ons or changes i n i ce cover are �ery hard to predict.
�DBI CBD DG UCDe?
Science is tel l ing us about a possible future problem, but it can al so help to solve it.
This is because we al ready have an understandi ng of the cycling of carbon in nature.
Plants take i n CO_i n photosynthesis, and trees store a
lot of CO¿ as they gain size. Deforestation is thought
to be an important cause of íO_increase in the air.
The large-scale planting of new trees could reduce the
amount of CO_in the atmosphere.
One way of reducing C02 levels would be to grow plants
to use as fuel. They would only release the CO_they had
just taken in and so would be carbon neutral. However.
chopping down rainforest to grow palms for oil releases
more CO_than it takes in. and using corn to make ethanol
for biofuel deprives people of food.
!'C.3:¯O!.y.|0|¨!3|./°
carocn
compounds
in plants
feeding carbon
^^� compounds
in animals
' carbon compounds

.
in decomposers

·o0
dead organic foss\\\sa
\'
matter
carbonate
It is clear that there are a n umber of i nputs and outputs to and from the atmospheri c
reservoir of C´_ Unti l recently, the two have l argel y been in balance but now i t i s cl ear
that there is extra C´_ bei ng added to the atmosphere by human acti vity. Looking at
the cycle it can be seen that there are a number of ways we could i ntervene to offset
this.
Reforestation will increase the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere due to
an increase in photosynthesis.
The increase in the use of biofuels as opposed to fossil fuels could al so hel p
because the CL_released in burni ng the fuel wi l l onl y have been recently fixed in
photosynthesis; their use is therefore carbon neutral .
Q1 List |J!eesources of evidence that can be used to investigate cl i mate
change.
Q2 What is the l i kel y advantage, in terms of the greenhouse effect, of using
bi ofuels? Suggest one disadvantage.
It is well worth learning the carbon
cycle because you can work out
such ðlot from it.
Û1 Sketch the carbon cycle and use
it to explain how human activitv
has caused a build-up of 08I00ß
dioxide i n the atmosphere.
Identify the processes that
methods to reduce 8U05þ'5¯£
carbon dioxide would ÌU" U e-::
Green Book '' Orange Book ¯:. ¯+. ¯¯
UD|1 4`The Natural Environment and Species Survival
Global warmi ng wi l l i mpact on the cl i mate in many ways. In Britain a rise i n
temperature mi ght mean warmer. wetter winters. Rainfall patterns are also l i kel y to
be effected. This mi ght mean an increase in the risk of flooding in some areas. I n
other areas the risk mi ght be drought. Fi nal l y, the seasonal cycles may change so that
seasons are different in length and i ntensity. All of this will affect plants and ani mals in
three main ways:
Changes to species distribution
As the average temperature rises,
species in the south of the ÜK
may withdraw northward and
those restricted to places further
north may extend southward.
Also. species which cannot live
in these areas now may move in
(alien species) and out-compete
native species, rendering them
extinct i n the area.
Global warming
Rising temperatures.
changing rainfall patterns,
changes to seasonal cycles
Changes to development
In many reptiles. the
temperature affects the sex of
young that hatch from eggs, so
warming could cause a change
in sex ratios i n these species.
Possible ef of global warming and cimate change on living things.
Changes to life cycles
Organisms where temperature
is an important trigger for
development may well have their
life cycles disruptec. Insects may
get through their life cycle more
quickly and be ready to feed
before the plants they feed on
are mature.
Research has shown plants
flowering earlier. but by no
means always; i n a sample of
b00analysed some flowered
later.
Temperature affects enzymes and therefore whole organi sms- plants, ani mal s and
microorganisms.
Organisms may grow faster if temperatures rise by a few degrees. However, i f the
temperature rises too hi gh their enzymes wi l l denature and al l reactions will stop.
Green Book 5.3 Orange Book 5.6, 5.8
1O]|c b. On the wild side
r
c
¯=
¼
æ

¬
C
.
«
c
0 1û
.
?û 30 c0
Jemµe·-ìu·e,•´
The effect of temperature on the rate of enzyme-catalysed reactions. The optimum temperature, which
does not always have this value, is indicated by the arrow.
- ac·f cal 1
e

v��·�gation of 1!e e·fet' C1
�c�,e�oome�i
We can investigate the effect O¹ t´I]´!alUre on hatchi ng rates i n smal l i nvertebrates
called bri ne shri mps. I n this ]Ic´l´cI we want to vary temperature (independent
variable) and see how l c¹¹´´lS l!´ I.!0´! OÍ s!!iI]s hatched (dependent variable).
Th´r´ are other Vò!c0I´S V!´D IÇ!l c¹¹´´l lD´ |ale such as sal i!ity, pH cIC l l_hl
I´V´I ll S i mpo!lant to K´´] l!´S´ controlled or monitored d\|i n_ lD´ ´X]´!JI´!l¸
bOth to make the data Vc|D¸ cID lO´c!´ ¹O! lD´ ´X]´!II´!1òI c!IIc!S 'l S cISO
poss bIe to study the effect O¹temperature on seedI ng growlh rates. '! 0OlD
experiments dala¦ogÇ!Ç´c! 0´.S´ClO!o!lo! the temperature and ´ISUl´ reliable
!´sUlls.
There is little doubt that gl obal warming is happeni ng, but there are sti l l bi g questions
over what is causing i t and what we shoul d do about it. It i s quite normal for scientists
to disagree but this topic i s also a matter for publi c debate. Non-scientists may not
understand the uncertainty c!C!ctural'y want a clear answer. The people who wi l l
gi ve them thi s are often not the scientists but pol i ti ci ans, economists and other policy
makers. Qui ckl y the debate becomes politi cised and then lD´ usual i mpassionate
!´lDodology of sc.e!c´ b´´oI´s si d´l |´d.
It SOOI becomes cl ear lDcl Cclc c¦e b´ |Ç!t´rp!´ted VlD various hi dden cÇ´!CcS
c!C lD´! lDS 0´COI´S lD´ !´VS IclD´¦l!c! the science itself. So, S´´!lSlSc!´
c´´\sed of beiIg funded by oil companies if they argue agaiIsl lD´ ´Slc0ISD´C
]OI itccl V´V, o! ]ol il´i s´d ¹ they c!_\´ for it.
What concl usi ons ]eopIe '´cCD cI´ O¹l´I coloured by who funded the research 1D´¡
are doi ng, and pressures O¹´´OIO!I´S c!C ]oi itics.
Q1 What do we mean by an enzyme's optimum temperature?
Q2 Phenology is lD´ study of seasonal events. Give one event that may be
affected by ri si ng temperature for ani mal s and one for pl ants. _
Q
3
Why V¹II !CI´cSIÇ ´c¦0OI COX!C´ l´V´l s not jusl be balanced by i ncreased
pholosyIlDess?
Green Book 5.3
This enzyme temperature curve
is not symmetrical; the effects 0l
high temperatures are a sudden
and complete denaturation of the
enzyme, causing the curve to fall
very steeply.
Always consider the ethical
aspects of experiments you do,
especially those involving animals.
There are often questions about
this.
Û1 List some of the ethical
considerations when
experimenting on hatching
rates in brine shrimps.
UnÌJ 4`The Natural Environment and Species Survival
"

�� �
-

Photosynthesis Describe chloroplast structure and how this is related L02
¸ ¸
1 to their job in photosynthesis_
Describe photosynthesis as the splitting of water, L03
¸ ¸
storing of hydrogen in glucose and release of oxygen_
Describe the light-dependent reactions that trap light L04
. ¸
energy by exciting electrons in chlorop1yll, which are

then involved in making ATP and reducing NADP
Photosynthesis Describe ATP manufacture from ADP using energy LOS
¸ .
2 ATP provides energy for biological processes.
Describe the light-independent reactions in which L06
¯ ¯
carbon dioxide is reduced, using ATP and reduced
NAD, and the manufacture of polysaccharides and
other molecules.
Energy Calculate net pnmary productivity from the equation: L07
¸ ¸
transfer NPP * GPP
-
Í
abundance
Calculate efficiency of energy transfer between L08
¯ ¯
and
trophic levels.
'
ecosystems
Explain how biotic and abiotic factors control L010
. ¸
distribution and abundance of organisms.
Explain how the concept of niche explains L012
¯ ¯
distribution and abundance of organisms.
Describe succession to a climax community. L013
¯ ¯
Investigating Describe an ecological study of a habitat to create L011
¸ ¯
numbers and valid, reliable data on abundance and distribution O!
distribution organ1sms and measure a range of abiotic factors.
Speciation Describe the role O! gene mutation and natural L021
¸ ¸
and evolution selection in evolution; a change in allele frequency.
Describe the validation of new evidence supporting L023
¸ ¸
the theory of evolution.
Explain how reproductive isolation can lead to L022
¯ ¯
speciation
Greenhouse Outline possible causes of global warming. L014
¸ ¯
gases and the
carbon cycle
Discuss how understanding O! the carbon cycle could L09
. ¯
help reduce atmospheric C02 levels.
Analyse data from various sources to give evidence for
'
L018
¸ ¸
global warming.

Describe the modelling O! trends in glcbal warming L019
¯ ¯
and the limitations of this approach.
The effects Describe the effects of global warming on plants and L015
¯ ¸
of global animals (distribution, development and life cycles).
warming
Explain the effects O! increasing temperature on L016
. ¸
enzymes in living things.
Describe an investigation O! the effect O! temperature L017
¯ ¯
on development of organisms; seedling growth OI
hatching in brine shrimps.
D1scuss how a person's point of view might affect L020
. ¯
the conclusions they reach about actio1s to take on
global warming.
1oþÌt b. ÜuIhCW|l0 Sl0C
1 A transect can be used to study trends in the abundance and distribution of organisms
Describe cnemethod you could use to estimate the abundance of an organism at intervals along a transect line.
l1l
This i s a classic example of the need to read every word i n the question very carefully.
A transect ,rctaquadrat) is used and you need to discuss est|ra|o·of di stribution 3|Jabundance of an organism.
A ' | |6woul d be laid out and a quadrat placed
along it. The number of species in each quadrat
would then be counted and recorded down. The
quadrat would then be randomly thrown and the
number of species recorded down again until
the finish.
pam|aar e�a;�aa;,´ ' ` _ ¸·� °` ~¡ =
• "¯ • • .. • •
• •
This is quite a typical answer in which there is some truth, but certainly not enough
to gain full marks. The use of a quadrat would gain a mark. although it |Snot the only
device that could be used along the transect line. For example, if estimates of ground
beetle numbers were bei ng made. a pit-fal l trap would be appropriate. The idea that
the quadrat would be placed randomly, by throwing. |Scommonly held to be the way
to use one. || this case random placing is not appropriate. the quadrat should be
placed every half metre (if it i s a half-metre by half-metre quadrat) - in a bel t transect.
or every so often (an interrupted belt transect). Finally, the thing to be estimated i s
not species number but the abundance of an organism. so the appropriate technique
should be discussed for do1ng this. counting for di screte organisms like limpets or
percentage cover for plants which are spreading.
A bð5IC ðu5w8twould mention the quadrat but be unclear as to how to place or use
it for a specific purpose.
An 8XC8ÌÌ8u\ðu5w8lwould describe laying out a line. placing quadrats along it
either every su often or regularly and give full details of how to make accurate counts
within the quadrat or make estimates of percentage cover within it.
¿ Explain how some strains of bacteria have become able to survive treatment with antibiotics.
Muam|a�tu`ç
* ª �

~ �.
. 1
Note carefully the word 'become' in thi s questi Ln. Many answers discuss the ability of the bacteria to break down the antibiotic, pump it out
of the cell, that they have a waxy coat or the ability to live inside host cells. Such an answer gains no credit at al l .
8aáemaaswet _

·
¸
¸
' �

The bacteria genetically mutate to gai n resistance
to the antibiotic. This might be because they now
have a pump which pumps the antibiotic out of
their cells. Some have an enzyme which breaks
down the antibiotic. Some have a resistant
cell wal l.
1h|Sanswer gets one mark for a reasonable statement about genetic mutation in
bacteria which gives them resistance to antibiotics. The rest of the answer is not
relevant to the question asked.
A Þa5ÌC 8u5w8lwould mention genetic mutation as the origin of resistance or
mention that antibiotics create a selection pressure when misused.
An 8XC8ÌÌ8H\ð05w8lwould mention these points arogo on to discuss how the
selection pressure leads to antibiotic-resistant bacteria being able to reproduce. pass
on the resistance allele and give rise to a population i n which the frequency of this
al l el e is increased.
UnÌ1 4. 1'¯ Natural Environment and Species Survival
1 The di agram below summarises the l ight-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
Li ght
¸ Product A

|

electrons
.
!
Chlorophyll . - Electron carriers
�...... `
electrons
.
Product b
�&&&&&
(a) Gi ve the precise location wi thi n a chloroplast where thi s sequence of reactions
occurs. (2)
(b) Gi ve the names of product A and product B. • • (2)
[C) Give the name of the process that provides electrons to replace those lost by
chlorophyll. ( 1 )
(d) A chemi cal cal l ed atrazine prevents the flow of electrons to the electron
carriers. Describe and expl ai n the l i kel y effect of atrazine on the production of
carbohydrate in a chl oropl ast (4)
Total Û marks
(Biology (Sa/ters-Nuffield) Advanced, June 2008)
2 Agrostis tenuis is a grass that grows near ol d copper mi nes in north Wales. Copper
is usually very toxic to pl ants but some Agrostis pl ants cðn tolerate copper i n the
soil and grow on waste ti ps from the copper mines.
(a) Suggest a method for measuri ng copper tol erance in a sampl e of Agrostis
o' e: |`.
(b) Sampl es of tolerant and non-tolerant pl ants were grown in three trays of
soil that contained no copper. Tray 1 contained only tolerant plants, Tray :
contained onl y non-tolerant plants and Tray 2 had a mixture of equal numbers
of both types. The total dry mass of the plants in each tray was measured. The
arrangement of the pl ants and the resul ts are summarised below.
Tray 1 Tray 2 Tray 3
All tolerant plants Mixed tolerant and All non-tolerant plants
non-tolerant plants
× × × × × C · C C C C C
× × × × C · C × C C C C
× × × × × C × C C C C C
× × × × C × C × C C C C
Total dry mass
of tolerant plants 46
g
12 g
Total dry mass
of non-tolerant
plants 30 g
"'
g
Suggest an explanation for the results obtained in tray 2. (4)
(c) Suggest and expl ai n how t!e abundance of copper-tolerant Agrostis plants
woul d be l i kel y to change if the copper were removed from the soi l on the
mi ne waste ti p.
' 'ì
Total 8 marks
(Jan 2CCb, òì .4/C| Question ò,
`
'
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
1Op| cb. On the wi l d side
j `\' Aver seedl i ngs were planted and kept under controlled conditions for
20 days. The gross primary productivity (GPP) and the net pri mary productivity (NPP)
were measured each day. The results are shown i n the graph below.
!
35

"
¯
c
¬

¯

Z0
´
.
.
´
¹ 1 '
l
"
t
10
-

c
S
¹
E
`:
c
0
0
.... .......
T
5 1 0 1 5
Time since planting/days
¯ CºP
¬NPP
Z0 ZS
(a) (l) Compare the changes i n GPP and NPP duri ng the ti me period shown on
the graph. ¦`¹
(ll) Suggest ðl 6xplðnðti o! for the changes you have described i n (a)(i). ¦`¹
(b) L7]Iü|l the rel cti onshi p Uetw66n C|, l|| and respirati on. '·ì
Total 6 marks
(Biology (Salters-Nufield) Advanced, June 2007)
¬ The tol erance of plants to copper i ons in the soil is under genetic control . The
frequency of an al l el e, whi ch ´ü.S6S a ]IðIl lO be more tol erant of copper, was
measured at two d fferent sites-A and U
The tabl e below sh::ws the percentage frequencies of the tolerance and non­
tolerance üIICICS i n pl ant popul ati ons at the two sites.
(a) Explain what is meant by the frequency of ð! ðI|C|C in ð popul ati on. '·ì
- :Û /Û
b cU ZU
(b) Describe how natural selection coul d have brought ðUOUll|Pdifferent al l el e
¹!6Q\CI´CS at the two sites.
(4)
(c) Suggest why bacteria often adapt to changi ng condi ti ons 0\´D more quickl y
than pl ants. (2)
Total 8 marks
(Biology (Salters
-
Nuffield) Advanced, June 200/)
The time taken for the stages of
the blowfly life cycle 3¹×|`´
!he $|ðQC of larvae on ðOeaO
OOOy ca| OCo$COto estimate
'|/C of death.
Decay and decomposition. no matter how di stasteful it mi ght sometimes seem to us,
i s vital for the conti nuati on of life on Earth. Plants need nutrients such as nitrogen,
potassi um, phosphorus and carbon to make biomass. These nutrients are locked
into the tissues of the plants and any ani mal s that mi ght eat them. Once the pl ant
or ani mal dies the nutri ents can be released onl y through decay. The process of
decomposition al l ows the nutrients to be recycl ed.
Mi cro-organi sms are cruci al to the decomposition process. The carbon cycle i s a good
example of how nutri ents are recycled and how mi cro-organi sms hel p. Bacteria and
fungi produce a range of enzymes that are released on to the dead organi c matter.
The products of external di gestion are absorbed by the mi cro-organism and broken
down in mi crobi al respi rati on, rel easi ng carbon di oxi de back into the atmosphere
where it can be used again i n photosynthesis.
carbon
compounds
in plants
feeding carbon
compounds
in animals
` carbon compounds
� in decomposers

dead organic
matter
L5I b� uÍ ugy�
carbonate
The parts of the CðiOOn cycle
which rely on micro-organisms
are shown by the orange arrow
on this diagram.
It is certai nl y possibl e to fi nd out how l ong ago a mammal di ed. There are five mai n
ways that scienti sts go about thi s.
hours
?Z ¿
Ò´·'��··�=
�\ A_£
130¦our:
Z3hours
Green bOOK6. 1 Orange dUOk b. 1
1Op| cb. Infection, immunity and forensics
.

4 �

������
body temperature Body temperature is usually ´!`' but the body 0POins to
cool straight after death. During the first 2¹hours after death
the temperature of the body w¤en it is lo.nocan be used to
work out how long ago the person died.
degree of muscle contraction After death, muscles usually total l y relax and theri stiffen. Thi s
stiffening is call ed rigor mortis. This happens wi thi n about
Ú¬Ü hours (depending on temperature). The stiffness occurs
because muscle contraction relies on AT| which cannot be
made once respiration has stopped. So the muscles become
l·»ed.T¤estiffness wears off again after about dÜ hours in
cooler conditions as the muscle tissue starts to break down.
extent of decomposition Bodies usual l y follow a standard pattern of decay. Enzymes
in the gut start to break down the wall of the gut and then
the surrounding area. As cells di e they release enzymes which
hel p to break down tissues. The signs oldecompositi on, such
as discoloration of the ski n and gas formation, combined with
information about environmental conditions allow time of
forensic entomology
death to be estimated.
Determining the age of any i nsect maggots on the body
al l ows the time the eggs were laid to be determi ned. Thi s
provides an esti mate OJti me of death assumi ng any eggs were
laid soon after death.
stage of succession As a body decays, the popul ations of insects found on it
change. There is a succession of species. The community of
species present when the body i s found al l ows the stage of
>.cce::Onto be determined and ti me of death estimated.
Putting al l this information together can give the forensic scientist a very good estimate
of time of death.
Q1 List |h|CCi ndi cators that can be used to work out ti me of death.
Q2 What ro| e do micro-organisms play in the carbon cycle?
All the methods used to indicate
time of death of a body are
sucject to error. Remember thi s in
examinations where you are asked
to do calculations. Realistically, thE
Ónswer will often be in the form of
Ó range of possible times rather
than a precise figure.
Ü1 Descri ce !H0wOys in which
succession on a body is simila1
to succession on a sand dune
or other natural system and ÕÍ
way in which they are different
Green Book o. ! Orange b00�.
Unit 4.The Natural Environment and Species Survival
6
oo
double-stranded
DNA + res!riction
enzymes
DNA is cut into
fragments.
If the DNA probe is radioactive,
X-ray film is used to detect the
fragments. If the DNA probe is
fluorescent it is viewed using
ÜVlight as shown above.
Do not IIyjust to remember a
diagram like this. instead !¯yto
understand what happens and WÌy
at each step. Ü!H3¯W|SCyu¦ |8y
get it in I|Cwrong Sequ0ÞU0and
not realise it!
The DNA profiling (fingerpr nting) technique was i nvented in 1985. I ts i nfluence on
forensic science has been hJge. The technique all ows us to identify biological material
with a high degree of confidence. In addition there is now also a technique called the
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which allows tiny amounts of DNA to be amplified
into quantities large enough to use in DNA profiling. Together they form one of the
most powerful techni ques we have for crimi nal investi gati on and a range of other
situations where total certainty about the identity of a sampl e is requi red.
Everyone's DNA is uni que. Thi s is because of the variety found in the sections of
DNA which are not used to code for proteins. These non-coding sections are called
i ntrons. Scientists look for short, repeated sequences in these introns. The sequences
of repeated bases are called short tandem repeats (STRs). There can be up to several
hundred copies of the STR at a single locus. People (and al l other organisms) vary i n
regard to the number of these repeats they carry at each l ocus. Scientists look at the
short tandem repeats at many loci to bui l d up a uni que pattern for that individual .
5
7T³
Fragments of
double-stranded
DNA areloaded into
the wells of an
agarose gel in a tank.
Membrane placed i n bag
with DNA probe.
Single-stranded DNA probe
bi nds to fragents with
a complementary sequence.
° :
4
The negatively charged
DNA moves towards the
positive electrode. The
fragments separate into
invisible bands.
DNA is transferred to a nylon
or nitrocellulose membrane
by solution drawn up through
the gel. DNA double strands
split and >L¦ck!o !he membrane.
The steps in the production of a DNA profile or fi ngerprint. The data can also be
presented as a graph or as a series of numerical values. DNA fragments continuing the
repeated sequences are created using reestriction enzymes or the polymerase chain
reactions. DNA and DNA frcgments carry a negative charge. If a potential difference
is applied across a mixture cf fragments in a suitable buffer, they will move towards
the po
s
itive electrode. The fragments move at different rates according to thei r size
and charge. Small fragments with fewer repeats travel faster and end up closer to the
electrode after a set time. It i s rather like chromatography, but here the separati on is
due to differences in size and charge, rather than sol ubil ity differences.
Green Book 6. 1 Orange Book 6. 1
1Op| cb. Infection, i mUUuiÌyJuU I0|0uSicS
We have discussed D\A profi l i ng in terms of forensi c investigation to hel p the pol i ce
to identify a cri mi nal , but it has more uses than that. Confi rmi ng the pedi gree of
domestic ani mal s (such as racehorses), looking at the purity of food sampl es (such as
Basmati rice) and determi ni ng the father of a chi l d, are all ways that the techni que can
be used. This is a good exampl e of developments in sci ence and technology al l owi ng
us to answer questi ons whi ch we woul d previously not have been abl e to address.
� LH
The polymerase chai n reaction (PCR) al lows smal l sampl es of DNA to be ampl i fi ed
so that they can then be used i n DN. profi l i ng. The process rel ies on DNA pri mers,
short sequences of DNA compl ementary to the DNA adjacent to the STR A cycl e of
temperature change5 results i n huqe numbers of the DNA fragments bei ng produced
Step 3
75"Cfor at least
a mi nute- DMÀ
polymerase builds up
complementary
strands of DNA
¹ ¹
reactants
placed in
vial in
PfRmachine
steps 1-3

Step 1
90-9S°Cíor
30 seconds ­
DNA strand
separates
" "
�ǹ
original DMA

DNA polymerase
·
����� ' ¯

.- primers ¬

Step Z
S0-60°( for 20 seconds - primers
bind to DMÀstrands
The procedure used for the polymerase chain reaction, PCR.
Q1 Whi ch parts of t he DNA are used for profi l i ng?

Q2 Why i s i t necessar for forensic scientists to look at 1U or more short
tandem repeats when creating a DNA profile?
Ü1 The family tree of every
ra cehorsP in the Ü| r.nn hP
traced back to just three mal
horses. Explain why it is easi
to identify humans using DN1
profiling than it is to identify
racehorses.
G|00u buuKb. 1 Orange b00kb. T
UnI\4.The Natural :¦v|'O¦08¦! and Species Survival
Translation is actually putting
amino acids together; this forms
a polypeptide. It only becomes a
protein when folded and, in some
cases, it has joined with other
polypeptides or other molecules.
The basic steps of protein synthesis are as follows:
amino U¹t© chain
mRNA synthesis manufacture
(transcription) (translation)
DN/ mFN/ amiicacìU chair
¸pclypcp!iUe)
TranSCrlp1ìDn
folding
¨ pìc!cìD

WaR �
Transcription means 'to make a full copy of'. The mRNA copy is not direct, like a
photocopy, but complementary. mRNA is made in the nucleus, but polypeptides are
assembled in the cytoplcsm, so the mRNA must move out of the nucleus through pores in
the nuclear membrane.
Trðn5�a1lDn
In DNA structure and when it is
being replicated, A pairs with T, but
when mRNA is made on the DNA
template strand A pairs with Ü.
Once in the cytoplasm, Ihe mRNA attaches to a ribosome. tRNAs carrying specific amino
acids bind to the complementary codons on the mRNA. A peptide bond is formed
between neighbouring amino acids to produce a polypeptide. The whole process is shown
!-ÍCv
Protein synthesis is
´-H-J ./H/?:
information from
a gene results in ð
sequence Of
¬0/0Oðc/d,
Green Book b.1
1 TRANSCRIPTION
DNA information copied to mRNA
DNA strands mRNA strand
still joined template (anti-sense) strand of DNA being assembled
.
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< <A L A c¢<C C C A

A
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sense straod of DNA
-double nuclear
membrane
�» Í ¹ ¹ L L ¹ / L A I ¹ L L ! L »� �� ¨
free mRNA
¿¿ ¿¿nuclear pore
nudeotides
DNA strands separate ðÎ one gene
mRNA strand copied from template strand of ¤¬»
processisca:e|ysedbyRNA polymerase eczyme
»·..<<<+<+:¢<<<<+<
=±=
2
nucleus
cytoplasm
_~.
¦
_Met
mRNA carries the information to the ribosomes
the completed mRNA strand
leaves the nucleus and moves to a
rlbosomein :hecyoplasm
ó
Amino acid activation­
tRNA carries amino

¿
__ _ ' _'_
different tRNA ¸ _
molecules ¸ ¡
¢¢¢ UAC
energy needed
to attach amino
acid to tRNA
; growing
r
polypeptide chain
UAC �
Met
amino
eco:

ATP
ldofferent
GUG
� M

(a-ticoeon)

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Completed polypeptide modified
to produce functional protein,
e.g. enzyme of C specific shape
Orange Book b.'
nuo:omc-:ovc>aio¤¿
CKl~'e+c´cg´t¬ecodons
À
+s»¬..»r.o¬
mRNA information translated
L
tcJc^clmºN-ãl|OcD
me:cníc¿t8NAaoticocoo
into a specific sequence of amino acids
`
10µI0b. Infection, |00uh͹yand forert�ics
Æ
The genetic code
The
genetic code has several imporant properties:
··- Õ

¯ � ���
=•

triplet code
With ZÜ amino acids and start and stop signals to code !
for and only four bases to do it, one base per amino acid
will not do and neither will two. Using three bases gives
64 codons which is more than enough.
non-overlapping Each set of three bases forms one triplet. The triplets do
not overlap, so no base from one triplet is part of another
degenerate
triplet, avoiding confusion about which amino acid is
be;og coded ¹´

Some amino acids have more than one codon. For
example, there are four different codons for the amino
acid proline. As long as the codon starts with 'L the

amino acid proline will be put into the polypeptide.
The code is said to be UCQCDEròT£ This offers some
protection against mutation.
os·-transcriptional changes
It was originally thought that each gene coded for one protein. We now know this is not
correct. Most genes code for many proteins and this is achieved by post-transcriptional
changes in the mRNA. These changes are made to the mRNA before it is used in
translation. We now think of the mRNA made in the nucleus as pre-mRNA.
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C| ¸ cXC|
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XC|

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Ç1 Which part of the DNA is used to code for proteins- intron or exon?
Ç2 The DNA code is degenerate. Explain what this means and why it is
significant.
Ç3 Link each description in list A with the correct term in list B.

_

��

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¯
molecule with anticodon at one end and amino acid at the

template strand
other
complementary copy of template strand
I
tRNA
DNA transcribed to mRNA ¸mRNA
.
The ribosome has \^usites uÞ:s
surface, one for a tRNA alrezdy
bound to a growing µuIyp8µhd8
and the other for the tRNA carf' Ü
the next amino acid to be attachec
Iu the chain. Amino acids are
added one at a time in a reµeating
process.
Different proteins can be made
when different sections of mRNA
are spliced together before
translation.
Ü1 Draw 3 flowchart to expla Û¯
µroce88O͵!O\0ÌÞ syr-es·s
Green Book b.¹ Orange Book 6 5
l
UnI\ 4:1¯8 No'uio' .uvi0U00u! and Species :uiv'vo'
N£II|8I086\8Il8 ¯0IvIrLSuS are
ulSPòSuS, bLl00ll migh\ LÕLOÙ
ulSu8SuS.
inflammaIion
Infectious diseases in humans are caused mainly by bacteria (singular: bacterium)
and viruses. You need to be aware of the differences between them. Bacteria have a
prokaryotic cellular structure with organelles but viruses do not.


.

�� �
ell surface membrane,
ytoplasm, cell wall, ribosomes,
lasmids and somEtimes
mesosomes, flagellum and pili.
Circular strand of DNA 'S IÌE
genetic material.
. .
Can live Independently.
Average diameter 0.5-51m
Often have mucus-based cuter
�¯ ¨
¯
¯×
No cell wall, cell surface membrane, cytoplasm or
orgnelles. Nucleic acid enclosed in protein coat.
DNA or RNA can be the genetic maIerial.
Must have a living organ¦ sm as host.
20-400nm, wide range of sizes and shapes.
May have outer membrane of host cell surÍace
¯.¯ �
capsule. membrane, but containing glycoproteins from the virus.
.
Differences in structure between bacteria and viruses.
Both viruses and bacteria may enter the bodies of living things and, due to their own
life processes, cause symptoms which can, in extreme cases, lead to death of the host
organism. We can illustrate this by looking at tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium
(Mycobacterium r.|c·;.|5;·s)and AIDS (caused by human immunodeficiency virus, HIV).
In TB the first infection may have no symptoms but tubercles form in the lungs due to the
imflammatory response of the person's immune system. Some bacteria may survive inside
the tubercles, due to their thick waxy coat. They lie dormant, but if the immune system
is not working properly they can become active again. I n active TB, lung tissue is slowly
destroyed by the bacteria, causing breathing problems. The patient develops a serious
cough, loses weight and appetite and may suffer from fever. TB bacteria also target cells
of the immune system so the patient cannot fight other infections well. I n some cases the
bacteria invade glands and the CNS |central nervous system). All of this can be fatal.
The initial symptoms of an HIV infection are fevers, headaches, tiredness and swollen
glands or there may be no symptoms. Three to 12 weeks after infection HIV antibodies
appear in the blood and the patient is said to be HIV jositive. All symptoms can then then
disappear for years but eventually patients suffer from weight loss, fatigue, diarrhoea,
night sweats and infections such as thrush. Finally there are severe symptoms such as
dementia, cancers (e.g. Kaposi's sarcoma)and opportunistic infections such as TB and
pneumon1a.
Nc�spelific re�poises to infection
I n order to fight a disease the body can react in a number of ways. The following
responses are non-specific:
lysozyme action interferon phagocytosis
Damaged white cells
release histamines that
cause artenoles to dilate
and capillaries to become
more permeable. Blood
flow to the area increases
and plasma, white blood
cells and antibodies leak
out into tissues.
An enzyme founc in
tears, sweat and the
nose destroys bacteria
by breaking COW| IÍP
OdClCí|d|cel| walls.
A chemical released White blood cells engulf, digest
from cells stops protein and destroy OðCl6l'ð and foreign
synthesis in v|||SCS. malErial. These phagocytes include
neu\rophils and monocytes (which
become macrophages).
Green buuÍ b.Z Orang0Book b.Z, b.3
10µIf 6: ||Í0´ti'¯, ·ll¹¦|!y d¯uforensics

Î ur
The specific immune response relies on the lymphocytes (another type of white cell),
of which there are two main kinds, each with a number of sub-types. Both types
respond to foreign (non-self) antigens such as proteins on the surface of bacteria and
viruses. Macrophages are also involved, engulfing bacteria and displaying the non-self
antigens. They alert the immune system to the presence of the foreign antigens. When
any cell in the immune system displays antigens in this way, it is called an antigen­
presenting cell.
Never try to answer an exam
question with just a diagram U� Ü
it specifically asks for one). Use ð
diagram to help you to understand
and then you can put i t into word�
¦0 the exam.
The relationship between all these cell types and what they do is shown in the diagram.
B-cells öC_TDKIO65
¯helper cell
cytckines

bacteri�
1.
The Ûcel'finds an antigen
which matches its receptors.
Z.
It waits until it is activated
¸�JÞelper cell
� ~ ·
´ `·
;

,

c.
memory celt
Then the B cell divides
to produce þla5ma and
memory cells.
- ¯ :
~
ant|DD0Ies

bacteria �
À.
P\asmacells þI00UC6
ðDlIDD0I65thatattaCh to
the current type of invader.
Í00|üüu00I0Sþ0060.
'.Macrophages identify
intruders marked with
antibodies, and engulf
and destroy them.
ÜO6HDIycell
6.
If the same intruder invades
again, memory celts help the
immune system to act|vate
much faster.
T memory cells

;0
PÞ!Í_eH QI050HIòTIOH
\
dendriticcell 1h-lpetcell
D


¯ ' `



activated
T helper celt
1. Z Q, ¬.
· phagocyte Part of the bacteria The pha¿ocyte The T helper
engUl!s òHu (antigen) gc0sto presents the cell is activated.
destroys a the surface of the act|¿e¬TDa
bacterium. phagocyte. Þ6Iþ6"T cell.
T killer cells
JkIl\er C6lÌ
\
.
vIrus·infe¡te0 cell
-
-
-
antigen


´
.
cancer cell
.
bacterium-infected cell
I
C
• `
dies due to CH6


_..
Infected cell be
re'easedpT k1
which cause pc
form in It.
Ç1 Give two differences and two similarities between viruses and bacteria.
Ç2 Why might a fever be a good thing if you have an infectious disease7
Ü1 Draw a table to distinguish
between the roles of B cells
(including B memor and B
effector cells) and cells (T
helper, T killer 3D0memory
cell S).
Green Book 6.2 Orange Book 6.2, 6.3
UÞÌ1 4.¯|- Natural Environment o¯U .µ-¨'-: .U¯v'!3¦
Pathogens (organisms that cause diseases) eO!eithe body through areas not covered
by skin: nose, mouth, gas exchan'=2 surfaces, the eyes, gastrointestinal tract and
genital tract The entry of micro-organisms through wounds is also a major cause of
infections.
Eyes -tears contain the enzyme lysozyme
which helps to cigesImicrobes.
�Pespira!orytract-con¡ainsmucus which
traps bacteria. The mucus is then swallowed
and passed into the digestive system.
Gastrointestinal tract-acid in the stomach
helps to protect against any microbes which
are eaten. In addition the gut has its own
bacteria. These compete with pathogens for
food and space which helps to protect us.
The harmless bacteria also excrete lactic
acid which deters pathogens.
,Skin-the skin is a tough barrier and
usually only allows pathogens to enter if
it is cut. As an additional line of defence
the skin has its own microbes. These live
naturally on the skin and out-compete
pathogens. Sebum is an oily fluid which
is made by the skin and can also kill
microbes.
Major routes of entry of pathogens and the role of barriers in protecting the body from infection.
Hc· <cÎ vve de\e¡Oµ
We can acquire imn,ni!yiO CìIIeie:! ways:
Inj ected with
to ant1gen antibodies cross the antibodies that
by getting Veakened
'
pl acenta and are also can provide
the disease. disease found in breast milk. immediate
The body organisms, These antibodies can pr'tecti'n
produces toxins or protect against any against the
memory antigen invading pathogen inVading
cells which fragments that the mother has pathogen they
make it means that the encountered. are specific for.
immune to body is exposed
disease in to the antigen
the future. and produces
memory cells.
We can also use antibiotics to f1ght bacterial infections There are two kinds of
antibiotics: an antibiotic !l3! |i¦¦¯ bacteria is bactericidal, and one that limits or slows
the growth of bacteria is bacteriostatic. When bacteria are no longer affected by an
antibiotic they are said to be resistant to it
Green Book o..,o.5 Orange Book o.~,¹o,¹¹
10µI0 6: |¯l(´!lDi, immunity and !0¯³|$|0.
Evolutionary race
As quickly as we evolve mechanisms to combat pathogens, they evolve new methods
to overcome our immune system. The bacterium which causes TB and the virus
responsible for AIDS (HIV) have both evolved features which help them to evade the
immune system. The TB bacterium produces a thick waxy coat which protects it from
the enzymes of the macrophages. The protein coat of HIV is constantly changing
which means that the immune system can't target and destroy it.
Hosp§tal acquired infections
Mutations also help some bacteria to become resistant ¹C antibiotics which result
in problems with antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in hospitals. Hospitals try to
combat this in a number of ways.
• ���� _•

only use antibiotics when needed reduces selection pressure on organisms and destroys all
and ensure course of treatment is | Do´ICl|c causing infection
completed

isolating patients with resistant '¹reVents transmission of resistant bacteria between
diseaSeS patients
good hygiene encouraged, prevents the spread of infection and cuts down on the
including hand washing and bans number of places that may harbour pathogens
on wearing of jewellery, ties and

long sleeved shirts
screening of patients coming into
1
o person may be infected without showing symptoms;
hospital ID!S can be detected and they can be isolated and treated
Investigating bacteri� ��d �nt!biotics
A simple procedure can be carried out to investigate bacteria and antibiotics for the
core practical It is important to follow safe, aseptic techniques when doing this kind
of work and C.·Ci¹i3| to carry out a risk assessment.
A :!-|/enutrient agar plate is seeded with
suitable bacteria, e.g. using a :l?/·/?spreader.

Apply antibiotic to a $len? filter paper disc, then
lay on the bacterial lawn using :!e|·/?forceps .
nl::ce antibiotic solut��into a well in agar,
us1ng a $|?n|? p1pette.

i
Seal P?l|id·:| /uldO nOll3µ? 3ll |Oundlh�
*
Incubate O?/¨vJC¯Cfor about 24 hours.
Look for clear areas around the antibiotic discs
or wells. Bigger areas indicate a better antibiotic
against this bacterium species.
This flowchart shows how you
investigate the efect of different
antiotics on OðCµu0. Anything in
italics relates to aseptic procedure.
Ç1 What theory would you hope to test with the practical above7 Write a
scientific question to answer.
Ç2 Explain why the bacteria are incubated below ´Í¨\ and why the dish is not
completely sealed.

!
Bacteria do not have a rapid rate o1
mutation, but they do have a high
rate of reproduction. This means
that new mutations occur quite
regularly and each new mutation
may help the organism to survive.
Consequently they will produce
many mutations in the time it woulc
take a drug company to develop a
new antibiotic .
When describing practical
procedures you need to be very
detailed. For example, if you say
'the bacteria are placed on a Petr
dish' you will not get any marks.
This is because bacleria will not
grow in an empty plastic dish. You
need to say 'nutrient agar' {in a
Petri dish). Lack of details like
this often lose candidates marks
in exams.
drug developers to proa_:e
treatments that a-e eue: -
the long term.
'´08¦ bOD| oz, o.¡ Orange Boo� 6 . .., 6.S 6:
M
unì:4.100 N8IulöÍ |uv|lOuuôuIöud :p0C|0S :ulvÍv8I
By the end of this topic you should be able to:

´
.
*
¨
����l

• � •


. �

� ù`

=

��
Decay and Describe how to estimate time of death in LLZ\
. .
decomposition a mammal using information from insect
colonisation, muscle state and body temperature.
Describe how micro-organisms are involved in LL'
. .
decomposition.
DNA profiling Describe the way in which DNA profiling LOS
' .
(fingerprinting) can be used to work out genetic
relationships in living things.
Describe how the polymerase chain reaction can be LLD
. .
used to give more DNA for analysis.
Describe how DNA fragments can be separated by LLJ
. .
electrophoresis.
DNA and Explain the process of protein synthesis and the role LL.
. .
protein of DNA strands and RNA in it
synthesis
Explain that the genetic code is triplet, non- LL2
. .
overlapping and degenerate.
Explain how changes that happen after LL-
. .
transcription can give rise to more than one protein
from one gene.
Infectious Distinguish between the structure of bacteria and |LC
. .
UlSC05C5 òOU V!:u5C$
the immune
Explain the symptoms of bacterial and viral disease .L`
. .
response
to include those of TB and infection by HIV
Describe non-specific immune responses: LL`Z
. .
inflammation, action of lysozyme, interferon and
phagocytosis.
Explain antigens and antibodies and how plasma LL`J
. .
cells, macrophages and APCs are involved in the
!0¦U!E response.
Distinguish between roles ofT (helper, killer and LL`¹
. .
memory) and B (memory and effector) cells.
Explain how people develop natural, artificial, active LL``
. .
and passive immunity.
IÎfection Describe the routes of entry of pathogens into the LL`Ü
. .
prevention and body and skin, stomach acid and gut/skin microbe
control barriers.
Discuss the theory of an evolutionary race between LL`D
. .
pathogens and hosts and the evidence for this
theory coming from HIV and TB.
Distinguish between bacteriostatic and bactericidal LL1
. .
antibiotics.
Describe investigations of the effects of antibiotics |L`C
. .
on bacteria.
Describe the way in which our understanding of LL`'
. .
infections acquired in hospitals can be used to
reduce their occurrence through codes of practice.
1OµI¹ 6: |DÍ0´L¦0h, ll¦uUlI] cU0 l0|0´´¦´:
æ W
T Suggest why a patient ||Í3C¯30\¦¡|1Ois more likely to develop symptoms of th¯ disease 1f they are also infect9d by ·|\ '´)
In o|der to gain full marks you are e\pected to wr|te answers which contain detailed bio¦ogical knowledge and relate different areas to each
other.
HIV weakens the immunÍ system and therefore
it is likely tha!opportuni>tic infections such as
TB would take advantage of a weakened immune
system and therefore become more active.
Symptoms will develop as the immune system
response is suppressed and cannot effici en¡ly
destroy the bacter|um, resu¦ ting in symptoms
This is quite a typi!al answer which is not wrong but simply does not have enough
detail to ga¦n either of the two marks. A 'weakened immune system does not address
the specific aspect of the immune system which HIV affects. |Iis not TB which does
anything in relat1on to the immune system, but the bacterium that causes it
A Dò5ÍC ðD5V6!would mention that TB bactena are not destroyed by the immune
system.
An 6XC6!l6D1 ðD5VCt would linKthe destruction ofT hel ,er cells by ·|\to the
fact that the TB bacteria are not desIroyed.
Z Give l|0symptoms which are likely to occur in a person with TB. ./¹
On thL face of it this is a very simple question, but again to gain marks at advanced level, answers must show some relevant detail.

• •

·
_ ¯
. ·
�� • � • •
Fever
'ough'g
This is Ül answer in which the student has thrown away a mark due to a 8imµle lack
of µ|eÛis|on and careful thought. Almost everyone coughs at some point dur|ng most
days so, to be a disease sympIoO, it should be obvious that this must be qualified
A 0ð5Ic ðu5W8Iwould suggest a high temperature or fever as being a relevant
symptom of TB.
An 8XC8ÍÍ8uIðu8W0t would suggest qualified coughing (i e coug|i0gup blood or
excessive coughing)as well as the appearance of tubercle¯, abnormal weight loss and
development of fever.
Unt\4. 1|8 ¹a''rôl .|vll0hlen! JnU :¦8·l0: `u|v|v3l
1 The graph below shows !le changes in population size of bacterial cultures grown
in the presence of three antibiot'cs/, | JnO C. n each case the antibiotic was
added at J hours.
6000
Antibiotic ¤
" sooo
c
+
�4000
÷
!
¸ 3000
T
m
f
C
_ ?000
¯
__ �
Antibiotic 6
C.
C
c.
1¹00
0 5 10
antibiotic added
Time/hours
15
(a) Use examples from the graph to explain the differences between bactericidal
and bacteriostatic antibiotics- (3)
(b) A previous investigation on the same bacterium usìng aO!¦liC!¦¨/ had
produceO a curve similar to that for antibiotic B. Suggest an explanation for the
change in the response to antibiotic A.
´1ï
|c) OtJtline a technique that cculd Uemcn¯L|a!ethe effectiveness of antibiotics on
bacteria. (4)
1o:aI11 marks
(+o|·qy´:-|:et:/.l´-|J,~··-·c-J.1.te.´08;
Z The hepatitis | virus (HCV) is transmitted 'n body fluids and infects th8 liver. HCV
is very common in people who also have HIV infection. One treatment for HCV
infection is injections of interferon.
(a) Explain why HCV infection is common in HIV positive people. (2)
(b) Name the type of cell involved in the normal immune response to virus-infected
liver cells.
(1)
Binding of interferon to infected cells causes an enzyme called PKR to become
activated_ and this prevents protein synthesis from occurring. The diagram below
shows how |n!eilC|Onmight be involved in the body's response to HCV infection.
interferon binds to
protein on cell surface ¸

inactive � active }
l PKR PKR l
HCV
infects ~ �
cell
-
protein synthesis
prevented
|
L
�interferon
•ce|| surface protein
(c) With reference to the diagram above, explain the likely effects of interferon
binding to the infected liver cell.
'·ì
10µ
|
6 6: .iÍ-´'Oi, |¦¦'¯¦!y`¯J ¯3¦0i´l´:
_
Unfortuna�ely, •´· treatment is only effective in 2
0% of cases because many
strains of HCV are resistant to the effect of interferon. It has been found that these
resistant 'Jiru.e: have a protein on their coats which inhibits the enzyme PKR.
(d) Suggest a reason why these virus strains are resistant to tnterferon. (2)
1c¡aI O mar|s
(Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced, June 200c,
3
HIV can damage the human immune system.
(a) Describe two active immune responses that are affected by HIV infection. (4)
(b) Non-specific immune responses are not affected by HIV and can continue to
prevent infection. Copy and complete the table below which shows some non­
specific immune responses and descriptions of their functions.

>

inflammation
lysosyme action



engulf and digest bacteria

prevents viruses from multiplying
'·ì
1otaI O matks
(Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced, June .00c,
4 On 26th September, a forensic scientist was called to a room where a man was
found dead. She was asked to determine the time of death.
She recorded the temperature in the room and she collected the larvae and pupae
of several species of insect from the body. She took the pupae and larvae to her
laboratory, where th2y were placed in a constant temperature of 23 ´´
On the 4th October, adults from four species of insect appeared, and another
species appeared on the 6th October. One of the first species to be seen was the
blowfly, which can lay eggs on a corpse within minutes of death, but which is rarely
active at night. Records of weather conditions for the area were consulted and the
time of death was determined to be 14th or 15th September.
(a) Explain the importance of the temperature data in this investigation. (2)
(b) Suggest one reason why collecting data about several species of insect would
make the estimate of time of death more reliable. (1)
(c) Suggest a reason why the scientist could not be more precise as to the time
of death. (2)
1o¡aI D maiks
(Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced, June .00c,
M
U0I1 4.1|8 Natural Environment and Species Survival
À The diagram below shows what happens to el ectrons during part of the light­
dependent reacti ons of photosynthesis Any excited el ectrons that are not taken up
by el ectron carriers follow pathway A and release energy as l i ght in a process called
fluorescence. The excited el ectrons that are taken up by el ectron carriers fol low
pathway b
:
fluorescence

light
'J.
:
A
:
:
:
:
:
Ý
electron carriers
X
¬
.
Key
:. energy
~~~~~~� alternative electron pathways
electron pathways
.
.
.
.

¬
¬


red uced Y
(a) Name the mol ecul es Z and ` shown on the diagram.
´`¹
(b) Explain the importance of reduced ` in the process of photosynthesis. (3)
(r) A l i ght was shone on a leaf and left swi tched on.
Thf grrph below shows changes in the amount of l i ght gìven off d§
fl uorescence by the l eaf.
Û ¿
Tiresince light switched on/seconds
(l) Suggest an expl anation for the i ncrease in fl uorescence.
(i i ) Suggest a reason for the fall i n fl uorescence.
(2)
'¹:
(d) Explain why an i nhi bi tor of carbon dioxide fixation woul d lead to an increase i n
fluorescence. '·`
1o¡a| 12mat|s
(426134 Biology Salters-Nuffield January 2009)
2 A study of tree pollen grains in a peat bog in Fi nl and was carried ou�. Th·� ·,umber
of pollen grai ns of 0|¯Ie:e¯' tree species was :eCc:CeC at different depths in the peat.
The data for four of these trees are given as a percentage of the total ':ee pollen
sampl e, in the table bel ow. An esti mate of the age of the sample at each depth
was also made.


~ �
��


0

� �
*
0.5 2850 0 0 53

43
|
4
1.0 3770 0 0 55 40
1.5 5600 0 0 31 47
2.0 6390 0 12 15 53
2.5 8170 5 36
'
4 48
3.0 8700 38 36 6 35 |
3.5 8780 27 40
¦
3 32
|
4r 4.0 10000 10 ..

'
2
The di agram below shows the present-day di stri bution of the four tree species
found in the main climatic zones of the northern hemisphere.
Climatic Distribution of trees
zone
Ac!ic
Boreal
¸larch ¸spruce
Z
pine
Temperate beech
|
Sub-tropical
(a) Suggest how pollen grains can provide evidence about which species of tree
were growing successful l y i n Finl and as the peat bog was forming. (2)
(b) (i) Whi ch species of tree l isted below does not provide evidence about the
changes in climate in Fi nl and dunng the last 1UUUU years? '`.
A l arch
B spruce
| pi ne
D beech
(il) Expl ai n your answer to (b) (i ). (2)
(c) Wi th reference to the present-day distribution of the four tree species and the
resul ts of the pollen grai n study, suggest i n what way the cl i mate i n Fi nl and has
changed duri ng the l ast TUUUU years. Give reasons for your answer. '¯¹
(d) Describe how dendrochronology can be used to provide evidence for cl i mate
change.
(2)
1o¡a| 12 mar|s
(A2 68104 Edexce/ Specimen Paper)
Unìl 4.The Natural |lv|I0|u8|Iô|d Species Survival
¤ Tubercul osi s (TB) is caused by the bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
(a) The tabl e below lists five structural features that may be found i n bacteria
and viruses. Copy and complete the table by putting a cross in the box if the
structural feature is present
Structural· feature Bacteria Vi ruses
mesosome i
�.

'
�I
capsid
·
'
nucl ei c aci d
¯
¯
. .
cytoplasm

ri bosome

´¯`
(b) The table below shows the number of new TB cases recorded in T994and in
2004 from four different geographical regions. These data exclude people who
are HIV positive.

uu4 ì48 :!u
!..4 .¯ ¯¯¯
(i) Describe the trends shown by the data.
u8
¯-
(2)
(i i ) HIV positive people were excluded from the data. If they had been
included suggest how the data would differ. Give an explanation for your
answer. '3`
(c) JLis increasing in some countri es whi ch have wel lfunded heal th services.
Suggest two reasons tor this. (2)
Total 12marks
(A2 68104 Edexcel Specimen Paper)
Ô MRSA is a strain of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA can survive
treatment with several anti biotics. An i nfection with MRSA is diffi cul t to treat
It is i mportant to use an anti biotìc that is effective against specific bacteri a.
Describe in outl ine how you could test the effectiveness of an anti bi oti c on a
speci fi c bacterium in the laboratory Incl ude aspects of the method that ensure safe
working. '¯ì
Total þ marks
(A2 6734 Biology Salters-Nufield January 2009)
þ An i nvesti gati on was carried out to fi nd the distribution of pl aRt species on sand
dunes. A tlansect was used which extended i nland from a beach. Quadrats were
used at nine positions along the transect. The percentage cover of selected species
was recorded in each quadrat as well as the number of jl ant species | n each
quadrat+ A sample of soil was taken from the area within each quadrat and used to
measure the mass of organi c materi al present.
The results are shown in the two tables bel ow.
¯


�°
Distance from 0 80 1. 250 500 650
top of beach/
metres
Number of ì ¯ ·ì 18 1
species found
Mass of organic 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.9 2.8
|
6.4
material/grams

�� �
Bare sand 80 30 30 8
Sea couch 20
Marram grass 70 50 20 5 5
Red Fescue 5 40 DD 40
Sea buckthorn
´´HUOH heather
Corsica pine
(a) Explain why it is necessary to use a quadrat to estimate percentage cover. (2)
(b) Expl ai n why a transect is more appropriate than random sampl.ng in
this study.
(2)
(c) Use the i nformation in both tables to compare the data collected from quadrat
T and quadrat b. |3)
(d) Differences in the vari ety and number of plant spec,es found in t|e different
·�quadrats can be expl ai ned by succession. Use the Information in the tabl e to
suggest how the resUlts of the study coul d be explained by succession~ ,b)
Total 12marks
(A2 ô!o4 ßiOIOgy'J|!?|¯-Nu|'|?|dJ3I 2008)
980 1600 1980

¯ 6 7
25.1 23.4 32.8
80

100
Remember that muscl es can't
stretch themsel ves. It is the pull
created by the contraction of the
antagonistic muscl e that stretches a
muscl e when it is in a relaxed state.
The prefixmyo- refers to 'muscl e'
and sarco- to 'flesh' (i . e. muscl e) so
specialist terms starting with myo­
Í1 sarco- will refer to structures
within muscl es.
Bones can move in rel aton to one another at joi nts. Different types of joint al low
different degrees of movement. Li gaments are made of elastic connective ti ssue.
They hol d bones together and restrict the amount of movement possibl e at a joi nt.
Tendons are cords of non-elastic fi brous ti ssue that anchor muscles to bones.
tendon
• joins muscle
to bone
ligament ¸
• joins bone to bone
• strong and flexible
synovial membrane
• secretes synovial fluid
synovial fluid
• acts as lubricant
- typ1cal synovial joint
bone
cartilage
• absorbs synovial
Í|u:d
• acts as shock
absorber
pad of cartilage
• gives additional
protection
fibrous capsule
• encloses joints
Skeletal muscles are those attached IO bones and are normal l y ar ranged i n
antagoni sti c pai rs Thi s means that there are pairs of muscles which pul l i n opposite
directons- Flexors contract to flex, or bend a joint, e. g. bi ceps in the arm; extensors
contract to extend, or straighten a joint, e. g. triceps in the arm.
Each skel etal muscl e i s a bundl e of mi ll i ons of muscl e cell s cal l ed fi bres. Each muscl e
cel l may be several centi metres l ong and contains several nucl ei . It contai ns many
myofibrils which are made up of the fi brous proteins acti n (thi n fi l aments)and
myosi n (thick fi l aments) The cel l surface membrane of a muscle cel l i s known as the
sarcolemma The sarcoplasmic reti cul um i s a speci al i sed endopl asmi c reticul um
which can store and release cal ci um ions. The cytoplasm i nsi de a mdscl e cell i s cal l ed
the sarcopl asm. The speci al i sed synapse (see page O´, Topi c 8)between neurones
and muscl e cells i s called the neuromuscular juncti on.
The functi onal uni t of a mu¯cle
fibre |Scal l ed a sarcomere.
When the muscl e contracts
the thi n acti n filaments move
between the thick myosin
f l ament¯_ shorteni ng the l ength
of the sarcomere and therefore
shortening the length of the
muscl e.
The arrangement of actm and myosin
filaments in a sarcomere when relaxed
(A) and contracted ´¬)
A
\ÍL¯ÜÍLiÏLlL
m¡Osin <´IiO
Green buu·/: Orange bUU· /.`
1OµÌ6J. H.0Íoiyuu¦ l i fe
Myosin fil aments have flexible ' heads' that can change their orientation, bi nd to actin
and hydrolyse ATP (using ATPase). Acti n fil aments are associated with two other
proteins, troponi n and tropomyosi n, that control the bi nding of the myosin heads to
the actin fi laments.
When a nerve impulse arrives at a neuromuscular junction, calcium ions are released
from the sarcoplasmic reticul um and the fol lowing events take place that lead to the
contraction of the rruscle.
Ca2' attaches to
troponin (on the
actin) causing it
to move together
with the threads
of tropomyosin.
Ca'• binding site
tropomyosin
tropon+

Myosin

°· • •
• • •


binding sites

'- - , .
blocked by
actin

p
tropomyosin.

Myosin head
cannot bind
��.�,:ìÎ i
�/* • ¯ «
¯�º
� ¬

Myosin binding
sites on the actin
are exposed so
myosin forms
cross-bridges with
the actin filament.
-AP

Af P

"yosin head

returns to
�upright
The myosin heads
release the AJP
and Pi and change
shape as a result ¯
the power stroke.

p "'""
'


AJº÷T

I·C,/9nQ ¯I?JeO! !¨6O|,O|uu:.|:COn|¯ac!/On
¯ ÎÛ 4Û o u5I-IWÏ
¹IIch mUScle tUre5
¸ATPase causes
ATP hydrolysis

.
• �
,-¸.
specialised for slower, sustained contraction

specialised to ,rod��e r�pid, intense
and can cope with long periods of exercise contractions in short bursts
many mitochondria-ATP comes from aerobic few mitochondria-ATP comes from
respiration (electron transport chain) anaerobic respiration (glycolysis)
lots of myoglobin (dark red pigment) to store little myoglobin and few capillaries The
L_ and lots of caÇillar es to supply L_. 1|lS muscle has a light colour
ÇIv£¯the muscle a dark colour
fatigue resistant fatigue quickly
low glycogen content high glycogen content
low levels of creatine phosphate high levels of creatine phosphate
Q
1 Give OH6 reason why fast-twitch muscl es are more likely to get t i red faster
than slow-twitch muscl es.
Q
2 Describe the role of ATP in muscle contraction.
Q3
Explain why muscl es are arranged in antagonistic pairs.
position.
P1¡ binds
to the myosin
head causing
it to detach
from the actin.
Green Book Ï.z Ora"ge
lemember that energy cannot
>e created or destroyed, but can
:hange from one form into another
-so never refer to eneÌgy being
>roduced or used.
Remember that the formation of ATP
is an example of a condensation
reaction, the reverse of which i s
hydrolysis:
ATP ¬ H
2
0- ADP ¬ Pi +£nergy
Glycolysis means sugar splitting.
Glyco =sugar, lysis= splitting.
Hydrolysis means splitting using
water. Hydro =water.
All living organisms have to respire. There are two different ways in which they do this
-aerobic respiration (using oxygen) and anaerobi c respiration (without oxyge ..)
Both of these processes make the energy stored in gl ucose available i n the form of
ATP, to power metabolic reactions.
Aerobic respiration
glucose + oxygen� carbon dioxide+ water+ energy
'
¸'|
_'
¸
+ 6
'_
� 6
''_
+ 6l¸'+ ~OU l1Í
Anaerobic respiration
glucose� lactic acid +energy
'¸l
1
_'
¸

`'
{
l
¸
'_ ¬ Z l1Í
ATP (adenosine tri phosphate) is the cell's energy currency. Energy is required to add a
thi rd phosphate bond to ADP to create ATP When this bond is broken by hydrolysis,
the energy released can be used in energy-requi ri ng processes taking pl ace wi thi n the
cell.
The brea�< �o� Ï ·1 gh:ose 8n glycolysis
Starting with one gl ucose molecule, gl ycol ysis produces two mol ecul es of pyruvate,
two molecules of reduced NAD and a net gain of two molecu es of ATP Glycolysis
takes place within the cytoplasm of cells.
g|¸colysis
glucose (hexose) (6C)

.
hexose phosphate ( 6C)

hexose bisphosphate (6C)
¦
¿ molecules of triose phosphate (3C)
¬¿-1Í
¸¸
reduced NAD
intermediates
¸ ¯ cÞ1¡
¿ Jo|eLUles of pyruvate (3C)
A5iaerobh: r�spHw�·�ion
The main 3l3gC5 of
glycolysis.
Glycolysis does not need mol ecular oxygen ,´¸ HOveve:, for glycolysis to conti nue, a
constant suppl y of NAD is requi red. In aerobic respi ratOn the NAD is produced by the
electron transport chai n. The reduced NAD must be oxidised to NAD. Duri ng anaerobic
respiration, NAD must come from el sewhere. In animals, pyruvate from glycolysis is
reduced to givC lactate, NAD is formed and can keep gl ycolys s going.
Green Book J.1 Orange Book J.z
Topic 1. hu0for your l i fe
Anaerobic respiration al l ows ani:1al< , make a small amount
of ATP It is an inefficient process but it is rapi d and can supply
muscles with ATP when oxygen is not being delivered quickly
enough to cel l s.
cec:eieíc·cs|actlcacldin solution whi ch lowers the pH. This
can i nhibit enzymes and, if allowed to build up, it can cause
muscle cramp. Once aerobic respiration resumes most lactate
i s converted back to pyruvate. It is oxidised via the Krebs cycle
into carbon di oxi de and water. The extra oxygen required for
this process is called tre oxygen debt.
2ADP
+2P
i
2ATP
glucose
Iactatepathvay

2H- reduced NAD
NAD
y
2H
pyrJvate ªªªª .
Brvestigating the rate o· ( r�spiratio"- us�·-g
a respirometer
experimental tube
screw clip
l
small organisms
KOH solution
absorbs carbon
d
i
oxide
A iC¯Ç||OnC|C!

manometer tube
containing coloured
fluid
1 cm3 syringe
The rate of aerobic respiration can be determined using a respirometer by measuring
the rate of oxygen absorbed by small organisms. Any .O¸produced is absorbed
by the potassium hydroxide (KOH) sol ution, so that any oxygen absorbed by the
organisms results in the fluid in the manometer tube moving towards the organism
(see arrow on di agram). The tube on the right¯hand side compensates for any changes
in pressure or temperawre within the apparatus.
Q1 Suggest l¨u¯exampl es of biological processes that require the use of ATP.
Q2 Compare the role of ATP with glycogen.
Q
¤
Describe the role of NAD in anaerobic respirati on.
Anaerobic respiration in animals.
Don't forget the importance of
including something to absorb the
ÛÜ_or the respirometer reading wid
noIchange during aerobic respiration
of carbohydrates because the same
volume of gas is produced ¦||d¸}as
Í` absorbed by the organism ,o|¸)per
glucose molecule respired.
Remember that in the A2 Biology exa"
you may be asked to:
• bring together scientific knowledg
and understanding from differen;
areas
• apply knowledge and understar0
of more than one area to a
particular situation or context
• use knowledge and understand'rg
of principles and concepts in
planning experimental and
investigative work and in the
analysis and evaluation of da:a
The respiration topic i s a commor
choice for such synoptic quest1ons
because Il£µl0C088 'inks to man· o�
areas such as photosynthesis, 'ood
chains and muscle contraction
U1 Draw !hBmain stages of
glycolysis alongsi de the ܯ³
stages of the light-indepe-ce-·
reactions of photosyntes s
Use these diagrams 1U de--­
the similarities 8Rdd=e-e-::'
between the WUp·ocesse::
Green Book I1
Many of the rea ctions i nvol ved in
respiration are redox reactions
where one substrate i s oxidised
and another is reduced. When
a molecule is oxidised, it ei ther
loses hydrogen or one or more
electrons are lost. -mol ecul e that
gai ns el ectrons or hydrogen i s
reduced. One way of rememberi ng
thi s is to thi nk of UI!hl¹ (oxidation
is loss, reduction i s gain). When
a mol ecul e gains hydrogen it is
reduced, and the mol ecul e that
loses the hydrogen i s oxidised. For
exampl e: pyruvate_, acetyl + ZH lis
oxidation);
NAD ± 2H ´ reduced NAD lis
redu ction).
You do not need to know the names
of the i ntermedi ate compounds of
the Krebs cycl e for the exam, but
you are expected to appreci ate
that aerobic respiration is a many­
stepped process with each step
controlled and catalysed by a
speci fi c intracel l ul ar enzyme.
·rJe:OO|C :e·Ç||J'|Oi, lle jy|uvJ'e ,l:Or Q|yCO|y···) |· .OrÇ|e¯e|y O·|d|·eC |¯'O CJ|OOi
C|O·iCe JiC vJ'e: u·|iQ O·yQe¯
íe:OO|C :e·Ç|:J'|O¯ 'Jke· Ç|JCe |i 'vO ·'JQe·
¯ :·' Çy:UvJ'e IS O·|C|·eC |i'O CJ:OO¯ C|O·|de JiC lyC|OQen ,JCCep'eC Oy 'he
COen.yre· NAD JnC FAD). T||· 'Jke· p|JCe |n '|e matrix Ol l|e mitochondria
J¯C |nvO|ve· '|e Krebs cycle.
• n '|e ·e¯OnC slJQe, rO¯ O¦ ¹¦eíìl Qe¯e|JleC |¯ Je:OO|C |e·Ç|:J¯|O¯ |. syi¯|e·|·ed
Oy oxidative phosphorylation J··OC|JleC v|'| '|e electron transport chai n.
|l|· |¯vO|ve· chemi osmosis JnC '|e en.yre ATPase. ' l lJke· p|JCe O¯ l|e cristae
,|¯¯e| ¤erO|Jie·) Ol lle r|¯OClOnC:|J
°÷¡...�¯�·: ¯¯r ¨ìe |'rebs ²_··.�
��¢ ��.�I� .~a.on)
¯ Je:OO|C |e·p:Jl|On eJC| ,y:uvJ'e rO|eCu'e COr|¯Q l:Or Q|y¯O|y·|· |¯ l|e Ce||´·
.y¯OÇ|J·r ei'e:· '|e rJl:|· Ol 'le r|'OClOid||Oi l |· COnve:'eC l:Or Çy:DvJ'e (`.)
'O J¯ JCe'y' 2.,Q:Oup ||· |¯vO|ve· lle 'O·· Ol .O¸,CeCJ|OO·y|Jl|Oi) JnC lyC:OQen
,CelyC:OQe¯Jl|O¯, Qeie:J'.|Q :eCuCeC Ní' !|e J.ely| Q:Oup |· CJ::|eC Oy COe¯.yJe
í J· Jcely| COen.yre /
|le ||eO· CyC|e OCCur· |n l|e rJ't|· Ol 'le ri'O¯|OnC:|J |le rJ|n pu:ÇO·e Ol l|e
CyC|e |· lO ·upÇ|y J COnl|¯OOu· l|Ov O¯ |yd:OQe¯ ,JiC 'le:e¦O:e e|eC¯:Oi·) !O l|e
el e¯'rcr ¹ar.pc¹ cla·n l'r U.e |n lle sy¯l|ests Ol ATP oy o·idJ'ive plc.plciy'a¹·cr.
i£UUC£U I-L
uC£!¸lCU£H/¸t£- [Z']
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cCUQCUlU cUtµUUHU
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I¸UIC_ulðccup!Ui$cIðlnul
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µICOUcu-¯l.
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I£Uu·uU |-L �
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The reactions involved in the breakdown of pyruvate in aerobic respiration.
��

´|ee¯ `OOk .´ ¹|J¨ge oUUl ´ z
Topic J. Run for your life
Each molecule of th' �-carbon acetyl coenzyme A from the link reaction is used to generate:
• three mol ecul es of reduced NAD
• one mol ecul e O reduced FAD
• two molecules of |L¸
• one mol ecul e of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation (synthe.ised directly
from the energy released by reorganising chemi cal bonds)
• one mol ecul e of a 4-carbon compound, whi ch is regenerated to accept an acetyl
group and start the cycle again.
Note that for each glucose mol ecul e entering glycolysis two acetyl groups are formed,
so the Krebs cycle will turn twice (i. e. p|oduci ng two ATP and six reduced NAD, etc.)
Most of the ATP generated in aerobic respiration is synthesised by the electron
transport chain.
J Reduced coenzyme
carries Hand electron
to electron transport
chain on inner
mitochondrial membrane.
? Electrons pass from one electron carrier to 3 Protons (W) move across the
the next in a serIes of redox reactions; the inner mitochondral membrane
cai·"ris reduced when it receives the electrons creating high W concentrations
and oxidised when it passes them on. in the intermembrane space.
intermembrane
space
4 W difuse back into the
mitochondrial matrix down
the electrochemical gradient
5 ¬d¯llus!0n
inner mitochondrial
membrane
aI|ows A1Pase to
ca!al¸se ATP s¸n!he>i>.
mitochondrial
matrix
¿H
ATPase on
stalked particle
ATP
ó Electrons anu |ions
recombine to form hydrogen
atoms which then combine
with oxygen to create water.
Ithe supply of oxygen stops,
the electron transport chain
and ATP synthesis also stop.
The electron transport chain and chemiosmosis result in A¯`synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation.
The majority of ATP generated by aerobic respiration comes from the activity of the
el ectron transport chain in the i nner membrane of the mi tochondria (cristae).
The overall reaction of aerobic respiration can be summarised as the spl i tting and
oxidation of a respiratory substrate (e. g. gl ucose) to release carbon dioxide as a waste
product_ fol l owed by the reuniting of hydrogen with oxygen to release a large amount
of energy in the form of ATP .
A ~~~~~~~
Q1 Describe what happens to the carbon and hydrogen atoms trom a gl ucose
molecule in aerobic respiration.
Q¿ Explain what oxidative phosphorylation means.
Q¤ Explain why the el ectron transport chai n and the Krebs cycle woul d stop i f
there was no oxygen.
+
. � ÷ �
Û1 Sketch a simple diagram L a.:
and mitochondria and ou·�e
where the main steps in ÜÛ¯!+
respiration take place.
Green Book Ï! Orange Book 7.2
UnÌ\ b. cXc|C|SC 3Þ0 L00i0l03¡|00
1 Electr ical impulses from the 3
SAN spread across the atria
walls. causing contraction.
This is called atrial systole.
Z Impulses pass to \hc 4
ventricles via the AVN after
a short delay to allow time
for the atria to finish
contracting.
3 Impulses pass down the Purkyne
fibres to the heart apex.
4 The ioµulses spread up through
the ventricle walls causing
contraction from the apex upwards.
Blood is squeezed ìoto the arteries.
This is ventricular sys tole.
The impulse to contract originates wi¹hi¯ the heart itself from the s| nootr|al node
-
the
heart is said to be myogenic.
The route taken by electrical impulses across
the heart during the cardiac cycle.
Purkyne fibres
You can calculate the heart rate
using an ÍÛ¹ by measuring the time
interval between one Í wave and
the next one (a complete cardiac
cycle) and then working out how
many occur in 1 |lIuIu.
\´6·l Book 7.3
After contracting (systole), the cardiac muscle then relaxes for a period called
di astoie when the blood returning from the vei ¯: fills the atria.
NeaSuríng e¡ectr�ca¡ chðnge5 ln íhe heit
Electrical currents caused by the spread of the electri cal impul se (wave of
depol arisaton) during the cardiac cycle can be detected with an electrocardiogram
(ECG).
If disease disrupts the heart's normal conduction pathways changes wil l occur in the
'.Cpattern which can be used for diagnosis of cardiovascular di sease.
Pwavc
¸ 0� S�seg¬enL

� �� � ��¸�¸¸¸

.
A normal ECG pattern in a healthy heart.
�~� �'�
� s
• The P wave is the
time of atri al systol e.
• The QR5 complex
is the time of
ventricular systole.
• The T wave is caused
by repolarisation of
the ventricles during
dias!ol e.
Blood is pumped around the body to supply í_ and remove Cí_ from respiring
tissues. How much is pumped in a minute (cardiac output) depends on two factors:
how qui ckly the heart is beating (heart rate) and the volume of blood leaving the left
ventricle with each beat (stroke volume)
carcìacouIpuI(cm`mìn¯') =sIroke volume (cm`) X hearIraIe(mìn¯')
O|ang· Book 7.3
Topic 1. Run for your life
The heart rate can be affected by hormones (e.g. adrenaline) and nervous -: ont•<''. The
cardiovascular control centre i n the medulla of the brain control s the si noatrial
node via nerves. The sympathetic nerve speeds up the heart rate in respon:.: to fal l s
i n pH in the bl ood due to C´_ and lactate levels rising, increases in temperature and
mechanical activity in joints.
Impulses carri ed by the vagus nerve (parasympathetic) slow down the heart rate
when the demand for ´_ and removal of ´´¸ reduces.
RegUlð1iC. C v1HðtC. l�<
The rate at which someone breathes is cal l ed the venti l ati on rate. This is often
expressed as the volume of air breathed per mi nute (the minute ventilation). The
volume of air breathed in or out of the lungs per breath i s called the tidal volume.
The maxi mum vol ume of air that can be forcibly exhal ed after a maxi mal intake of ai r
is cal l ed the vital capacity.
ventilation rate= tidal volume X number of breaths
p
er minute
The venti l ati on centre in the medul l a controls the rate and depth of breathing
in response to impulses from chemoreceptors in the medul l a and arteries which
detect the pH and concentration of Cí¸ in the bl ood. I mpulses are sent from the
venti l ati on centre to stimulate the muscles involved in breathing A smal l increase in
C´_ concentration causes a large increase i n venti l ati on. I t also increases in response
to impulses from the motor cortex and from stretch receptors in tendons and muscl es
involved i n movement. We also have vol untary control over breathing.
A person using a spi rometer breathes i n and out of an airti ght chamber causing i t to
move up and down and l eavi ng a trace on a revolving drum (kymograph)
6
Û
VÍ!ðÍ
6ò[ðCÍ!q
·�

!Í ð
Íu
Ì '

¯�
1ÍuC{ÛCu ¯ 1 HInu!e]
A spirometer trace showing quiet breathing with one maximal breath in and out.
'!
If someone takes ¹ T breaths per mi nute with an average ti dal volume of
|´¬dm3 cal cul ate thei r ventilation rate.
'
¿ Sketch what you would expect an ECG trace to look like if a patient
suffered from ventricul ar fibrillation. (This is rapid and uncontrolled
contractions in the ventricles sometimes caused by a patch of damaged
tissue in the ventri cle acting as a pacemaker)
'~
Suggest what might happen to the heart rate if the connecti on between
the sinoatrial node and the vagus and sympathetic nerves was cut.
SAFETY!
A cani ster of soda l i me
can be used to remove the
C´¸ from the exhaled ai r
to measure the vol ume
of í_absorbed by the
person after exercise, but it
is important to remember
that the chamber must be
filled with medical grade
í_ before starting if this is
to be attempted.
You cJncJlcu¦Jl0the volume
of Ü_J0S0r0eU in Jgiven time
by measuring the differences
in volume 0e¹veenthe troughs
¦J00l¦eU A and Lnthe UJ¸|JJ
JnccvìdIng0ythe time uelv000
A J0U b
U1 Summarise Jn0eÁplainthe
0IIectSof 07ercise unboth he:
Jndventilation rate.
¸¦eel |´´¹ /·` ,rang6 b00KJd
Uni t b. Exercise and Coordination
Negati ve !££ul30Í is the key
to understanding homeostatic
responses. Just remember-if one
thi ng guu5 up, the Uuuyresponds to
bring it back down, or vi ce versa. To
do this yuD need receptors, a norm
value, a control centre (ohen par u!
the brain like the hypothalamus) and
some effectors to bring about the
response.
Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment, within a narrow
l imi t, of the optimum conditi ons needed by cells so they can function properl y. A
homeostatic system therefore requi res:
• receptors to detect the change away from the norm value (sti mul us)
• a control mechani sm that can respond to the information. The control mechanism
uses the nervous system or hormones to switch effectors on or off
• effectors to bri ng about the response (usual l y to counteract the effect of the initial
change). Muscl es and glands are effectors.

input ¯receptors ¬control mechanism¨ effectors __ output
-------------------
fee
d
back
�• r-----------�
Negati ve feedback hel ps to keep the internal envi ronment constant. A change in
the internal environment will trigger a response that counteracts the change, e. g. a
rise in temperature causes a response that wi l l lower body temperature. For negative
feedback to occur, there must be a norm value or set poi nt, e. g. 31'°C for core
body temperature.
A Conditions controlled by homeostasis fluctuate around the norm value.
�� ����' ���������¯
U '¤eccrdition is controlled b¸ n�gative feedback.
rise above
norm
norm value
fall below
norm
�� .
change from
norm detected
effectors act to �
Time

return the co¤dtio¤ �

to the set point

A summary of the role of negative feedback in maintaining body systems within narrow limits.
We have already seen that the body responds to the demands of exercise by increasing
cardiac output and ventilation rate under the control of centres in the medul l a (see
page :T-The heart, energy and exercise) Not only does the i ncreased respiration
rate during exercise produce a lot of LL¸ and/or lactate, but the energy transfers also
release a l ot of heat energy. This can be enough for a ¹ ¯L rise in body temperature
every 5-10 minutes if we can't disperse the heat away from the body.
The control of core body temperature through negative feedback is cal l ed
thermoregul ation. Thermoreceptors in the skin detect changes in temperature. I n
addition thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus (in the brai n) can detect changes i n the
core bl ood temperature. I f a rise in temperature is detected above the norm value the
heat loss centre in the hypothal amus wi l l stimulate effectors to i ncrease heat loss from
the body - usual l y through the ski n.
Green Book 7. 3 Orange Book 7.4
Topic 1. HuhfDr ¸DU¯life
¯t3L |DSS
centre in
hypothalamus
Stl0 SE0C:
`
impulses'-
¯
Ltm]crature risEs Lt0[tlòLUlE falls
G m
LtP[tl3Lll£ JoÌ|S Lt0]tlòîUlP |1S£S
HtòL |DSScentre
SL10U|ates. • SwE3L g|òRCSLD5ECl£lE SwE3l.
Inhibits: • contraction ofarerioles in
S͹l [C¹|8\tS ¯ò]illòries in
skin)
• hair EItCLDl muscles (relax -
hairs |1t T|òI¸
• |1ver [It0UCP! 0tLð0D|J£ rate)
• S<E|ELò| 0US¯|tS (relax - no
shivering).
Negative feedback in thermoregulation.
heat gain
receptors Ct0L1t1H
'
Stl0
hypothalamus
10pul¯es
HtòIgain centre
oÍ10UiðLtS¦ • arterioles in LÍE S<1n to
constrict
• hair erector musc|eSIu
contract
• liver to raise PtLòDD|1£ loIE
• skeletal muscles to contract
in shivering.
1RÍ101\S¦ • sweat glands.
react
Above or below certain temperatures homeostasis fai l s (e.g. because the
hypothal amus may be damaged). Instead, positive feedback may occur resulting i n a
high temperature continuing to rise or a low temperature fal l ing still further. This can
result in hyperthermia Ol hypothermia and may lead to death.
�÷U�cð�te�hnology to enBble those v¹1D
|nju··csand disabilities to partncipate �� 5� Crt
The development of keyhole surgery using fi bre optics has made it possi ble for
surgeons to repair damaged joints (including torn cruciate ligaments in the knee) with
precision and minimal damage. This is because only a small incision (cut) is needed so
there is less bleeding and damage to the joint, and recovery is much quicker.
A prosthesis i s an artificial body part designed to regain some degree of normal
function or appearance. The design of prostheses has improved significantly and many
disabled athletes are now abl e to compete at a very high level, e. g. with dynami c
response feet that can literally provi de them with a spring in their step. Damaged
joints (such as knee joints) can also now be repaired with small prosthetic implants
to replace the damaged ends of bones, freeing the patient from a life of pain and
restoring ful l mobility.
\J Expl ai n what is meant by the term 'negative feedback'.
\¿ Suggest what the consequences might be if you were unable t o lose heat
from the body during exercise.
\~
Describe the body's likely responses to the core temperature dropping
bel ow ´1¨C
uìUsi |g your revision in this
section and pages 45, b0and '
expl ai n why some ani mals are
adapted to short bursts oTfast
powerful exercise, while other
are a d apted to long 0erio0s of
continuous exercise.
'¦33i bDD¹ 7.3 O¯3i¸0 |DD· 7.4
M
Remember that exam questions
in this uni t may refer back to any
other topi cs from the Þlevel biology
course, so now would be a good
ti me to check your notes about the
cel l s involved i n the speci fi c and
non-speci fi c i mmune system ( page
óó. Unit 4l.
Just because two thi ngs are
observed to happen, it doesn't
mean they are connected. |P
parti cul ar it doesn't mean that one
caused the other. A correlation
does not necessarily mean a
connecti on. If there appears to
be a strong correlation between
two factors, a causal link is more
l i kely if you can provide a bi ol ogi cal
explanation for why one factor
wi l l affectthe other, especi all y
i f there aren't many other l i kel y
factors or explanations avail abl e.
For exampl e, there i s a positive
correlation between the number
of shark attacks and the number of
i ce creams sol d at a beach. There
is no bi ol ogi cal explanation for this
correlation, so there i s no di rect
causal l i nk. I n contrast it i s thought
that there i s a causal l i nk between
the number of ci garettes smoked
and the number of deaths due to
lung cancer, because there is a
strong correlation and a bi ol ogi cal
ex pi a nation a bout why smoki ng
coul d cause l ung cancer.
Green Book 7. 4
T�e �o.si l � C= ¨C.� <� O� TC¬ � ì �tl. exercise
There are many benefits to regul ar moderate exerci se. Here are a few possible effects
of a lack of exercise over a prol onged period of ti me:
• reduced physical endurance, l ung capacity, stroke vol ume and maximum heart rate
• increased resting heart IdiE, blood pressure and storage of fat i n the body
• increased ri sk of coronary heart di sease, type II diabetes, some cancers, weight
gai n and obesity
• i mpaired i mmune response due to lack of natural ki l l er cells
• increased level s of LDL (' bad' cholesterol) and reduced level s of HDL ('good' cholesterol)
• reduced bone densi ty, therefore i ncreased risk of osteoporosis.
The to�si b! e effects of �co -uch en�r�ds�
Overtrai ni ng can l ead to symptoms such as i mmune suppression and i ncreased wear
and tear on joints. I t can also result in chronic fatigue and poor athletic performance.
Too much exercise generally may al so i ncrease the amount of wear and tear on
joi nts. Damage to cartilage in synovial joints can l ead to i nfl ammati on and a form of
arthritis. Ligaments can al sc be damaged. Bursae (fl ui d-fi l l ed sacs) that cushion parts of
the JOi nt can become i nfl amed and tender.
There is also some evidence of a correlation between i ntense exercise and the ri sk
of infection such as col ds and sore throats. This coul d be caused by an increased
exposure to pathogens, or d suppression of the i mmune system. There i s some
evi dence that the number and activity of some cells of the immune system may be
decreased whi l e the body recovers after vigorous exercise. I t may also OP the ca¯eIbaI
damage to muscles during exercise and the release of hormones such as adrenal ine
may cause an i nfl ammatory response whi ch coul d al so suppress the i mmune system.
Some e·�hica� �Qsit�o�s re�ating to the use
o per,orrance�enhancing substances
Some athl etes wi l l do anythi ng they can, in the pursui t of excel l ence. This might
i nclude the use of i l l egal performance-enhanci ng substances. Others may feel they
need to follow sui t because they don't want to be at a disadvantage. Thi s has been a
subject for debate in the sporting worl d for many years.
These ethical frameworks can be used when consi dering both si des of the argument:
• ri ghts and duties
• maximising the amount of good i n the world
• making decisions for yourself
• leading a virtuous l i fe.
For example, dopi ng i n sport coul d be considered /¨|acceptable because athl etes
have a ri ght to fair competition, but could equally be considered acceptable because
athletes have the right to exercise autonomy, for exampl e to choose to achieve their best
performance, and al so have ð duty to any sponsor they may have.
Remember that in order to maintain that somethi ng is ethically acceptable or not, you
must provide a reasonabl e expl anation as to why that i s the case.
Ethical absol utists see thin�s as very clear cut. They woul d take one of two positions:
1 It i s never acceptabl e for athletes to use performance-enhanci ng substances (even i f
they are l egal ), C|
¿ it is always acceptable for athletes to use any substance avai labl e to them to
compete more effectively, even if there are associated ri sks to thei r heal th.
Ethical relativists woul d rea i se that people and circumstances may be different, e. g:
• I t is wrong for athletes to use performance-enhanci ng substances, but there may be
some cases and ci rcumstances where i t ..acceptabl e.
Orange Book 7. 5, 7. 6
Topic 1. Hulfor your life
Some 0rugs such as anabol i c steroids are closely related to natural steroid hormones
They can pass di rectly through cel l membranes and be carri ed into the nucl eus bound
to a receptor mol ecul e. These hormone/receptor compl ex
.
·s act as transcription
factors. They bi nd to the promoter regi on of a gene all owi ng RNA polymerase
to start transcri pti on. As a resul t more protein synthesis takes pl ace in the cell s.
For example testosterone increases protein synthesis i n muscl e cel l s. i ncreasi ng the
size and strength of the muscl e ti ssue. Peptide hormones do not enter cel l s di rectly,
but they bi nd wi th receptors on the cel l surface membrane. Thi s starts a process
that results i n the activation of a transcri pti on factor wi thi n the nucl eus. For exampl e
erythropoietin (EPO) sti mul ates the production of red bl ood cel l s. Thi s means that the
bl ood can carry more oxygen whi ch is an advantage for an athl ete.
Genes are switched on by
successful formation and
attachment of the
transcription initiation
complex to the promoter
region.
RNA polymerase

promoter region -

site for RNA polymerase attachment

gene
..... ..
_ ¯îP
Genes remai n switched
off by failure of the
transcription initiation
complex to form and
attach to the promoter
region. This is due to
the absence of protein
transcription factor¸s;or
the action of repressor
molecules.
L L
transcription factors
transcription
initiation complex
¬
LN¤ transcription i¨ cOOI!OlkOOyliaOScii¡IiOO ÍactOrS.
RNA synthesis
\! Describe why a l ack of exercise may lead to an i ncreased risk of coronary
heart di sease.
\¿ Expl ain why a l ack of T helper cel l s may increase the risk of an athlete
suffering from a sore throat.
Q3
Outl i ne the role of transcri pti on factors in the control of gene expression.
Ü1 Even if al l performance­
enhancing substances were
formally banned, would we eve1
have a l evel playing field for
athletes?
|'-c¦ buu·7. 4 Q'angc Book 7 5, 7. 6
UnÍ\ b. Exercise and Coordination
By the end of this topic you shoul d be able to:
4 = � æ �
Muscles and Describe the structure of a muscle fibre and expl ai n |Lz
. .
movement the differences between fast and slow twitch
muscle fibres.
r
Explain how skeletal muscle contracts usi ng the sl i di ng |Lo
. .
filament theory.
Recall the way in which muscles, tendons, the |L¹
. .
skeleton and ligaments i nteract to allow movement.
Energy and the Describe aerobic respiration as splitting of gl ucose to LLO
. .
role of ATP release carbon dioxide, water and energy.
Describe a practical to investigate rate of respiration. LLÛ
. .
Recall what ATP is and how it supplies energy for cel l s. .L7
. .
Describe the roles of glycolysis in both aerobic and |Lc
. .
anaerobic respiration. You do not need to know al l
the stages but you do need to know tha: gl ucose i s
phosphorylated and ATP reduced NAD and pyruvate
are produced.
Explain what happens to l actate after you stop LL! 1
. .
exercising.
The Krebs cycle Describe how the Krebs cycle produces carbon ÍLÛ
. .
and the electron dioxi de, ATP reduced NAD and reduced FAD You
transport chai n shoul d al so understand that respiration has lots of
enzyme-controlled steps.
Describe how ATP is made by oxidative .L1 Û
. .
phosphorylation in the electron transport chai n
i ncl udi ng the roles of chemi osmosi s and ATPase.
The heart, energy Understand that cardiac muscle i s myogenic and |L' Z
. .
and exercise describe how electrical activity in the heart allows it to
beat. You should also know how ECGs can be used.
Expl am that tissues need rapi d delivery of oxygen and |L1 J
. .
removal of carbon dioxide during exercise and that
changes i n venti l ati on and cardiac output allow this to
happen. You should understand how heart rate and
venti l at1 on rate are controlled.
Describe how to use data from spirometer traces to |L1¬
. .
investigate the effects of exercise.
Homeostasis Explain the principle of negative feedback. L01 5
. .
Discuss the concept of homeostasis and how it LL1 Û
. .
mai ntai ns the body during exercise, i ncl udi ng
control l i ng body temperature.
Heal th, exercise Expl ai n how genes can be switched on and off by |L' ¯
. .
and sport DNA transcription factors i ncl udi ng hormones.
Analyse and interpret data on the possible dangers of |L' C
. .
exercising lOO little and too much. You shoul d also be
abl e to talk about correlation and cause.
Explain how medical technology helps people with |L1 Û
. .
injuri es or di sabi l i ti es to take part in sport.
Outline the ethics of using performance-enhanci ng LLZÛ
. .
substances.
Topic 1. Run for your life
Animals that are predators often show bursts of very fast movement. Their prey tend to be able to carry out sustained movement over
l onger periods of ti me. Close examination shows that the muscl es of predator and prey show a different composition of fast- and slow¯
twitch fibres.
¦ z¦ (i ) Outl i ne the differences between fast- and slow-twitch mLscl e fibres. |/¦
(ii} State whether predator or prey would show a higher propJrion of slow-twitch fibres. (1)
(iii) Discuss why predators show different proportions of fast- and slow-twitch muscl e fibres from thei r prey. |/|
If you are asked for the differences. make sure you refer to both or use a comparative word. e.g. 'more'.

(a) (i) Slow-twitch muscle fibres have more mitochondria and
more capillaries supplying oxygen than fast twitch fibres.
( i i ) Prey
(iii) Predators are ||K6|{to have more fast-twitch than slow­
twitch fibres, in comparison to their prey. This is because
predators tend to be fast and powerful over short distances
to catch and kill their prey and therefore use anaerobic
respiration to release ATP quickly.
This is a good response because not only does it provide a likely
comparison, it also provides a clear and pl ausibl e explanation
(bI During fast movement, lactate builds up in the muscles of a predator. such as a cheetah. Explain what happens to this
lactate after the chase has ended.
.`ï

Ía(I¬Itd͹U8-8Í|Um\|8 mU80|8 |uIC\|6U¦Co0where iIi8 carried
away from the muscle to prevent cramp.
Lactate is oxidised back into pyruvate using NAD that has been
oxidised in the electron transport chain using oxygen. The extra
oxygen needed is the oxygen debt.
1U|S|ôSµUnSô |SC 00|!ô0!but on|y µò|´io|�xplOnat|on. I t 0xp|ai ns
how the lactate i s moved away from the muscle. but not how it is
removed from the body,
This response wi l l gain maximum marks because it provides
a chemical explanation 0Í!U0fate of the lactate. clearly
demonstrating an understanding of both aerobic and anaerobic
respiration. as well as recognition of the need for extra oxygen.
(¢ì During the chase, the core body temperature of both predator and prey rises. Describe how changes in blood circulation help to return
their core body temperatures to n0|mð|.
|`l
In longer questions like this try to be clear on writing cause and effect. Where possible use key terms and concepts from your course as part
of your description as you will often receive credit for these. However. the terms need to be in the correct context -you will not gain marks
for lists of random terms that do not 0emonstrate your understanding of what they mean.
5Iu6e0Ia0

swer
*< = *
An increase i n core temperature causes vasodilation so that more
heat i s lost from the skin.
This is an example of homeostasis using a negative feedback
mechanism. Changes to the core temperature are detected by
thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus which send nerve impulses to
arterioles in the ski n. This causes vasodilation resulting in increased
blood fiow to the skin.
This response would onl y score ' mark for the recognition that more
heat would be lost from the SK|P.The reference to vasodi|ation is
not enough as it does not describe what change occurs to the blood
circulation.
This response is better because it includes key terms and structures
in the correct context of how the change is caused (homeostasis.
negative feedback. hypothalamus). It also clearly describes the
effect of vasodilation on the blood circulation.
(Edexcel Û/tBiology (Salters-Nufield) Advanced Unit JJune ?úúºI
1 (a) Name the region Ol the human brain i nvolved in control of heart rate. ' `ì
(b) Heart rate increases during exercise. Explain the mechanisms involved in
control l i ng !' :i ncrease in |ea|' rate.
(4)
Total D marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 5June 2007)
¿ Doi ng too l i ttl e exercise can l ead 'O heal th probl ems, but too much exercise Can
also be harmful. Discuss tre benefits and potential dangers of exercise
i n humans.
|o¹
Total Û marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 5June 2007)
¤ The tabl e below refers 'O three major ¯'aQe of aerobic respi ration and the Ç|OCuc':
Ol each stage. Copy and complete the table by i nserti ng the part of the cel l in
which the stage occurs an: two products in the bl ank spaces.
' glycolysis

´eosc,cle matrix o: ¤ Ioc¤o¤J| On

electron transport chain ¸ATP 8|C VòlC|

l
'-`
Total Ô marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology Advanced Unit 4 - paper oJune 2007)
Ô The diagrams show one sarcomere in its ful l y relaxed state and when il i�
partially contracted.
actin
myosin
Fully relaxed sarcomere Partially contracted sarcomere
(a) Cal cul ate the percentage change ¯v uI' ol the H zone when the sarcomere
is partially contracted Show your working. (3)
(b) During the contracticn of thi s sarcomere, the myosi n fil aments pull the aC'n
fi l aments towards the centre Ol the ·a:COne:e Explain how I'.: i s
brought about. (4)
D `|e di agram shows
the ways i n whi ch the
respiratory system and
di fferent parts of the
brai n i nteract wi th
each other to
regulate breathing.
Total J marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology Advanced Unit - ¬ paper oJune 2007)
s¡retchreceptors
Topic 1. Run for your life
(a) Breathing can be controlled vol untari l y and involuntari ly. Name the part of
the brai n that controls involuntary breathing
:
(b) Suggest one occasion when the depth of breathing is increased voluntarily. ,1)
(c) Usi ng the i nformati on the di agram, expl ai n the roles of muscle spi ndl es
and nerves i n the control of breathing during exercise. (3)
(d) The ventilation of the l ungs duri ng breathi ng is essenti al i n mai ntai ning
the concentrati or gradients of the respiratory gases. This ensures that gas
exchange is efficient. Explain why the chemoreceptors are particularly
i mportant duri ng exercise.
.¯`
Total J marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology Advanced Unit ¬ = paper oJune 2007)
Ü The di agram shows some of the muscl es in a human l eg.
(a) Using the letters A, B, C or D, i dentify the muscle
on the diagram above which (i) contracts to
bend the leg backwards at the knee AND (i i ) is
antagonistic to the muscle identified in ( ) ( 1 )
(b) Joi nt i njuries often shorten the career of athletes.
Explain the advantages of keyhole surgery on
damaged joints, such as the knee, compared with
traditi onal surgery. ..)
(c) Two weeks after taking part in a ¯okm race,
33% of the runners devel oped respi ratory tract
infections. Those who completed the race were
three times more likely to develop an infection
after the race compared with a control group
which did not run.
Expl ain one factor which could contribute to this
hi gher i nfecti on rate. '´ì
Total Ü marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nufield) Advanced Unit 5 June 2005)
7 The diagram shows the pathways for the conduction of electrical impulses during
the cardiac cycle.
X
¯ 7
�pathways for the

conduction of
electrical impulses
(a) Name the structure l abel l ed Z. ´ :
(b) Describe how the structures shown i n the diagram control the compl ete
cardi ac cycle.
4
·
Total D marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit l January 2005)
Animal nervous systems are fast-acting communi cati on systems containing nerve cells
(neurones) whi ch carry information i n the form of n erve impulses (see page C.)
In mammal s sensory neurones carry i mpulses from receptOis to a central nervous
system (CNS) consisting of the OJ. Oand spinal cord. The CNS (contai ni ng relay
neurones) processes i nformati on from many sources and then sends out i mpul ses via
motor neurones to effector organs (mai nl y muscles and glands).
Tne pupil reflex
The iris contai ns pairs of antagonistic muscl es (radial and circular muscl es) that control
the size of the iris under the influence of the autonomic nervous system (involuntary).
radial
musc|es
re|ax
pupil constricted
radial
musc|es
c!rcu|ar co¤tract
PusLlÛs
co¤trac!
pupil dilated
CÌlCUÌ8I
PuSClES
relax
How the musces of the iris act to control the amount of lght entering the eye.
I n hi gh l i ght intensities photoreceptors such as rods in the retina cause nerve i mpulses
to pass al ong the optic nerve to a group of nerve cells in the brai n. These then send
impulses along parasympathetic motor neurones to the ci rcul ar muscl es of the iris.
The muscles contract, reducing the diameter of the pupil so :hat less light can enter
the eye, thus preventing damage to the retina.
In low l ight conditions fewer impul ses reach the coordinating centre in the brain
� impul ses are sent down sympathetic motor neurones to tne radial muscl es of the
iris instead. This causes the radial muscles to contract and the pupil becomes dil ated,
al l owi ng more l ight to reach the retina.
¯�¬�����1t1ÿ : n µl �n1S
" Photoperiodism: Pl ants fl ower and seeds germi nate i n response to changes i n day
| -OQ!| The ¡oreceptor involved i s a bl ue-green pent cal l ed phytochrome.
Qn absorbi ng natural (or red) light phytochrome converts ] the i nacti ve form
_to the active ||
__dark _slowly reverts ba::k to P�because i t i s
relatively unstabl e (or it can change back ridly_j.R- ||exposed to far r�d l i g�t).
I t _ !:that the active P
FR
may trigger a rang_e_gf diffe[t..Qbot.eriodic
responses.
• Phototropi sm: T�opisms are growth responses in plants where the direction of the
gwwth response is determined p1 d�ternal stimul us. If a pl ant
grows towards a stimul us it is said to be a� tropic respo�e.
Green Book ö. T, d. z Orange bDD¹ ö. I
Light �¸ Light
With illumination (·.`¸.
from all sides, an ¡
.
Zone o¡
even , :tribution elongation
oIauxìns moves
dovn Iromthe
snoo!tip, and __
causese|on_a!ìon ^
oIce|lsac¯oss
!he ïone oI
el ooga:ioa
Light
from one side, auxins
move down Irom!he
shoo! !ìptowards \he
shaded side of the
shoot. Only those
cells on !heshaded
sìdee'On_a!e.and
!ne shooI bends
!Ova¯dsthe 'ight
'
It is not LlC3r vO3¹ ¹Oe reCeptor for µ|CtoI¯Cpi$m i s in shoots, but a good
candidate ||Lere3ls is riboflavin. `|ÇÇ!ÇCIC. !C¯!|egrovtO response
' >cell elongation. This h3ppen>just OC|Ov!OeI'µof the shoot and is
cont¯olled by the pl ant growth $UO$!ð|CC |ÞÞ(the first auxin discovered).
Mechani sm of phototropism in shoots.


Electrochemical changes ¸Chemical hormones from Chemical growth substances
giving an electrical i mpulse. endocrine glands eared 1 n (e.g. auxins) diffusing from
Chemi cal neurotransmitters

cell to cell - some may go i n

the blood plasma around the
used at most synapses. C' r\ul ato¯y system. the pl ant transport system
- the phloem.
rapid acti ng slower acting slower acting
Usually associated with Can control long-term Controls long-term
short-term changes, e. g. responses, e. g. growth and growth responses, ¯. _ cel l
muscle contraction. sexual development. Some el ong3t' on.
are involved in homeostasis,
C. _. control of blood sugar.
Some can be relatively fast,
e.g. effects of adrenaline in
. response to stress.
Response i s very local and Response may be widespread, Response may be widespread,

specific such as a muscle cell or restricted IOspecific target but normally restricted to cells

or gl and. cells. within a shor d1stance of
the growth substance bei ng
released.
Table to compare communication and coordination methods in plants and animals.
Q1 Expl ai n what is meant by the term photoreceptor.
Q¿ Explain why it is c¹ advantage that shoots have positive phototropism and
roots have negative phototropism.
Q
~
What effect does IAA have on cells?

Take care not to muddle tropic
and trophic. Tropic responses
are growth responses i n plants.
Trophi c is connected v'!| |0v
l i vi ng thi ngs feed and thei | positi01
within food chai ns. Fo¯P×u||' u
pl ant shoots have u positivu tropi c
response to l ' ght and they 3|Ç
autotrophic U8LduSuthey 00k£
thei r own food and therefore
occupy the ¹||Sll/0þhlc| u!u' on u
food chai n.
Remember, auxins l i ke IAA cause
cel l elongation and not cell
d' vis' on.
¸ � Hl | I · ·�¦ ·
Û1 W|yi s it an advuntuçufor
animal s to have a nervous
system and an endocrine
system?
Green Book 8. 1, 8. : Orange Book 8. 1
Sensory neurone
cell body

Schwann cell
��������

axon
"
dendrites
cell body
Relay neurone
� ��


axon
dendrites
The structure of neurones in a mammar
Neurones are i ndi vi dual nerve cel l s,
whereas nerves are several axons
bundl ed together i n a p rotective
sheath, Ü8RdtÍlUSconduct i mpul ses
towards the cel l body, and ðXUßS
conduct impulses away from the
cel l body,
Al l neurones (nerve cel l s) have a cel l body (containi ng the nucl eus and
most of the cel l 's organel l es within the cytoplasm), dendrites (that conduct
impulses towards the cel l body) and an axon (that conducts impulses away
from the cel l body), The main difference between the structures of sensory,
motor and rel ay neurones is the rel ati ve posi tion of the cel l body
Neurones are able to carry waves of electrical activity called action
potentials (nerve impulses) over a l ong distance because the axons can
be very l ong and the membranes are pol ari sed (different charges on the
insi de and outside of the membrane),
Most vertebrate neurones have a fatty i nsul ati ng layer called the myel i n
sheath wrapped around the axon and/or dendron , Thi s increases the
speed of conduction of a nerve impulse through a piocess cal l ed saltatory
conducti on, Schwann cel l s wrap around the neurone, to nourish and
protect it and produce the myelin sheath, H:wever, there are smal l gaps
left uncovered cal l ed the nodes of Ranvier, Action potenti al s jump from
one node of Ranvier to the next increasing the speed of conducti on,
¯�ei:BnSniSSìOn O1a nerve ì mpuI5e
In a resting neLrone there are more sodi um i ons outside the cel l
membrane than inside, and more potassium i ons inside than outside,
The inside of the resting neurone has a negati ve charge i n comparison to
!neOut.. de dJe!O I|e presenceof chl oride ions and negati vel y charged
proteins, This distribution of ions creates a potential difference (a
difference in charge) of about
-
70mV cal l ed the resting potential and
the membrane is said to be pol ari sed, The sodi um-potassi um pump
creates concentration gradients across the membrane (sodium moves out
and potassium moves in to the axon), Potassi um ion channel s allow
facilitated diffusi on of potassium ions back out of the membrane down
their concentration gradi ent, creati ng the uneven di stri bution of charge
across the membrane,
.
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·
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Movement of ions in and out OIthe membrane during
an ðcuOn ]OlCnl Ml
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Green b00¹o. z Orange o00·o. ¹
Topic 8: '|0y matter
½
If a neurone cel l rr,eml- �ne is sti mulated, voltage-dependent sodi um i on channel s
open and sodi um i ons diffuse i n. Th1 s increases the positive charge i nsi de the cel l , so
the charge across the rrembrane is reversed. The membrane now carries a potenti al
difference of about +~|mV Thi s is the action potential and the membrane i s sa1 d to
be depol ari sed. As the charge reverses, the sodi um ion channel s shut ar , J voltage­
dependent potassi um i on channel s open so that more potassi um i ons l eave the axon,
repol ari si ng the membrane.
Z
stimulation
D
4
high Na¯

high ï axon

first action potential


second action potential


��

��

!`


third action potential



� ��+ + +
K¯ refractory Na¯
period
¨
progress ot the impulse
Propagation of t nerve impulse along an axon.
At resting potential there is
positive charge onthe outside of
the membrane and negative charge
on the inside, with high sodium ion
concentration outside and high
potassium ion concentration inside.
When stimulated, voltage-
dependent sodium ion channels open.
and sodium ions flow into the axon,
depolarising the membrane.
Localised electric currents are generated
in the membrane. Sodium ions move to the
adjacent polarised (resting) region causing
a change in the electrical charge (potential
difference) across this part of the membrane
The change in potential difference in the
membrane adjacent to the first accion
potential initiates a second action potential.
At the site of the first action potential the
voltage-dependent sodium ion channels
close andvoltage-dependent potassium ion
channels open. Potassium ions leave the
axon, repolarising the membrane. The
membrane becomes hyperpolarised.
A third actionpotential is initiated by the
second. In this waylocal electric currents
cause the nerve impulse to move along the
axon. At the site of the first action
potential. potassium ions diffuse back into
the axon, restoring the resting potential.
Action potenti al s have an al i -or-nothi ng nature (the val ues of the resti ng and acti on
potenti al s are al ways the same ÍO|a speci fi c neurone) A bi gger sti mul us increases the
frequency of the action potenti al s (not the strength). A threshold sti mul us must be
appl i ed to produce an action potenti al .
Strai ght after an action potential there i s a short refractory period when a
new action potential can't be generated because the sodi um ion channels can' t
reopen. Thi s ensures that acti on potential s pass along as separate si gnal s and are
uni di rectional (onl y acl e to pass in one di rection).
'|cc| o03·o z Orange bUU·o 1
`
Ü
Uni t b. .Xer'i se and Coordi nati on
Pre - before; post- after; uni - one;
summati on - addi ng.
I f two or more excitatory
l i mpulses arrive at a synapse
at the same time thei r effect
wi l l be combi ned and you
are more l i kel y to depol arise
the postsynaptic membrane
(thi s i s spati al summati on) I f
you have a strong sti mul us
along one neurone many
action potenti al s wi ll arri ve
one after the other (due to
the hi gh frequency) and thi s
wi ll have the same effect
(thi s i s temporal summati on).

Ü1 Look back at your AS Bi ol ogy
notes for the structure of
membranes and transpor
a c ross membranes. Sketch a
di agram of a membrane to show
how sodi um and potassi um i ons
move duri ng a nerve i mpul se.
Then add to your di agram any
other ways that substances can
move across membranes.
Synðp5e5
The poi nt where one neurone meets another i s cal l ed a synapse. At T'F ti p of
the axon an i mpulse opens calcium i on channel s then tri ggers the release of a
chemi cal neurotransmitter (for exampl e acetyl chol i ne) from synapti c vesicl es. The
neurotransmi tter can diffuse across the gap between the neurones (the synapti c cleft)
and bi nd to receptors on the· postsynaptic membrane. I f the neurotransmitter comes
from an excitatory neurone it may open sod1 um ion channel s on the postsynaptic
membrane, tri ggeri ng a new acti on potential in the postsynapti c neurone. However,
some neurotransmitters are i nhi bitory and they may open chl ori de ion channel s on the
postsynaptic membrane, causi ng it to become hyperpol arised and therefore harder to
get an above-threshol d response needed to tri gger the new acti on potenti al .
An enzyme i s often present i n the synapti c cleft to hydrol yse the neurotransmitter, so
the response does not keep happeni ng. The neurotransmi tter may also be taken back
up i nto the presynapti c membrane ready to be used agam.
Because the receptors are only on one si de of the synapse (the postsynaptic
membrane) the si gnal can onl y pass in one di recti on ( uni di recti onal ). Synapses al so
act as juncti ons and al l ow nerve i mpulses to converge or diverge because one neurone
can meet many others at a singl e synapse.
1 An action
potential arrives.
? The membrane depolarises.
Calcium ion channels open.
Calcium ions enter the
neurone.
-
Calcium ions cause synaptic
vesicles containing
neurotransmitter to fuse with
the presynaptic membrane.
4 Neurotransmitter is released
into the synaptic cleft.
axon
synaptic
vesicle
neurotransmitter

-
� �pres�napt1c
� memorane
� �

C
_ i· ¹

H
C
synaptic
cleft
� �

� postsynaptic

membrane
5 Neurotransmitter binds with receptors on the
postsynaptic membrane. Cation channels open.
Sodium ions flow through the channels.
ó The membrane depolarises and
initiates an action potentiaL
7 When released the neurotransmitter will be taken up across the presynaptic membrane
(whole or after being broken down, , or it can diffuse away and be broken down.
The sequence of events occurring when an action potential arrives at a synapse
��
Ç1 Expl ai n the di fference between depol ari sati on and hyperpol ari sati on.
Ç2 How do the structure of the synapse and axon membrane ensure that nerve
i mpul ses are onl y abl e to travel in one di rection/
Ç
>
Descri be what happens to sodi um i ons when a neurone membrane i s
sti mul ated.
� Green Book o ` Orange Book o. ¹
|
|
|
Receptors are specialised cel ls abl e to detect sti mul i . Receptors are often grouped
together into sense organs.
Human eyes have two types of photoreceptor cel l s found in the reti na on the back
of the eye. Cones al l ow col our vi si on in bri ght l i ght and are clustered in the centre of
the retina. Rods onl y provide bl ack and white vision, but are much more sensi ti ve than
cones and can work in dim l ight conditions.
dark
.
´¯

Na diffuse i n
Na
throu¸h open
outer
-
cation channels
.egment
inner
segment
Na + mo.e down
concentration gradient

N

+
<=
Na + activel,
·. pumped out
I

'
¸

��
_
_
_
membrane slightly
depolarised -40mV
Neurotransmitter is released
and binds to bipolar cell,
pre.enting it depolarising.
¯ bipolar neurone
Æ
light
light breaks down
¸
¸
__
rhodopsi n to retinal
� a-d o,si|
`"
Æ
Opsin binds to the
membrane causing a series
of reactions which result i n
the Na • c-an-e.s being closed.
Na ¯activel,
pumped out
membrane
hyperpolarised
No neurotransmitter is
released.

Cation channels i n
bipolar cell open and
membrane becomes
depOlari.ed,¸enerating
an action potential in
the neurone of the
optic nerve.
-iOuceÌÌ |O lÌC uðik ðnuin!l:ÌIQÌ|.
Light energy is absorbed by rhodopsin whi ch spl i ts into retinal and opsi n. The
opsin binds to the membrane of the outer segment of the cell and this causes
sodium i on channels to close. The inner segment continues to pump sodi um
ions out of the cel l and the membrane becomes hyperpoarised (more negati ve).
This means that gl utamate is not released across the synapse. Gl utamate usual l y
inhibits the neurones which connect the rod cel l s to the neurones in the optic
nerve. When there is less inhibi ti on an action potential forms and i s transmitted
to the brai n. The information from the optic nerve is processed by the brain i n
the visual cortex.
~
Q1 Expl ai n why rods release a neurotransmitter in the dark, but not in the l i ght.
Q¿ Describe what happens to rhodopsin when i t i s exposed to light.
Q¤ Compare photoreceptOs in mammals and pl ants.
Ü! Groups of three rod cel l s
connect to a si ngl e bi pol ar cel l
whereas j ust one cone cel l
connects to a bipolar cel l . Use
thi s information to explain why
y0|can't see col our well in di m
l i ght conditions.
Green Book o ¿ Orange Book 8. 2
Whi te matter is so cal l ed because it
mai nl y consists of lots of myel inated
axons. Grey matter is where the
synapses occur and therefore
where al l the processi ng takes
pl ace and your memori es are
stored.
The regions of the cerebral
hemispheres and their functions.
The cerebrum (cerebral cortex) is the largest part of the brai n. It is divided i nto two
cerebral hemi spheres connected by a band of wh i tE matter cal l ed the corpus
cal l osum. The cerebrum i s associated wi th advanced mental activity li ke l anguage,
memory, cal cul ati on, processi ng i nformati on from the eyes and ears, emotion and
controlling al l of the voluntary acti vi ti es of the body.
Frontal lobe (also referred to as the higher centres of the brain) - concerned with the higher brain
functions such as decision making, reasoning, planning and consciousness of emotions. It is also concerned
with forming associations (by combining information from the rest of the cortex) and with ideas. It
includes the primary motor cortex which has neurones that connect di rectly to the spinal cord and brain
stem and from there to the muscles. It sends information to the body via the motor neurones to carry out
movements. The motor cortex also stores information about how to carry out different movements.
Temporal l cbe - concerned with processing
auditory information, i.e. hearing, sound
recognition �nri sreerh ¸-|· t~¬,o·� o+-,.
\.cinvolved in ¬c-.·¸.
Parietal lobe - concerned with
orientation, movement, sensation,
calculation, some types of
recognition and memory.
Cerebellum
Occipital lobe (visual
cortex) - concerned with
processing information
from the eyes, including
vision, colour, shape
recognition and perspective.
corpus callosum cerebrum
The hypothalamus
controls
thermoregulation.
pituitary ÷÷÷
The cerebellum is important
for balance and coordinating
muscle movements.
gland
midbrain
The main regions of the human ora in.
The medulla oblongata controls
many body processes such as heart
rate, breathing and blood pressure.
'J Disti ngui sh between the cerebrum and the cerebel l um.
'
¿ Which regi on of the brai n is most associ ated wi th thi nking and decision
maki ng/
Green Book o. ` Orange Book 8. 3
Topic ö. Grey matter
W" are born with a range of i nnate behaviours (behavioural responses that do not
need to be learnt) such as crying, grasping and sucking. However, the brain still needs
much growth and development after birth through the formation of synapses and the
growth of axons.
zV�
Critical wi ndows (or critical periods) for development are those periods of time where it
is thought that the nervous system needs specific stimuli in order to develop properly.
Evidence for critical windows for development has come from medical observations
(e.g. children who develop cataracts before the age of ¹ U days may suffer from
permanent visual impai rment even || the cataracts are repaired at a later date) and from
ani mal models Hubel and Wiesel used kittens and monkeys as models to investigate
the critical window in visual development because of the similarity of their visual systems
to that of humans.
The iJni mal s were deprived of the stimul us of light into one eye (monocular deprivation)
at different stages of development and for different lengths of ti me. They found that
kittens deprived of light in one eye at 4 weeks after birth were effectively permanently
blind in that eye. Monocular deprivation before 3weeks and after 3 months had
no effect. It was thought that during the critical period (about 4 weeks after bi rth)
connections to cells in the visual cortex from the l i ght-deprived eye had been lost Thi s
meant that the eye that remai ned open duri ng development became the onl y route for
visual stimuli to reach the visual cortex.
Inactive synapses are eliminated.
Eye has no worki ng connection to the visual
cortex and i s effectively bl i nd, even though
the cells olthe retina and optic nerve work
normally when exposed to light
Axons pass nerve i mpulses to cell s in the
visual cortex.
Synapses used by active axons are
strengthened.
Synapses only present for axons coming from
the light-stimulated eye. So the visÍal cortex
can only respond to this eye.
The use of ani mal s as models for understanding how humans develop, or how
new drugs may affect us, is a very controversi al area. There are those who hold an
absol utist view of ani mal rights and think we should OCvEI keep animal s or use
them in medical research. From the poi nt of view of medi cal research, a much more
widespread posi tion is the relativist view that humans should treat animal s well and
minimise harm and suffering so far as i s possibl e. Here the emphasis i s on ani mal
welfare, respecting their rights to such things as food, water, veterinary treatment
and the abil i ty to express normal behaviours. This is pretty much the position in
European l aw This al l assumes that animal s can suffer and experience pl easure.
A utilitarian ethical framework al l ows certain ani mal s to be used in medi cal
experiments ¡|OwOCOthe overall expected benefits are greater than the overall
expected harms based on the bel i ef that the right course of action is the one that
maximises the amount of overal l happi ness or pl easure in the worl d.
Green Book 8.3
Visual development is ÜH
exampl e of how the effects of
nature and nurture can combi ne
i n development The genes
control the development of the
responsive cel l s in the vi sual
cortex (nature) but Ü sti mul us frorr
the environment is needed duri ng
the criti cal wi ndow for the correc1
connecti ons to be made {nurture).
Or3nq0 Book 8. 4
Unit 5: Exercise and Coordi nati on
!! though it is not general l y
possi bl e to experiment on peopl e,
t is possi bl e to sel ect a sampl e
�areful l y so as to ensure that non­
�xperimental variabl es, such a s
3 ge a nd sex, are matched so it i s
nore l i ke a tradi ti onal control l ed
�xperiment in the l aboratory.
Ü1 What is your personal view on
the use of ani mal s i n medi cal
research? For exampl e, how
many a fruit flies, b mi ce, Ü cats,
d monkeys do you think you
coul d use to test new drugs to
hel p treat Í breast cancer, ÍÍ
mal ari a, Î|Íwrinkl es in the skin?
How do you justify your position?
�.e :Ole O1 Hð1J:e ðHC Hur1ure � H nrС n
�� � �
° � � 1 .
• Nature: Many of our characteri sti cs develop sol el y under the i nfl uence of our
genes with l i ttl e i nfl uence from our envi ronmem or l earni ng, e. g. bl ood group.
• Nurture: Many characteristics are l earnt or are heavi l y i nfl uenced by the
envi ronment, e. g. how l ong your hai r i s.
Most of our characteristics are actual l y determi ned by nature and nurture or nature vi a
nurture. We are the resul t of a mi xture of geneti c and envi ronmental factors. Human
behavi ours, atti tudes and ski l l s may have an underl yi ng geneti c bas1 s but are mod1 fi ed
by experience or the envi ronment i n a way whi ch I S very compl ex. For exampl e, the
chance of devel opi ng some di seases, such as some cancers, has a geneti c basi s,
where a gene or several genes i nteract to confer suscepti bi l ity to the di sease with
envi ronmental factors contri buti ng to the risk of devel opi ng the di sease.
Evi dence for the relative rol es of nature and nurture i n brai n devel opment come from
a variety of sources:
• The abi l i ti es of newborn babi es: Newborn babi es have some i nnate capaci ti es.
These suggest that genes hel p to form the brai n and some behavi ours before the
baby i s born.
• Studi es of i ndi vidual s wi th damaged brai n areas: Some pati ents who have
suffered from brai n damage show the abi l ity to recover some of thei r brai n
funct1 on. Thi s demonstrates that some neurones have t he abi l ity t o change.
• Ani mal experiments: e. g. Hubel and Weisel's experi ments on cri ti cal windows for
si ght, suggest that external sti mul ati on i s i mportant i n brai n devel opment
• Twi n studies: I denti cal twi ns share al l the same genes. Fraternal (non-i denti cal )
twi ns share the same n umber as any other si bl i ng woul d. Twi n studi es con hel p to
esti mate the rel ati ve contri buti on of genes and the envi ronment Any differences
between i denti cal twins must be due to the effects of the envi ronment
I denti cal twi ns rai sed apart i n compari son to those rai sed together are parti cul arl y
useful for study. For exampl e i f there i s a greater difference between those twins
raised apart than twins raised together i t suggests some envi ronmental i nfl uence.
However, twi ns rai sed apart may not have compl etel y different envi ronments and
twi ns rai sed together may devel op different personal i ties due to a desi re to be
different. I n general if genes have a strong i nfl uence on the devel opment of a
characteristic, then the cl oser the geneti c relati onshi p, the stronger the correlation
wi l l be between i ndi vi dual s for that trait.
• Cross-cul tural studies: I nvesti gati ons i nto the vi sual perception of groups
from different cul tural backgrounds support the i dea that vi sual cues for depth
perception are at least parti al l y l earnt.
Q1 Descri be why it may be dangerous to l eave a patch over the damaged eye
of a chi l d for a prol onged period of ti me.
Q¿ Expl ai n why ki ttens and monkeys have been used i n experi ments l ooki ng
at human brai n devel opment.
D
{
If one i denti cal twin has schi zophreni a there is 8`°chance that thei r twin
wi l l al so have symptoms of schi zophreni a. However, if one fraternal twin
has schi zophreni a there i s onl y a T¯°chance that thei r twin will also have
symptoms of schizophreni a. What do these fi gures suggest about the
contri buti on of nature and nurture on the devel opment of schi zophreni a?

.

�� Green buO·o. ` Orange buu·o o
1uþ| C ö. Grey matter

Learni ng is a process that results in a change in behaviour (or knowledge) as a result
of experience. For l earning to be effective you must remember what you have l earnt.
Memories (conscious and sub-conscious) are formed by changing or maki ng new
synapses in the nervous system.
Habituation is a very s mpl e type of l eari ng that involves the loss of a response
to a repeated stimulus whi ch fails to provide any form of reinforcement (reward
or punishment). It al lows ani mal s to i gnore unimportant stimuli so that they can
concentrate on more rewarding or threatening stimul i .
The core practical i s an example of a simple investigation into habituation. I t measures
the time a snail spends withdrawn into its shell when you tap the surface it is moving on
at regular time intervals or gently touch the snail 's head. Initially the snail tends to retreat
into its shel l for a si gni ficant period of time after each tap. As the tapping ccmtinues the
snail stays in i ts shell for a shorter duration as it becomes habituated to the tappi ng.
Descri bi ng how to investigate
habituation to a stimulus is a
requi red practical so you may
wel l be asked quesIions about
thi s duri ng the exam. As thi s i s
Many i nvertebrates have been useful ani mal model s for investigating the workings
of the nervous system. For example sea slugs (Aplysia) have been used to i nvesti gate
habi tuati on.
A Gill withdraws when siphon stimulated.
water ]et çill wÍthdrawal
6 After several minutes of repeated
stimulation of the si phon the
gill no longer withdraws.
water jet
gill
-abituation |^a sea slug.
C How ha0itudtlon is achieved.
lWith repeated stimulation. Ca2•
channels become less responsive so
less Ca2• crosses the µresynaptic
membrane.
(aZ•
? Less neurotransmitter
is released.
a n experi ment involving ani mal s
( p ossi bly humans, dependi ng on
your method) you shoul d consi der
any ethi cal and safety i ssues that
may ari se in your methodology.
It i s al so worh considering how
to evaluate your results as it is
often difficult to control many
variables when using live animals
in experiments.
3 There is less depolarisation
of the postsynaptic membrane
so no action potential is
triggered i n the motor
neurone.
sensory neurone
from the siphon
motor neurone
to the gill
'! Write out the reflex arc involved | the sea sl ug's response to
water being sprayed onto its si phon.
'
¿ Suggest why sea sl ugs used in thi s habituation experi ment need
to have been reared in captivity rather than in the sea.
'¤ Suggest whether nature or nurture i s l i kel y to be responsi bl e for
the development of an innate reflex.
Green Book 83 Orange Book 8J
Ò
Oopa�ine arrd Pc��drsonJs disease
Parkinson's disease is associated with the death of a group of dopami ne-
secreting neurones i n the brain (an area of the mi dbrai n known as the substantia
nigra). This results in the reduction of dopami ne l evel s in the brai n. Dopamine is a
neurotransmitter which is active in neurones in the frontal cortex, brai n stem and
spi nal cord. I t i s associated with the control of movement and emoti onal responses.
The symptoms of Parki nson' s are:
• muscle tremors (shakes)
• stiffness of muscles and sl owness of movement
• poor bal ance and walki ng probl ems
• difficul ties wi th speech and breathing
• depressi on.
A variety of treatments are avai l able for Parki nson' s di sease, most of which ai m to
increase the concentrati on of dopam1ne i n the bram. Dopami ne cannot move i nto the
brai n from the bloodstream, but the mol ecule which is used to make dopami ne can.
Thi s mol ecul e i s called L-dopa (l evodopa) and can be turned i nto dopami ne to hel p
control the symptoms. Some other treatments for Parki nson' s are outl i ned later in thi s
section
Seroton�r and de�ression
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter li nked to feeli ngs of reward and pleasure. A lack of
serotoni n is l i nked to clinical depression (prol onged feeli ngs of sadness, anxiety,
hopel essness, l oss of i nterest, restlessness, i nsomni a, etc.)
Treatments for depression often i nvol ve drugs that can hel p i ncrease the concentrati on
of serotoni n i n the synapses. For example, Prozac i s a selective serotoni n reuptake
i nhi bi tor (SSRI) that blocks the process which removes serotoni n from the synapse. See
below for discussion on how SSRis might work
.
The effe(t of dr�- ��$ Ýf synapses
Many drugs affect the nervous system by i nterferi ng with the normal functi oni ng of
a synapse. The d1agram and followi ng text show some of the ways synapses can be
affected by drugs
.
J Some drugs affect the synthesi s or storage of the
�C
c¸ '
neurotransmitter. For example L-dopa used in the treatment
o
f
Parki nson's dtsease i s converted i nto dopamine, i ncreasi ng
the concentrati on of dopami ne to reduce the symptoms of the
di sease.
Z Some drugs may affect the release of the neurotransmitter
from the presynaptic membrane.
3 Some drugs may affect the interacti on between the
·¸.�- 5
neurotransmitter and the receptors on the postsynaptic
membrane
a) Some may be stimul atory by bi ndi ng to the receptors
¯¯ � ��
m���
3

� �«.
and openi ng the sodium ion channels-for exampl e
dopami ne agoni sts (whi ch mi mi c dopami ne because they
have a si mi l ar shape and are used in the treatment of
Parki nson's disease) bi nd to dopamine receptors and trigger
action potential s.
b) Some may be i nhi bi tory, bl ocki ng the receptors on
the postsynaptic membranes and preventi ng the
neurotransmitters bi ndi ng.
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s e¡C¯C¤¡nÍ¡CD 'neDeuC¤e¯¡e¯at¯eCÍ'ne| ac¹CÍ¡ e.p¯a<e |¯C?ac s a.C:DC¤
e·a:;' eCÍa¯e¹e.¯|·e¯e·C¯C¤| ¤ et;1aJe ¤n¡¡1C· ¦``H|)'¤a1 ¡|Cc<¯1 ¤e¡e\;'aJe
C¯¯e|C.CD n| n'ne'¡ea':en.CÍdep¡e¯¯Cn
D SC:e d¡uQ¯¤ay |¤!¡?|11|ee¤¯y¤e¯ |¡VC|Ved | n¡¯eaJ| ng dCvn1!e
¤eJ¡C¯·a¤¯¤:1.e· ¤1¡e¯yna;¯¯¯| e¯¯,¡e¯J' ¯ Dg ¤.|e¤a¤1enaD.eC¯a n| Q|
¯CD.eD.·a1 C¤C¯1|e¤e.¡C1¡ aD¯:'1e¡ n1|e¯yDa;¯e a¤d1|e¡eÍCe¡e;ea1edac1|C¤
;C1e¡1| a| ¯(C¡ | nh|¡|1|Cn)CÍ1 |e;C¯1¯ynap1| ¯¡eu¡CDe.
The development of new drugs
A¯ ve haVe¯een |n '!·¯¯ec1|Cn,¯he¤¡ca| ¯1na1 aÍÍe¯¯De¤¡¡ane¡Cund;¡C'e|n¯
C D| ¤¯1heeÍÍec1C¯ n3'u¡a!|yC¯¯u¡ | nQ neu¡C1¡an¯ ¤|11e¡¯ can haVea¯| gn|ͯan!
eÍÍec'C¤ de1ec1VeC¡DO¡¤a! ¤e.¡a| pa¯¤vay¯T¤e¤C¯eve·¤Cv a¡C.''|e ¯;ec|¯¡c
;¡C1e n¯| a¤d1 ¤e¡ ¯¤ape¯) a.'Ve ¤ ce||¯1!e:C¡e ' <e'yvea¡e1C¯ | ¤d cC¤;| e¤e¤1a¡y
c¡e¤¡ca| ¯1ha1 ca¡ haVe1hedes|¡ed eÍ1e¯1
|¡ ad 1 C¤a' ' y ¤C¯' ¤ed·¯|De¯ aede·e|Cped¯¡C: e·|¯1 ¤Q c!e¤ .a!¯¦C1'e¤ e·1¡ac1ed
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paQeÍC:Íu¡1he¡ de1a¡¹¯)cCu| dhe| pdeVe|Cpd¡ug¯1!a1a¡e!|Qh!y ¯pec|Í|c¯C1!a1
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pna¡Da¯eu¯ca! e·pe·'¯e¦dJQ de·e¡Cp¤eD. aDd ¤anuÍac'J¡e,v| ¯¤ '|e <¤Cv| edge
CÍ1 ¤ent:a¤genC¤eNevdJg¯|aVe¯CQC1|¡Cugha¡ QC¡Ct¯;¡CcessC¯1 es1|Dg,
|¡¯|\d| nga¡| ¤a| 1¡| a| ¯and c| | n| ¯a| 1¡| a| ¯, |CnQ ¡eÍC¡e1 ney ca¡¡each1he¤a¡Je1.
lragn�g technBques for T e btair
`eVe¡a! | ¤ag| ng1e¯hn| ÿue¯ a¡e u¯eÍu|ÍC¡:ed¡ca|d| agnC¯¡¯ and| nVe¯1|ga1¡ ng¡¡a| n
¯'¡.c'u¯ea¤dÍtnc'·C¤ |C¡ e·a:;' e, 1heeÍÍec'¯C1 d¡uQ¯a¡dd| ¯ea¯e¯¯tc|a¯
|a¡J ¤¯C¤ ¯C¤.nea.'·.1yC¯1|e¡· a ¤.aDDCv¡eseeD J¯ ¤g¡ ¤ag| Dg1e¯¤D ÇJe¯
¯tch a¯ ͪH|
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ¯ca¤s J¯ea:aQ¤e'cÍe|da¤dad¡CvaVe¯
'C:a¡e| ¤aQe¯C¯ ¯C¯1 1|¯¯Je¯¹|¹e 'ne¡· a ¤. ªH| ¯ca¤s ca¤¡e J¯ed | ¤1 ¤ed aQ¤C¯| ¯
C11.¤Ct|¯, ¯¯¡CJe¯,¡¡<| n n| u e¯and |nÍe¯1Cn¯ |ney .a¤a'¯C ¡eu¯ed1C'¡a.¡
degene¡ a¯:Ved|¯ea¯es |¡JeA|¯he| ¤e¡´¯ ¡y cC¤;a¡|nQs¯an¯CVe¡ a pe¡:CdCÍ1| ¤e.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ¯a ¤Cd|¯|ed MH|1ec|¤ÇJe'na'
¯a¡ a||CvyCu1C see'ne¡¡a| n | na¯1·Cn du¡¡Q | | Ve1a¯Js,¡eca.¯e|1de1ec1s a¯1V|1y |n
1!e¡¡a¡n¡y¯C| | Cv| nQ ¯|e up1a¡eCÍC·yQen | nac1¡Ve¡¡ a|: a¡ea¯
Computerised axial tomography (C1C· CAT) ¯ca¤¯.¯e'nCJ¯and¯Cͤa¡·Cv¡ea¤
X¡ay¯¡C1a1ed a:Cund1hepa1| en' || ¡eªH|1neyCn|y .ap'u¡eCne¤C¤en1 |¡ 1| ¤e
a¤d¯CCn|y !CC×a1 ¯1¡\c1 u¯e¯ andda¤aQe¡a1he¡ 1|anÍun·1|Cn¯ 1he¡esC| u1| Cn |¯
vC¡¯e1|a¤ ªH'¯C ¯¤a|'¯'¡t.'.¡es | ¤1he¡a| ¤ca¤¯¡ed|¯1|DQ\|¯ned, ! ney a·¯C t¯e
pC1e¤1 a' 'y ¤aDÍJ! X ay¯
Ü1 E·p! a nv|y p?Cp+e ¯u1Íe¡|¡g1·CD |a¡J| n¯Cn`¯¤ay ¯t¯¯e¡ Í¡C¤ dep¡e¯¯CD.
Ü2 E·p! a ¤nCv |·dC;a:ay edtce¯|e¯y:;1C:¯CÍ P a¡'|D¯C¤´¯ d| ¯ea¯e
Ü~
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ne| p1¡ea.c| ¡n·¯a| de;¡e¯¯|C¡
Look back at your notes on
synapses and nerve impulses to
help get your head around this
section about how 0!u§3 can affec
your nervous system.
Û1 Explain why treating mental
health problems with 0!u§º
·°u£0 8 diffi cul t process
to get right. (Remember that
neurotransmitters are effectivE
in extremely low concentratior
and are 8£JlV8 l¨ very specific
synapses within the brain.)
CeeP cO¨¦o- O¡a¯QeUCCJ o¹
A genome is all of the DNA (or genes) of an organism. The Human Genome Project
was a multinational project that determined the base sequence of the human
genome. Many new genes have been identified, including some of those genes
responsible for inherited diseases. In addition new drug targets (specific molecules
that drugs interact with to have their effects, e.g. enzymes) have been identified
Information about a patient's genome may help doctors to prescribe the correct drug
at the correct dose. The Human Genome Project may also allow some diseases to be
prevented. If you understand what genes you carry you may understand what disease
you are likely to be at risk from.
The Human Genome Project also helps to provide information about evolution and
increases our knowledge of physiology and cell biology.
T•
D<:��''
• Who owns the information? Some groups have applied for patents on genetic
sequences so that they have ownership, or have to be paid for any treatments
developed using the knowledge of that sequence.
• Who is entitled to know the information about your genome if it is sequenced/
Should insurance companies have access to the information?
• Will genetic screening lead to eugenics (the genetic selection of humans) and
designer babies?
• Who will pay for the development of the new therapies and drugs/ Many possible
highly specialised treatments may be very expensive and will only be suitable for a
few people.
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GM plants may be useful for producing edible drugs such as vaccines that can be
stored and transported easily in plant products such as bananas or potatoes. Useful
genes can be transferred into crop plants using a vector such as /Q|¨OJC/C¨/um
/umC!JCC|¯, gene guns (pellets coated with DNA) or a virus Restriction enzymes
are used to cut DNA at specific sequences and DNA ligase is an enzyme that can be
used to stick pieces of DNA together. These make it possible to insert specific DNA
sequences into the GM organism. Large numbers of identical GM plants can easily be
produced.
Transgenic animals (animals with ¹ human gene added to them) can be used
to produce useful drugs that can be harvested from their milk (or even semen)
Liposomes and viruses are vectors used to insert genes into animal cells. Drugs
produced from transgenic animals include the blood clotting factors used to treat
haemophilia.
Micro-organisms such as bacteria are the most common target for genetic
modification as they are relatively easy targets for gene transfer and can be grown
rapidly in large quantities in fermenters. The drugs produced can be extracted and
purified using downstream processing Insulin, to treat type II diabetes, is an example
of a drug produced from genetically modified micro-organisms.
�Green LOCÍ c,^
Orange bCC< c1
.
10µÌcö. U÷y latt÷¯
Ti plasmid
Stage 1
The Ti plasmid is
extracted from
A.rcn.]sc|eas.
Stage 2
The gene to be carried to
the plant is inserted into
the T plasmid which is
then returned to the
bacterium.
bacterial chromosome Ti plasmid
Stage 3
The plant is
infected with
the modified
bacterium and
part of the Ti
plasmid with the
engineered gene
becomes part of
the plant
chromosomes.
cacIerial
DNA
!rom¯
plasmid
� --.,---
·
plant
chromosome
Stage 4
A.t.mcj+c|cnscauses a tumour
to develop on the
jlanI.These plant
cells contain the hcwgene. '¡
tumour cells are taken and cultured,
whole new plants can be grown
from them, containingthe new
genes. These are genetícally
engineered or transgenic plants.
crown gall [tumour)
caused eyA.tomc¡sc·cas
!^eQenet·.mCd|/|.J¹'OOOí¡|`Oí.
So . . <
de\e�o
.oncerns over tle
mett ard tise o1genet8caUy
7¸ 3:�5�5 (GInOs)
• gene¯c pOl l J¯ìO·,I¡8¤¯le¡ ¯lI¤egen÷¯tO na¯Ja|, v'O s pe¯e¯;¯ ¤OJ_¤ ¯¯¯¯-
pOl lì ¤a¯ O¤
• anJ| oOJc ÷¯|¯¯Bn·egene¯B¡e.¯edIO | d÷nJ| 1yGM oacl÷¡| av¤ ¯'¯Ou'O |eadIO
anJ| o·OJ|c ÷¯|¯¯anc÷ deve|Op| ng| nOthe¡¡|c¡Oo÷s
• GM c¡OpscOu¡d|ecOUe¯upe:·ve÷ds IhaJOuJ-cO¡p÷J÷OJ he: p\Bn\¯and¡ay o÷
¡÷¯|¯JanJJO h÷¡o|c|d÷¯ 1h÷ycOu| ddB¡ag÷ na1u¡a|1OOdc ha¡n¯,¡e¯t| 1| ¤g| ndB¡Bge
tO1he÷nv|¡O¤¡e:Ioe¯Bt¯eIheyvOu| d÷ ¤cOu¡ag÷1 a¡¡÷¡s1O u¯e¡O¡e¯e|÷c1¡ve
h÷¡o|c|O÷¯1O <| | | ev÷¡y1h| ngbut 1hec¡Op
• GM cOps¡ayn·1 p¡Odt¯ele¡1| | e¯eed¯ 1|쯵¡÷v÷n¯¯' a¡e¯cO¦¦Ccl|·µ ¯eedBnO
¡÷p' an¯ ¤g, ¯O I¡eyneeOIO e¯J·¡¯OIheoO¯÷c!¤O'OgycO:pB¤y !O ouynev¯eed¯
1O÷ac¤ p'a¡J | ¤g 1¤|¯¯Ou'o:B×e1he:1OO e/pen¯ìveÍO· ¯O¬e¹8 :e¯.
Ü1 .÷sc¡ oev¤BIì¯^eBnIoyIhe Ie¤ ' g÷n÷J|c pOl l uJ|O| OI!lCenvironment'.
Ü
2 |÷sc¡|oet heoen÷¹¯¯O! u¯ ngoBcJ÷¡|aJO pOotc÷ B hu¡anprotein (' | <e
i nst+ n}1OI¡eB1B d¡¯eB¯e
new gene
new plant containing
new gene grown
from gall cells
When p¡epa¡ing for your A2
Biology exams try to think why
things are the way they are and
look for links between different
areas of the course. This can u!|0i
help you understand, remember
and apply your knowledge even
in areas of the course which may
appear tough.
.��
ÜT Outline some of the benefits an
di sadvantages of sen'ng uµ O
natioDal screening programme
for a newly |06DIl!'6u gene
responsible for an inherited
genetic disease.
C:ee: HOO|ö.4 O¡a:g÷ HOO¡¤/
By the end of this topic you should be able to:
r.': �-���
�� �


=
Responding to Explain how the nervous system allows us to respond to
the environment the world around us, using the pupil reflex as an example.
Describe how plants detect light and respond.
Compare plant hormones, animal hormonEs and the
nervous system all as methods of coordination.
The nervous Describe the structure and function of sensJry, relay and
system and motor neurones including the role of Schwann cells and
nerve impulses mye|ination.
Describe how a nerve impulse passes along an axon.
Describe what synapses do and how they work, including
the role of acetylcholine.
Vision Describe how the rod cells |¹ the retina work to create
action potentials in t|e opti c nerves.
Structure of the Recall where the different regions of the human brain are
human brain and what each one does. This should include the cerebral
hemispheres, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medu|la
obl ongatC.
OrOin Discuss the concept of a 'critical window' in the
development development of vision.
Describe Hubel and Wiesel's work with monkeys and
kittens and how it explored the development of the brain.
Consider the different methods used to stud, the
development of the brain.
Discuss two ethical standpoints on the moral and ethical
issues relati ng to the use of animals in medical research.
Learning and Describe how animals, including humans, can learn by
habituation habituation.
Describe how to investigate |abiluction.
Effects of Explain how chemical levels in the brain may change,
drugs on resulting in illnesses such as Parkinson's and depress1on
neu|otransmitter and how this area is a source of research for new drugs.
systems
Explain the ways that drugs af!ect synapses in the brain,
includi ng ecstasy and those used to treat Parkinson's.
Describe how d¦f¨erent imaging techniques are used to
study the brain, including magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI), funCtional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and
computed tomography (CT) scans.
Uses of genetic Discuss how the Human Genome ProJect is helping to
modiIiCction develop new drugs and some of the issues that arise.
Describe how drugs can be produced using genet1cally
modified organisms (plants and animals an:
mic¦oorganisms).
Discuss the risks and benefits of genetically modified
o|ganis¯s.
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'�Jple with Parkinson's disease
have poor control over their skeletal
muscles. caused by a lack of the
neurotransmitter dopamine. L2rge
numbers of neurones secreting
dopamine are found in the basal
ganglia region of the brain.
Parkinson's disease can be
diagnosed and monitored using
brain scans. The fMFI scans on the
right show the results of a study
where subjects did a standard finger-
tapping activity to investigate the
effectiveness of a new drug treatment
10µÌc ö. L¦êy `u'0¦
..
OÍÍÕ|U_ ODÕ|U_
The results above right are from a healthy brain, a patient with Parkinson's disease without drug treatment and a patient with Parkinson's
diseose taking drug t1eatment The scan shows a horizontal section with the front of the head at the top. The most active areas are white.
(a) Using the fMRI scans above. discuss the effects of this new drug on brain activity. l`I
When provided with plenty of information to read and diagrams to look at, make sure you study it thoroughly to help you understand the
context of the question and what the examiner is actually asking you about For example. this question is comparing activity in different
regions of the brain and not the size of the different areas.
� • � •
Rl00l h0 � *- ¯. , .·. . "
� ~· �
There is more actiYity in the basal ganglia and less activity in
the motor cortex for the person treated with the drug than the
person with Parkinson's without the drug. The drug may work by
stimulating the release of more dopamine from the basal ganglia.
Make sure you make a comparative statement. The student here
includes 'more' and 'less' to make the comparison clear. It is also
made clear what is being measured by the fMRI-the activity of the
brain. Many candidates lost marks for this cuestion by referring to an
increase or decrease in the area rather than the activity of the area.
This response gains full marks by going on to provide a possible
explanation for the differences.
(h) Explain how neurotransmitters. such as dopamine, st1mulate neurones. l¹l
Don't get thrown by the context of the example. You may not know much about exactly how dopamine works, but you should be able to recall
what happens at synapses and how a neurotransmitter can stimulate an action potential in the next neurone .
âhlduhl�B0¸' _ · ·¸�_'- _/ _
' i
Dopamine can bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.
Dopamine can be released from vesicles in the presynaptic
membrane in response to calcium ions moving in through the
membrane when an action potential arrives.
The dopamine can diffuse across the synapse and bind to receptors
and open sodium ion channels. Sodium ions can enter the
postsynaptic membrane and cause the membrane to depolarise.
resulting in an action potential in the postsynaptic neurone.
· WðMÎh0tMhQ, · ¸ ´. _ .
» 1

This response describes what dopamine do:s. but doesn't explain
how it stimulates neurones.
This response provides lots of specific detail about how a
neurotransmitter stimulates a new action potential in response to the
arrival of an action potential at the synapse.
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Sa/ters-Nufield) Advanced U/ì!bJune 7JJº.í
111

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¡÷s;O¡s÷ IO cr¡ghI|¡ghI
\^ì
(lí) |÷sc¡¡oe8^d exp'8¡¡ !Ov¡yP| | n8I¡O^ OÍ ¤Pu¡O¡esìs8n8dv8¡I8gP ¡¡¯ h¡s
÷1| ÷x;8I|v8y
.¯.
(O) ¬uoP' 8¡d\÷ìs÷'cOvPPoO¡P PyP Olkittens Of d·Íl÷¡P¡I8_es¯O ¡¡vPsI¡_8¯P¯hP
I¡¤ì^_Olvìsu8 ' d÷ve|Op¤P¡! in mammals.
K¡¯IP¤s vh¡c¤ h8oO¤P÷y÷¯OvP P from !hP lOJ¯ ¤!O¯¤÷ í·l¯hvPP×
suosPþJ÷¡I'y h8ov÷y pOOvìs¡O¤ ¡¡¯ ¤8¯ PyP ´ì¯¯÷^s v!¡chh8oO¤PPy÷
¯Ov÷·÷o 8I÷8 ìì÷¡ or |8¯P¡ ¯ì¡Ps ¤8o ¤O¡¤8¡ v¡s¡O¤ SuggesI8¤exp!8¤8IO¡ for
¯ |PsPOos÷v8!:O¡¯
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(c) :O^÷ ;eO{!en8v÷÷¯n¡c8|Oo¡P¯I¡O¤s¯O8¡¡¤8| Pxp÷¡¡:÷¡ts. Sugges¯ hOv8
o¡O|Og¡sI¡ìgrl| usI¡Íy IhP usP OÍ8¡¡¤8|s¡¡PxpP¡¡¡e¡Is (2)
Total J7 marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nufield) Advanced Unit DÛJune 2ûû7}
7 |÷I÷cI¡O¡ OÍ|¡ghIOCc.s¡ noOIh¡8¡¡8|s8¡dÍ¡OvP¡¡¡gp|8¡Is
(a) In hu¡8^s, I¤ecen¯¡8!¡Pg¡O¡ Oͯ¤P ¡P¯:¤8 h8s v÷¡y ¹÷v rOdce| | s ¬Ov÷vP , ¡¡
8 oO_8oOJt 80-90% Ol ¯¤÷ µ¤OIOP¯Pµ¯Os¡¡ ¯¤÷ C÷¡I¡8¹ eg¡O¡Ol Ih÷¡PI¡¡8
8P¡Odce| | s
:J__÷sIcne8dv8:¯8gP IO 8 dog of ¤8v¡^_ ¤OP Ooc÷' 'sì^¯¤ìs :Pg¡O¤OlI!÷
reti na.
(3)
(O) ¯÷s¯ìoeI¤÷ o÷¯÷C¯ìO¤Ol 'ì_¤¯·¡ fl owering {|8¤¯s

Total Û marks
(EdexCel CC!Biology Advanced Unit 4June 2¹¹5(,)
O |nP d¡8g¡8¡ o÷|Ovs!Dvs8 v÷¡I¡c8|sPcI¡O¡¯ ¤rOugh8 hu¡8¡Or8ì^
Us¡ng Ih÷ |÷IIe¡s A, B, Ç, DO¡ Í,sI8IPvh¡ch rPg¡O¡Ol Ih÷ o¡8:¡
D
(a) cOO¡d¡¡8I÷s¡OVe¡e¡I
(O) ¯O¡I¡O!s h÷8¡I¡8Ie
(c) ¡PcP¡v÷sse¡sOy¡¡;uIÍ¡O¤IhPPy÷s
|1ì
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Total O marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit ¬ßJune .¹¹:)
.
1O¡icö. Grey 1aIIe¡
¬ 1v¡¡ ¯luC.e¯C' ueused to investigate the¡O¡eOl ge^P¯|^ oenaV·Ou+ .The
1¡eÇue¡cyO¯ch¡¯Oph¡P¡|a¡¡¡OP:I¡.a| (mO^O¯ygOI¡c)Iv¡¡¯va¯investi gated.
CO¡O¡I¡O¡¯�¦¯ha¯¯ch¡¯Oph¡P¡¡aa¡P IhOugnIIO oepO!yge¡¡c.
(a) |e1:¡e IhPIP¡m¦O!ygP¡¡c ¦¹ì
(b) |1O¡emO¡O/ygOI¡¯Iv¡¡ ha¯¯¯h¡,Oph¡e^¡a Ihe¡ IhP p¡Ooao¡|¡lyOlIhP ¯PcO¡O
Iv|¡ naV|¡g the condition ¡¯ ^bV
P¡PO¡c'vnaI]OuvOu|O expect the ¦e¡ce¡1agep:Ooao¡|¡lyto be |'
schi zophrenia was entirely caused by ge¤e¯. |!1
(c) 1nP probabi l i ty of two unrel ated people oOIh |a.¡:g schi zophreni a i s .'V
Expl ain what the results oͯh¡. study show about the rol es of genes and the
environment in schizophrenia.
í`)
Total ¬ marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) /d.anCCdUn||.lJune 2¹¹5)
b 1he¬uma¡ GP¡OmP | rO]Pcl has discovered Ihe|Ocal¡O¡O! 30 000 genes. Ò¡| ya
¯ma!l¡umoe:OÍ huma^ gP¡e¯ haVPa |¡Ov^1u¡cI¡O¡,¯O IhP ¡PxI step i¯IO Í¡ ¤O
OuIvhaIIhe¡e¯¯OÍIhe gP¡P¯OO
(a) Exp|a¡¡ vhaI¡¯ mPa¡IoyIhPvO¡O ´ge¡Ome´ l`)
(b) SOmP¯c¡e¡I¡¯I.va¡I to u~P |¡Ov|POgega¡¡eO ÍOmIhP Huma GP¡OmP
Project to screen ¦eop|e lO l¡¡OOu¯¡lIneynaVP a ge¡P¯¡cpredispositi on to
cer'a¡¡diseases, such as heart di sPaSeO¡ l ung ca¡ce:They think that screening
can help people IO lead a heal Ih¡Pr ' | le
C\hescientists t hink that _PPI¡¯ screening shoul d not be carried out because
¡Iwi l l create extra problems for soci ety.
(¡) Suggest how knowing that you ve:e mO¡P l i kel y than other people to
devel op heart disease or 'u¡gca¤ce¡ coul d ne|¦ yO\\O lead a longer,
healthi er l i fe |`)
(ii) Sugge¯1 nOvc¯mpu|¯¯ygenetic ¯c¡ee^|ngOlPVP¡yO¡P m¡gh1oP¯l
oe¡P!¡IIO society.
(2)
(iii) Suggest vhy¦POp¡P m¡ghIVOIeaga¡n¯IcOmpt!¯O¡yge¡et¡ c ¯.¡eP¡¡¡g i¡
a rP!P¡e^Oum (3)
Total c marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) /dvancedUnit 1 JunC2004)
� �

J Muscle paralysis is common in many cases of poisoning, often as a result of
interference with chemical transmission from the motor neurones to the muscles
at the neuromuscular junctions. Studies of venomous snakes, such as the Prugasti
krait (Bungarus fasciatus) have played a part i n the investigation of thi s chemical
transmission.
(a) Describe the normal sequence of events that occurs within a muscle fibre
after stimulation of a neuromuscular junction.
'~I
(b) Bungaratoxin can be isolated from the venom of the Prugasti krait In minute
amounts, it can cause paralysis of the di aphragm and intercostal muscles by its
effects at synapses
.
Suggest how bungaratoxin causes these effects. (3)
Total c marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit DcJune 2..7)
7 Isolated mi tochondri a in a sol ution containing i norgani c phosphate and an el ectron
donor can be used to study respiration. An electrode is used to record changes
i n oxygen concentration whi l e mitochondri a respire. The graph shows changes in
oxygen concentration for some isolated mitochondria.

¯ ¯
C


c
��

¸ ¬
u �
* o
��
¯.
^ C
' `
�........... . .
T|¬eIn:||iseconds
(a) tl) Descri be and explain the trends shown on the graph above.
(ìl) Name an el ectron donor used i n the el ectron transport chain in
mitochondria.
(ìlì) State the l ocation of the electron transport chain in mitochondria.
(iv) Descri be how ATP i s synthesi sed in the el ectron transport chai n.
(3)
¹.
( '1
(4)
(b) ATP is used to provide an immediate suppl y of energy for biological processes.
Describe the role of ATP in the fol lowing processes
.
(i) nerve impulse transmission '`)
(ii) hyperpol arisation of rod cel l s i n the retina.
(2)
Total JO marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 3OJune .¹¹o)
O (a) Explain what is meant by the Human Genome ProJect. (2)
(b) The Human Genome Project is making i t possible to identify peopl e who may
be at risk of developing medical conditions such as heart disease, cancer and
diabetes
(l) Suggest two reasons why identifying peopl e at risk mi ght be of benefit to
the people who are tested |·)
(ii) Suggest ¯|t??di sadvantages or ethi cal objections posed by the Human
Genome Project. (3)
Total T marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 2June 2..:)
|
l
|
¬ (a) AI h¡_h e^vìrOnmenI8' Iempe¡8lL¡P¯, Ihe¡8Ie Oͯve8l·^_¡ n¤.m8^¯ì nc¡e8¯-,
Exp| 8¡nlOv.vP8I¡n_¡¯ ¡ nVO|vPd¡n Ihe¡e_u|8I¡OnOÍoOdyIPmpP¡8lu¡P. (2)
(b] |n8n¡ nve¯Iiç8I¡On,8 he8|IhyvO| unIee¡ me8¯u¡ed h¡¯ oOdyIPmpe¡8Iu¡-
AÍIe¡5 m¡nu\P¯, hP _Ol¡ nIO 8 o8IhOÍw8Ie:8I8 Iempe¡8Iu¡POl ¹8°CHP
¯I8yed¡n Ihe o8IhÍO¡ 10 m¡nuIP¯, IhPn_OIOuI8:d¯8IOn8 c h8¡¡ |u¡¡n_IhP
:^ve¯I¡_8Iì O¤ hP rPcO¡¯Pd his oO¯ylempe¡8I. e8l¡e_.' 8I¡mPì ¤!P¡v8' ¯
Thee¯\' l¯OlI¤ì¯ investigation 8e¯hOvnì ^lhel8o' eoP|Ov

����
0 Started investigation .¯¯
b Got into bath oU.'
'¯ Lying in bath :-¯
'¯ Got out of bath oÛ.
ZÜ Sitting on a chair oÛ´
25 |Sitting on ð cÌð¦I .¯u
(|) De¯cr¡oelhP¯ h8n_P¯ ¡ noOdyIempe¡8Iu¡P Ih8IOc c u:r Pddu¡¡n_ II¡¯
j
¡ nvP¯I¡_aI¡On
|¯I
(|l) Su__e¯IPxp'8n81¡On¯ ÍO¡ !hP ch8n_e¯ ¡n oOdyIPmpP¡8Iu¡P Ih8!Occu¡¡ed
oelveenl¤P lO ||Ov¡¤_ l¡me |^Ie¡v8|¯
SIO !C m¡¤.lP.
! :to 25 mi nutes '¯I
Total c marks
(Edexcel GCE Biology Advanced -]JÇe|ol l2/´` .:¯?.CCo)
b A^ investigation v8. ¯8¡ ¡PdO.lìnlO lle elÍeclOlCyc¡¡^_¯peP¯ On the breathing ¡8¯P
Ol8 ¤P8|Ihy¯l·OP:¯ |n ll¡¯ investigation, 8nPxerc¡¯eo¡ cycP v8.used.
Theo¡e81 ¤:n_ 8¯P Olthe student v8¯ me8¯u¡ed8I¡P¯I ¬Pl¤Pncyc ed81 ¹0|m
pe¡ lO\lO `minutes 8nd,: m^Pd¡8Ie¡y8ÍIe, h¡¯ oe81h¡n_ 81Pv8¯ ¡PcO¯Pd HP
¡e¯IedÍO¡ : m¡ntIP¯, before cyc| ¡n_8I ¹ckmper hOu¡ ÍO¡ < m:^u1P¯,8Í1Pr vh+¯¤
h¡¯ o¡e8I!¡n_¡81Pv8¯ 8_8¡n mP8¯u¡Pd.
1 h¡¯¡ nve¯I¡_8I¡Onv8¯ ¡PpP8IPd8IcyC|¡n_¯ peed¯OÍ zU8nd`'<mpP¡ |Ou¡.
1 he¯IudenI¡P¯IPdÍO¡ ' m¡nuIP¯ oPIvPPn e8ch pe:¡Od OÍcyc| ¡n_.
1 here¯u|I¯8¡e¯hOvn¡ nIhPI8o|P oP|Ov
0 (rest) 12
18 14
15 17
20 20
25 27
(a) C8 '¯\'8IP Ih? percentage ¡^c¡P8¯P ¡n oP8Ih¡n_¡8le,8¯ l|P cy.'ìn_ ¯pPP¯
¡ nc¡e8¯Pd1¡Dm '0<mpP¡ ¤Ou¡1O 25 <mpe¡lOu¡ ShOvyOu vO¡·¡n_ í`)
(b) Su__e¯I8nexp|8^8l¡O^ÍO¡ IIe¯e¡e¯u| I¯ .
(2)
Total 4 marks
(Edexcel GCE 3/OIOQyAdvanced -paper 6112/01 1UDE 2008)

I,

Û (a) The diagram shows some of the stages of anaerobic respi rati on in a muscle cel l .
Gl ucose
SlaQe 1
phosphorylated GC sugar
Glycolysis
*
SlaQ÷Z
phosphorylated 3C sugars
¹
StaQc3
Substance A
¹
SlaQc 4
Lactic Acid
(i) Name substance A.
(ìi) State which of the stages shown in the diagram
¹uses ATP
z produces ATP.
(b) The Krebs cycle occurs duri ng aerobic respi rati on and is an example of a
metabolic pathway.
(i) Explain why the Krebs cycle i s descri bed as a metabol i c pathway.
(ii) State precisely where i n the cel l the Krebs cycl e occurs.
acetyl coenzyme / (zC)

fourth ·cacid
6C
1 × reduced |/D � 1 × reduced |/D


third ·Cacid
:cacid
Z

¸1 × reduced NAD
>econd 4Cacid first ·Cacid
cc¸

1 × reduced ¯AD
(c) The diagram shows some of the stages that occur in the Krebs cycl e.
'`
'`)
(1)
´¹.
Oxi doreductase enzymes are i nvol ved i n some of the reactions in the Krebs cycl e.
Usin< Lhe leller) l 'O ¯ c·uLhe information given i n the diagram, l ist d||the
stages that invol ve an oxidoreductase enzyme.
(1)
Total Û marks
,!O?\Ce| GCE l|¯i¯QyºO.3t¯?O Ut||- ¬¡J¡e|.1ute2´´')
|
l
l
l
l
l
|
l
l
l
|
w
T (a) 1he¯ìB_:a^ oe'Ov.¤Ov.B¯µì¡Oel=: T¤ ¯BµµB:Blu.¡¯ u¯ed¯O ¤ea¯J:e
¯¤e vO|u^eOla¡|o|eB¯|e¯¡¡B¡dOu¯ a¡d¯¤e l:eþJe¡.yOÍo|eB¯¤¡ lg J¤de:
d¡Í\e|e¡¯ cO¡d¡1¡O¡¯
ro!aIing
drum
vater
A ¯µì:O·ele: vB¯ J.e¯lO.O¤pB:e B pe:¯O¡'¯ O:ea¯¤ì¤_B¯ |e¯lB¤¯ Ot: ¡g
exe:.¡.P 1¤e:e¯u'1sB:e :!Ov¡¡¡¯heg.Bp!¯ oe Ov
0 5
PII£SI

I

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.

1u 15 20 ?5 30 3S
1|ne ls
0crin¿exercise
U ¯0 15 20 2S 2U 3S
1|nels
1he¡¡¡uIevO| ume¡¯ Ihe vO¡ umeOÍ Oxyge¡ Ia<e: ¡¡¯O lhe | ung·¡¡ 1 ¡i¡uIe,
a¡d¡:¯B|.u|Bledty¡u|\¡p|y¡¡glhe l¡dB|vO|tmeoy I!et:eaI!¡¡g |Ble
(i) J¯¡¡g¯he | ¤fO|¤al¡O¡ O¡ ¯he g|aµ|s cB| cu|Ble l¤e ¤i¡ule vO| u¤eB¯ |e¯¯
S|Ovyour working. (2)
(ii) CB| .u|B¯e lhe ì ¤.eB¯e¡¡ Ihe m¡¡u¯e vO| u¤e l¤alO..J::ed .¤¯!ì. pe¯O¡B.
B |e:u|IOÍ! heexe|¯¡¯e ShOv yOu|vO|<¡¡g. (2)
(b) CB:¯·a. Oul{t¯B|¯O:¡c|eBse¯ dJ:ì¤_ exe|c¡¯e
(i) S¦¬I- v¤al¡ ¯^·a:! ¤yca¡C¡6co u¯ou1 (1)
(ii) E?p'B¡¡ !Ov .¡¯.eB:e:¡¡ ^ì¤L¯e vO| u¤ea¡d¯B|¯ìacOL¯pu¯dJ:¡¡g
exe|c.·ee¡at|e|Bp¡¯ de|¡ve|y OÍOxyge¡ IO mus.| e¯ |<ï
Total T marks
':d?x¨?|CC:Biology (Salters-Nufield) Advanced Unit 3OJune 2004)

i
'
' '`


Ì

Ì
¹
¦
¦
When preparing tor the
comprehension section of the Unit
5 exam:

Read the article carefully and
check any key words you don't
understand, it may help to build
up your own glossary of tcimS.

Seek help with any difficult
ideas and key words in the
article, particularly if they are
barriers to your understanding
of the article.

Identify aspects of the A-level
specification which are woven
into the article and make sure
you know the relevant A-level
detail of material from the
specification. Remember that
you will need to draw on your
own knowledge of the course as
well as the content of the article
to answer the questions. For
example, see question (g) in the
comprehension practice.

Some background research into
major items in the article may
he!p your understanding.

Your teacher does not know the
questions and is therefore free
to be a mentor in helping you to
prepare for the exam.
1his comprehension is based on the Unit 6 A2 Bio| ogy paper in June 2006. You will
need to ask your teacher to find you a copy "nd read it carefully before you answer
the questions.
Adapted from 'Life at the Extremes' by Frances Ashcroft
Publi.hed by ·la¯ingo_ 2001 |`L¦ 006551254.
Available from the Edexcel website
www. edex cel . ¯om.
ÇuestlOns
The .cientific artiriP yotJ h¬vP <ttJriPr i< ¬O¬¡JFO from r |OOl C<i!Pd Ìife at the
Extremes: ||e Science of Survival' by ·r ances Ashcroft Use the information from the
article and your own knowledge to answer the following questions.
(a) Ex plain how humans are able to survive in dry air at temperatures
above 100°(
(4)
(b) | nuits have evolved short stocky bodies. Suggest how this could have occurred. (2)
(c) Explain how sufferers of cystic fibrosis can be detected by a sweat test (2)
(d) LXplain why marathon runners and cyclists are at a high risk of heatstroke at the
end of a race.
:.
(e) Lxp|ain how the study of pigs has led to a genetic test for m-lignant hyperthermia
in humans. (2)
(f) Suggest why taking aspirin may .low a person's recovery from an infection.
(_} |escribe the role of calcium 1ons in muscle contraction.
':.
'1·
(Total 7Û marks)





Un¡lb. |¯B¯1·¯B| c|D'иyB:D |0v0:!¦g3!iv0 :¹¡''¯

|
¬
æ

ËÆlREfMQ �
Choosing your own interesting
question can often result in high�r
marks. However, discuss this with
your teacher to make sure that it will

be possible to collect sufficient data
to meet all the criteria and that it can

be carried out safely.

'

II

Keep a careful check 0n your
word count. It is very common for
reports to be too long. This is ohen
because research Òrationale |Snot
all relevant. Later sections tend to
be rushed or too brief. As a rough
guide use the mark allocations
-so research Òrationale would be
about JÜ0words.
YOu hBVe1O p|OduceB |epO|lO n Bn expe||men1B| |nVe¯l|_Bl|On,vh| chyOu hBVe
p'Bn:ed, cB||edOulBnd|n!e|p|eled | nd| V| duB| |y. 1 he|eB |e~D mB|<¯BVB||Bl|e

20%
¯Í1helO¯B|A2 mB|<¯ 1hemB|<¯B¯eBvB¡dedB. ÍO| |Ov¯ |e¯eB|ch & Bl|O¤B| e
(´´ ¤B|<¯), µ' Bnn| n_ ( ! ! mB|<¯),Ol.e|V| n_ & |e.¯|d·¤_ (8¤B|ׯ), |nle|p|elì¤_ &
e·B '.B¯ì¯: (9 ¤B|<¯), cO¡^tn|.Bl|n_ ,b ¤B|¹¯)
� ��

¦¦+esli_oIc U|t vcri able only. try to 'prove· anything or just try to demons'rate a well-
base your hypothesis on sound AS
or -zlevel biology and make it
simple and clear.
include a clear statistical
statement.
¡ try to i nves1igate an inteesting
question.
include clearly labelled subsections
to match the criteria.
make sure you are really familiar
with the marking criteria before
you start.
t
¯
documented 'fact'.
repeat a core practical or a basic procedure from a book.
do the same as your friends Ct classmates.
include lots of irrelevant matenal.
include illustrations that are rot referred to or lots of
graphs when one would do.
forget to refer to the marking criteria when writing up
your investigations.
1n|. |.B |eB¯Onedexp¹BnBl|OnÍO|yOu| hyp¯¯ne.|. He.eB|ch¯exllOO<¯, mB_B?| ¤e.,
¯c·e¤¯¡Í|.| Ou|nB|¯Bndlhe|:le|nellulmB<e. u|e lhBlyOuO:| y| nc| udemBle|¡B| lhBl .¯
|e|eVBnllO yOu| hypOlhe¯|¯
YOu mt¯li nd¡cBlec|eB||y| nyOu||epO¡1 exB·l|yvhe|eyOu haVeu¯edyOu||e¯eB|ched
| nÍO|mB¯·On(¯eeUn| lJ AdV|ceOn e1e|e:c|^_}
A g00u. tltar hypothesis iÛprLve8y0ulí|3|t6S0¦3thiÚviIga high mark in all the criteria.
O000 hypotheses:
• 106l6iS3signi|i0ant Qos itive 0ull6luli0006lw66|3oil moisture content and the di8tri0UL|0n 0¦
creeping buttercup ¦8eraccu|aste,ecsl
• ¹h6re |8a significant difference between the rate of growth u¦pollen tubes from fresh pollen and
pollen stored for ¹Âdays.'
Poor hypotheses:
• 'Seaweeds on a rocky shore will show zonation.'
• 'Piax mouthwash will kill more bacteria than Listerine mouthwa8h

Your report must give clear evidence of how you have thought about and developed
an effective and safe method to test your hypothesis. You need to use a simple trial
experiment to do this.
Nu-ng sure yo� collett vaiid �nd
re¡ìÐk�e d�ta
Always ensure you are really testing your chosen hypothesis.
• 'Make a clear plan of action including a trial experiment. This should explain what
materials you intend to use and details of quantities and concentrations, etc. You
also need to show exactly how you are going to use your trial to develop the final
method.
• Decide how your data is to be analysed before data collection, not later For
example chose your statistical test and number of repeat measurements in advance.
• Include a separate section for discussion of possible variables and how you intend to
control them or take them into account.
Co�sGdering "ariabl�-
lt is unlikely that you will be able to control every single variable but you must show
that you have considered all the important factors that could affect your results and
that your planned investigation will yield some scientifically meaningful data.
(a) |nthe laboratory
You should be able to control most variables here but even if apparatus is limited,
use what is available, for example, you may not have a thermostatic water bath
but you could use a beaker of water to hold temperature constant. Beware of
making your own judgements of things like colour changes, try to devise a method
that will help you to be consistent. Trial experiments are an ideal way to do this.
(b) |nthe field
Many variables are more difficult to control in the field but they still need careful
consideration. Select your sampling sites carefully to make sure you do not
introduce more variables Measuring some abiotic factors can help to ensure they
are not affecting the results.
You must show that your investigation can be carried out safely by including a risk
assessment The diagram below shows one approach to this assessment.
List all procedures and
chemical compounds used.
1
What risks are
associated with each?
+

Can the risks be eliminat�
Change planned method.

No

��
What precautions must be taken
to reduce risk to a safe level?
Poorly planned data collection
can lead to the completion of
many statistical tests or graphs
which do not actually relate to the
hypothesis you are testing. This
can limit marks in planning and in
interpreting Òevaluation.
The followi ng are good exampl es
of how to use a trial experiment to
change your method:
'The cl ear areas of agar were not
ci rcul ar so I deci ded to trace them
on graph paper and measure the
area by counting squares.'
'It i s obvious from my tabl e that there
was only a very small difference
i n my results when I i ncreased the
concentration by 1% each time. I
changed this to 5% each time so that
the effect was much more obvious.'
'The stream I was usi ng had lots
of ar.as whi ch were shaded by
l arge trees and the depth of water
was quite different in some pars. |
searched further downstream until I
found an unshaded section with an
even depth but there was a pool with
slow-flowing water and a narrower
section with a faster moving stream.'
Don't write a detai l ed method
twice. You can achi eve hi gh marks
by writing this once then listing
any amendments you make, with
reasons, after your trial.
Make sure that your trial experiment is an i mportant part of your planning, not just
an exercise to justify what you have already decided. In order to gain hi gh marks you
will need to show that you have used the results of a trial to amend and develop your
method. Simply following i nstructions or copying a common experiment from a book
will only gain a few marks.
The tri al does not have to be extensive but it should produce some evidence or si mple
data that you can use to explain any modifi cati ons you make.
If you are worki ng in the laboratory you must try out your method and check to see if
yOu ca·OoIa| nthe results you need. |J you are worki ng in the field you must vi si t the
site and try out your sampl i ng technique.
§o�e imp@�l�Blt t�_;est�o�s fo t´:�
.!.p·€rH Ïa=1 n-�s
(a) In the laboratory
• I s your chosen range of values suitable'
• How accurately can you take measurements? I s there anything that can be done
to make your measurements more accurate and reliable'
• Are there any vari ables that you have not taken into account!
(b) I n the field
• Is the whole of the selected site sui table ´
• Do you need to choose sampl ing sites to avoid introducing other variables/
• Can you identify the i mportant species/
• Does your proposed sampling method allow you to collect sufficient data `
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
|
Va<e¯u¡eyOu¡ecO¡OyOu¡ daIa¡: a c |ea¡ Iao|e, t¯¡ng Ihe.O¡¡ecIS| un¡l¯a nd aIa
|eVe| OÍac c u¡acy I|aI¡¯¯ens¡ b|ebeari:g¡ n^ìndIhe¡eIhOd¯yOu u¯e
�• ¯ � �:.

. �¯-- � _..�=.
• U¯e.|ea¡, accurate headi ngs | nc|.di ng
u¡i t¯ .
• |¯ea cOn¯ì¯Ienl number of s¡ gn¡ f¡ ca¡IÍ: gue¯ 1O¡ a' '
oala ,i nc l ud¡ ng manipulated figures such as ¤ean¯)
• |uluni ts i n l¤eheadi ngs only, not
with i ndi vi dual readi ngs.
• Heme¤be· to use zeros |zis nOlthe .J¤Ca;¿ dd).
• ªa|e¯u¡el¤ee¡¯a cl ear summary
Iao| eshowi ng the values used to draw
yOJ g¡ap!
• .O ¡OI use numbers of si gni fi cant fi gures I!alca¡¤Ol
oe¡\¯l¡Íed byyO.¡ method A si mpl e vay lO appy
lh¡ s rul e ì¯ nOIlOuse a greater ¡umbe|Oͯ igni l| cant
1¡gue¯ I|an shown in your a.lua|^ea¯.:eme¤l¯.
1he¡ea¡ea¯ u· p¡¡¯¡¡gnu¤oe¡OÍoa¯¡. e¡¡O¡¯ ¡n¯e| ecl¡nga:d d¡av¡ ngg¡a ph¯OÍa
¯ui !ao|eIype,¯O g¡Velh¡¯ ¯O¤eca¡eÍu! IhOughI,¯Ia¡I¡ ¤gv¡Ih oa¯¡c p¡¡n.¡ p| e¯
• NO¡¤a||y I|e¡e¯hOu| dbe On|yOneO: IvO g·apn¯
• YO.¡ gra pn needs to be directly l i nked lOyOu¡ hypOl¤e¯¡¯ and help you to make
.Onc| u¯¡On¯ 1 O^ your data.
• Axes shoul d have .!?a·, accurate l abel s v.lhapprOp|ialeSl L¤¡I¯ where possi bl e.
• .¡ ne¯O1 ' oest fit' are not a requirement at A2 |eVe' a¤d¯¤OL' o normal l y be avoi ded
.
• MOsl¯i mpl e l i ne g¡ap¤s are best presented by j oi ni ng poi nts accurately wi th a ruler.
• |I¡¯ oellelO leave a scattergram without a l i ne rather than draw one by g\esswo¡ | .
• Avoid u¯i ng 'sampl e number' as a¡ ax|¯ Thi s ¡¯a'^O¯Ia'vay¯meani ngless when
alle^pI¡nglOa nal y¯etrends and palle¡ n¯ ¡¤dalaa nd e¯pecial ly when ¡andO¡
¯a¤p| ¡ng!a¯ oeen.¯ed
|ÍyOua·e| OO|¡ngÍO¡¯¡gn¡Í¡canId¡Í1e¡en.e¯ ¡nyOt¡¡ nVe¯I¡gaI¡O¤,yOu¡ay!aVeIvO
¯eI¯Oͯa¤p|e¯ í¡O¤wn¡c¤you would .a|cu|aIeIvO ¡ea¡¯ 1hì¯ ¤¡ghI!eadlO a Ve·y
¯¡¡p|eIvO·cO' J¡¤ oa¡ gap!, v!¡.hvOu!dg¡VeyO JOn| y '|¤·led¡ n1O¡¤aI¡On on
vn¡c|IO ^a×edetai l ed comments. HOveVe¡, ¯e|e.lìng suitable si ze cl asses for each
dala ¯elandl¤en plotting a!¡ stogra¤ for each on Ihe¯a¤eaxes woul d al l ow you to
cO¡¤enIon such thi ngs as the spread of data, any overl ap and skewed di stri buti on.
;b

&b
a
6

20
¨
=
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L
¯
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.
~
10
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K6_
_5ÍdC6Õarea
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_unshaded area
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WI
U-99 100-199 20)299 300- 399 400-499 500-599 600-699 700-799
Area of leaf/mm
2
600
500
F
4U0

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¹
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300
¯

1
¹
M
2 Z00
100
0
uns|aoec
area
A ve:,common mistake is to
record ti me from a stopwatch
as a deci mal or as two units.
Recordi ng 2mi n 50s as 2. 5mi n
instead of 2.83 mi n or 1 70 s is a
very large error.
shaded
area
I
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� �

i '
UU| \b. `|òC!| ¯¯ U Ol Ugyõ¯0 ' ¯v0>!'gu!'vêS|| | | :
¥0ucannotach| uvumO|uIhðU4/5
mð|KSif you do not explain \|8
reSults of your stati sti cal teSt |Þ
your own words. You can uS88
comput8r programme to calculate
the test statisti c UuInot to explain
|ISm88U| Ug.
| mag| neyOuaeIa<| ng a¤dOm¯amp' e¯Í|Omtwo a|ea¯andyOuv¯hIOoec de
v¤eIhe|'heya|ed|Íle|en!1O ma<e!h| ¯dec.¯|On¯c|enI|Í|ca||yyOu need'OÍO||Ov
\he¯e|u|e¯.
J Eeg¤ by a¯¯Jm|ng '¤a''|e ave|age¯Olthe two ¯amp|e¯a|eIhe¯ame |h|¯ |¯a
null hypothesis.
7 1a<esampl es from each area.
O '!is ve.yun| | <e| y'¤eave|açe¯v | | oe denI| ¯a' ¯OyOuca¤ca|cJ'a·eIhecha¤ce
¦p|Ooao|Iy)OÍOo'a| n ng|e¯u|!¯ <eyOu¯,even| ÍIheIvO¯a¤p|e¯ve|e nOl|ea' |y
d|lÍe|enI, u¯|nga ¯'aI|¯I|ca|Ie¯I
4 |ÍIhe cnance (p|Ooao|| |Iy) calcu|aIed | ¯h| gherIhan Ihesi gnificance level Ihen yOu
mu¯'accepIIha' yOu|lir¯Ia¯¯JmpI O¤ ¯cOecIa¤dI|e|e |¯ ¤Od|Íle|ence. |l I¤e
c¤anceOÍge''¤g '|e¯e e¯u'I¯ |¯ |Ove|''a¤I¤e3ign|f|cBnCe level Ihe¤ yOuvOu'd
reject '¤enu| | ¤ypO'¤e¯¯
�:�mp�es o' ¬u� � �ÿpo1lese$
• The|e | ¯nO¯|gn|Í|ca¤Id|ÍÍe|ence| nIhe numoe|¯OÍmay!|y¤ymph¯ÍOund| n¯|Ov·
Í|Ov|ng¯I|eam¯andla¯lÍ|Ov|ng¯I|eam¯
• 1¤e|e| ¯nO¯| gn| ! ca¤'cO|e'aI|On oe'veen'¤e aoundanceOlceep|ng oJ''e|cup
a¤o¯O|| mO|¯'Jecontent.
�� gnifi cance ��ve�s
| n ¤O¯I ¤ve¯'|ga'|On¯yO·¯|Ou| du¯ea ¯ gnÍcance|eve|OÍ5% || ¯mean¯'ne|e
a|e : chance¯| n l CC IhaI'here¯u|I¯yOu Oo'a|n cOu|d Occu|even| lIhe|eva¯nO
d|Íle|enceoeIveen'neIvO¯eI¯OÍdaIa Th|¯canoev||IIen a¯a p|Ooao|||IyOÍ
pC CS. ¹Ol|ndIn ¯va' ueÍO|yOuda'a yOu ¤Oma| | y haveIOca'cu|a'ea Ie¯' ¯'aI|¯'c
a¤dIhe¤ 'OO< up the probabi l i ty |n a publ i shed tabl e.
You a|e¤OIexpec'eoIO<¤OvlnelOmu| aeor Í| nedeIa||¯O!each Ie¯'. YOu
¯hOu' dcOnce¤I|aIe On ¯e|ec'|ngIhe cO||ecIIypeOÍIe¯IanddemOn¯I|aI|ngyOu|
unde|¯Iand| ngOÍhOvIO|nIe|p|eIIhe|e¯u|I¯.1heIh|ee\ype¯OÍIe¯IyOua|e mO¯I
| | <e' yIOcOn¯de|a|e
• 'e.ts lO¯' g¤ l| cant olle|encee g I·Ie¯'O ªa¤¤ \h| '¤eyU 'e¯'
¯ Ie¯IlO|¯ g¤ l ca¤'correl ati ons e. g. Spea|¤a¤¯ Han<COe'a'O¤'e¯I
• Ie¯'¯lO¯| gn l| canIa.¯OcaI.OnO|´gOOone¯¯OlÍ I e g Ch| SqJa|ed'e¯'
Other statistical �erm$
YOu aea|¯Oexpec'edIO Jnde|¯IandI|e!O| | Ov| ngIe|m¯vhe|eapp| . caole
• arithmetical mean (average) - 'he¯umOlal l Ihe ¤ea¯uremenI¯d|v deo by'¤e
¤u¤oeOl mea¯Je¤e¤'¯
• median - !¯0 mi ddl e va'Je Ol yOJoa'av¤ee ¤a' lI¤e¯amp|e¤ea¯u|e¤e¤I¯are
above Ih|¯ va'Je ano ¤a'Íae oe'Ov
• mode - Ihemea¯u|emenIvh|ch Occu|¯Ihegea'e¯Inumoe|OÍ'ime¯ |n
yOu|¯amp|e
l
l
|
|
|
|
It is vital that you begin by describing accurately the trends and patterns shown by
your data. At this stage do not be influenced by theoretical expectations. The next
stage is to try to interpret your results using biological pnnciples. This does not mean
simply adding a lot of biological theory. You must use your biolog1cal knowledge and
link it very clearly to your data.
ltmitu1tOrs
I t i s expected that you will take an object1 ve, critical look at the method you have
used and assess how it might affect the reliability of your conclusions. The important
question to ask yourself is 'no matter how carefully I carry out this i nvestigation what
factors could still cause variations in my repeat readings/'
Poor limitations.
• admiss1ons of practical mcompetence when describing li mi tationS
• suggestions of l im
ita.ioDSthat 8HuU|uhave been eliminated by sensible planning U! a
tri al e/µerimen!
Good l imitations:
• 'I set up a series uÍcÛ|our standards to make my judgement of the end-point as accurate as
possible but this was still \ery subjective. It woul ube more accurate to flter my samples
and use a coiori mete· to gi ve a precise measurement.'
This section should follow from your anal ysis of limitations. If you have identified
factors which could cause variations then what modifications could be made to your
method to minimise their effect/
Don' t:
• simply suggest taki:1g more samples - you should have thought about this i n
pl anni ng and J USt doing more of the same will not normally improve your method
• modify your investi;ation so that it begins to test a completely different hypothesis
LCrtLÎ.�attrQ
High-scoring reports always make i t clear where each of the criteria has been
addressed by using sub-headings. This will prevent you omitting important details
or repeating yourself. Use the advice given in other parts of this section of Unit | to
tabulate your results accurately and choose the right form of graph.
Keep your sentences short but accurate and use a spelling check, especially for
scientific terms. You will be given credit for selecting information from sources i n
'research & rational e' but for higher marks you must use at least one professional
journal and list all your sources in a bibliography, identi fying where in your report each
has been used.
For the highest marks you will need to evaluate your chosen sources, describing their
credibility to sci entists as a whole.
Avoid terms such as 'proves that'
or 'shows that'. Use more cauti ous
terms such as supports the
hypothesis that' or ' agrees with the
suggestiÜn thÜt.
Uri T lopRc 5
''
1 reduced NADP; ATP
2 a gain of electrons; Oloss of electrons
TT
1 The alga produces oxygen from the water it uses
in photosynthesis, but only in the light. At all other
times both types of oxygen, which are chemically
indistinguishable, are being used in respiration
therefore levels are falling due to this, both in the
light and the dark. The fall in
¹6
L
/
in the light is
offset by its release from water.
''
1 In recreating RuBP and in the formation of GALP It is
used |n the 'first' step, carbon fixation.
2 Catalyses reaction of carbon dioxide with RuBP.
3
11
1
�• "

thylakoid
membrane
thylakoid
space
granum
stroma
outer
membrane
inner
membrane

� �

light -dep��;
-
cooto;m
reacti ons chlorophyl
.
l, other
I
.:rrP��or pigments,
electron carriers
photolysis of water photolysis
enzyme(s)
provides a site for large surface area
light-dependent
reactions
light-independent enzymes for all UR
reactions stages including
Rubisco
fully permeable many open protein
channels
permeable to many gated and active
substances which transport channels,
need to enter or together with open
leave the chloroplast channels


,� '-
6car0Ondícxíc¢
I
|
¯ 1[_|yC8|ðl8
JU1AIP·

d~gh0¶ghðl8 ` I
¸ �

:�::+lZP•
:
1?reduced

I j 1 y8|08y08
JZNADP
��¬ g¶g ¸-¬¬¬¬~_
��
!_|ucose

''
1 R * GPP- NPP
2 The place where an organism lives and the role it
plays (job it does) there.
TT
1 First need to work out the energy that is actually
transferred to consumers. It is the total fixed minus
respiration loss, i.e.
1 . 9 7 1 U´¬ 11 ? 1 U¯" Uo ? 1 U¯
so NPP = U.8 7 1U¯
Production of primary consumers ¯ U1 7 `U¨
so efficiency=
U` ? 1U:
? 1UU = `2¬7
08 7 ¹U
''
1 a soil factor; any three of: pH, organic matter
content, water content texture, mineral content
2 Niche is a combination of what an organism does
(e.g. its feeding type) and where it lives, i.e. where it
does it- the 'address' and role of Jn organism is its
niche.
Transect is a path along which occurrences of things
are recorded (such as what plants grow there, what
the pH is, etc)
Quadrat is a fixed area sampling device. It is
sometimes, but not always, gridded to make
estimates, particularly of percentage cover, easier to
work out.
3 e.g. Rocky shore: abiotic-salinity, temperature,
light intensity/solar input; biotic- any three of:
competitors, predators, parasites, herbivores. Sand
dunes: abiotic-soil factors (as in ¸´-any three);
biotic- any three of: competitors, predators,
parasites, herbivores. Woodland: abiotic- soil
factors (as in ¸|- any three); biotic- any three of:
competitors, predators, parasites, herbivores.
I
i
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
n
1
30



E
C
0
¿00


ì
¯
.l

2
Species numbCrS ICoCl o [PoÍ o¹ 500 m from the
reference po'n¹_ VHC¹CoS ¹DC o¹_onic matter content
continues to rise throughout. There are few species
in the first two quadrats because these are highly
specialised pioneers in harsh conditions. Conditions
improve with distance from the reference point (on
the beach) as organic matter accumulates in the soil
due to death o¹[ÍoU¹S OO¹D mineral content and
water-holding Co|o´I!yolSO increase. JD'S leads to an
increase in Spe´ieS IUlDC¹ CU¹ ¹l'S falls away again
as a few S[PCICS FvCntUolly dOmino¹C.
''
1 reproductive isOlotion
2 Because the suìv'vO¹SlUS¹ IC[¹OOUCP olC pass Ol
the favourable allele.
n
1 Because they had only been separated for a
relatively short tiMe. (Or pupils may explain that
evolution takes not just a few hundred years.) The
chance mutations that H¹_D!be beneficial have not
happened. There is no S'_l'¡ICoD! |SCÍCC¹'Ol) pressure
for change
''
1 E.g. tree ring Co!3, '´C ¯OIC Co¹o, [OllCI oDolySIS,
temperature records.
2 Biofuels OI¡y ¹PlP3SC as lU´D ColCOl oS they have
absorbed WÍ'lC ¹|ey are growing, i.e. they are carbon
neutral. The disadvantage is that they take up land
which could be used for growing food, destroying
habitats etc.
n
Sketch of carbon cycle similar to the carbon cycle
on page 26. |!should show ¹Ho! lUlol activity has
increased ColDOlOìOXICC lCvClS ¹l the o¹lOS,lP¹P by
oCCl_more CoIDOI C'OXICC ¡lOl CUll!l_ fossil fuels
and also CPC¹PoS'l_ the olOUD¹ ¹lo¹ |lo¦!S and trees
take 'l ¹l¹OU_lOC¹OlCS¹o!'Ol
:\eforestation would increase CC_intake from the
atmosphere by photosynthesis. Use of biofuels would
reduce use of fossil fuels and are carbon neutral as
the C02 rel
.
eased 1n combustion has only recently
been f1xed 1n photosynthesis.
''
1 1lC ¹Cl[C¹o!U¹P at \D'Cl it catalyses its reactions
lOst ¹o[!Cly.
2 !n? StuOy of SCoSOIol evCl¹s such as ¹lO\CI'l_ !IlCS,
lo¹Cll_ !IlCS, lo¹'l_ ¹'lPS, m'gIa¹'Ol.
3 /l¹DOU_H [lO!OSy¦!ÌPS'S lEvels will increase 'l \'ll CC
lil'¹CC by O¹ÍCl ¹octorS such as temperature O¹ Í'_D¹
levels. 1ÍC 'lC¹CoSC ¹D photosynthesis levels will lO¹
CC su¹f¦cIent to balance the increase in carbon
dioxide levels
n
1 MuSt be handled properly (kept in water with at least
10 g of salt per litre and better to have a5g salt l|),
return to hOlOil_ tank after inspection; use a soft
plastic pipette ¹Oget ¹lPl OU¹ of the water; loKC
SUìP lOU¹l O¹ |'|C!!P \¦C£ enough; never OCSC¹VP
¹Ol lOlC ¹loI 5 l'lU¹CS.
Unot R� TopQC 6
''
1 /ly¹D¹CC ¹¹Ol | i¹C cycle of an insect, state of
decomposition, temperature of body, rigor mortis,
succession of insects
2 They break down biomass and release carbon dioxide
into the atmosphere through respiration.
TT
1 |n both there 'Sa change to CODC¹I'OlS that suit O¹lCI
S[CC'CS, Il CO¹Í ¹lC¹C 'S a change 'l the species or
O¦S¹ì'CU¹'Ol O¹ S[CC'CS\¦!l¹'lP, 'l the SolCy SDOIC
we see oll S¹o_CS o! ¹lPsame time; in ¹DP COOy\C
see OIÍyOlC S¹o_P
''
1 introns
2 Because ¹lC more STRs looked at, the more likely the
profile is ¹O be unique.
TT
DNA has fewer differences ,in racehorses); DNA
f'ngerp'¦l¹s olC¡'KCly to be more similar; probability
of L¹/ [IO¹'lC being unique much smaller; lOS¹
lOlSCS ClOSPÍy ¹CÍo¹CC/lUlolS are not
¡


' !
''
1 intron
2 Each amino acid is coded for by more than one
codon. Even if the last base of the codon is changed
by mutat1on the correct amino acid will still be
coded for.
3 molecule with anticodon at one end and amino acid
at the other - tRNA
complementary copy of template strand - mRNA
DNA transcribed to mRNA-template strand
T
1 DNA unwinds; mRNA strand assembled from coding
strand of DNA; mRNA travels out of nucleus into
cytoplasm; (post-transcriptional changes take place);
mRNA associates with ribosome; tRNA molecules
bring amino acids to ribosome; anticodon on tRNA
associates with codon on mRNA and polypeptides
bind together to make polypeptide chain;
(polypeptide chain bound to other chains or other
molecules to make protein).
''
1 Similarities- any two from: both reproduce, both
have protein, both nucleic acids, DNA and/or RNA,
enzymes, organic molecules. Differences-any two
from: bacteria have cell wall, capsule, flagellum,
ribosome, pilus, mesosome, plasmid, cell membrane.
2 Because the high temperature might slow down
bacterial reproduction as well as enhance the
immune response and phagocytosis.
made from
B cells after
T helper
activation
made
from B
cells after
T helper
activation
activated
by anttgen
on
phagocyte
destroy
viruses or
bacteria in
infected
body cells
as well
as the
help more
rapid
aLtivation
of immune
system
if same
intrLder
''
1 Which antibiotic is most effective in controlling the
populat1on of a named bacterium?
2 Incubating below 30°C discourages growth of
human pathogens. Air is allowed into the Petri dishes
to discourage the growth of anaerobes.
1T
1 Answers should include reference to four or more of
the following points: rapid reproduction of the bacteria;
there are many gene mutations or a relevant mutation
is more likely in a given time; there is a wide variety of
protetns; there 1s a great deal of variation in microbes·
microbes are selected; there is selection for the
'
resistant phenotype or gene; this does not take very
long; but developing new drugs does take a long time.
''
1 Lactic acid/lactate builds up in fast-twitch fibres.
Slow-twitch fibres have a good Ò_ supply so they use
aerob1c resp1rat1on to produce ATP which does not
produce lactate.
2 ATP is hydrolysed which causes the myosin head to
change shape, ATP binding frees the myosin from
the cross-bridge, ATP also used in active transport of
calcium ions back in sarcoplasmic reticulum.
3 Muscles can only contract (shorten) so another
muscle acting in the opposite direction is needed to
extend the contracted muscle once it relaxes.
''
1 Any four from: active transport, muscle
contraction (sliding filament theory), glycolysis,
Calvin cycle, protein synthesis, phosphorylation.
infected encountered
2 ATP is never stored, but can be rapidly produced
or used in a cell; glycogen is a large, long-term
store of chemical energy. ATP releases small
quantities of useful energy when hydrolysed,
glycogen contains a lot of stored energy that is
not immediately available for the cell to use. ATP
is soluble, glycogen is insoluble.
help more
rapid
activation
of immune
system
if same
'intruder'
encountered
tn the future
produce
antibodies
cell
activate B
cells
in the futLre
3 NAD is used to oxidise the triose phosphate
(sugar) which produces ATP. Reduced NAD is used
to reduce pyruvate into lactate so that glycolysis
can continue.

� ����

��
T1
1 `I!'lo¹'¹'CS |lOS|lO¹¡lo¹IOD llvOlvCO, l¡OIO_CD
CoIIlCI 'lvOlvCO, /Ít/_lUCOSC/¹lOSC |lOS|lo\C/
_l¡CC¹o¹C |lOS|lo¹C/CÇ 'lvOlvCO, ¹COOX
Í'¹¡CICDCCS ¹/Í/Í/LÍ,/1l |IOOUCCO/ICCOC¨,
_lUCOSC USCO/|¹OOUCCO, OvCIollOX'Oo¹IOlO¡ _lUCOSC
'l ICS|IIoIlOD/¹COUC¹lOl O¹ 'L
z
ID |lO¹OS¡l¹lCS'S,
!ol¡ !O¹C IIIC¹!CO'o¹CS ID \olv'lC¡ClC¸ C¡IO|loS!/
CllO¹O|loSl
''
1 Co¹COl ¯ 'L
z
, lyOIO_Cl ¯ |
/
L
2 'X'OoIlvC DCCoUSC¹lC ClC¹_¡ 'S ¹¹olS¹CIICO D¡¹COOX
¹CoC¹lOlS. llOS|l0I¡loIIOl CCCoUSC /Íl _o'DSo
|lOS|lo¹C _¹OU|.
3 V'¹lOUI L
z
IlC¹C\'llCC lOIlID_¹OoCCC|¹\lC
ClCC¹IOlS,olOl¡O¹O_Cl'OlS)o¹ \lCClO O¹IlC
ClCC¹IOl ¹¹olS|OIIClo'l 1lCCCll \Ill IUlOU\ O¹¹/Í
olO l/ÍSO lO¹lII_ColOX'O'SC IlCCO!|OUIOS 'l
¹lC '¹CCSC¡ClC,olO l'l·ICoC¹lOD)
TT
1 ¦l¡COl¡SlS ID C¡¹O|loS!, lllK¹CoC\IOlolO |¹CCS C¡ClC
ID !o¹¹lX O¹ !'¹OCHOlOIIo, OX'Oo¹'vC |lOS|lO¹¡lo¹ìOI/
ClCCI¹Ol IIolS|OIIClo'D OD C¹'SIoC O¹ l'¹OClODO¹'o.
''
1 4.95 O!
,
|C¹ !'l'¹C
2 `KC¹Cl SlOUlO l¦Cl.OC ¹C|Co¹CO '¹¹C_UloI ¸r` \ovCS
\I¹lOU¹ !ol¡ |O¹ oD¡ vlS'ClC) Í oDO T \ovCS
3 |CoI¹ \OUlO COI¹l´UC ¹O DCo¹ CCCoUSC Il 'S !¡O_CIlC,
CUI \OUlO IOICl´l_C ID ICS|OlSC IO CloI_CS 'l ¹lC
COO¡ MO\CvC¹. I¹'/OUlOS¹Ill CC oClC ¹O¹CS|OlO¹O
HOl!ODolCloI_CS SUCl oS ¹lC ¹ClCoSC O¡ oOIClolIDC
TT
1 `lO¹\·\C¹! C¹¹CC\S S¹¹OÍC vOlU!C olO lCoII ¹o¹C
'lC¹CoSC ¬ ColO'oC OU¹|U¹ 'lCICoSCS ÍoIC olO OC|\l
O¹ D¹Co¹l'l_!I'OolvOlU!C)'lC¹CoSCS vCl¹llo\'OD
¹o¹C IICICoSCS. LOI_·¹C¹! C¡¹CC¹S S¹¹OKC vOlU!C
'lC¹CoSCS SO ¹CS¹'l_ lCo' ¹o¹C OCCICoSCS.
''
1 / Clol_C 'l o¹oC¹OI C¹'I_S oCOU¹o ¹CS|ODSC IloI
COUl¹C¹oC¹S ¹lC CHol_C SO ¹lo¹ ¹lC ¹oC¹OI ¹CIU¹lS IO o
lO¹! volUC
2 'OIC DOO¡ \C!|C´o¹UIC \Ill ¹'SC oCOvC .J\, lCo¹
S\IO·C, l¡|O¹loloIUS !o¡CCCO!COo!o_CO,
CD¯¡!CS !o¡ CC OCDo¹U¹CO, lClC¹olC |IO¹ClDS
!o¡ CC OCloIU¹CO, ¹¹olS|O¹¹olO ICS|¹¹oIIO¦ !o¡ CC
'!|oIICO, CO!ooIO/OIOCoIl!o¡¹CSUl¹
3 MCo¹ _o'D CCD¹¹C O¹ l¡|O¹lololUSS¹I!Ulo¹CSC¡¡CC¹OIS,
S\Co¹ |¹OOUC\lOl ll'C'¹CO, ¹COUCCO DlOOO ¡lO\ ¹O
¹lCS·ID, Sl'vC¹ID_ !C¹oCOllC ¹o¹C ,O¹ l'vCI) !o¡
TT

'lC¹CoSC, lo¦'S IoISCO Ol SK'l, CClov'OU¹ol ICS|OlSCS
SUCHoS 'lC¹CoSCO !OvClClI, |U\ OI CX¹¹oC'O¹lCS, C¹C
`O!C ol'!olS lovC lOIS O¹ ¡oS¹¹\l¹Cl ¡'DICS ¹O¹
S|CCO olO |O\C¹, C_ |¹COo'O¹S IOCo¹Cl |IC¡.
`O!C ol¹!olS !o¡ lovC lO¹S O¹SlO\·¹\'¹Cl ¹'C¹CS,
_OOO C¹CoIllI_ olO C'·CUloIC¹¡S¡S¹C!S |!o¡ CC
lI_l¹\C'_l¹) ¹O¹ ClOUIolCC, £._ l¹_Io¹O¹¡ Dl¹OS \lO
lovC ¹O ¹|¡COl¹'lUOUSl¡ ¡OI l.I_OlS¹olCCS
''
lDCICoSCO CHolCCS O¹ ODCS'¹¡COUlO lCoO ¹O 'lC¹CoSCO
ClOOO |¹CSSU¹C 'lCICoSCO ClolCC O¹ Oo!o_C \O
ClOO¹lClIU! O¡ oi¹C¹ICS, l!_HCICOlCCl\Io¹'Ol O¹ lO\
OClSII¡ l'|O|¹O\C'lS 'lC¹CoSCO ClolCC O¡ |loQUC/
o¹lClOSClC¹OS'S CO¹OIo¹¡ lCo¹¹ O'SCoSC
2 LCSS C¡IOÍ'lCS ¹ClCoSCO lC;S oC¹lvo¹IOD O¡S|CCl¡'C
B oDO 1 ·lllC¹ CCllS ¯ lCSS ClolCC O¡OCS¹¹O¡'l_
|o¹lO_CD CC¡OIC ¹¹ CoI !Ul\'|l¡ ClOU_l ¹OCoUSC
Oo!o_C ¹O IISSUCS olO C¹Co¹CS¡l|¹O!S OJ IlC SOIC
Il¹Oo\
3 1IolSClI|IIOl¹oC\OISC'lO¹O¹HC |¹O!O¹Cl S'¹C
O¡ ¹lC _CIC ollO\'l_ ¹lC '¹- |Ol¡!C¹oSC IO
CllO ,¹IolSC¹l|¹IOI 'lIIIo¹¹Ol CO!|lCX) ollO\ID_
\IolSC¹I|¹IOl ¹O ¹o·C |loCC SC !͹/ CoI CC
|IOOUCCO
TT
'|ll'OlS\'ll voI¡, DU¹¡OU¹ ´lS\CI!o¡ COISIOC¹
OIlC¹ 'SSUCSSUCH oS S|OlIS C(UI|!Cl¹, ¹UlOII_ oIO
II!C ¹O¹ ¹IolDID_, COoCl'l_, 3l¹'¹UOC I¹o'l'l_, olO
OlCl ·OU SlOUlO _lvC ¡OU¹ O|'l'Ol oIO¡USII¡¡
¡OUI olS\C¹.
''
1 rlO¹OICCC|¹O¹S OC¹CCI ll_l¹
2 |OS'¹'vC|lO¹O¹¹O|'S! ID SlO0ISCIoClCS\lC! IO _IO\
¹O\oIOS ¹lCl'_l¹ ÍOO¹S o¹C lC_o¹'vCl¡ |lO¹O¹lO|lIC
¹O lCl| \lC! _¹O\OO\D 'l¹O \HCSO'l o\o¡ ¹¹O!
¹lC l¹_l¹
3 CCll ClOl_o¹'Ol
T T
1lC I\O S¡S¹C!S \O¹Í¹l_ \OQCIlC¹ |¹OvlOC _¹Co¹CI
COO¹OIIo¹'Ol oDO COl¹¹Ol DC\vCCl SlO¹I¹C¹lolO
lOl_·¹C¹! ICS|OlSCS olO CHol_CS ¹CIvOUSS¡S¹C!
'S ¹oS¹ ¡O¹ I!!COlo¹C ¹CS|OlSC, CDOOC¹'lC S¡S¹C!
'lC'UOCS COl¹¹Ol O¡ _¹O\¹l olO OCvClO|!Cl¹.
Ill
I
I
r
I
''
1 Depolarisation IoKCS \lC p.C across the membrane
less negative (because ,OS'·IvCSOC'Ul ions move
into the cell), vlC¹£oS with hyperpolarisation the p.d.
CPCOIPS IO¹C nCgoIl\C !C. g '¹ DC_oI'vCCllO¹!CP 'OlS
move into a cell at al 'll'C¦\O¹¡ Sy¦apSC)
2 The refractory pC¹'0d lCoDSIloI IlC SOC'U! 'ol
channels can not |COpe¦ vl'Cl preven\S another
action potential be ng I¹ig_CrCd Synapses only have
receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.
3 Voltage-gated sodiJm ion channels open and sodium
ions diffuse into the cell.
TT
1 Sodium ions move in during action potential,
potassium ions move out. During recovery, sodium
ions pumped out and potassium ions in. Potassium
ions diffuse out Cu' lg resting potential/state. Other
labels could 'lClUCF [oSS'vF CI͹US'O¦, facilitated
diffusion, oCI'vP transport, osmosis, endocytosis,
exocytosis, etC. vit¯ su|\oCl? CxolpleS
''
1 'l the dark rod, cells remain slightly depolarised
because of the opEn sodium ion channels and
continually release the inhibitory neurotransmitter.
2 breaks down into opsin and retinal.
3 Photoreceptors in plants are chemicals like
phytochrome, in mammals they are specialised cells
like rods.
TT
1 RoCs are more SClS'\¦vC Ilol CO¦CS CUI CO not detect
d1fferences '¦COÍO\l. `[oI'oÍ SUIIo!'Ol oI the bipOlo¹
cell - three rod CCllS CO¦vC¹_Il_ O¦ o Silgle C|pola|
cell lovP a _¹PoIF¹ CÍo¦CC O¹ o¹¡CCI'l_ Ile C'Opo|a¹
cell 'l ÍOv l'_lI ÍCvClS Ilol o SinglC cone cell.
''
1 1he cerebellum is concerned with the control of
balance and movement, the cerebrum is involved in
the ability to think, see, learn and feel emotions, etc.
2 I¯e frontal lobes of the cerebrum (cerebral
hemispheres)
''
1 The child may CCCCIC Dl'lC DCCoUSC the eye voS
deprived of l| gh!C'¹'¦_ \lC CI'\iCol v'lCOv
2 K'Itels olC !OIKC¡S lovC oS'l'loI v|Sual system
and C!o'l to huIals SO IlC¡olC _OOC models for
looking at human brain development. You would not
be oÍÍOvCC IO do the same experiments on human
children.
3 µCÍ'ZO,l¹Cl'o is mainly determined by _PlPS, Cu\
there is |IOCoCÍ¡ o SUoll Clv'´Ol!PlIBÍ 'l¹ÍUClCC
TT
1 1lCIC 'S lO COIICCI answer, but your OÇ'l'O¦ SlOUÍC
be ¸USI'Í'CC v'Il ¹e¹e¹enCe to potential benefits O¹
CCvClO,'¦_ IlC lCv drugs, ¹FÇU'¹PlPll ÍO¹ ol'!ol
tests before human trials, animal welfare/rights
'SSUPS
''
1 stimulus-jet of water- pressure receptor on siphon
¬ sensor neurone ¬ motor neurone ¬ gill muscle
respOlSC g.|l vithC¹avs
2 Sea Slugs IoISCC 'D IhC sea may already be habituated
CUC IO voIC¹ currents and tidal changes in the sea.
3 GCletiC [¹O_¹oII'¦_ (lo\UIF) 'S l'KPl¡ to be
¹CspOnS'Cle ¹Ol 'lnate reflexes, because they o¹C lOI
'l¹lUCDCCC C¡ IÍC ClvirOl!e¤t (nurture).
''
1 Dopamine is active in the part of the brain that deals
with emotions. The other symptoms of Parkinson's
and the knowledge that there is no cure would also
leave many people feeling depressed.
2 L-dopa can pass into the brain and be made into
dopamine.
3 T¯C DCv O¹U_ Io¡ bind to serotonin receptors
olC !Il'C llC C¹ÍCC\ OÍ Se¹ot0Dn causing action
pOIenIiolS IO ¹O¹I
TT
1 Del| vC¹y OÍ CIU_S IO IlC Spec|Í'c area of IlC C¹o'¦ in
IlC CO¹¹CCI concentration and ¹PlPoSPC at the precise
ti¤C neCOCC diÍ!iCu|VimposS'0le.
''
1 Genes may CCtransferred into wild species.
2 Can be produced cheaply, in bulk and easily purified.
TT
The human protein is produced rather than using an
animal prOIein SO there should be fewer S'de eÍfCcts.
1 OCDC¹'IS Co¹l¡ treatmenVpreventative care; Co¹¹'ClS
CoD ClOOSC IO ovO'C lov'l_ Cl'lC¹Pl/USP P!C¹¡O/ÍCIol
SCICCl'l_.
''SoCvolIo_CS SI¹CSS ¹OI those v'Il gene; COst; SOIC
COUÇlCS may chOOSe ¦Ol IO have children; IDSU¹olCP
'SSUCS, CU_CD'CS lSSUCS.
I
I
:ni t: opit 5
1 (a) 1. thylakoid/granum;
2. membrane;
(b) A ATP;
B reduced NADP/eq;
(c) photolysis;
(d) 1. less carbohydrate production;
2. less reduced NADP;
3. less reduction of carbon dioxide;
4. less ATP (to supply energy);
5. less conversion of GP to GALP;
2
2
4
Total 9 marks
2 (a) Measure {growth/height/number of leaves/mass/
dry mass};
Growth with copper and {without copper/control/
range of copper concentrations};
Reference to controlling variables;
Reference to {repeats/means/calculation of
percentage growth};
2
(b) Plants compete/eq;
For {ions/water/nutrients/nitrates/tightlspace/eq}
Tolerant plants less well adapted/converse/eq
So tolerant plants {smaller/less dry mass}/
converse/eq
Idea: Results are due to competition only because
trays 1 and 3 growing the same;
Manipulated figures; 4
(c) Decreases/more non-tolerant;
No benefit;
Competes less well;
2
Total 8 marks
3 (a) (i) GPP and NPP similar to start with;
both increase;
(after 2 days) GPP and NPP diverge/eq;
figures in support; 2
(ii) more energy is used in metaboltsm/eq in
{older/bigger} plants;
figures in support;
suitable explanation, e.g. protein synthesis/
flower initiation/differentiation/ref. to
herbivores;
more photosynthesis tissue;
(as grows)/eq; 2
(b) GPP-NPP=Rieq;
biomass production reduced by
respiration/eq;
2
4 (a) proportion of total alleles;
for one gene (in a population)/eq;
(b) different alleles exist/ref. mutation;
advantage in specific environment;
ref. selection pressure;
more likely to reproduce;
Total 6 marks
2
allele passed to offspring more often;
ref. at disadvantage in other environment;
(Allow converse argument) 4
(c) faster life cycle of bacteria/converse/eq;
greater selection pressures on bacteria (e.g.
antibiotic use);
ref plasmid transfer in bacteria/eq;
larger numbers of bacteria hence larger gene
pool!eq;
ref. mutation; 2
Total 8 marks
1 (a) 1. C is bactericidal;
2. bactericidal kills bacteria;
3. B is bacteriostatic;
4. bacteriostatic prevents reproduction/growth; 3
(b) 1. bacterium is no longer affected by antibiotic A;
2. reference to mutation/changed {gene /DNA};
3. reference to resistance;
4. reference to selection/eq;
5. reference to plasmid transmission/horizontal
inheritance; 4
(c) 1. lawn bacteria/eq;
2. reference agar plate/eq;
3. antibiotic in well!multidisc/eq;
4. incubation qualified;
5. measurement of clear area/eq;
6. bigger area implies more effective;
7. reference to safety/aseptic technique/eq; 4
Total 11 marks
2 (a) 1. similar route for infection;
2/3.examples of means of transmission;
4. immunosuppression in HIV/eq;
5. reference to opportunistic infection/eq;
(b) T(-ceii)IT-Iymphocyte/T-killer;
(c) 1 . signal from surface protein;
2. activation of PKR;
3. ref. to protein synthesis/translation/eq;
4. no production of virus;
5. cell death/cell function disrupted:
(d) 1. rapid reproduction.
2. many (gene) mutations/relevant mutation
more likely in given time;
3. ref. to variety of proteins;
4. large variation;
5. selection;
6. of resistant phenotype/gene;
7. short time;
2
3
8. long drug development time; 2
Total 8 marks
3 (a) 1. T helper cells {destroyed/damaged/reduced in
number/cell lysis/eq};
2. no T killer cell {production/activation}leq;
3. B cells activation/plasma cells production/eq;
4. (less/no) antibody production/eq;
5. phagocytosis/phagocytes; 4
4. (resulting in) increased {rate of ventilation/
breathing rate/depth of breathing/contraction
of {respiratory/intercostals/diaphragm
muscles}}; 2
Total 7 marks
6 (a) (i) B
(ii) A (muscle opposite) ;
(b) (Only a small cut) because damage is less/less
bleeding/less pain;
Recovery is rap| d/shorter stay in hospital/eq;
Less risk of infection/inflammation; 2
(c) ref. to pathogens/disease causing organism;
through {travel/team sports/idea of runners
meeting from other areas}!eq; weakened/
suppressed immunity (with hard exercise);
through fall in natural killer cells/phagocytes/
lymphocytesff-helper cells/B and T cells;
Reference to airborne/droplet infection; 3
Total 6 marks
7 (a) sinoatrial/SA node /SAN /pacemaker;
(b) Any four from:
I . wave of electrical impulses/depolarisation
from SA node;
2. passes over both atria;
3. resulting in atrial systole;
4. slight delay at AV node;
5. Impulses pass along bundle of His;
6. along Purkyne fibres;
7. correct direction of impulse described/
ventricles contract from the base up;
8. resulting in ventricular systole; 4
Total 5 marks
Un�t 5: Topic 8
1 (a) (ì} 1. (light hits) photoreceptors (on the retina);
2. impulses pass to the brain;
3. ref. to sensory neurone;
4. ref. to innate/inborn/autonomic response;
5. impulses along parasympathetic nerve;
6. ref to motcr neurone;
7. circular muscles contract/radial
muscles relax;
8. pupil {contracts /constricts/becomes
smaller};
4
(íì} 1. {faster/eq} impulses due to;
2. myelin acting as an {electrical/ eq} insulator;
3. ref to Schwann cells producing myelin;
4. depolarisation only occurs at the nodes
of Ranvier;
' ref. to saltatory conduction;
b need rapid response to protect retina; 3
(b) 1. visual stimulation is essential for visual
development;
2. ref. to critical vindow/critical period/sensitive
period;
3. ref. to visual cortex;
4. growth of axons/formation of synapses/
inactive synapses eliminated;
5. <iIIC¯> |-¯· I|3n 4 weeks old have not
developed (visual cortex) {connections
synapses} or kittens over 5 weeks old have
already developed (visual cortex) (connections/
synapses} 3
(c) 1. ref. to animal experiments helping to
test {medicines/treatmen�s}lgive greater
understanding of the {human/animal} body;
2. ref. to utilitarian philosophy;
3. expected benefits greater than expected
harms/eq;
4. reduces chances of harm when testing on
people; 2
Total 12 marks
2 (a) I (rods contain) rhodopsin;
2. ref. to convergence/summation/eq;
3. therefore the dog will have better {vision in
dim light/night vision}/eq;
4. idea that dog can look directly at object (in
dark)/eq;
5. dogs are ,more active at nightnocturnal}/eq; 3
(L) 1. ref. to phytochromes;
2. name two forms {PFR and PR/P730 and P660};
3. ref. to absorption of light (by phytochromes);
4 conversion of PR to PFR AND reference to
red light;
5. conversion of PFR to PR AND reference to far
red |ight;
3
3 (a) B 'cereDellJm);
(b) C (medulla);
(c) A (cerebrum);
Total 6 marks
Total 3 marks
4 (a) (characteristics) controlled by more than one
gene/many genes;
(b) I 00%/above 95% suitably qualified reference
to mutations;
(c) An explanation to include two from:
I multiÍactoria| ;
2. environment has an effect/genes and
environment (interact);
3. correct use of figures; 2
Total 4 marks
5 (a) the total of all the {genes/g2netic material/DNA!
alleles} in {humans/an organism 1
(b) (ì) I ref. to example, e.g. avoid smoking/eat a
special diet/avoid fatty foods/ more exercise;
2. the need to be particularly careful when
one knows one is pa-ticularly at risk;
3. could have treatment in advance of onset
of condition/ could make preparation for
coping with problem/more check ups/closer
monitoring; ¿
(ii) I to inform health service {planning/budget/
priorities}/identify people at risk;
2. early {treatment/diagnosis} {may reduce
problems later/may help determine the
appropriate dose of medication};
3. advising people with defective genes about
having children/deciding whether to abort
affected fetuses;
4. thus reducing cost /burden to society;
5. reduces insurance premiums for people
without genetic defects;
6. to determine medical research priorities; 2
(iii) Any two from:
1. undue intrusion into people's lives by
government/infringement of {civil liberty/
human rights};
2. easier to cope if you don't know in
advance/prefer not to know/creates
needless stress;
3. implication for insurance premiums;
4. risk of discrimination;
5. pressure to have abortions/to avoid having
children;
6. cost too much/too much taxation;
Any one development mark in the context of
one of the points above from:
7. the benefits are not worth the risks /costs;
8. {health/l i fe} insurance too expensive fer
those at risk/people might have to declare
results of screening to get insurance;
9. lack of confidence in {government/
administrators} to keep data confidential/
data protection issues; 3
Total 8 marks
1
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Unit ¬
1 (a) X- chlorophyll/eq;
Y- NADP/ NADP+/eq; 2
(b) 1. provides {H/electrons/eq};
2. reference to reduction;
(Accept reducing power, reducing agent)
3. GP is (reduced)/ eq;
4. to produce GALP/eq;
(/\low mpts as they can be appl ied to their
incorrect reduced Y)
5. during light-independent {stage/eq}!Calvin
cycle/eq; 3
(c) (i) 1 electrons return to chlorophyll (so there is
fluorescence);
2. carriers can not {accepttake up/eq}
electrons;
3. because electron carriers are reduced; 2
(ii) carriers avcilable again/electrons passed to
NADP/eq;
(Accept carriers have passed as
electrons idea)
(d) 1. NADP stays reduced /NADPH not used/eq;
2. because no GP {formed/available}/eq;
3. because RuBP cannot take up CO¸eq;
4. because rubisco inactivated/eq;
5. (because NADPH not used) all electron carriers
reduced/path B blocked/eq;
6. (therefore mere) electrons {return to
chlorophyll/follow path A/eq}; 4
Total 12 marks
2 (a) 1. tree types can be identified from their pollen;
2. pollen only produced by {fully-grown/mature/
eq} trees;
3. trees need to {grow/eq} for a long time before
maturity/eq; 2
(b) (i) D
(ii) 1. reference to distributed across several
climatic zones;
2. reference to little fluctuation in the pollen
data from different ages; 2
(c) 1. climate has become warmer/eq;
2 reference to a change between 8700 and
6390 years ago;
3. {larch/spruce} were growing but died outeq;
4. (larch/spruce) are only found in boreal and
northern temperature regions (in present day);
5. (boreal and temperate regions) are cold
climates;
6. pine was not growing but has become
established rore recently;
7. pine is only found in southern boreal and
temperate regions (in present day);
8. (southern boreal and temperate regions) are
warmer climates; 5
(d) Award one mark for each of the following points.
1. idea that dendrochronology uses evidence
from {tree/annual} rings;
3
4
2. {density/thickness/eq} of rings changes with
climatic conditions/thicker ring indicates
warmer year; 2
Total 12 marks
mesosomes X
1 capsid
nucleic acid X
X

)
. cytoplasm X
ribosomes X
5
(b) (i) 1. Increase in number of new cases in Africa
and Europe;
2. Decrease in number of new cases in Asia
and South America;
3. Any relevant man1pulation of data; 2
(ii) More inodence of TB in the population/eq;
(Award one mark for each of the following
points in context to a maximum of two marks )
1. Ref. to opportunistiC infection;
2. HIV positive people have weakened
immune system;
3. A higher proportion of HIV positive people
are infected by TB; 3
(c) Two from
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
1 . TB bacteria {mutate/become resistant to
antibiotics};
2. immigration from countries with high
incidence of TB;
3. increased travel;
4. increase in HIV infection;
5. lower rates of immunisation against TB; 2
Total 12 marks
{nutrient/eq} agar plate;
(ignore Petn dish)
{lawned/inoculated/spread/eq} with
bacteri u m/eq;
appl1cation of sample of antibiotic described
incubation described;
ref clear/inhibition zone;
(Max 4 if no safe work1ng)
Safe working -
ref aseptic technique/aspect of;
Petn dish not completely sealed;
low temperature of incubation below 30°C; 5
Total 5 marks
5 (a) 1. fixed/constant area;
2. reference to sampling;
3. valid comparisons possible;
4. easy so can be repeated; 2
(b) 1. sampling along changing conditions/
environmental gradient;
2. systematic sampling /random sampling does
not show distribution/eq; 2
(c) 1. more coverage by plants in 5/converse;
2. more organic matter in 5/converse;
3. more species in 5/converse;
4. different species present;
5. credit figures (e.g. 3 times more plants, 2.4g
more matter, 17 more species); 3
(d) 1. d1fferent communities at different distances;
2. few species near beach;
3. reference to pioneer species;
4. organic matter (increase with distance from
beach);
5. consequence of increased organic matter (e.g
increased water holding, mineral content);
6. suited to more species further from beach;
7. reference to competition;
8. few dominant species;
9. (might be) climax community/mature
community; 5
Total 12 marks
(a) 1. {calcium ions/Ca2+} released from sarcoplasmic
reticulum;
2. calcium (ions) binds to troponin;
3. (troponin) causes tropomyosin to move;
4. exposing (myosin) binding sites (on actin);
5. myosin head attaches to binding site/cross
bridge formation;
6. myosin head {moves/nods forward/eq};
7. rclcuse of ADP and inorganic phosphate;
8. actin slides over the myosin;
9. (ATP causes) myosin head to detach;
10 {ATP hydrolysis/ATPase}; 5
(b) 1. ref to prevention of release of
neurotransmitter from presynaptic membrane;
2. similar shape (to neurotransmitter);
3. {binds/blocks/fits 1nto} receptor on
postsynaptic membrane;
4. ref. to {sodium ion/Na+Jcation} channels/
hyperpolarisation/permanent depolarisation}
of postsynaptic membrane;
5. no nerve impulses/action potentials/
continuous action potential/eq;
6. inhibits acetylcholinesterase/breakdown
enzyme/(bungarotoxin) not affected by
breakdown enzyme; 3
Total 8 marks
2 (a) (i) 1. reference to oxygen (concentration)
decreasing/eq;
2. greater (decrease) when ADP is added;
3. (oxygen used to) convert ADP to ATP (in
respiration);
4. oxygen is needed for respiration/eq;
5. correct reference to oxidative phosphorylation;
6. reference to {ADP concentration/eq} is
limiting; 3
(ii) reduced NAD/NADH/NADH2; 1
(iii) cristae/inner membrane/stalked particle;
(iv) 1. hydrogen atoms split into protons and
electrons/eq;
2. electrons transferred along electron carriers/
a series of redox reactions/eq;
3. oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor/
water is formed;
4. {protons/eq} moved into intermembrane
space/eq;
5. {protons/eq} move (into matrix) down a
{concentration/electrochemical} gradient;
6. through stalked particles/ATP synthetase/eq;
7. correct ref. to chemiosmotic theory;
8. (ATP)formed by {phosphorylation of ADP/
oxidative phosphorylation }leq; 4
(b) (i) 1. correct reference to ATP (supplies energy)
for active transport/reference to sodium­
potassium pump/eq;
2. sodium ions pumped out (of the axon)/
restores (membrane to) resting potential; 2
(ii) 1. correct reference to ATP (supplies energy)
for active transport/reference to sodium­
potassium pump/eq;
2. (pumps sodium ions out) of inner segment/
maintains (more) negative charge inside the
membrane/eq; 2
Total 13 marks
3 (a) 1. to map (human) chromosomes/to find
where each gene is located on (human)
chromosomes;
2. to determine base sequence;
3. international project (about human genes); 2
(b) (i) 1. to warn people at risk to take precautions/
make lifestyle changes;
2. to plan medical provision (for the
individual);
3. to determine NHS priorities/eq;
4. to warn people when there is a risk that if
they have children they may have genetic
disorders;
5. will make it easier to develop {ways of
treating genetic deficiencies/gene
therapy}; 2
(ii) 1. may mean people put under (undue)
pressure to {have abortions/not have children};
2. may lead to discrimination over {obs/
insurance premiums};
3. may lead to (other ethically questionable)
developments such as 'designer babies'/
eugenics/immigration;
4. {stress/anxiety}-knowing something might
happen may cause psychological stress even if
it never happens in your lifetime/people may
not believe test is reliable/people may not
want to know;
5. {civil rights/personal freedom}-who should
decide who should have genetic tests:;
who decides who deserves very expensive
treatment on the NHS?;
6. data protection issues-who will have access
to genetic information about individuals; [this
marking point could be a development of
marking point 2] 3
Total 7 marks
4 ('' 1. evaporation of water (in sweat);
2. (evaporation) has a cooling effect I eq;
3. appropriate {reference to I description of}
latent heat; (2)
(b) (l) 1. temperature dropped {from 0 to 15
minutes I when in the bath};
2. increased {from 15 to 25 minutes I when
sitting on the chair};
3. lowest {at 15 minutes I when 'he got out
of bath'};
4. credit a m2nipulated change in
temperature; (3)
(b) (ll) 5 to 10 minutes:
1. temperature of water lower than body
temperature i eq;
2. heat lost by onduction (to water);
15 to 25 minutes:
3. increased me:abolism I shivering I eq;
4. generates heat I eq; (3)
Total 8 marks
5 (a) ` calculation; 2. answer(= 92.9%); (2)
(b) ` (as cycling speed increases) more carbon
dioxideproduced;
2. {carbon dioxide I low pH} stimulates breathing
I eq;
3. increased need for oxygen I eq; ¦2)
6 (a) (i) pyruvate/pyruvic acid;
(ll)1. (stage) 1;
Total 4 marks
2. (stage) 3;
2
(b) (l) a {series/seqLence/eq} of (chemical) reactions/
each step is controlled by an enzyme/product
of one reaction is the substrate for the
next/eq;
(ll)matrix of a mitochondrion;
(c) (stages) B, C, D (and) F;
Total 6 marks
7 (a) (i) values between 0.4 to 0.55 x 12; =values
between 4.8 and 6.6dm3 min-1; 2
(|i)values between 1 .1 and 1.3 x 36 =values
between 39.6 and 46.8dm3 min-1;
increased by about 6 times/increase of
between 33.0 and 42.0; 2
(b) (i) heart rate x stroke volume or volume of
blood pumped out of the heart in 1 minute. `
(il)As the minute volume increases the tidal
volume (volume of oxygen breathed in)
increases; increased diffusion of oxygen into
blood (or muscle);
increase in cardiac output increases volume of
oxygenated blood reaching muscles; 2
1c:al7 marks
Unit Ü. Comprehension
practice todel answers
a Temperature receptors in the skin and hypothalamus
detect the rise in temperature (1) and cause an
increase in the volume of sweat produced (1 ). The
sweat evaporates from the surface of the skin taking
heat energy away from the body ,`). This cooling can
continue as long as the person is able to replace the
water and salt lost due to the increased sweating (1)
(Max. 4 marks)
b Inuit with short stocky bodies are at a selective
advantage ,`)because they have a lower surface area
to volume ratio (1) and will therefore lose less heat to
their surroundings.
(Max. 2 marks)
c Sufferers of cystic fibrosis have a CFTR protein
channel does not work (1) As a result less water
moves from cells into sweat glands (1) so the sweat
ends up with a higher concentration of salt than
normal that can be detected in the sweat test (1)
(Max. 2 marks)
d Marathon runners will generate a lot of heat during
the race because of the high rate of respiration ( 1)
However, at the end of the race there will be less air
flow over the body ( ``so less 5weat may evaporate
;`)This may cause the core te11perature to rise (1)
resulting in a heat stroke.
(Max. 3 marks)
e Porcine stress syndrome was noticeably similar to
malignant hyperthermia (1 ). They were therefore
able to identify the human gene for malignant
hyperthermia through com par son to the identified
gene for porcine stress syndrome (2).
(Max. 2 marks)
f Aspirin blocks the synthesis of prostaglandins (1) and
therefore reduces fever in the body , 1 ). This could be
a problem because a rise in body temperature may
help to kill bacteria (1) and increase the activity of
macrophages (1) in the non-srecific immune system,
reducing the effectiveness of the body's response to
the infection.
(Max. 3 marks)
g Ca2+ ions are released into the sarcoplasm (1) from
the sarcoplamic reticulum (1) i1 response to a nerve
impulse arriving at the neuromuscular junction (1).
Ca2+ ions attach to troponin (1) causing tropomyosin
to move, exposing myosin binding sites on the actin
filaments (1 ). This allows myosin to join to actin ,`)
starting the contraction of the muscle.
(Max. 4 marks.)
abiotics
absolutist view
abundance
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
adrenaline
13, 15,22,85,90
54,67
12-15,22-4,88,90
10
93
aerobic respiration
AIDS
45-9,56,58,80
32,35
16-17, 22-3, 25, 91
16,22
10-11,17,22,30-1,92
allele
allele frequency
amino acids
anaerobic respiration
antagonistic pairs
antibiotics
46-7,56,80
44-5
23,34-6,38,42, 73,92
32-4,36
33-4
33
8,18-19,22,26,91
24
50
62-5, 74
antibodies
antigen
antigen presenting cell
atmosphere
atrazine
atria
axon
bacteria
bactericidal
bacteriostatic
biofuels
biomass
biotics
blood
bones
brain stem
Calvin cycle
cancer
capillaries
capsid
carbohydrates
carbon
carbon cycle
carbon dioxide
81,90-1
cardiac cycle
23,26,32-9,42, 72-3,84,92
34,36,38
34,36,38
19,22,91
12-13,26
13,15,22,90
32,37, 50-2,54-5,57,61,66,72
44,53
66, 70
10-11
32-3,54,68,77-8
32,45, 57
42
8-10,24,47
11,19,26,90
18-19,22,26-7,91
8-11,18-19,21-2,26,40,46-9,56,
50-1,58-9
cardio\·ascular disease 50-1
cellulose 11-12
cerebellum 66,74,94
cerebral hemispheres 66
cerebrum 66
chcmiosmosis 48-9, 56
chemoreceptors 51,59
chlorophyll 8-9,22,24,100
chloroplast 9, 11, 22.24
chromatography 28
circulation 57
climax community 13, 22
coenzyme 48-9,81
conclusions 17,21,87,89
condensation 46
conferences 17,22
consumers 12-13,90
copper
24-5
correlation
cortex
cytoplasm
18,54,56,68,84,88
51,65-7,70,75
11,30,42,44,46,48,62,93
Darwin, Charles 17
data 9,14-15,17-19,21-2,28,39,41-3,47,56,76,
84-9,91
debate
decay
decomposition
deforestation
degenerate code
dendrites
dendrochronology
depolarisation
depression
diabetes
diastole
21, 54
26-7
12,26-7,36
91
31,36
62
18,22,41
94
70-1, 74
54, 72, 78
50-1
diffusion
disease
distribution
DNA
dopamine
49,62,94
32-7,50,54-5,68,70-3,75,77-8,92
12-15,20,22-3,40-1,43,62,84,87,90
11,16-17,28-32,36,55-6,72-3,92
drugs
70, 75
55,67-8,70-2,74,92
ecosystems 12. 22
electrode
28, 78
electron 9-11, 22, 24, 40-1, 45-6, 48-9, 56-7, 59, 78,
90,93
electrophoresis
entomology
36
27
environment 12-13, 16, 52, 60, 67-8, 73-4, 77
enzyme 10,20-1,23,26-8,32-5,38-9,47-8, 56, 64,
71-2,80
eukaryotic cells
evidence
evolution
exercise
experiment
fats
fermenters
fbres
flexors
forensics
fossil fuels
gametes
gastrointestinal tract
11
17-19,22,36,41,54,85,86
15-17,22,36,72,91
45,50-6,58-9,79,81,86
9,21,69,85-6,89
12
72
44-5,56-7
44
27,30-1,34-6,39
19,91
16
34
gene mutations 16
genetics 17,23,25,31-2,36,68, 72-4,77,82,94
genital tract 34
genomics
global warming
glucose
glycogen
glycolysis
glycoproteins
granum
17
18-22,91
8,10-13,46-7,49,56
45, 47,93
45-9,56,59,80,93
32
11
graphs
greenhouse effect
greenhouse gas
gross primary productivity
growth rates
79, 81, 85,87
18-19
18
12, 25
21
habitat
habituation
health
heart
hepatitis C
herbivores
histogram 87
HIV
homeostasis
hormones
hybrid sterility
hydrogen
hydrolysis
hyperthermia
hypothalamus
hypothesis
immune system
immunity
infection
insulin
interferon
introns
invertebrates
investigation
87,89
isolation
isotopes
joints
journals
Krebs cycle
laboratory
lactic acid
larvae
ligaments
13-16,22
69,74,94
42, 54, 58, 71
50-2,54-6,58,66,77-8
38
12,90-1
32,35-9,42
52-3,56-7,61,93
51-2,54-6,61,74
16
8-9,10,22,48-9
45-7
53,82
52-3,57,66,74,93
84-5,87-9
32-3,35,37,39,54-5
27,30-1,34-6,39,92
27,30-9,42,54,59, 71,82
72
32,36,38-9
28
21,69
21,28-9,38-9,43,69,78-9,84-5,
16,22,91
9
44, 51,53-4,59
17,84
47-9,56,59,80,93
light-dependent reactions
light-independent reactions
limpets
39,42,69,85-6
46-7
26,39
44,54
9-11, 22, 24
8-11. 22, 47
14,23
lipids
lipoproteins
liposomes
locus
lymphocytes
lysozyme
macrophages
magnetic resonance
medulla
mesosomes
metabolism
methane
microbes
microorganisms
mitochondria
10-11,22
93
72
28
33
32,34,36
32-3,35-6
71, 74
51-2,58,66,74
32,42
46
18-19,22
34,73,92
20,34, 74
45,48-9,57, 59,78,93
motor neurones
MRI scans
mRNA
60,66, 74,78
71, 74,92-3
30-1
27,44-5,47,51, 54,56-61,66,70, 75,78-9
16-17,22-3,31,35
17, 35, 91-2
muscles
mmation
mutations
myelin sheath
myofbrils
myogenic
myoglobin
myosm
natural selection
nature
nerve impulse
nervous system
net primary productiYity
neuromuscular
neuromuscular junction
neurone
neurotransmitter
nitrate
nitrogen
nodes of Ran vier
nucleic acids
nucleus
nurture
nutrients
obesity
62
44
SO, 56
45
44-5,58-9
16
68
45,62-4,74,78
32, 52,60,67,69-71, 74,76
12,22,25
44-5, 78
44-5, 78
44,60,62-6,68-71,75-6
61,64-5,69-71,74-5,94
11, 15
13,26
62
10-11,22,42,92
30-1,55,62
68
15, 26
54
optic nerve
60, 65, 67
organelles 1 1, 62
organisms 10,14-17,20,22-3,26-8,32,34-6,46-7,
72-4,90
osteoporosis
oxidation
oxygen
54
9,48-9
8-9,15,22,46-9,55-7,71,78-9,81,90
parasites
Parkinson's disease
pathogens
peer review
peptide
phagocytosis
phenology
90-1
70-1, 74-5
34-6, 54,92
17,22
30
32, 36
21
9-10,15,46-7,78,80,90
10,47-9,56,90,93
8, 11
60
phosphate
phosphorylation
photolysis
photoperiodism
photophosphorylation
photoreceptor
photosynthesis
phototropism
9,22
60-1,64,76
8-13,19,21-2,24,26,40,47,90-1
pioneer species
plasmids
politics
pollen
polymerase
polypeptide
polysaccharides
population
potassium
predators
60-1.93
13
32
21
18,22,40-1,84,91
28-9,36,55
30-1,92
10,22
16,23,25,27,38,43
15,26,47,62-4,94
57,90-1
I
l
I
w
promoter
55
prosthesis
53
proteins 11-12,17,28,30-3,35-6,38-9,44-5,55,62,
71, 73, 92, 94
pupae 39
pupil 60-1,74,76
pyruvate 46-9,55,57
quadrat 14-15, 23, 43, 91
receptors 64
reduction 8-10,48,67,70
reforestation 19,22,91
relativist vievv 54, 67
reproduction 16, 35, 92
research 17,20-1,67-8,74,82, 84,89
respiration 8, 10-13, 22, 25-7, 45-9, 52, 56-8, 78, 80,
90,92
respirometer
retina
ribosome
rigor mortis
risk assessment
saltatory conduction
sarcolemma
sarcoplasm
sarcoplasmic reticulum
schizophrenia
Schwann cells
science
scientists
sensory neurones
seres
serotonin
skeletal muscle
47,63
60,64,67, 74, 76,78
30-32,42,92
27
35,85
62
44
44
44-5
68,77,94
62. 74
21,28-9
17, 21, 26,29, 77,89
60
13
70-1
44,56
15 solar energy
speciation 16-17,22,9'
13-17,20.23,27,35,39-41,43,73,86,91
51,56,81
species
spirometer
starch
stimuli
stroma
succession
Sun
survival
symptoms
synapse
11-12
64,67,69
11
13,22,27,43
18
16-17
32,35-7,54,68, 70-1
44,61,64-7,69-71,74-5,78
technology 29, 53, 56
temperature 15, 18.20-2,27, 29,36-7,39, 47,51-3,
56-7,78-9,85,90-1
tendons
testosterone
thermoreceptors
thylakoid membranes
topography
toxins
transcription
transect
translation
trees
tropomyosin
44
55
52,57
11
15
34
30-1,36,55-6
14-15, 23, 43
30
13,17-18,29,40-1,91
45
troponin
tuberculosis
\'agus nerYe
variation
· 1sodilation
ventilation
\en tricles
viruses
\·is ion
Wilberforce, William
woodland
45
32,42
51
16-17
57
51-2,56,59
50-1
32-3,36,39,42, 72
94
17
13,15,90
l
I
I
J
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abundance and distribution Investigating numbers and distribution Speciation and evolution Greenhouse gases and the carbon cycle Impacts of global warming Topic 5 checklist ResultsPlus: Build Better Answers Practice questions Topic 6: Infection. exercise and sport Topic 7 checklist ResultsPlus: Build Better Answers Practice questions so 52 54 56 57 58 60 60 62 65 66 67 69 70 72 74 75 76 78 82 Biology Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival Topic 5: On the wild side 8 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 23 24 26 26 28 30 32 34 36 37 38 40 Topic 8: Grey matter Photosynthesis 1 Responding to the environment Neurones and nerve impulses Vision The structure of the human brain Photosynthesis 2 Energy transfer. immunity and forensics Brain development Learning and habituation Effects of imbalances in brain chemicals Uses of genetic modification Topic 8 checklist ResultsPlus: Build Better Answers Practice questions Unit 5 specimen paper Unit 5 comprehension practice Unit 6: Decay and decomposition DNA profi ling DNA and protein synthesis Infectious diseases and the immune response Infection. energy and exercise Homeostasis Health.Revision techniques How to use this Revision Guide Question types in GCE 4 5 6 The heart. prevention and control Topic 6 checklist ResultsPlus: Build Better Answers Practice questions Unit 4 specimen paper Unit 5: Exercise and Coordination Topic 7: Run for your life Practical Biology and Investigative Sk ills 84 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 95 99 102 Getting started with your investigation Planning Planning.trial investigations Observing and recording Dealing with data Interpreting and evaluating Answers to in-text questions 44 44 46 48 Answers to practice questions Answers to specimen paper questions Index Muscles and movement l Energy and the role o= ATP in respiration Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain L l I l l l .

Just reading through your notes is not enough. Use PowerPoint to make interactive notes and tests. Get someone to test you on key points. Use colour and hig hlighting to pick out key terms. tests and tutorials that you can use Work in a group to create and use games and quizzes. Here are some methods to try. Try some past exam questions. • . • • Use the questions from your textbook and this revision guide. Check the spec. Active works best when � I Test yourself Make sure you don't end up just copying out your notes in full. ask your teacher for help. mind maps and concept maps to show the links between ideas Mnemonics to heir you remember lists Glossaries to make sure you know clear definitions of key terms • • • • • • Include page references to your notes or textbook. Take an active approach using some of the revision techniques suggested below. • Tables and lists to present information concisely Index cards to record the most important points for each section Flow charts to identify steps in a process Diag1 ams to present information visually Spider diagrams. but revisit it several times.Getting started can be the hardest part of revision. • Make a podcast and play it back to yourself. • E xp la i n ideas to a pa rtner and ask each other questions. • • • Once you have revised a topic. you n eed to check that you can remember and apply what you have learnt. Revise little and often I Don't spend too long on any one section. Using a variety of approaches will prevent your revision beco-ning boring and will make more of the ideas stick. Use some of these techniques to produce condensed notes. make sure they cover the right content at the right level. and if there is something you don't understand. but don't leave it too late. If you use resources from elsewhere. Search the internet for animations.

Each topic also ends with: -. We hope you find this guide invaluable. as wel l as detailed.-opic Checklist This summarises what you should know for this topic. offer plenty of practice ahead of the exam. so you can see how to get the highest marks. including multiple-choice. Quick Questions Use these questions as a quick recap to test your knowledge as you progress.�actice Questions Exam-style questions. Best of luck I I I I I I I I I . look out for the following features throughout the text. ResultsPlus Examiner's Tip These sections help you perform to your best in the exam by highlighting key terms and information. examiner tips and a commentary comparing both a basic and an excellent response. which specification point each checkpoint covers and where in the guide you can revise it. As you work your way through the topics. and areas on which to focus your revision. The final unit consists of advice and support on research skills.and guide you on how to avoid repeating them in your exam. mark-by-mark answers to the specimen papers. providing step­ by-step guidance on how to tackle exam questions. _ . or the 'concept-led' approach to Edexcel Biology (the green book). and showing how to approach answering them. but provide a range of exam-style practice questions covering the range of content likely to be encountered within the exam. perfect whether you're studying Salters Nuffield Advanced Biology (the orange book). and have used this to identify common pitfalls that have caught out other students. Worked Example The examiners guide you through complex equations and concepts. ResultsPius Build Better Answers Here you will find sample exam questions with exemplar answers. giving guidance on Practical Assessment to help you write better individual investigations. These are not intended as timed..Welcome to your Edexcel A2 Biology Revision Guide. Use it to record your progress as you revise. written by senior examiners. analysing the questions you may be asked. They draw on real 'ResultsPius' exam data from past A-level exams. Both Unit 4 and Unit 5 conclude with a Specimen Paper to test your learning. Answers to all the in-text questions. full-length papers. :. All of this is based on data from real-life A-level students! Resul"i:sPius Watch Out The examiners have looked back at data from previous exams to find the common pitfalls and mistakes made by students. This unique guide provides you with tailored support.. can be found at the back of the book. Thinking Task These sections provide further research or analysis tasks to develop your understanding and help you revise.

how theories and models are put together. You don't lose any marks byhaving a guess (i you can't work out the answer)­ f remember you won't score anything by leaving the answer blank! If you narrow down the number of possible answers. think about the questions that could be asked in a Unit 2 paper on the core practical in Topic 3: 'Describe the stages of mitosis and how to prepare and stain a root tip s quash in order to ::lbserve them practically. there will bequestions on the written unit papers that cover some HS W criteria. The other common type of HSW question will be based on the core practicals.see the next section. For example. the chances o having a luck y guess at the right f answer will increase. and that you revise the core practicals. I f the answer you thought o f is amongst the possible answers. If the answer you thought of isn't there. If you change your mind.Multiple cho�ce A good multiple choice question gives you the correct answer and other possible answers which seem plausible. and so on. However. The CORMS prompt may be use ful here: . that you k now what the various steps in each core practical were designed to do. To indicate the correct answer. How Sccence Works The idea behind How S cience Works is to give you insight into the ways in which scientists work: how an experiment is designed. put a line through the cross andfill in your new answer with a cross. Triglycerides are composed of: 3 glycerol molecules and 3 fatty acid molecules (1) D 1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid molecules D 1 glycerol molecule and 1 fatty acid molecule D 3 glycerol molecules and 1 fatty acid molecule D The best way to answer a multiple choice question is to read the question and try to answer it before look ingc: t the possible answers. but why various steps in the core practical were important. S ome o thesequest f ions will involve data or graph interpretation (HS W 5). look at the possible answers and try to eliminate wrong answers until you are left with the correct one.' Here. and why? You'll also commonly get asked questions involving designing an investigation: these are likely to involve pieces of familiar practical work. suitable questions could include: f -why do we use only the tip o the root? -which stain do we use? -why do we place the cut tip in acid be fore staining? -what safety precautions wculd be relevant here.job done! Just have a look at the other possibilities to convince yourself that you were right. and the way society is involved in making decisions about science. Questions will concentrate not so much on what you did. therefore. how scientists respond to factors such as ethics. put a cross in the box following the correct statement. Many o the HS W criteria are practical and will be tested as part of your practical f work. how data are analysed. It's important.

On longer quest1ons. there is always one mark for manipulation of data. You can then concentrate on individual aspects of the data. I Finally. . You may also comment that the difference between the incidence in males and 65-74 age group. what stands out most is that females have a lower incidence of heart disease than males. c �� g zoo � Cl! D D female male 100 18-44 4S-64 6S-74 7S and over You almost always get one mark for stating the general trend-in this case that the incidence of heart rate increases. you need to make six creditworthy points. that if the question is worth 6 marks.Co_ (5o Cl! Cl! "0 ·u a. the examiners will be looking at your QWC (Quality of Written Communication) as well as the answer you g1ve. on the incidence of heart disease in adults aged 1 8 and older. describe how the 1ncidence of heart disease is affected by age and gender.Control Organism Repeat Measure Same -Are you investigating simply with I without a particular factor? What range of values are you looking atl -Are you using organisms of the same sex I age 1 size I species? -Take readings more than once and average -What are you measuring? How will you measure this? What units? -Which variable(s) are you keeping constant? Other HSW questions may concentrate on ethical issues surrounding topics such as gene therapy or GM foods. too. Using the information in the graph. they are designed for you to show knowledge gained in earlier units. Think about the points that you will make and put them together in a logical sequence when you write your answer. enterpretatoon of graphs The graph below shows the results of a survey in America. Remember. perhaps up to 6 or I 5) you will come across questions with larger 7 marks in the question.. you have to do something with them! I fE�tend�d questions In the A2 units (Topic 4 and Topic numbers of marks. with increasing age. Bear this in mind when you answer the question: try to include relevant knowledge from your AS course when answering these questions. Questions in these units are designed to be synoptic-in other words. In this case.0 -� � g_ 300 Cl! 0 . for both genders. soo � 400 Key (3) � § :. Note that this must be manipulation -you don't get marks for reading off the graph and stating the numbers. except in the females is largest in the 18-44 age group.

The overall process is achieved in two linked stages called the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions.:H20) reducing carbon dioxide to carbohydrate.1 Orange Book 5. T he (C02l to carbohydrate_ • _5t�. Run for your life.tn t. Light energy splits strong bonds in water to give hydrogen and oxygen (which is released to the armosphere)_ The hydrogen is stored in a fuel (glucose) by Z('. • €)-c ewe"' c"-<.. see Topic 1. hydrogen for this process comes from the s pli ttin g of water by light. you will meet a very similar substance to NAOP. Green Book 5. (and a number of other sugars. which is glucose So.duction of carbon dioxid� These carbohydrates can be used to provide energy in respiration (see Toprc 7).o"'� P s. the waste oxygen being released into the atmos p here. and the light-independent reactions (in which the energy from ATP and reducing power from reduced NADP are used to make sugar).r . f<Om <h• "m"Ph'" Diagram showing the main steps in photosynthesis.c.1AS).V> I . Summary of photosynthesis showing the linked light-dependent reactions (in which water is split and ATP and reduced NADP are made). you have C6H1206. 02 co.. It too accepts electrons but try not mix up the two.. T he energy for this step is first trapped by a pigment molecule called chlorophyll. reduced NADP light-dependent reactions light-independent reactions In Topic 7.. If you imagine the above happeni ng three times. .e.2 .. the overall equation is: The splitting of water by light is called photolysis.Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Sp ecies Survival Photosynthesis involves the r.- ZH20 from the soil 4H 1\ . called NAD. This can be su m marised like this: r.

· �:· . ' You will not be expected to recall details of photosystems but you may be expected to understand their roles if they are part of an exam question. :: .1 Orange Book 5. Photosystems PSI and PSI/ are the two special chlorophyll molecules which can release their electrons when struck by light. always include sam explanation of what is going on.. Key -"'� flow of electrons in non-cyclic photophosphorylation .j � • : . Diagram showing light-dependent reactions.Topic 5: On the wild side The light=depende�t reac\iiob"llS In this process. Green Book 5. flow of electrons in cyclic photophosphorylation chains of electron carriers ·· . � _:::_ Results"Pius / . Time/min Q2 What is: a b oxidation 7 reduction Say how these data support the ide that the oxygen given off by plants i photosynthesis comes from water. a pair of electrons from chlorophyll is boosted to a higher energy level by the light energy it has trapped.2 .-ResultSPius " Examiner tip � • ' . Energy released is used to convert ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) into ATP This process is called photophosphorylation (the light-driven addition of phosphate) The electrons then enter another chlorophyll molecule.. NADP + 2H+ reduced NADP J f Q1 The diagram shows the results of an experiment in which air containing isotopes 1802 and water containing H2160 was bubbled through a suspension increasing energy level light of algae. . . Concentration of oxygen isotope tn the water dark tight dark Q1 Name the substance which provides reducing power (electrons) and the one which supplies energy for the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis. The electrons eventually pass to NADP with the hydrogen from water to form reduced NADP. Here they are accepted by an electron acceptor and then passed along a ch�:n of carriers.. �. L 10 "o 20 30 40 50 ... . The ATP and reduced NADP are then used in the light­ independent reactions to make carbohydrate from carbon dioxide. • Never try to answer a question witl just a diagram.� Examiner tip ""� \ ..· : · ..y.

12ADP + 12P.indepen d e nt intermediate between energy-pro d ucing reactions a n d those that need en ergy. The key steps in the Calvin cycle are shown in t he d iagram. ATP is also used widely in organisms as a way of tra n sferring en ergy.1 Orange Book 5. l i pids and nucleic acids. reactions. The energy is released when the phosp h ate forms bonds with water. .: 1 • . for example other simple sugars._ Resultsfltus · . It becomes reduced NAOP.Al .. ATP from the light-dependent reactions provides the energy required for the reaction. Green Book 5. then phosphorylation using ATP forms RuBP.Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival The light-dependent reactions make ATP a n d reduced NADP which are then used in the light-independent reactions ( C a lvi n cycle). The • Be careful when discussing NADP. ADP + Pi + energy In photosynthesis. 5 Ten out of every 12 GALPs are involved in the recreation of RuBP. • rest is used to synthesise all the molecules on which t h e plant relies. phosphate. In the photosynthesis light-dependent rea ct ions. VJatch out! . The ten GALP molecules rearrange to form s i x 5-carbon compounds. 1 Carbon dioxide combines with a 5-carbon 2 The 6-carbon compound formed is unstable and glycerate 3-phosphate (GP). It is a n Some of the glucose made in the C a l v in cycle is used by the plant in respira t ion . a� inv o�e d in �ec�ation�a 6ATP :: (2GALP) " Outline of the Calvin cycle. NADP and ADP are not related in photosynthesis and do different things. The reduced NADP prov i o -. ATP is made using energy from light. amino ac ids. bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBISCO). . the ATP made is used as a source of energy in the l i gh t.2 . This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ribulose immediately breaks down into two 3-carbon molecules. glucose (6C) (hexose) v ATP When energy is needed. ATP __ __ . polysaccharides. 3 This 3-carbon compound is reduced to form a 3-carbon sugar phosphate called glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GALP). One does not get converted into the other.. The hydrogen for the reduction comes from the reduced NADP from the light­ dependent reactions.:s reducing power (e l ect rons or hydrogen) and the ATP provides the en ergy for the process of making carbon dioxide into carbohydrate . . phosphate is removed from the ATP to give ADP a n d a Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) provides energy for chemical reactions in the cell. 6RuBP (SC) L === (3C) 0 " 12GP (3C) 6ADP (10GALP) 12GALP 4 Two out of ever y 12 GALPs formed 6-carbon sugar (hexose) which can be for example amino acids or lipids. NADP has electrons/hydrogen added to it in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.�ic ac1Cs IDNA and RNA� Diagram showing some of the fates of the glucose made in photosynthesis. nuc. what it is and what it does. converted to other organic compounds. compound ca lled ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP). the most abundant enzyme in the world. .

a stack of thylakoids joined to one another.iJ..:. Wor k out hoVIt many carbon atoms are involver need to outer membrane inner membrane I many substances which enter or leave the chlor o pl ast at each stage (RuBP. Th es e substances include sugars and pro t eins synth esised in the cytoplasm of the cell but used withi n the chloroplast. Thyla koid Starch grain . - - .''4 � . Unless the diagram is supported by some text it will not demonstrate your understandi n g of the topic. . interconnected Thyla koid membranes.. for each structure within the chloroplast.the fluid surrounding Contains all the enzymes rteeded to the thylakola membranes. . Grana (p l ural) resemble stacks of coins. molecules A s mooth inner membrane -which contains many transporter molecules.dependent rea ctions.chloroplasts • Much of what is discussed in this topic can be summarised in the form of diagrams or flowcharts. For photosynthesis.·'�" ·'�. :(����§���-]!-- s p ace . These are the sites of specialised processes within the cell.a__31SE!D. If you have a good memory and have remembered. !l!ID thylakoid membrane thylakoid space granum j. plant cells have a structure called the chloroplast.1 Orange 9ook 5. the Calvin cycle diagram accurately.:( c" reactions (tF.ij'(t i10f-' �::.. carry out the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis. '� · --·�! .. L photosynthesis. _ __ _ Ul Look at the diagram of the Calvi cycle on page 10.1fi. GP. But just reproducing such a diagram in an examination will rarely lead to full marks. not your answer! [ contain genes for some flat t ened fluid-filled sa� Proteins.which is freely per m eab le to such as C02 and H20. The diagram shows the functions which each part carries out.:� .•i!J£ . DNA loop. Where are they? Whereabouts i n the C a lvin cycle is RUBISCO used and what does it do? Copy and complete the table of chloroplast functions below by suggesting.fluid within the thylakoid membrane-sac> contains enzymes for photolysis.Topic 5: On the wild side .stores the product of c. glucose). use this as a basis for your answer. ·. GALP. r · .::� ":�' ·� - st roma li ght i ndepe n dent r eacti on s fully permeable permeable to - -depe dent react n I ions ID illi _j� nttn:ur "tif.. Granum . for example. Where does photo�ynthesis happen? In all eukaryotic cells there are memorane-bound structures called organelles. These are membrane proteins which reg ul at e the passage of s ubst ances in and out of the chloroplast.of Stroma. C02.[llill. 01 02 03 There are two steps where ATP is used in the C a lvin cycle. incl uding p ho to synthe ti c of their proteins. �'. n rriers are pi gme� ts an d e lec t ro ca -embedded in the mem br a nes and are involved in the light. Green Book 5. the features that a re adapted for these functions. li ght -dependent photolysis of water provides a site for ligh t .2 . L A smooth outer membrane .

So the answer is: efficiency of transfer = 3000/25000? Well 3/25 is 2�9g�O x 100 = 12. The energy i n the food is transferred from the primary producers (pla nts) to the herbivores. cellulose. NPP and R is: NPP = GPP. Here -what is about about 3/24 which is 1/8. for example from producers to primary consumers.9 <lJ � � . �� . but you will find values that d iffer widely from this. Units decompos Q (kJ = kilojoules).R (Energy transfe! Herbivores eat plants. including the plants themselves. All of these variables are measured in energy units (kilojoules) per square metre per year kJ m-2 year1) fixed in ( photosynthesis or used in respiration. kJ m-2 year 1 From this diagram we can calculate the efficiency of energy flow from one trophic level to the next. total sunlight: 7. which is net primary productivity (NPP) 24 090 kJ m-2 year-1 44 090 20 000 The transfer efficiency from producers to primary consumers is the amount transferred to the primary consumers. The rate at which energy is incorporated into organic mole:::u les in the plants i n photosynthesis is called gross primary prod uctivity (GPP). Green Book 5. proteins and fats.12% 12%.energy plants use in respiration (R) (GPP) Always double check that you have copied numbers down correctly and always do a rough calculation with rounded numbers to get a rough idea of the likely answer.1 x 106 light absorbed by plants: 4.Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival Plants make glucose in photosynthesis. The rest is available for other animals or decomposers.!: oE secondary consumers ----l�� detritus I .e 15000 15000 Energy flow through the trophic levels of a forest ecosystem.2 Orange Book 5. 2920 kJ m-2 year-1 divided by the amount potentially available to them (24 090 kJ m -2 year-1 ).6x 106 trapped in glucose= 44090 producers food 20000 2920 primary foo d storage 5840 consumers c ·z:. This biomass is food for both humans and every other living thing on Earth.2 . Plants use some of the orga n i c molecules in respi ration (see Topic 7) If we find out the figure for GPP a n d take away the amount o f energy used in respiration (R). The relationship between GPP. A rule-of-thumb 10% is often quoted. 0 15330 6'oo �C) . This is called n et primary prod uctivity (NPP). Some energy is lost as heat to the envi ronment.<> -� 700 Q. This can be turned into other molecules including starch. what is left is t h e rate at which energy is transferred into new plant biomass that ca1 be eaten by herbivores or decomposers. Energy transfer efficiencies between trophic levels vary greatly in different ecosystems. They use much of the energy in respiration for movement in the body. First we have to find out how much energy is available to primary consumers: energy trapped. This can a l l be summarised in an energy flow diagram.

Succession in a sand dune system. It has long sand-binding roots and I Marram grass next area. trees die but new ones of the same species grow to fill the gap.1 x 104kJ m-2year-1 Energy flow from producers to consumers in a grassland Calculate the efficiency of transfer from producers to consumers. 01 Here is another exanple of part of an energy flow diagram: energy fixed in photosynthesis 1. i. faster when buried. '- Green Book 5. improving water ho ld in g capacity too..mP.. Woodland is the climax community. but at the end it may go down again.e. Distribution and abundance Topic 5: On the wild side *W +* · -::n * . etc).: . which then became woodland. In stable woodland. Biodiversity increases as Q1 Q2 Rewrite the equation NPP = GPP. but suitable for new species to establish. The new species often replace the existing species A similar process occurs time and again. The distribut1on (where they are) and abundance (how many) are determined by these conditions. Changes in these conditions can therefore lead to changes in distribution and abundance.9 x respiration 104kJ m-2year-1 1. It also faster when buried. feeding times. shelter. The grazers which might ise the area and this allows the the tree seedlings are discouraged by the often spiny shrubs. for example if grazing stopped in a meadow. for example. In any habitat a species occupies a specific n iche determined by environmental conditions (biotic and abioti<: factors) and the way that the species uses the habitat (food. PvPinn.1 X 104 energy in new biomass of primary consumers 0. which can roll up in dry weather. This is a climax comm unity If the succession starts with l1ving things already present. Primary s uccession happens when an area which is devoid of life is first colonised by species (usually lichen and algae on bare rock) that can cope in the harsh conditions These are called pioneer species They alter the environment in a way that makes it an unsuitable home for them. ash and pine.. In the the woodland is usually oak. A wid e variety of species now coloni This plant can resist water loss by having stomata on the inner surface of its leaves some. this is called secondary success1on. All add more orga nic matter.t of tall trees. UK embryo dunes buildi ng dunes fixed dunes ust b eh in d the pioneers comes couch grass which can build dunes by trapping sand. R =I What is a niche/ succession progresses. until a stable community is reached. s1tes.. through stages known as seres. of them nitrogen fixers which improve the levels of this imp orta nt nutrient in the soil..R in terms of R.2 Orange 3GGk :. as just a few species dominate the climax.

Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival How can we practically investigate where organisms live (distribution) and how many there are (abundance)? The answer depends on what kind of habitat we are in and what we want to find out. but quite possible with organisms such as l i m pets. In either case. Right: Quadrats used to investigate distribution and abundance of plant species in grazed and ungrazed areas. there are 100 squares in the quadrat then the that plant . These hits are added together to give percentage cover using the equation: In your answers try to make sure you talk about practical methods you have actual experience of. If two areas appeared different and we wanted to compare them. Your method should aim to produce valid and reliable data. any 'hits' on the pins being recorded. If there appears to be a change across the area. and an appropriate method for the organism being discussed. the usual methods to estimate abundance would be: • Either count the individuals in a quadrat� this is not easily done with many plants. 0 Yocover= hits . These estimates are best made using a quadrat that is divided up into smaller squares and counting the number of squares or part squa res occupied by each species in turn_ If. In both cases we would use a piece of equipment called a quadrat to estimate abundance. such as g rasses. x100 h 1ts + m1sses Green Book 5. as is usual. Make sure you do not mix them up. we could take random samples within each area. woodlan d woodland edge open area Left: A transect with quadrats u:. A core practical is to carry out such an investigation.ed to investigate distribution and abundance of plant species on a woodland edge.1 . • Or find the percentage cover of each species� this is the most common method with plants.2 Orange Book 5. Candidates often confuse the idea of a transectwith the idea of a quadrat. number of squares and part squares covered make up the percentage cover for A different method involves the use of a point quadrat. in which pins are lowered systematically on to the vegetation. a tran sect is the preferred method.

9 8 4 500 2.gy input Use a light metre. The dry soil sample can be weighed. topog<aphy Topographical surveys measure the shape of the land.4 2 7 Plot the data in this table in a suitable form on comment on them.4 80 0. Soil texture charts can be used to assess if the soil is mainly clay. · • •. . burnt in a crucible and reweighed. :Iss In order to answer questions about the distribution and abundance patterns you have found in the habitat you are s tu d ying you will also need to measure a number of . Any organic matter is burnt off. Soil sample can be weighed. Surveyors' levelling equipment can be used -the simplest method being to use ranging poles and clinometers. dried slowly in an oven and reweighed to give the mass of water. . Use an oxygen probe. 2 20 0.4 6 1800 23..1 . 5 3 250 0.2 Orange 3:o� :. which accounts for any difference in mass. minerals Gardener's test k1ts can test the levels of important nutrients such as nitrate.iif_�:t:��E11�'�1 . � it f" �r.%13�. three biotic and three abiotic factors which might control distribution and abundance of an 01 The table shows the data obtained in a study of a sand-dune system. Explain the mea1ing of these words: niche transect quadrat Choose a habitat you are familiar with and lis t organism in it. cl < t.:ci:)·:"'"c"':· mt5Ed1�t·1K t$wfui�0�iif.. phosphate and potassium (NPK).. NCM "" mate I I Information about rainfall and temperature can be obtained from published sources. water orgaric matter I Q1 Q2 Q3 soil texture Explain what an edaphic factor is and give three examples. Identify any patterns and Green Book 5. one sheet of p a p er. · factors: ene.· . oxygen availability edaphic factors I pH Use a pH probe or soil pH kit.8 16 5 650 6. silt or sand.Topic 5: On the wild side *" ·�\1.

d create variation within the population. ==J . 1� L.seJection p_ress u res m the en V I ro_ n:_e� n � Natural selection in peppered moths...- ---' -� _ imply incomp . Species exist in the same area but are active for reproduction at different times. They will get you no narks without proper explanation. -� .7 . .: c� h�r ! � . In order for a new species to form.tbe+-p�t. Green Book 5.4 Orange Book 5. ·: ·· hybrid sterility Healthy individuals produced from the ma . .+G..: �ti l �. Populations do not respond to each other's reproductive display s. the mule). The reproductive organs no longer fit together.. · differe nt spec ies cannot themselves reproduce (e. le gametes from two popula tions are a "' . b e wit h___ � 1 j J .. Once a gene routation has apQearedjt is acted upon by the.·. genes (gene mutations) ar}. species would change but there would be no new species.:.r.' l' � ·�� �!!Slt� ::!il=:�� «� L ! .. ting of two . w col so do not meet to breed.�I!l !. habitats 1n the sa�.Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival The theory of evolution is about how and why organisms have changed over time.·· - • .. Over time. n atural election may cause the different parts of the population to change to such an extent that they can no fonger interbreed to produce fertile offspring and this makes them two or more different species.::lU. What actually changes is a llele frequency (the relative frequency c fa particular allele in a population).:.. population must become reproductively iso lated fmm a. . Spec9BJticw-u If the ideas put forward above were all that was involved.�� ::: � � ' �gametic isolation _ _ ale and fe m. . This usually habitat isolation temporal isolation mechanical 1 sol ation behavioural ISolation �- I Populat i ns occupy diff � e. hybrid inviability Individuals produced from the mating of two different species are not healthy and do not survive . part of an existing happens when a barr i er comes between two or more parts of an existing population..g.:.� !. Ne�Ulrise from random changes in the DNA wh ic h makes up \void writing phrases like 'survival 1f the fittest' and 'struggle for :xistence'.

Any research carried out must be p u b l i shed in at least one of these so that it can be read by other scientists. The suggestions can be assessed but there is no need to go through the peer review process. where eros� breeding had been prevented for many generations.Topic 5: On the wild side 4 -_. the more closely related the species. The scientific process has three key aspects which try to ensure reliability and validity: • • • dedicated scientific journals peer review scientific conferences There are thousands of scientific journals published worldwide. There are now new types of evidence supporting the theory available to us: • The DNA molecule is the same in a l l organisms. DNA and proteins contai n a record of genetic changes that have occurred by random mutations over time. The more similar the • sequence. the different breeds were still able to reproduce with each other. _ I �datung evidence Any new evidence must be carefully studied before it can be accepted.7 . They generally ask: Is the paper valid? (Are the conclusions based on good methods and are the data • reliable?) • significant? (The paper must make a useful addition to the existi ng body of scientific knowledge. Assessing the speed of mutation in DNA has shown thatspecies have evolved over vast periods of time.) Is the paper original? (Or has someone else already done the same work?) Is the paper 01 William Wil berforce was a fiew • critic of Charles Darwin. Even in dogs. New evidence Darwin's theory was very controversial in its day and still is for some people. indicating gradual change within and between species. By studying DNA (genomics) and proteins (proteomics) these changes can be identified. Only if the other scientists agree that the paper is all these things can it be published.E they were the same species. Com paring the DNA or amino acid sequences in d ifferent species can show how closely related species are in evolutionary terms. He used the argument that no new species had ever been seen to arise. The editor of the journal sends a potential paper to two or three other scientists in the same area of work. i. This supports Darwin's idea of • descent from a common ancestor. as Darwin thought. before it even gets to this stage it has to undergo a process called peer review. Q1 Q2 What must occur for speciation to take place? Why is survival of the fittest not enough for evolution to happen? W hy does this not show that Darwin's theory is incorrect? Green Book 5. However. Conferences a l l ow scientists to set out their ideas i n front of other people who work in the same field.4 Orange Book 5.

Studying the size of tree rings is called dendrochronology.e. By sampling at different levels in the peat we are sampling at different ages.3. fluctuating in s te p for some other reason. Other gases also have this effect. E! :J g . 5.5 -10. Some of this energy is trapped by C02 and the Earth warms up. s 220 2. warming the troposphere. 1----- pollen data --J ice cores Air t r apped in ice when it was formed thousands of years ago can be analysed. Some infrared is absorbed by greenhouse gases. It a l lows 340 320 radiation to reach the Earth from the S u n .0 solar radiation (visible and ultraviolet) 160 40 80 120 Age/1 000 years before present 0 Changes in temperature and C02 concentrations over the past 760000 years.5 0 -2. Most solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth's surface. They may bo th be Some infrared emitted by the Earth's surface escapes and cools down the Earth. Green Book 5.0 -7.0 3oo >- 280 260 . 240 E a.Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival There are a number of key questions to be ask ed : Are C02 levels r isi ng and is there global warm i ng ? • • Does o n e cause the other7 • How bad will it get and can we do a nyth i ng to combat it? To answer these questions we need to look at evidence from many different sou rces. 400 380 360 2007 level�� caused by risin g C02 levels? It seems that we are in a warm period of the Earth's h ist ory but is this . Carbon dioxiue ifl the atmosphere is known as a greenhouse gas.g. This is the greenho use effect. 5. If the climate is warmer and wetter then the rings are wider.:u·ming? � � . Analysis of the pollen can tell us which plants were gr owing and so what the climate was like when the peat was formed.3 Orange Book 5. This gives us information about temperatures and C02 levels in the past. the Central England Temperature series has records from 1659 to the present. which warms up. i nfrared radiation from the Earth Inputs and outputs of energy to the Earth's atmosphere.4. e. Remember that just because there is a correlation it does not mean that one t hi ng causes the other to happen.5 -5.. � Q temperature reco r ds tree rings 1o L ng-term data sets allow changes in temperature to be analysed . We can look at tree ring widt hs over 3000 years into the past and can tell a lo t about the climate from them. Pollen grains are preserved in peat bogs.5 . Y\lhat js the evidence for global w. for example methane .

Topic 5: On the wild side The data support the theory of global warming betng r.3. and using corn to make ethanol compounds in plants carbon . This is because we a l ready have a n understanding of the cycling of carbon in nature. �hat can be done? Science is telling us about a possible future problem. Deforestation is thought a to use as fuel.-: carbon dioxide would ir:'.f.e-:: Green Book 5. their use is therefore carbon neutral. how bad will it get? rnmputer modelling Any attempt to predict climate change in the future must rely on very complex computer models to extrapolate from what we know to what might happen. The increase in the use of biofuels as opposed to fossil fuels could also help photosynthesis. They would only release the just The large-scale planting of new trees could reduce the amount of C02 in the atmosphere. 5. What is the likely advantage.4. So. Looking at reservoir of C02. Some factors such as carbon dioxide emissions or changes in ice cover are� ery hard to predict. because the C02 released in burning the fuel will only have been recently fixed in It is well worth learning the carbon cycle because you can work out such a lot from it. These models get better all the time but they are li mited by lack of computing powe r. 01 Sketch the carbon cycle and use it to explain how human activitv Q1 Q2 List three sources of evidence that can be used to investigate cli mate change.Jsed by humans. matter foss\\\sa ·o0 \' It is clear that there are a n umber of inputs and outputs to and from the atmospheric that there is extra C02 being added to the atmosphere by human activity. taken in and so would be carbon neutral.. in terms of the greenhouse effect. but it can also help to solve it. due largely to C02 and methane emissions. has caused a build-up of carbor.5 . the two have largely been in balance but now it is clear the cycle it can be seen that there are a number of ways we could intervene to offset this. 5. the next question is. C02 they had C02 than it takes in. more chopping down rainforest to grow palms for oil releases for biofuel deprives people of food. Identify the processes that methods to reduce atrnosp-:._ ---oiJ·� - feeding carbon compounds in animals carbonate /!/ . dioxide in the atmosphere.. Until recently. Reforestation will increase the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere due to an increase in photosynthesis.3 Orange Book 5. sufficient data a n d_knovyledge of how the climate functions. One way of reducing C02 levels would be to grow plants Plants take i n C02 i n photosynthesis. However. of using biofuels? Suggest one disadva ntage. C02 increase in the air. § qj b carbon compounds in decomposers dead organic The carbon cycle in nature. and trees store lot of to be an important cause of C02 as they gain size.

rendering them extinct in the area. Research has shown plants flowering earlier. Changes to development In many reptiles. in a sample of 500 analysed some flowered later. However. so warming could cause a change in sex ratios in these species.3 Orange Book 5.Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival Global warming will i mpact on the climate in many ways. the temperature affects the sex of young that hatch from eggs. the seasonal cycles may change so that seasons are different in length and intensity. Temperature affects enzymes and therefore whole organisms. Green Book 5. species which cannot live in these areas now may move in (alien species) and out-compete native species. 5. In Britain a rise i n temperature might mean warmer. species in the south of the UK may withdraw northward and those restricted to places further north may extend southward. if the temperature rises too high their enzymes w i l l denature and all reactions will stop. Also. All of this will affect plants and ani mals in three main ways: Global warming Rising temperatures. Organisms may g row faster if temperatures rise by a few degrees. Possible effecrs of global warming and climate change on living things. In other areas the risk might be drought. changing rainfall patterns.6. wetter winters. but by no means always. This might mean an increase in the risk of flooding in some areas. changes to seasonal cycles Changes to species distribution As the average temperature rises.8 . Finally. Rainfall patterns are also likely to be effected. Insects may get through their life cycle more quickly and be ready to feed before the plants they feed on are mature. animals and microorganisms.plants. Changes to life cycles Organisms where temperature is an im p o rtant trigger for development may well have their life cycles disru pted .

is indicated by the arrows. and to care for the experimental animals. The optimum temperature. Quickly the debate becomes politicised and then the usual impassionate meth odology of sc i en ce bec ome s sid eli n e d .Topic 5: On the wild side I+ c 0 ·.. Q1 Q2 Q3 What do we mean by an enzyme's optimum temperature? Phenology is the study of seasonal events. or p olitic ise d if they argue for it. It is also p o i bl e to study the effect of temperature on seed li ng g rowt h rates. 0 10 20 30 60 Temperature. In this practical we want to vary temperature (independent variable) and see how it affects the number of shr imps hatched (dependent variable).. So. the effects of high temperatures are a sudden and complete denaturation of the enzyme.. Give one event that may be affected by rising temperature for animals and one for plants. scientists are accu sed of be in g funded by oil companies if they argue again st the established pol iti ca l view. There are often questions about this. The people who will give them this are often not the scientists but politicians. especially those involving animals.3 . It is import ant to keep these controlled or monitored du r in g the experiment. and pressu res of economics and p o l itics. causing the curve to fall very steeply.. What conclusions p eopl e reach are often coloured by who funded the research they are doing. . but there are still big questions over what is causing it and what we should do about it. Always consider the ethical aspects of experiments you do. U1 List some of the ethical considerations when experimenting on hatching rates in brine shrimps. Th ere are other variables which might affect the rat e such as sali n ity. economists and other policy makers. .e�oome�it roeratt. There is little doubt that global warming is happening.•c The effect of temperature on the rate of enzyme-catalysed reactions.:. Why will increasing carbon dioxide l eve ls not just be balanced by i n creased phot osynthesi s ? Green Book 5. Non-scientists may not understand the uncertainty and naturally want a clear answer. It is quite normal for scientists to disagree but this topic is also a matter for public debate. 0 2. b oth to make the data valid. u "' � . e " We can investigate the effect of temper ature on hatching rates i n small i nvertebrates called brine shrimps. It soon becomes clear that data are bei n g in terpreted with various hidden agendas and then this becomes the news rather than the science itself.ac·f cal e v��·��gation of 1l:!he e·rffet:'� of �ce�. which does not always have this value. pH and l ig h t level.:! "' "" This enzyme temperature curve is not symmetrical. In both ss experiments dat a l ogging can be used to m onit or the temperature and ensure reliable result s .

Explain how reproductive isolation can lead to speciation L021 L023 L022 Greenhouse gases and the carbon cycle Outline possible causes of global warming.Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival 'mR� 1 � Photosynthesis Describe chloroplast structure and how this is related to their job in photosynthesis_ Describe photosynthesis as the splitting of water. Describe an investigation of the effect of temperature on development of organisms. Describe succession to a climax community. Explain how the concept of niche explains distribution and abundance of organisms. L014 L09 I I L018 L019 The effects of global warming Describe the effects of global warming on plants and animals (distribution. Discuss how understanding of the carbon cycle could help reduce atmospheric C02 levels. LOS L06 Energy transfer abundance and ecosystems Calculate net pnmary productivity from the equation: NPP = L07 GPP . which are then involved in making ATP and reducing NADP -- " "" ' �� �L02 L03 -- - D D D D D D �fiT�i""�- D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D I L04 Photosynthesis 2 Describe ATP manufacture from ADP using energy ATP provides energy for biological processes. L08 Calculate efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels. Describe the validation of new evidence supporting the theory of evolution. a change in allele frequency. D1scuss how a person's point of view might affect the conclusions they reach about actio1s to take on global warming. Describe the role of gene mutation and natural selection in evolution. reliable data on abundance and distribution of organ1sms and measure a range of abiotic factors. and the manufacture of polysaccharides and other molecules. Explain the effects of increasing temperature on enzymes in living things. storing of hydrogen in glucose and release of oxygen_ Describe the light-dependent reactions that trap light energy by exciting electrons in chlorop1yll. seedling growth or hatching in brine shrimps. I L010 D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D L012 L013 L011 Investigating numbers and distribution Speciation and evolution Describe an ecological study of a habitat to create valid. Explain how biotic and abiotic factors control distribution and abundance of organisms. L015 L016 L017 L020 . Describe the modelling of trends in glcbal warming and the limitations of this approach.R. Analyse data from various sources to give evidence for global warming. using ATP and reduced NAD. development and life cycles). Describe the light-independent reactions in which carbon dioxide is reduced.

The quadrat would then be randomly thrown and the number of species recorded down again until the finish. . ._ �.t . . . An excellent answer would mention these points and go on to discuss how the selection pressure leads to antibiot ic-resistant bacteria being able to reproduce.. .in a belt transect. ·_ · - . · _ _ Note carefully the word 'become' in this questi o n. ._: Studeirt answer .. pump it out of the cell. . A basic answer would mention genetic mutation as the origin of resistance or mention that antibiotics create a selection pressure when misused.. placing quadrats along it either every su often or regularly and give full details of how to make accurate counts within the quadrat or make estimates of percentage cover within it. by throwing. s o t h e appropriate technique should be discussed for do1ng this. . ! ' The bacteria genetically mutate to gain resistance to the antibiotic. counting for discrete organisms like limpets or percentage cover for plants which are spreading. -�-- . Such an answer gains no credit at all. · ..· . .Topic 5: On the wild side 1 A transect can be used to study trends in the abundance and distribution of organisms Describe one method you could use to estimate the abundance o f an organism at intervals along a transect line. - · . Many answers discuss the ability of the bacteria to break down the antibiotic.. . A transect (nota quadrat) is used and you need to discuss • estimation of distribution and abundance of an organism. A basic answer would mention the quadrat but be unclear as to how to place or use it for a specific purpose. Some have a resistant cell wall. The rest of the answer is not relevant to the question asked. -· ' .. (3) This is a classic example of the need to read every word in the question very carefully. . For example.· • • • . that they have a waxy coat or the ability to live inside host cells. Some have an enzyme which breaks down the antibiotic. : ._:. but certainly not enough to gain full marks. . • . An excellent answer would describe laying out a line. • • . In this case random placing is not appropriate. 2 Explain how some strains of bacteria have become able to survive treatment with antibiotics. a p it-fal l trap would be appropriate. This is quite a typical answer in which there is some truth. if estimates of ground beetle numbers were being made. ' • • ' _. Examiner' c�ni�ents· .':. Finally.. .. :: · . pass on the resistance allele and give rise to a population in which the frequency of this allele is increased. the quadrat should be placed every half metre (if it i s a half-metre by half-metre quadrat) .- ..· . '!fExamin�rtip · .. This answer gets one mark for a reasonable statement about genetic mutation in bacteria which gives them resistance to antibiotics. is commonly held to be the way to use one. The idea that the quadrat would be placed randomly. or every so often (an interrupted belt transect). A line would be laid out and a quadrat placed along it. The use of a quadrat would gain a mark. � . ' '·. although it is not the only device that could be used along the transect line. ·>:�· . the thing to be estimated i s n o t species number but the abundance of an organism. The number of species in each quadrat would then be counted and recorded down. This might be because they now have a pump which pumps the antibiotic out of their cells.

(2) (b) Samples of tolerant and non-tolerant plants were grown in three trays of soil that contained no copper. All tolerant plants Tray 1 Tray 2 Mixed tolerant and non-tolerant plants All non-tolerant plants Tray 3 X X X X Total dry mass of tolerant plants Total dry mass of non-tolerant plants X X X X 46 g X X X X X X X X X 0 X 0 0 X 0 X 12 g X 0 X 0 0 X 0 X 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 g 47 g Suggest a n explanation for the results obtained in tray 2 .Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival 1 The diagram below summarises the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Tray 3 contained only non-tolerant plants and Tray 2 had a mixture of equal n umbers of both types. The total dry mass of the plants in each tray was measured.. electro ns . Copper is usually very toxic to plants but some Agrostis plants c a n tolerate copper in the soil and grow on waste tips from the copper mines. • chlorophyll. � - Product B ) . • (2) (1) (c) Give the name of the process that provides electrons to replace those lost by (d) A chemical called atrazine prevents the flow of electrons to the electron carriers. Describe and explain the likely effect of atrazine on the production of carbohydrate in a chloroplast (4) (Biology (Sa/ters-Nuffield) Advanced. (a) S uggest a method for measuring copper tolerance in a sample of Agrostis plants. June 2008) Total 9 marks 2 Agrostis tenuis is a grass that g rows near old copper mines in north Wales. ! Electron carriers '-------� ( . 6 1 3410 1 Question 6) . (2) (b) Give the names of product A and product B.. (4) (c) Suggest and explain how th e abundance of copper-tolerant Agrostis plants would be likely to change if the copper were removed from the soil on the mine waste tip. The arrangement of the plants and the results are summarised below. (a) Give the precise location within a chloroplast where this sequence of reactions occurs. ) electrons . Tray 1 contained only tolerant plants. Li g ht C � - Chlorophyll t ( Product A ) . (2) Total 8 m arks (Jan 2005.

The frequency of an allele. The table below sh:::>ws the percentage frequencies of the tolerance and non­ tolerance alleles in plant populations at the two sites. c ro E 0 I 5 10 15 20 25 l Time since planting/days (a) (i) (ii) Compare the changes in GPP and NPP during the time period shown on the graph. (Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced. The results are shown i n the graph below._ � 20 ?:' ·:.. which causes a plant to be more tolerant of copper.NPP e 10 5 0 - ·. June l Suggest why bacteria often adapt to changing conditions much more q u ickly than plants.. (2) I A B 30 80 70 20 [ (c) l (b) Describe how natural selection could have brought about the different allele frequencies at the two sites.tionship b etwee n G PP. (2) (2) (2) (b) Explain the relc.e ::J "0 c 25 ..:: 0. I (a) Explain what is meant by the frequency of an allele in a population.·------ g :. !1 t:: ::J 35 - ·--. (4) (2) Total 8 marks (Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced. 2007) l . The gross primary productivity (GPP) and the net primary productivity (NPP) were measured each day. NPP a n d respiration. was measured at two d fferent sites.A and B . June 4 l Total 6 marks 2007) I The tolerance of plants to copper ions in the soil is under genetic control... Suggest an expl a n ation for the changes you have described in (a)(i).Topic 5: On the wild side 3 Su r '' Aver seed lings were planted and kept under controlled conditions for 20 days. . 1S u � GPP -+..

. Bacteria a n d fungi produce a range o f enzymes that are released on t o the dead organic matter. Once the plant or a n i m a l dies the nutrients can be released only through decay. potassium.. The products of external digestion are absorbed by the m icro-organism and broken down in microbial respiration. no matter how d i stasteful it might sometimes seem to us.. Micro-organisms are crucial to the decomposition process. phosphorus and carbon to make biomass. There are five m a i n ways that scientists g o about this. 1 Orange Boo k 6. 130 hours 22 hours r 23 hours The time taken for the stages of the blowfly life cycle at 2 7 oc. The stage of larvae on a dead body can be used to estimate time of death... releasing carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere where it can be used again in photosynthesis..1 . is vital for the continuation of life on Earth.. Green Book 6. . carbon compounds in plants _ feeding . 1> carbon compounds in animals carbonate !// � <:: dead organic matter "t> carbon compounds in decomposers The parts of the carbon cycle y which rel on micro-organisms are shown by the orange arrows on this diagram. The carbon cycle is a good example of how nutrients are recycled a n d how micro-organisms help.&e.. . Plants need nutrients such as nitrogen. ... These nutrients are locked into the tissues of the plants and any animals that might eat them. The process of decomposition allows the nutrients to be recycled. �\::d.... CSI B�obogy� It is certainly possible to find out how long ago a mammal died.Decay and decomposition.3""" ��-·�e.

thE a a succession to be determined and time of death estimated. The stiffness wears off again extent of decomposition after about 36 hours in cooler conditions as the muscle tissue starts to break down. combined with information about environmental conditions allow time of I death to be estimated. the populations of insects found on it change. What rol e do micro-organisms play in the carbon cycle? to succession on a sand dune o r othe r natural system and on way in which they are different Green Book 6 . So the muscles become fixed. Remember this in examin ations where you are asked to do calculations. which cannot be made once respiration has stopped. Th i s stiffening is called rigor mortis. U1 Desc ri b e two wa ys in which succ ession on a body is simila1 Q1 Q2 List three i nd i cators that can be used to work out time of death. nswe r will often be in the form of range of possible times rather Putting a l l this information together can give the forensic scientist a very good estimate of time of death. forensic entomology Determining the age of any i nsect maggots on the body allows the time the eggs were laid to be determined. Realistically.4 . than a precise figure.ji j body temperature Body temperature is usually 3 7 oc but the body ben ins to cool straight after death. muscles usually totally relax and theri stiffen.� � j�-:. such as discoloration of the skin and gas formation. � � � :g� . This provides a n estimate of time of death assuming any eggs were laid soon after death. After death. The stiffness occurs because muscle contraction relies on ATP. E nzym es in the gut start to break down the wall of the gut and then the surrounding area. There is a succession of species. The community of species present when the body is found allows the stage of All the m ethods used to indicate time of death of a body are su bjec t to error. stage of succession As a body decays. immunity and forensics . The signs of decomposition.Topic 6: Infection.-.. 1 Orange 3cd �: .. Bodies usually follow a standard pattern of decay. This happens within about 6-9 hours (depending on temperature). As cells die they release enzymes which help to break down tissues. During the first 24 hours after death the temperature of the body degree of muscle contraction when it is found can be used to work out how long ago the person died..

The fragments separate into invisible bands. If the DNA probe is fluorescent it is viewed using Membrane placed in bag with DNA probe. DNA is transferred to a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane by solution drawn up through the gel. Single-stranded DNA probe binds to fragments wit h a complementary sequence. Small fragments with fewer repeats travel faster and end up closer to the electrode after a set time. People (and a l l other organisms) vary i n regard to t h e number o f these repeats they carry a t each locus. Everyone's DNA is u nique. These non-coding sections are called i ntrons. In addition there is now also a technique called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which allows tiny amounts of DNA to be a mplified into quantities large enough to use in DNA p rofiling. The fragments move at different rates according to their size and charge. It is rather like chromatogra phy. X-ray film is used to detect the fragments. DNA double strands split and stick to the membrane. Green Book 6. The sequences of repeated bases are called short tandem repeats (STRs). instead try to understand what happ ens and why at each step. DNA fragments continuing the Do not try just to remember a diagram like this. If a potential difference is a pplied across a mixture cf fragments in a suitable buffer. DNA and DNA frc:gments carry a negative charge. Otherwise you may get it in the wrong sequence and not realise it! repeated sequences are created using reestriction enzymes or the polymerase chain reactions. There can be up to several hundred copies of the STR at a single locus. The technique allows us to identify biological material with a high degree of confidence. UV light as shown above . The data can also be presented a s a graph o r as a series of numerical values. rather than solubility differences. repeated sequences in these introns. 1 Orange Book 6 .Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species S urvival The DNA profiling (fingerpr nting) technique was i nvented in 1985. Together they form one of the most powerful techniques we have for criminal investigation and a range of other situations where total certainty about the identity of a sample is requi red. The negatively charged DNA moves towards the positive electrode. they will move towards the po s itive electrode. 6 s 4 If the DNA probe is radioactive. The steps in the production of a DNA profile or fingerprint. DNA are loaded into 3 8 DNA is cut into fragments. o:z:o:o:o:o double-stranded enzymes DNA + restriction = = x:x Fragments of double-stranded the wells of an agarose gel in a tank. This is because of t h e variety found in the sections of DNA which are not used to code for proteins. 1 . Scientists look a t the short tandem repeats at many loci to build u p a unique pattern for that individual . Scientists look for short. Its influence on forensic science has been hJge. but here the separation is due to differences in size and charge.

1 . • .J � Step 2 50-60 °( for 20 seconds . This is a good example of developments in science and technology allowing us to answer questions which we would previously not have been able to add ress. The process relies on DNA primers. in the UK r. ' TE 1 . but it has more uses than that. Confirming the ped i g ree of domestic animals (such as racehorses).DNA polymerase builds up complementary strands of DNA I I steps 1-3 I I �- c===::�:::':::C.1 Orange Book 6 .. are all ways that the technique can be used.Topi c 6: Infec tion. traced back to just three mal horses..nn hP.L\ profiling. :::a T .primers -. original DNA 1 • -. i n yI Step 1 90-95 °( for 30 seconds ­ DNA I strand separates I I I I .--. looking at the purity of food samples (such as Basmati rice) and determining the father of a child.-. PCR. Q1 The family tree of every Q1 Q2 Which parts o f t h e DNA are used for profiling? Why is it necessary for forensic scientists to look at 1 0 or more short tandem repeats when creating a DNA profile? ra cehorsP..primers bind to DNA strands The procedure used for the polymerase chain reaction. � CR The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) a llows small samples of DNA to be a m plified so that they can then be used in DN. i m m u n ity and forenstcs We have discussed D\JA profi l i n g in terms of forensic investigation to help the police to identify a criminal. Explain why it is easi to identify humans using DN1 profiling than it is to identify racehorses.== I I DNA polymerase � � I� 1 1r ) ----� �� . short sequences of DNA complementary to the DNA adjacent to the STR A cycle of temperature change5 results i n huqe numbers of the DNA fragments being produced reactants placed in vial in PCR machine Step 3 75 °( for at least a minute. Green Book 6.

so the mRNA must move out of the nucleus through pores in the nuclear membrane.±. A pairs with T. out! � Watch In DNA structure and when it is being replicated. The whole process is shown below.. c _ _ i_ _ o_ __ _ i s_ r b o s m e s d _ t _ o _ - - i UAC & Protein synthesis is 8-Met I Met ill e way.i? w/J.[ _..-'.l.s:!.. Completed polypeptide modified Green Book 6.:r(''�t�� ·_-..g.Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival The basic steps of protein synthesis are as follows: amino ac.::.!-:b :L_j rjbosome -moves a!ong codon ofmRNA attracts mRNA 'reading' the codons matching !RNA anticodon into a specific sequence of amino acids mRNA information translated GUGUAC rh m rt--JGGG M et f r�=:: o O (anticodon) o c TRANSLATION 4 . DNA information copied to mRNA 1 TRANSCRIPTION template (anti-sense) C A 1 ::-"0<11�/�·.5 to produce functional protein. but complementary.1 . Amino acid activation­ tRNA carries amino . but polypeptides are assembled in the cytoplc:sm. A peptide bond is formed between neighbouring amino acids to produce a polypeptide.. ResultsPius-..rl b-� . �. but when mRNA is made on the DNA template strand A pairs with U.: -=-== ==--�.IaL. e.1 Orange Book 6..h7 tile information from a gene results in a sequence of amino acids...I · pro ce ss U GC C st rand of DNA C C A C I mRNA strand .: r : DNA strands still joined CC A GC > IK A U G 0. it has joined with other amino acid chain (polypeptide) protein Transcription Transcription means 'to make a full copy of'.d chain mRNA synthesis manufacture (transcription) (translation) folding ---� Translation is actually putting DNA mRNA amino acids together.. The mRNA copy is not direct. this forms a polypeptide.:.:'="x�� 2 leaves the nucleus and moves to a the completed mRNA strand AUGGCCCACAUGCCCCAC _ ___ nuclear po re . l A I G C C C C lxka-Y J I J I I I I I I sense straod of DNA A being assembled . enzyme of a @ 5 / e " to�:�:�2o�:��Asrh -=�. _ --double nuclear membrane mRNAcarries the information to the ribosomes different tRNA molecules [ ___ _ GGG rt-1 mr-h r+.:--[ � � -�� ---/ . polypeptides or other molecules. mRNA is made in the nucleus.:' j ��-l:r±-o�. It only becomes a prote in when folded and.. ..::-' � ' A I GGlllA nudeotides free mRNA ...¥8 ) UAC a� \ growing � polypeptide chain to attach amino energy needed e ribosome in the cytopl asm acid to tRNA GUG e � ATP ldofferent Met amino aods specific shape A UCCC C C A CA UCCCCCA C ·------""" d:::-����7. -./111Trr�+6rrrr6br. tRNAs carrying specific amino acids bind to the complementary codons on the mRNA. :. like a photocopy..:: .. Trans�ation Once in the cytoplasm./ '� 06r±. in some cases.... � _ __ cytoplasm nucleus mRNA strand copied from template strand of DNA strands separate at one gene is catalysed by RNA polymerase e nzyme 3 DNA . the mRNA attaches to a ribosome.·l/.A'n±. _>.�.-.

The triplets do not overlap.__. We now think of the mRNA made in the nucleus as pre-mRNA. � . Using three bases gives 64 codons which is more than enough. .Topic 6: Infection. .__'_ r 1---" . Link each description in list A with the correct term in list B. one base per amino acid I will not do and neither will two. The code is said to be degenerate. non-overlapping Each set of three bases forms one triplet. For example. degenerate Some amino acids have more than one codon. These changes are made to the mRNA before it is used in translation. one for a tRNA alrezdy n the next amino acid to be attachec to the chain. avoiding confusion about which amino acid is be..___I____. there are four different codons for the amino acid proline. __ I Exon 3 Different proteins can be made when different sections of mRNA are spliced together before translation. lntron 2 E xon 3 A xo 3 xo o Exon1 or on 2 Exon 3 x n 1 mRN ' -. - � -. so no base from one triplet is part of another triplet..og coded fm.. bound to a growing polypeptide and the other for the tRNA carf'/ The ribosome has two sites on :s surface. <>. immunity and forert� ics e The genetic code The genetic code has several important properties: .� � "' " molecule with anticodon at one end and amino acid at the other complementary copy of template strand DNA transcribed to mRNA j mRNA Green Book 6. As long as the codon starts with CC the amino acid proline will be put into the polypeptide.� L _ _ or Exon 1 xon E 2 @�/ post-transcriptional changes �@��--Q1 Q2 Q3 Which part of the DNA is used to code for proteins. .� -�-.:!.Ef• ·! I""Kt ti'l• OR• :._ _ � l -.intron or exon? The DNA code is degenerate.E _o E [!x --�--E _ � . � - .E_x _ E. protection against mutation."es·s Orange Book 6 5 . Most genes code for many proteins and this is achieved by post-transcriptional changes in the mRNA.�� With 20 amino acids and start and stop signals to code for and only four bases to do it. I triplet code r WJL' Rt: � �):Aillf "- ..p. . We now know this is not correct. -�- � �-._ _ -xon _ _ _t o �� _ ! n' L.!ll' l :. Amino acids are added one at a time in a repeating process. 1 I template strand _m_··- I tRNA Q1 Draw a flowchart to expla :1:­ process of protein syr. -- I I.-. ._ pre mRNA (sometimes called nuclear RNA) I I Exon 1 l tron 1 l n I Exon 2 l '""'"._ 2 .o. This offers some � I I os·t:-transcriptional changes It was originally thought that each gene coded for one protein. . DNA on 1 nt on r n __ _ _. Explain what this means and why it is significant.n � r � _n 2 _ -.. .

lasmids and s ome times DNA or RNA can be the genetic mate rial. The initial symptoms of an HIV in fection are fevers.··· :::· · '-" ell surface mem br ane . We can illustrate this by looking at tuberculosis. Three to 12 weeks after infection HIV antibodies appear in the blood and the patient is said to be HIV positive.· . white blood cells and antibodies leak out into tissues. ribosomes.--. cytoplasm or orgnelles . caused by the bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and AIDS (caused by human immunodeficiency virus. cell surface membrane. Both viruses and bacteria may enter the bodies of living things and. fl agellum and pili. lead to death of the host organism. y toplasm .2 Orange Book 6. The following responses are non-specific: infla mma tion Damaged white cells release histamines that cause artenoles to dilate and capillaries to become more permeable. The patient develops a serious cough. Circular strand of DNA is the Can live independently. diarrhoea. but containing glycoproteins from the virus.� geneti c material..--. � No cell wall.. Finally there are severe symptoms such as dementia. I ��. HIV). by breaking down the bacterial cell walls. These phagocytes in clude neutrophils and monocytes (which become m ac rophages) .H1�spel{:ific re�poit&ses to infection In order to fight a disease the body can react in a number of ways. - Differences in structure between bacteria and viruses.Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival Infectious diseases in humans are caused mainly by bacteria (singular: bacterium) and viruses. Blood flow to the area increases and plasma. In TB the first infection may have no symptoms but tubercles form in the lungs due to the imflammatory response of the person's immune system. All of this can be fatal. Green Book 6. cause symptoms which can. cancers (e.2. lysozyme action interferon A chemical released from cells stops protei n synt hesis in viruses. Nc.g. -- - Average diameter 0. due to their own life processes. cell wall. loses weight and appetite and may suffer from fever. � � --� . fatigue.5-51-Jm Often have mucus-based cuter capsule. Must have a living organ is m as host . All symptoms can then then disappear for years but eventually patients suffer from weight loss. Kaposi's sa rcoma) and opportunistic infections such as TB and pneumon1a. wide range of sizes and shapes. tiredness and swollen glands or there may be no symptoms. TB bacteria also target cells of the immune system so the patient cannot fight other infections well. causing breathing problems. lung tissue is slowly destroyed by the bacteria. cause I fm� . digest and destroy bacteria an d foreign m aterial . Bacteria have a prokaryotic cellular structure with organelles but viruses do not. 20-400nm. Some bacteria may survive inside the tubercles. May have outer membrane of host cell surface membrane. due to their thick waxy coat. but both might diseases. 6. Neither bacteria nor vi ruses are diseases. In some cases the bacteria invade glands and the CNS (central nervous system).: -·�·. In active TB. They lie dormant. Nucleic acid enclosed in prote in coat. You need to be aware of the differences between them. phagocytosis An enzyme founc in tears. sweat and the nose destroys bacte ria White blood cells engulf. in extreme cases. night sweats and infections such as thrush.3 . headaches. mesosomes. but if the immune system is not working properly they can become active again.

S.. and engulf � \ 6r Jl� 0 ----' --'> '\ Then the B cell divides 3_ 6.. engulfing bacteria and displaying the non-self antigens.2 Orange Book 6. it is called an antigen­ presenting cell.antigen cancer cell 0 0 • • () The immune response. T killer and T memory cell s). to produce plasma and memory cells. -:\ ...:::::. If the same intruder invades again.. it specifically asks for one).. each with a number of sub-types. B memory cell 0�'§" memory celt Aphagocyte destroys a 1. Q1 Draw a table to distinguish between the roles of B cells (including B memory and B effector cells) and T cells (T helper. memory celts help the viru s-infe'. It waits until it is activated . -...\) .. ( ' engulfs and bacterium. -\&.0 a· y""D -\ ._ Part of the bacteria (antigen) goes to the surface of the phagocyte.( vj • -� -.. "'----.ted cell ·:'"t . immunity and forensics c . . T memory cells B-cells & cytokines bacteri� - cytckines 0 Antigen presentation T helper cell \\ dendriti cell which matches its receptors.-Infected cell be dies due to che released by T k1_ which cause pc form in it. Use a diagram to help you to understand and then you can put it into word� in the exam.. presents the helper T cell.. of which there are two main kinds. Both types respond to foreign (non-self) antigens such as proteins on the surface of bacteria and viruses.... Macrophages are also involved. Macrophages identify intruders marked with and destroy t he m.Topic 6: Infectio n.... Q1 Q2 Give two differences and two similarities between viruses and bacteria. ( .. t:>spcr The specific immune response relies on the lymphocytes (another type of white cell). T helper elt activated ::-:: c immune system to activate much faster. n \1 3. When any cell in the immune system displays antigens in this way.3 . --.. The B antibodies 1. • T killer cell \ \ c I bacterium-infected cell ) -. The relationship between all these cell types and what they do is shown in the diagram. antibodies./)'. )) c ' J_--.J ( T h lper cell a e antigen to a � ::::____..2...--::. - by� T helper cell 4.// (__ = ) ..= ._ . T killer cells ". 6. "-!.. The T helper cell is activated. 2 ?__.. __. ce ll finds an antigen 2. Never try to answer an exam question with just a diagram '"� :. Plasma cells produce antibodies that a ttach to bacteria the current type of invader. ' . The ph agocyte 4... Why might a fever be a good thing if you have an infectious disease7 Green Book 6. They alert the immune system to the presence of the foreign antigens..

2. The harmless bacteria also excrete lactic acid which deters pathogens. Sebum is an oily fluid which is made by the skin and can also kill microbes.6 .Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Specie5 Survival Pathogens (organisms that cause diseases) enter the body through areas not covered by skin: nose.the skin is a tough barrier and usually only allows pathogens to enter if it is cut.3 Orange Book 6. traps bacteria.L----. Hov� can Yve deve9op immurni ·�y? We can acquire immunity in different ways: Injected with to ant1gen by getting the disease.acid in the stomach helps to protect against any microbes which are eaten. In addition the gut has its own bacteria. 6.tears contain the enzyme lysozyme ��. 1----. The mucus is then swallowed Gastrointestinal tract. the eyes. The body produces memory cells which make it immune to disease in the futu re.4. wea kened I antibodies cross the placenta and are also found in breast milk.Respiratory tract.contains mucus which and passed into the digestive system. gastrointestinal tract and genital tract The entry of micro-organisms through wounds is also a major cause of infections.Skin. and one that limits or slows the growth of bacteria is bacteriostatic. These antibodies can protect against any invading pathogen that the mother has encountered. These live naturally on the skin and out-compete pathogens. Major routes of entry ofpathogens and the role of barriers in protecting the body from infection. disease organisms. When bacteria are no longer affected by an antibiotic they are said to be resistant to it Green Book 6. Eyes. As an additional line of defence the skin has its own microbes. 6. These compete with pathogens for food and space which helps to protect us. mouth. 6. We can also use antibiotics to f1ght bacterial infections There are two kinds of antibiotics: an antibiotic that kills bacteria is bactericidal. gas exchan'=='2 surfaces. antibodies that can provide immediate p rotecti on against the invading pathogen they are specific for. toxins or antigen fragments means that the body is exposed to the antigen and produces memory cells. which helps to digest microbes.5.

Incubate below 30 oc for about 24 hours. nl:::� c e antibiotic solut into a well in agar.1i'��. - and why the dish is not Green Book 6. if you say 'the bacteria are placed on a Petr dish' you will not get any marks.3 Orange Boo�< 6. Hospitals try to combat this in a number of ways. ties and long sleeved shirts screening of patients coming into hospit al I I a person may be infected without showing symptoms.::"] I I bacteria causing infection I1 patient s prev ents the spread o f infection and cuts down on the number of places that may harbour pa thog e ns on wearing of jewellery. This means that new mutations occur quite regularly and each new m ut ati on may help the org anism to survive.m71. The TB bacterium produces a thick waxy coat which protects it from the enzymes of the macrophages. Anything in italics relates to aseptic procedure.S 6: . they evolve new methods to overcome our immune system.-------'- IL Apply antibiotic to a sterile filter paper disc. . You need to say 'nutrient agar' {in a Petri dish). 30°( drug developers to proa_:e treatments that a-e eue: the long term.:.2. then lay on the bacterial lawn using sterile forceps . - - - �� + t Seal Petri dish but do not tape all round th I _j � This flowchart shows how you investigate the effect of different When describing practical procedures you need to be very detailed.. including hand washing and bans I I prevents transmission of resistant bacteria between ! reduces selection pressure on organisms and destroys all i . This is because bacteria will not grow in an empty plastic dish. antibiotics on bacteria. A sterile nutrient agar plate is seeded with suitable bacteria. using a sterile spreader. Lack of details like this often lose candidates marks in exams. The protein coat of HIV is constantly changing which means that the immune system can't target and destroy it. immunity and forensics Evolutionary race As quickly as we evolve mechanisms to combat pathogens.Topic 6: Infection. ! .. Q1 Q2 What theory would you hope to test with the practical above7 Write a scientific question to answer. rate of reproduction. Look for clear areas around the antibiotic discs or wells. us1ng a stenle p1pette. The bacterium which causes TB and the virus responsible for AIDS (HIV) have both evolved features which help them to evade the immune system.. ' ::tl:fiTIF.g. this can be detected and they can be isolated and treated Bacteria do not have a ra pid rate o1 mutation.• I . Bigger areas indicate a better antibiotic against this bacterium species. e. but they do have a high Investigating bacteri� ��d �nt!biotics A simple procedure can be carried out to investigate bacteria and antibiotics for the core practical It is important to follow safe.J ll only use antibiotics when needed and ensure course of treatment is completed isolat i ng patients with resistant diseases good hygiene encouraged.llil. aseptic techniques when doing this kind of work and essential to carry out a risk assessment. Consequently they will produce many mutations in the time it woulc take a drug company to develop a new antibiotic. 6. - . Hosp§tal acquired infections Mutations also help some bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics which result in problems with antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in hospitals. For example. 6.«•f\-l(oii •lt:l H<(:¥ 1 . Explain why the bacteria are incubated below completely sealed.��:filll•ll :r:- !#: 1 11 _.

. killer and memory) and B (memory and effector) cells. Describe the way in which our understanding of infections acquired in hospitals can be used to reduce their occurrence through codes of practice.. � i �·� decomposition �m��� l :fl::"'"' :mTil l � '.- Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival By the end of this topic you should be able to: � �u :. action of lysozyme. active and passive immunity. interferon and phagocytosis. --:. Explain antigens and antibodies and how plasma cells. L04 L02 Infectious discJscs und the immune response Distinguish between the structure of bacteria and viruses. Describe investigations of the effects of antibiotics on bacteria. • � i. artificial. LOS L06 L07 DNA and prote in synthesis Explain the process of protein synthesis and the role L03 of DNA strands and RNA in it Explain that the genetic code is triplet. Discuss the theory of an evolutionary race between pathogens and hosts and the evidence for this theory coming from HIV and TB.:[ . stomach acid and gut/skin microbe barriers. L08 L011 L012 L013 L014 L015 L010 Infection prevention and control Describe the routes of entry of pathogens into the body and skin. . ""�.. Explain how changes that happen after transcription can give rise to more than one protein from one gene. Explain how people develop natural. muscle state and body temperature. �•·' :. nonoverlapping and degenerate. }• � �-� 0 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 D D D D D D D D D D 0 D 0 D 0 D 0 D D D D D D D D D L09 DNA profiling Describe the way in which DNA profiling ( fingerprinting) can be used to work out genetic relationships in living things.. macrophages and APCs are involved in the immune response. Explain the symptoms of bacterial and viral disease to include those ofTB and infection by HIV Describe non-specific immune responses: inflammation. Describe how DNA fragments can be separated by electrophoresis. Distinguish between bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics.:: .: L020 .- Describe how to estimate time of death in a mammal using information from insect colonisation. Describe how micro-organisms are involved in decomposition. L016 L017 L018 L019 . . Describe how the polymerase chain reaction can be used to give more DNA for analysis. Distinguish between roles ofT (helper. . Decay and --..

� ' • ' . An excellent answer would suggest qualified coughing (i e cough ing up blood or excessive coughing) as well as the appearance of tubercle s .. On the face of it this is a very simple question. but the bacterium that causes it A basic answer would mention that TB bactena are not destroyed by the immune system. • Fever This is an answer in which the student has thrown away a mark due to a s imple lack of pre cis i on and careful thought.. HIV weakens the immune system and therefore it is likely that opportuni>tic infections such as TB would take advantage of a weakened immune system and therefore become more active. ' . answers must show some relevant detail. ).. but ag ain to gain marks at advanced level. A 'weakened immune system' does not address the specific aspect of the immune system which HIV affects. . to be a disease symptom .Topic 6: Infection. . immunity and forensics fWL WR 1 Suggest why a patient infected with TB is more likely to develop symptoms of the disease 1f they are also infect9d by HIV.� rS ' den n .e • • � ... It is not TB which does anything in relat1on to the immune system. Almost everyone coug hs at some point dur ing most days so. (2) In order to gain full marks you are expected to wri te answers which contain detailed biol og ical knowledge and relate different areas to each other. .tll fa swer � l � • -. resu l ting in symptoms This is quite a typical answer which is not wrong but simply does not have enough detail to ga i n either of the two marks. Symptoms will develop as the immune system response is suppressed and cannot efficiently destroy the bacter ium . An excellent answer would link the destruction ofT hel per cells by fact that the TB bacteria are not destroyed. HIV to the (2) 2 Give two symptoms which are likely to occur in a person with TB. Cough mg . { •# .:. it should be obvious that this must be qualified A basic answer would suggest a high temperature or fever as being a relevant symptom of TB. abnormal weight loss and development of fever.

". interferon binds to protein on cell surface ------- () HCV infects cell 1 I ( inactive PKR -----+ �--\ � active PKR 1 --•.. (4) (c) OtJtline a technique that could demonstrate the effectiveness of antibiotics on bacteria.. {a) Explain why HCV infection is common in HIV posit ive people. (3) L _ _ __ . c 0 0. In each case the antibiotic was added at 7 hours. (2) (b) Name the type of cell involved in the normal immune response to virus-infected (1) liver cells. � protein synthesis prevented I l • � interferon ce!l surface protein I (c) Wit h reference to the diagram above. E Jnd C. A previous investigation on the same bacterium using antibiotic A had p roduced a curve similar to that for antibiotic B. ."-. HCV is very common in people who also have HIV infection. One treatment for HCV infection is injections of interferon.�- Antibiotic B 0 5 10 15 antibiotic added Time/hours {a) {b) Use examples from the graph to explain the differences between bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiot i cs (3) .Unit 4: The N atura l Environment and Species Survival 1 The graph below shows the changes in population size of bacterial cultures grown in t he presence of three antibiotics A. . Binding of interferon to infected cells causes an enzyme called PKR to become activat ed and this prevents protein synthesis from occurring. explain the likely effects of interferon binding to the infected liver cell. (4) Total 1 1 marks (Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced. 2000 1000 ---·.--. 0 0. 6000 Antibiotic A ·c: "' sooo 4000 :e "' � ::> N 'OJ 3000 ·v. The diagram below shows how interferon might be involved in the body's response to HCV infection. Suggest an explanation for the change in the response to antibiotic A. June 2008) 2 The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted in body fluids and infects t he liver.il :.

Records of weather conditions for the area were consulted and the time of death was determined to be 14th or 15th September. •b·. which can lay eggs on a corpse within minutes of death. (4) (b) Non-specific immune responses are not affected by HIV and can continue to prevent infection. (2) 8 Total 3 HIV can damage the human immune system.i.. June marks 2006) (a) Describe two active immune responses that are affected by HIV infection. and another species appeared on the 6th October. She took the pupae and larvae to her laboratory. She recorded the temperature in the room and she collected the larvae and pupae of several species of insect from the body. June marks 2006) . adults from four species of insect appeared. (a) Explain the importance of the temperature data in this investigation. immunity and forensics AA Wj =' ± J Unfortuna�ely. but which is rarely active at night... where th2y were placed in a constant temperature of 23 oc On the 4th October. (d) Suggest a reason why these virus strains are resistant to tnterferon. iinflammation engulf and digest bacteria lysosyme action prevents viruses from multiplying . Copy and complete the table below which shows some non­ specific immune responses and descriptions of their functions. It has been found that these resistant 'Jiru. a forensic scientist was called to a room where a man was found dead. (2) Total 5 (Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced. treatment is only effective in 20% of cases because many strains of HCV are resistant to the effect of interferon.>e::> have a protein on their coats which inhibits the enzyme PKR. - - � ·� -- (4) Total 8 (Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced. make the estimate of time of death more reliable.Topi c 6: Infection. June marks 2006) 4 On 26th September. (2) (1) (b) Suggest one reason why collecting data about several species of insect would (c) Suggest a reason why the scientist could not be more precise as to the time of death. ··. (Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced. She was asked to determine the time of death. One of the first species to be seen was the blowfly.

. I I AI I I I ... The excited electrons that are taken up by electron carriers follow pathway B... (c) A light was shone on a leaf and left switched on..==::> -----.... 0 Time since light switched on/seconds 2 (i) (ii) Suggest an explanation for the increase in fluorescence. Key ooc. ...../ I ...... Y (b) Explain the importance of reduced in the process of photosynthesis.. Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival 1 The diagram below shows what happens to electrons d uring part of the light­ dependent reactions of photosynthesis Any excited electrons that are not taken up by electron carriers follow pathway A and release energy as light in a process called fluorescence.� energy alternative electron pathways electron pathways electron carriers fluorescence �DO : 00'----.. Suggest a reason for the fall in fluorescence. Thf' grr�ph below shows changes in the amount of light given off as fluorescence by the leaf.. .� ... Total 12 marks (A2 6134 Biology Salters-Nuffield January 2009) . (2) ( 1) (d) Explain why an inhibitor of carbon dioxide fixation would lead to an increase i n (4) fluorescence... ' 4 � ( red u ced Y -- � (2) (3) light X X (a) Name the molecules and Y shown on the diagram....

:.. (b) (i) (2) Which species of tree l isted below does not provide evidence about the changes in climate in Finland dunng the last 1 0 000 years? (1) A larch B spruce C pine D beech (ii) Explain your a nswer to (b) (i).5 4. ·� 43 40 47 53 48 35 32 I I I I I I ' 4 6 3 2 i I 22 4rl The diagram below shows the present-day distribution of the four tree species found in the main climatic zones of the northern hemisphere. suggest in what way the climate in Finland has changed during the last 10 000 years.0 3. An estimate of the age of the sample at each depth was also made. Th·� ·.5 3. The data for four of these trees are given as a percentage of the total tree pollen sample.. · �tf . :� �J llff "r:.0 2. (2) Total 12 marks (A2 68104 Edexce/ Specimen Paper) .. ' =:-:::.umber of pollen grains of different tree species was recorded at d ifferent depths in the peat.0 ' ! '-'� 2850 3770 5600 6390 8170 8700 8780 10000 nmrm 0 0 0 0 5 38 27 10 �J11j]�_..0 1.5 2.:t. 0.5 1.. in the table bel ow. (2) (c) With reference to the present-day distribution of the four tree species and the results of the pollen grain study. (5) (d) Describe how dendrochronology can be used to provide evidence for climate change. Climatic zone Distribution of trees Arctic Boreal n larch Temperate n spruce /\ pine - beech Sub-tropical (a) Suggest how pollen grains can provide evidence about which species of tree were g rowing successfully i n Finland as the peat bog was forming. Give reasons for your answer.2 A study of tree pollen grains in a peat bog in Finland was carried ou�.] � � 0 53 0 0 12 36 36 40 55 31 15 �� I I .

Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival

3 Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

(a) The table be low lists five structural features that may be found i n bacteria and viruses. Copy and complete the table by putting a cross in the box if the structural feature is present Structural· feature mesosome capsid nucleic acid cytoplasm ribosome Bacteria
r--1
�-j

i

Viruses I '

LJ
-----.

I

_j

n
'I

�I

(b) The table below shows the number of new TB cases recorded in 1994 and in 2004 from four different geographical regions. These data exclude people who are HIV positive.

=:J

D []

_I

(5)

f®l
-

I

L

1994 2004
(i)

148 281

629 535

98 59
(2)

Describe the trends shown by the data.

(ii) HIV positive people were excluded from the data. If they had been included suggest how the data would differ. G ive an explanation for your answer. (3)
-

(c) TB is increasing in some countries which have well funded health services. Suggest two reasons tor this. Total

(2)

12 marks

(A2 68104 Edexcel Specimen Paper)
4

MRSA is a strain of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA can survive treatment with several antibiotics. An i nfection with MRSA is difficult to treat It is i mportant to use an a n ti biotic that is effective against specific bacteria. Describe in outline how you could test the effectiveness of an antibiotic on a specific bacterium in the laboratory Include aspects of the method that ensure safe working. (5) Total
5

marks

(A2 6734 Biology Salters-Nuffield January 2009)

5

An investigation was carried out to find the distribution of pla n t species on sand dunes. A transect was used which extended i nland from a beach. Quadrats were used at nine positions along the transect. The percentage cover of selected species was recorded in each quadrat as well as the n u m ber of r:; lant species in each quadrat A sample of soil was taken from the area within each quadrat a n d used to measure the mass of organic material present.
.

The results are shown in the two tables below.

F··

Distance from

I

0

80

170 5
0.3

250

500

��·-;650

980

1600

1980

top of beach/ metres Number of species found Mass of organic material/grams
0.4

1

1
0.3

11
0.9

18

7

5
25.1

I

6

7

2.8

!

I

6.4

23.4

32.8

��
}_ij�
Bare sa n d Sea couch Red Fescue

t

-

80 20

30

30

8

Marram grass

70

50 5

20 40

5

5 40 80

55

Sea buckthorn

Common heather Corsica pine

90
100

(a) Explain why it is necessary to use a quadrat to estimate percentage cover. (b) Explain why a transect is more appropriate than random sampl.ng in this study.

(2) (2)

(c) Use the information in both tables to compare the data collected from quad rat 1 and quadrat 5. (3) (d) Differences in the variety and number of plant spec,es found in th e different ·�quadrats can be explained by succession. Use the Information in the table to suggest how the resu lts of the study could be explained by succession (5)
.

Total

(A2 6134 Biology Salters-Nuffield Jan 2008)

12 marks

Bones can move in relat i on to one another at joints. Different types of joint a l low d iffere nt degrees of movement. Ligaments are made of elastic connective tissue. They hold bones together and restrict the amount of movement possible at a joint.

Tendons are cords of non-elastic fibrous tissue that anchor muscles to bones.
bone tendon

joins muscle to bone cartilage

ligament
• •

joins bone to bone strong and flexible

------1-i-4+1

• acts as shock
absorber pad of cartilage

fluid

absorbs synovial

gives additional protection

synovial membrane

secretes synovial fluid

fibrous capsule

encloses joints

synovial fluid

acts as lubricant

A typ1cal synovial joint

contract to extend, or straighten a joint, e . g . triceps in the arm.
Remember that m u s c l e s c a n't stretch themselves. It is the pull created by the contraction of the antagonistic muscle that stretches a m u s c l e when it is in a relaxed state.

Skeletal muscles are those attached to bones a n d are normally a r ranged i n antagonistic p a ir s T h i s means that there are pairs o f m uscles which p u l l i n opposite direct ions Flexors contract to flex, or bend a joint, e . g . b iceps in the arm; extensors
.

Each skeletal muscle i s a bundle of millions of muscle cells called fibres. Each muscle

myofibrils which are made up of the fibrous proteins actin (thin fi l a ments) and myosin (thick fila ments) The cell surface membrane of a muscle cell is known as the sarcolemma The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a specia l i sed endoplasmic retic u l u m which c a n store and release ca l c i u m ions. The cytoplasm inside a m u scle cell i s called the sarcoplasm. The specialised synapse (see page 63, Topic 8) between neurones and muscle cells is called the neuromuscular junction.

cell may be several centimetres long and contains several nuclei. It conta ins m a n y

The p refi x myo- refe rs to 'muscle'

and sarco- to 'flesh' (i.e. muscle) so sarco- will refer to structu res

spec ialist terms sta rting with myo­
or

within muscle s.

The functional unit of a mu s cle When the muscle contracts the thin actin filaments move between t h e thick myosin f i l a m ent s shorte n i n g the length
,

A

one sarcomere

fibre is called a sarcomere.

of the sarcomere and therefore shortening the length of the muscle.

myosin

actrn

The arrangement of actm and myosin filaments in a sarcomere when relaxed (A) and contracted (B)

Green Book 7.2

Orange Book 7.1

. "'- Ca'• binding site tropon • • _'). -.2 Ora"'ge 3c: . This I specialised to prod�� r �pi d.. calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the following events take place that lead to the contraction of the rruscle.. . cross-bridges with the actin filament.2 '"' ) • ATPase causes ATP hydrolysis ATP binds to the myosin � � • � ·? c head causing it to detach ADP+P .. ____ _ with the threads __/" ======= =:.: . Green Book 7.. sites on the actin are exposed so myosin forms Myosin binding '" • .. ��---c-L . sustained contraction and can cope with long periods of exercise many mitochondria. p �. When a nerve impulse a rrives at a neuromuscular junction.. � . ' �.r • m • Myosin binding sites tropomyosin. • ...Topic 7: RJn for your life Myosin filaments have flexible 'heads' that can change their orientation. that control the binding of the myosin heads to the actin filaments..ATP comes from aerobic respiration (electron transport chain) lots of myoglobin (dark red pigment) to store gives the muscle a dark colour fatigue resistant low glycogen conten t low levels of creatine phosphate 02 and lots of ca pilla r es to supply 02... ··�. ' �. . . cannot bind Myosin head blocked by • '.. •.: from the actin. troponin and tropomyosi n ..=====:! ��:�. £ The slidmg filament theory of muscle contraction · as cs o ast-tw· · c· 'Btch muscle ibres specialised for slower. Ca2' attaches to actin) causing it troponin (on the to move together of tropomyosin. "1yosin head returns to upright position. ( . {c. D escribe the role of ATP in m uscle contraction. L_ Z2 :J E= ==� ==== :::= o p "'""' A'ffiP .AtdP fJ � ­ i C. . bind to actin and hydrolyse ATP (using ATPase). actin I V . The myosin heads release the ADP shape as a result and Pi and change = the power stroke. k. . Explain why muscles are arranged in antagonistic pairs.. Actin filaments are associated with two other proteins.ATP comes from anaerobic respiration (glycolysis) little myoglobin and few capillaries The muscle has a light colour fatigue quickly high glycogen content high levels of creatine phosphate Q1 Q2 Q3 Give one reason why fast-twitch muscles are more likely to get t i red faster than slow-twitch muscles. . intense e contractions in short bursts few mitochondria. tropomyosin .

lemember that energy c a n not Aerobic respiration glucose + oxygen� carbon dioxide+water+ energy C6H1 206 + 602 Anaerobic respiration � 6C02 + 6H20 + -30 ATP glucose� lactic acid+energy C6 H1206 � 2C3 H603 + 2 ATP ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the cell's energy currency. Hydrolysis means splitting using water.1 O range Book 7. ATP t H20-:=: ADP t P i + e nergy Glycolysis means sugar splitting. Energy is req uire d to add a th i rd phosphate bond to ADP to create ATP When this bond is broken by hydrolysis. Green Book 7. p yruvate from glycolysis is reduced to give lactate. for glycolysis to continue. ATP t ATP----��! ! glucose (hexose) (6C) hexose phosphate (6C) hexose bisphosphate (6C) 2 molecules of triose phosphate (3C) glycolysis 1-----� 2ATP 1----- intermediates 2 mo le cules of pyruvate 1 2H c2NAD 2 reduced NAD > 2ATP The main stages of glycolysis. a constant supply of NAD is required . ) Both of these processes make the energy stored in gl ucose available i n the form of ATP. (3C) A5ilaerobh: r�spHw�·�ion Glycolysis does not need molecular oxygen (OJ However. Hydro=water. the energy released can be used in energy-requi ring processes tak ing pl a ce within the Remember that the formation of is an example of a condensation reaction. the reverse of which i s hydrolysis: ATP cell.2 . lysis= splitting. In aerobic respi r at i on the NAD is produced by the electron transport chai n . The reduced NAD must be oxidised to NAD.u:ose 8n glycolysis Starting with one glucose molecule. to power metabolic reactions. but can :hange from o ne form into another -so never refer to ene r gy being >roduced or used.-f gh. glyco lys is produces two molecules of pyruvate. >e created or destroyed. two molecules of reduced NAD and a net gain of two molecu es of ATP. Glyco =sugar. During anaerobic respiration. NAD is formed and can keep glycolys s going. In animals. The brea�< �o�v 1 . NAD m u st come from elsewhere.. Glycolysis takes place within the cytoplasm of cells. There are two different ways in which they do this -aerobic respiration (using oxygen) and anaerobic respiration (without oxyge .All living organisms have to r espire .

.g · a respirometer Don't forget the i m portan ce of including something to absorb the C02 or the respirometer reading wid of carbohydrates beca use the same volume of gas is produced IS not change during aerobic respiration 1 cm3 syringe experimental tube screw clip small organisms l l.1 . Use these diagrams to de--­ between the r. Once aerobic respi ration resumes most lactate is converted back to py ruvate. areas KOH solution absorbs carbon dioxide • apply knowledge and un derstar: · of more than one area to a particular situation or context • use kn ow l ed ge and understand'rg of pri nciples and concepts in planning experimental and investigative work and in the analysi s and evaluation of da:a containing coloured fluid manometer tube A respirometer The rate of aerobic respiration can be determined using a respirometer by measuring the rate of oxygen abso rbed by small organisms.Topic 7: Run for your life Anaerobic respiration allows ani:r1al< ' . It is oxidised via the Krebs cycle into carbon d i ox i de and water.G p·ocesse:: re a c t ions of photosynthes s the similarities and d=e-e-::'5 Green Book 7.. if allowed to build up. Compare the role of ATP with glycogen.hand side compensates for any changes in pressure or temperawre within the apparatus. 'ood chains and muscle contraction Q1 Draw the main stages of glycolysis al o n g si de the !Tc­ stages of the light-indepe-ce-· Q1 Q2 Q3 Suggest four examp l es of biological processes that require the use of ATP. Lactate forms lactic acid in solution which lowers the pH. o�" areas such as photosynt hesis . Any C02 p ro d uc ed is absorbed by the potassium hydroxide (KOH) so l ution. it can c a use m u scle cramp. glucose 2ADP +2Pi lactate pathway can i nhi bit enzymes and. make a small amount of ATP. absorbed by the org a n i sm (602) (6C021 as per Remember that in the A2 Biology exa" you may be asked to: • bring t o g ether scientific knowledg and understanding from differen.-. The tube on the right. This 2H-+ reduced NAD n 2H NAD 2ATP y pyrJvate _ __ _ _ ___ Anaerobic respiration in animals. The extra oxygen required for this process is called tre oxygen debt.r II' 1 g l ucose molecule respired. choice for such synoptic quest1ons The resp irat ion topic i s a commor because the process Iinks to man·.___ lactate 1 Brnvestigating the rate o( rr�spiratio". so that a ny oxygen absorbed by the organisms results in the fluid in the manometer tube moving towards the organism (see arrow on diagram). Describe the role of NAD in anaerobic respi rati on. It is an i neffi cient process but it is ra pi d and can supply muscles with ATP when oxygen is not b eing delivered quickly enough to ce l l s. _.us�·-.

.:o§'· ·a:he l{rebs �:·. that all the reduced You d o not need to know the names of the intermediate compounds of the Krebs cycle for the exam. but you are expected to appreciate that a e robic respiration is a many­ stepped process with each step controlled and catalysed by a specific intra c e l l u l a r enzyme. co._j � NA:rp """ reduced NAO �/ � � . This involves chemiosmosis and the enzyme ATPase.. most of the ATP generated in aerobic respiration is synthesised by oxidative phosphorylation associated with the electron transport cha i n . When a molecule gains hydrogen it is reduced. It is converted from pyruvate (3C) to an acetyl (2C) group. NAD + 2H _... In aerobic resp1ration each pyruvate molecule coming from glycolysis in the cell's cytoplasm enters the matrix of the mitochondrion. One way of remembering P··ep'"./ \ . In the second stage.. �� �� Green Book 7. Aerobic respiration takes place in two stages Many of the rea ctions involved in respiration are redox reactions where one substrate i s oxidised and another is reduced. For oxid ation).e FAD ·:._..� reacdon) example: pyruvate_. A molecule that reduced. I .:�on ·. When a molecule is oxidised. The main purpose of the cycle is to supply a continuous flow of hydrogen (and therefore electrons) to the e l ect ron transport chain fo r use in the synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.·C_ � electrons are lost.CO NAO l 2 "'. and the molecule that loses the hydrogen i s oxidised. reduction is g a in). acety!coenzyme A (ZC) Note compound 4C compound Krebs cycle 6C hydrogen acceptors channel hydrogen through the respiratory chain to produce ATP. Th1s involves the loss of C02 (decarboxylation) and hydrogen (dehydrogenation) generating reduced NAD. �'-� . / 1 �/ _. .:��. a c etyl+ 2H lis reduced NAD lis redu ction)..In aerobic respiration. The acetyl group is carried by coenzyme A as acetyl coenzyme A The Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria._ \. the pyruvate (from glycolysis) is completely oxidised into carbon dioxide and water using oxygen. C. reduced NAD The reactions involved in the breakdown of pyruvate in aerobic respiration. { • � '- com��und � . This takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria and involves the Krebs cycle.1 Orange Book 7 2 . it either loses hydrogen or one or more gains ele ctrons or h y d rogen is this is to think of OILRIG (oxidation is loss.. • o F1rst pyruvate IS oxidised into carbon dioxide and hydrogen (accepted by the coenzymes NAD and FAD). reduced NAD reduced FAD NAD . �e ��w�. --. I t takes place o n the cristae (inner membranes) of the mitochondria.

__ _____ _ _ . The majority of ATP generated by aerobic respiration comes from the activity of the electron transport chain in the inner membrane of the mitoch ondria (cristae). ._ . carrier is reduced when it receives the electrons and oxidised when it passes them on. The electron transport chain and chemiosmosis result in ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation. The overall reaction of aerobic respiration can be summarised as the spli tting and oxidation of a respiratory substrate (e.:: and mitochondria and ouu·�e where the main steps in respiration take place.__ Q1 Q2 Q3 Describe what happens to the carbon and hydrogen atoms trom a glucose molecule in aerobic respiration.2 .. the electron transport chain 5 W diffusion allows AT Pa se to 2W If the supply of oxygen stops. 1 Reduced coenzyme 2 Electrons pass from one electron carrier to carries W and electron to electron transport chain on inner mitochondrial membrane...) Most of the ATP generated in aerobic respiration is synthesised by the electron transport chain. etc. Explain why the electron transport chain and the Krebs cycle would stop if there was no oxygen.g. glucose) to release carbon dioxide as a waste product followed by the reuniting of hydrogen with oxygen to release a large amount of energy in the form of ATP. the 3 Protons (W) move across the inner mitochondrial membrane creating high W concentrations in the intermembrane s pa ce. p roducing two ATP and six reduced NAD. and ATP synthesis also stop.Topic 7: Run for your life Each molecule of th' �-carbon acetyl coenzyme A from the link reaction is used to generate: three molecules of reduced NAD one molecule m reduced FAD • • two molecules of C02 • one molecule of ATP by su bstrate-level phosphorylation (synthe... ae·c: \ � Green Book 7. 4 W diffuse back into the mitochondrial matrix down the electrochemical gradient intermembrane space inner mitochondrial membrane mitochondrial matrix ATPase on stalked particle ATP catalyse ATP synthesis. • Note that for each glucose molecule entering g lycolysis two acetyl groups are formed. Explain what oxidative phosphorylation means.ised directly from the energy released by reorganising chemical bonds) • one molecule of a 4-carbon compound. Q1 Sketch a simple diagram o' a. so the Krebs cycle will turn twice (i. -� . the next in a series of redox reactions. which is regenerated to accept an acetyl group and start the cycle again.e. 6 Electrons and W ions recombine to form hydrogen atoms wh ich then combine with oxygen to create water. (0:. 1 Orange Book 7.

3 x heart rate (min-1) Green Book 7. If disease disrupts the heart's normal conduction pathways changes will occur in the ECG pattern which can be used for diagno sis of cardiovascular disease.:tr�ca! changes in the hei:H"t Electrical currents caused by the spread of the electrical impulse (wave of depol arisat i o n) during the cardiac cycle can be detected with an electrocardiogram (ECG). cycle) and then working out how using an ECG by measuring the time �e�a� ��--��--�--+--+ I A normal ECG pattern in a healthy heart. the ventricle walls causing The route taken by electrical impulses across the heart during the cardiac cycle. This is ventricular sys tole.__ ! P wave l- • The P wave is the time of atrial systol e . the cardiac muscle then relaxes for a period called diastoie when the blood returning from the ve i ns fills the at ria . � 1 s I ------l ____. causing contraction. 3 The impulse to contract originates wit hi n the heart itself from the s i noatrial node . for the atria to finish ventricles via the AVN after 4 3 Impulses pass down the Purkyne fibres to the heart apex.the heart is said to be myogenic.--� tissues.::.3 . • r You can calculate the heart rate interval b etween one P wave and the next one (a complete cardiac many occur in 1 minute.Unit 5: Exercise and Coordination 1 Elect r ical impulses from the SAN spread across the atria walls. Purkyne fibres After contracting (systole). !\J!easuring e!e'. contraction from the apex upwards. The T wave is caused by repolarisation of the ventricles during d ia sto le . I �-e� �:. This is called atrial sys tole . The QRS complex is the time of ventricular systole. 2 Impulses pass to the a short delay to allow time contracting. 4 The i mpulses spread up through Blood is squeezed i n to the arteries. 1 0� �· 5� segment • . How much is pumped in a minute (cardiac output) depends on two factors: how quickly the heart is beating (heart rate) and the volume of blood leaving the left ventricle with each beat (stroke volume) Blood is pumped aro un d the body to supply 02 and remove C02 from respiring cardiac output (dm3min-1) =stroke volume (dm3) Orange Book 7.

It also increases in response to impulses from the motor cortex and from stretch receptors in tendons and muscles involved in movement. ventilation rate= tidal volume x number of breaths per minute SAFETY! The ventilation centre in the medulla controls the rate and depth of breathing in response to impulses from chemoreceptors in the medulla and arteries which detect the pH and concentration of C02 in the blood. 03 Green Book 7. 01 02 If someone takes 1 1 breaths per mi nute with an average tidal volume of 0. Reguia·tio. Impulses are sent from the ventilation centre to stimulate the muscles involved in breathing A small increase in C 02 concentration causes a large increase in ventilation. The maximum volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a maximal intake of ai r is called the vital capacity.--.---.45 dm3 calculate their ventilation rate. The sympathetic nerve speeds up the heart rate in respon:. adrenaline) and nervous -::ont•<"''.g.--�---. Sketch what you would expect an ECG trace to look like if a patient suffered from ventricular fibrillation.3 .:.----. o \H�::t1'l:Hcr[ioQ· · r�r�c The rate at which someone breathes is called the ventilation rate. This is often expressed as the volume of air breathed per minute (the minute ventilation). C02 from the exhaled air to measure the volume of 02 absorbed by the person after exercise.¥ /// //t1 volume You can calculate the volume 6 of 02 absorbed in a given time by measuring the differences in volume between the troughs 5�---. 1 minute) A spirometer trace showing quiet breathing with one maximal breath in and out. labelled A and Bin the diagram and dividing by the time between A and B. (This is rapid and uncontrolled contractions in the ventricles sometimes caused by a patch of damaged tissue in the ventricle acting as a pacemaker) Suggest what might happen to the heart rate if the connection between the sinoatrial node and the vagus and sympathetic nerves was cut. increases in temperature and mechanical activity in joints.Topic 7: Run for your life The heart rate can be affected by hormones (e. but it is important to remember that the chamber must be filled with medical grade 02 before starting if this is to be attempted. 8 ·� !/ · vital capacity Time (6 em = tidal·· /1&£. We also have voluntary control over breathing . Impu lses carried by the vagus nerve (parasympathetic) slow down the heart rate when the demand for 02 and removal of C02 reduces. A person using a spirometer breathes in and o u t o f a n airtight chamber causing i t to move up and down and leaving a trace on a revolving drum (kymograph) A canister of soda l i me can be used to remove the .. The cardiovascular control centre in the medulla of the brain controls the sinoatrial node via nerves.3 O ra n ge Book 7.---. to falls in pH in the blood due to C02 and lactate levels rising. Ql Summarise and exp lain the effects of exer c is e on both he< and ventilation rate. The volume of air breathed in or out of the lungs per breath is called the tidal volume.

A homeostatic system therefore requires: • receptors to detect the change away from the norm value (stimulus) a control mechanism that can respond to the information. Thermoreceptors in the skin detect changes in temperature. This can be enough for a 1 oc rise in body temperature every 5-10 minutes if we can't disperse the heat away from the body.. B The con dition is controlled by �������----.-�-<=--=-�-==--n�gative feedback. Negative feedback is t h e key to und erstanding homeostatic t h i n g goes up. e . ____.. A Conditions controlled by homeostasis fluctuate around the norm value. The control of core body temperature through negative feedback is called thermoregulation.Unit 5: Exercise and Coordination Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment.. To value.----. a norm responses. If a rise in temperature is detected above the norm value the heat loss centre in the hypothalamus will stimulate effectors to increase heat loss from the bo d y ..g.� Time - _L � A summary of the role of negative feedback in maintaining body systems within narrow limits.--. The control mechanism uses the nervous system or hormones to switch effectors on or off • effectors to bring about the response (usually to counteract the effect of the initial change). For negative feedback to occur. the body responds to bring it back down. a control centre (ohen part of the brain like the hypoth alamus) a n d some effectors to bring about the response. energy and exercise) Not only does the increased respiration rate during exercise produce a lot of C02 and/or lactate. Muscles and glands are effectors.�. but the energy transfers also release a lot of heat energy.5°( for core body temperature. -. do this you n e e d receptors. � � ------.4 . e.. G reen Book 7.. Negative feedback helps to keep the internal envi ronment constant.if o n e ��:. within a narrow limit. ____. there must be a norm value or set point. A change in the internal environment will trigger a response that counteracts the change. We have already seen that the body responds to the demands of exercise by increasing cardiac output and ventilation rate under the control of centres in the medulla (see page 51 -The heart.-.-.usually through the skin.fee d back •�r---------------------� -------.g..p����. 37. • input receptors control mechanism effectors output) L -------. Just remember. of the optimum conditions needed by cells so they can function properly. or v i c e versa. change from effectors act to norm detected to the set point return the co n d i t io n rise above norm norm value fall below norm ��-.3 Orange Book 7. a rise in temperature causes a response that will lower body temperature. In addition thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus (in the brain) can detect changes in the core blood temperature.

Q1 Q2 Q3 Explain what is meant by the term 'negative feedback'. ��ed�ca� te�.3 Orange Book 7./ receptors centre in send react im pu l ses hypothalamus S timulate s : Inhibits: Heat loss centre • • Heat gain centre Stimulates: • sweat glands to secrete sweat. e . Above or below certain temperatures homeostasis fails (e. Suggest what the consequences might be if you were unable t o lose heat from t he body during exercise. positive feedback may occur resulting in a high temperature continuing to rise or a low temperature falling still further. Negative feedback in thermoregulation. arterioles in the ski n to constrict hair erector musc le s to contraction of arterioles in skin (dilates cap il laries in • contract • • skin) • hair erector muscles (relax liver (reduces metabolic rate) skeletal muscles (relax . This is because only a small incision (cut) is needed so there is less bleeding and damage to the joint.no liver to raise metabolic rate hairs lie flat) skeletal muscles to contract in shivering. 45. and recovery is much quicker. A prosthesis is an artificial body part designed to regain some degree of normal function or appearance. The design of prostheses has improved significantly and many disabled athletes are now able to compete at a very high level. 50 a n d 5 Green Book 7.:hnology to enable those mritr1 Nnjuries and disabilities to partncipate �� s�--�ort The development of keyhole s u rgery using fibre optics has made it possible for surgeons to repair damaged joints (including torn cruciate ligaments in the knee) with precision and minimal damage. with dynamic response feet that can literally provide them with a spring in their step. This can result in hyperthermia :x hypothermia and may lead to death. Instead.g. Q1 Usi n g your revision in this section and pages exp l a i n why some a n i m als a r e adapted t o short bursts of fast powerful exercise. • • shivering). while other a r e a d apted to long p e rio d s of continuous exercise. Describe the body's likely responses to the core temperature dropping below 3JOC.= * - Topic 7: Run fo r your life 1eat loss centre in te m perature ri ses '-------rr---: send hypothalamus sends temperature falls impulses'-----<"r----' temperature falls temperature rises heat gain '------__. freeing the patient from a life of pain and restoring full mobility.4 . Inhibits: • sweat glands. Damaged joints (such as knee joints) can also now be repaired with small prosthetic implants to replace the damaged ends of bones. because the hypothal amus may be damaged). g .

Ligaments can alsc be damaged.T�e �'lo. The tpo�sib!e effects of �·cJ>o -'luch ent�r�ds� Overtraining can lead to symptoms such as immune suppression and increased wear and tear on joints. Remember that exam questions other top i c s from t h e A level biology c o u rse. Orange Book 7. 7. blood pressure a n d storage of fat i n the body • increased risk of coronary heart disease. There is no biological explanation for this correlation..4 . type II diabetes. Remember that in order to maintain that something is ethically acceptable or not.6 Green Book 7. It may also he the case that damage to muscles during exercise a n d the release of hormones such as adrenaline may cause a n inflammatory response which could also suppress the immune system. Too much exercise generally may also increase the amount of wear and tear on joints. This has been a subject for debate in the sporting world for many years. There is some evidence that the number and activity of some cells of the immune system may be decreased while the body recovers after vigorous exercise. some cancers. Bursae (fl u i d-filled sacs) that cushion parts of the JOint can become inflamed and tender. Ethical relativists would rea ise that people and circumstances may be different. A correlation does not necessarily m e a n a connection. These ethical frameworks can be used when considering both sides of the argument: • • • • l i k e ly if you c a n provide a biological rights and duties maximising the a m ount of good in the world making decisions for yourself leading a virtuous life.e exercise There are many benefits to regular m oderate exercise. Others may feel they need to follow suit because they don't want to be at a disadvantage. or a suppression of the immune system. weight gain and obesity • i m paired immune response due to lack of natural killer cells • increased levels of LDL ('bad' cholesterol) and reduced levels of HDL ('good' cholesterol) • reduced bone density. Here are a few possible effects of a lack of exercise over a prolonged period of time: • reduced physical en durance. you must provide a reasonable explanation as to why that is the case. there is a p o sitive correlation between the number o f shark atta c k s and the number of i c e creams sold at a b e a c h . For example. for example to choose to achieve their best performance.rorrnance�enhancing substan ces Some athletes will do anything they can. even if there are associated risks to their health. stroke volume and maximum heart rate • increased resting heart rate. This could be caused by an increased exposure to pathogens. It can also result in chronic fatigue and poor athletic performance. They would take one of two positions: 1 It is never accepta ble for athletes to use performance-enhancing substances (even if they are legal). it doesn't m e a n they are connected. lung capacity. a c a u s a l link is more explanation for why o n e factor will affe ctthe other. so now would be a good time to c h e c k your notes about the cells involved i n the specific and non-specific immune system ( p a g e in this unit may refer back to a n y 33. I n contrast it is thought that there is a causal link between the number of cigarettes smoked and the number of deaths due to lung c a n cer. especially if there aren't many other likely factors or explanations available.g: • It is wrong for athletes to use performa nce-en hanci ng substances. Some e·�hic:a� �Qsit�o�"fts re�ating to the use Just b e c a u s e two things are observed to happen. This might i n clude the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances.:si l � e e· ·e " (� � :o �. Ethical absolutists see thin�s as very clear cut. If there appears to be a stro ng correlation between two factors. For example. Damage to cartilage in synovial joints can lead to inflammation and a form of arthritis. e. therefore increased risk of osteoporosis. but there may be some cases and circumstances where it is acceptable.·:o _ � u �tl. There is also some evidence of a correlation between intense exercise a n d the risk of infection such as colds and sore throats. and also have a duty to any sponsor they may have. Unit 41. so there is no direct c a u s a l link. because there is a strong correlation and a biological exp i a nation a bout why smoking could cause lung c a n c er..5. In p a rticular it doesn't mean that o n e c a used t h e other. or 2 it is always acceptable for athletes to use any substance available to them to compete more effectively. in the pursuit of excellence. doping in sport could be considered not acceptable because athletes have a right to fair competition. but could equally be considered acceptable because athletes have the right to exercise autonomy. o per.

Q1 Q2 Describe why a lack of exercise may lead to an increased risk of coronary heart d i sease. As a r esult more protein synthesis takes place in the cells. Genes are switched on by successful formation and attachment of the transcription initiation complex to the promoter region. For example testosterone increases protein synthesis in muscle cells. 01 Even if all performance­ enhancing substances were formally banned. 7. These hormone/receptor com plex. RNA polymerase Genes remain switched off by failure of the transcription initiation complex to form and attach to the promoter region. For exa mple erythropoietin (EPO) stimu lates the production of red blood cells. This starts a process that results in the activation of a transcription factor within the nucleus. would we eve1 have a level playing field for athletes? Q3 Green Book 7.Topic 7: Run for your life Some 0rugs such as anabolic steroids are closely related to natural steroid hormones They can pass d irectly through cell membranes and be carried into the nucleus bound to a receptor molecule. increasing the size and strength of the muscle tissue. Peptide hormones do not enter cells directly. This means that the blood can carry more oxygen which is an advantage for an athlete.--0 I DNA transcription factors () """''""'"==> transcription initiation complex RNA synthesis DNA transcription is controlled by transcription factors. Explain why a lack of T helper cells may increase the risk of an athlete suffering from a sore throat. They bind to the p romoter region of a gene allowing RNA polymerase to start transcription. but they bind with receptors on the cell surface membrane.6 .4 Orange Book 7 5. ·s act as transcription factors. This is due to the absence of protein transcription factor s or the action of repressor molecules. D/ / / 0 promoter region site for RNA polymerase attachment gene -----. Outl ine the role of transcription factors in the control of gene expression.

Health. tendons. The Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain Describe how the Krebs cycle produces carbon dioxide. exercise a n d sport Explain how genes can be switched on and off by DNA transcription factors including hormones. You should also know how ECGs can be used .. Analyse and interpret data on the possible dangers of exercising too little and too much. energy a n d exercise Understa nd that cardiac muscle is myogenic and describe how electrical activity in the heart allows it to beat. Recall what ATP is a n d how it supplies energy for cells. Homeostasis Explain the principle of negative feedback. the skeleton and ligaments interact to allow movement. You should also be Explain how medical technology helps people with injuries or disabilities to take part in sport. water and energy. You do not need to know a l l the stages b u t you d o need t o know tha: g l u cose i s phosphorylated a n d ATP. Explain what happens to lactate after you stop exercising.___. Describe a practical to investigate rate of respiration. reduced NAD a n d pyruvate are produced. reduced NAD and reduced FAD You should also understand that respiration has lots of enzyme-controlled steps. Describe how to use data from spirometer traces to investigate the effects of exercise. -�- -- Muscles a n d movement Describe t h e structure o f a muscle fibre a n d explain the differences between fast and slow twitch muscle fibres. Discuss the concept of homeostasis and how it maintains the body during exercise. You should understand how heart rate and ventilat1on rate are controlled. including controlling body temperature. The heart. Outline the ethics of using performance-enhancing substances. Describe the roles of glycolysis in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. ATP. Explam that tissues need rapid delivery of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide during exercise a n d that changes i n ventilation and cardiac output allow this to happen. Energy and the role of ATP Describe aerobic respiration as splitting of glucose to release carbon dioxide. Recall the way in which muscles. - L02 � h D D D � " " D D D D D D D Explain how skeletal muscle contracts using the sliding L03 L04 LOS L06 L07 LOS filament theory.Unit 5 : Exercise and Coordination By the e n d of this topic you should be able to: ___. a b l e to talk about correlation a n d cause. Describe how ATP is made by oxidative phosphorylation in the electron transport chain including the roles of chemiosmosis a n d ATPase. D D D D LO l l L09 D D D D D D D D D D L0 1 0 L0 1 2 L0 1 3 L014 D D D D D D D D D D D D D D L01 5 L0 1 6 L0 1 7 L0 1 8 L0 1 9 L020 .

(a) (i) Outline the differences between fast. but not how it is removed from the body.tntP. However. I t explains how the lactate is moved away from the muscle. . - An increase in core temperature causes vasodilation so that more This response would only score 1 mark for the recognition that more heat would be lost from the skin. This response is a correct but on ly partial �xpl anati on . Their prey tend to be able to carry out sustained movement over longer periods of time. I • (3) I nr. Describe how changes in blood circulation help to return their core body temperatures to normal. negative feedback.g. Student answer heat is lost from the skin. Close examination shows that the muscles of predator and prey show a different composition of fast. Lactate is oxidised back into pyruvate using NAD that has been oxidised in the electron transport chain using oxygen. 'more'. · .and sl ow­ twitch fibres.and slow-twitch muscle fibres from their prey. clearly demonstrating an understanding of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. This is an example of homeostasis using a negative feedback mechanism.. such as a cheetah. The extra oxygen needed is the oxygen debt. This response will gain maximum marks because it provides a chemical explanation of the fate of the lactate. it also provides a clear and plausible explanation (b) During fast movement. This is a good response because not only does it provide a likely comparison. It also clearly describes the effect of vasodilation on the blood circulation. e.Topic 7 : Run for your life Animals that are predators often show bursts of very fast movement. (3) In longer questions like this try to be clear on writing cause and effect. The reference to vasod ilation is not enough as it does not describe what change occurs to the blood circulation. lactate builds up in the muscles of a predator. of your description as you will often receive credit for these. Where possible use key terms and concepts from your course as part for lists of random terms that do not demonstrate your understanding of what they mean. (c) During the chase. (a) (i) Slow-twitch muscle fibres have more mitochondria and more capillaries supplying oxygen than fast twitch fibres.you will not gain marks . State whether predator or prey would show a higher propJrtion of slow-twitch fibres. the terms need to be in the correct context . · . rliffuses from the muscle into the blood wh e re it is carried away from the muscle to prevent cramp. I . as well as recognition of the need for extra oxygen.and slow-twitch mLscle fibres. hypothalamus). (iii) Discuss why predators show different proportions of fast. Changes to the core temperature are detected by thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus which send nerve impulses to arterioles in the skin. (ii) (1) (2) (2) If you are asked for the differences. (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 5 June 2008. This response is better because it includes key terms and structures in the correct context of how the change is caused (homeostasis. in comparison to their prey. Explain what happens to this lactate after the chase has ended. make sure you refer to both or use a comparative word. This causes vasodilation resulting in increased blood fiow to the skin. the core body temperature of both predator and prey rises. This is because predators tend to be fast and powerful over short distances to catch and kill their prey and therefore use anaerobic respiration to release ATP quickly. (ii) Prey (iii) Predators are likely to have more fast-twitch than slow­ twitch fibres.) .

(6) Total 6 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 5 June 2007) 3 The table below refers to three major stages of aerobic respiration and the products of each stage. Explain the mechanisms involved in control ling this increase in heart rate. (1) (b) Heart rate increases during exercise. but too much exercise can also be harmful. actin myosin Fully relaxed sarcomere Partially contracted sarcomere (a) Calculate the percentage change i n width of the H zone when the sarcomere is partially contracted Show your working.1 (a) Name the region of the hum an brain involved in control of heart rate. D iscuss tre benefits and potential dangers of exercise i n humans. the myosin filaments pull the actin filaments towards the centre of the sarcomere. Explain how this is brought about. Copy and complete the table by inserting the part of the cell in which the stage occurs an::l two products in the blank spaces. I - glycolysis Krebs cycl e electron transport chain matrix of mitochondrion I I I I ATP and water - Total 4 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology Advanced Unit 4 . (4) Total 7 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology Advanced Unit 4 . (4) Total 5 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 5 June 2007) 2 Doing too little exercise can lead to health problems. stretch receptors .paper 3 June 2007) 4 (4) The diagrams show one sarcomere in its fully relaxed state and when il i� partially contracted.paper 3 June 2007) 5 The diagram shows the ways i n which the respiratory system and different parts of the brain i nteract with each other to regulate breathing . (3) (b) During the contracticn of this sarcomere.

. (2) Total 7 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology Advanced Unit 4 . B. compared with (2) traditional surgery. Name the part of the brain that controls involu ntary breathing (b) Suggest one occasion when the depth of breathing is increased voluntarily.I X �__. (3) Total 6 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 5 June 2005) 7 The diagram shows the pathways for the conduction of electrical impulses during the cardiac cycle. explain the roles of muscle spindles (3) and nerves in the control of breathing during exercise.paper 3 June 2007) 6 The diagram shows some of the muscles in a human leg... 3 3 % of the runners developed respiratory tract infections. (a) Using the letters A. (1) (b) Describe how the structures shown i n the diagram control the complete cardiac cycle._. Explain why the chemoreceptors are particularly im portant during exercise. -::.Topic 7 : Run for your life (a) Breathing can be controlled voluntarily and involuntarily.. (d) The ventilation of the lungs during breathing is essential i n mainta i ning the concentratior gradients of the respiratory gases. Explain one factor which could contribute to this higher infection rate. (c) Two weeks after taking part in a 56 km race.-. identify the muscle on the diagram above which (i) contracts to bend the leg backwards at the knee AND (ii) is antagonistic to the muscle identified in (i).. such as the knee.___7 pathways for the conduction of �------ electrical impulses (a) Name the structure labelled X. (4 ) Total 5 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 7 January 2005) . This ensures that gas exchange is efficient. Those who completed the race were three times more likely to develop an infection after the race compared with a control group which did not run. (1) (b) Joint injuries often shorten the career of ath letes . Explain the advantages of keyhole surgery on damaged joints. C or D. (1 ) (1 ) (c) Using the information in the diagram.

g to the active formPFR In the dark PFR slowly reverts ba::: k to P� because i t is relatively unstable (or it can chan back rapidly_j ge . reducing the diameter of the pupil so :hat less light can enter the eye. � S�rrl�����!itv n u1 pi�nts " Photoperiodism: Plants flower and seeds germinate in response to changes in day length. The CN S (containing relay neurones) processes information from many sources and then sends out impulses via motor neurones to effector organs (mainly muscles and glands).toJ'R. This causes the radial muscles to contract and the pupil becomes dilated.n. In mammals sensory neurones carry impulses from receptOis to a central nervous system (CNS) consisting of the brain and spinal cord. Qn absorbin natural (or red) light phytochrome converts from the inactive form g e. responses. thus preventing damage to the retina. • Phototropism: T�opisms are growth responses in plants where the direction of the gw wth response is determined bythedi�:e�ternal stimulus.Animal nervous systems are fast-acting communication systems containing nerve cells (neurones) which carry information in the form of n erve impulses (see page 62). 8._tropic respo�e .if exposed to far r�d lig� t). The muscles contract..Qbot.2 Orange Book 8 . Thephotoreceptor involved is a bl u e-green pigment called phytochrome. 1.ent. I n high light intensities photoreceptors such as rods in the retina cause nerve i m pu lses to pass along the optic nerve to a group of nerve cells in the brain. Green Book 8 . allowing more light to reach the retina. It isthotJght that the active PFR may trigger a rang_ef diffe[. The pupil reflex The iris contains pairs of antagonistic muscles (radial and circular muscles) that control the size of the iris under the influence of the autonomic nervous system (involuntary). pupil constricted pupil dilated muscles relax radial circular contract m usc les muscles contract radial circular muscles relax How the muscles of the iris act to control the amount of light entering the eye. These then send impulses along parasympathetic motor neurones to the circular muscles of the iris. In low l ight conditions fewer impulses reach the coordinating centre in the brain impulses are sent down sympathetic motor neurones to tne radial muscles of the iris instead.QPeriodic _g . 1 . If a plant grows towards a stimulus it is said to be a�:.

What effect does IAA have on cells? ·�!."( . Only those Take care not to mu d d l e tropic and trophic. effects of adrenaline in . I J -� Ql Why i s it an ad va nta g e for . a nd the shoot bends towards the light within food chains. !1 1 1 1 . i . auxins) diffusing from cell to cell . Chemical growth substances (e.-::.. This ha ppens just below the tip of the shoot a n d is co ntrolled by the plant growth substance IAA (the first auxin discovered). but normally restricted to cells within a short d1stance of the growth substance being released.g. Response may be widespread. ¥" Light Light With illumination :. and causes elongation of cells across the zone of el on gatio n ' even .: · from all sides.:·. . Explain why it is an advantage that shoots have positive phototropism and roots have negative phototropism. cell responses.�l". I Remember. Response may be widespread. but a good candidate in ce re als is riboflavin.:=:.g. growth and sexual development. I I - - Chemical hormones from endocrine glands earned 1 n the blood plasma around the ci rc u l atory system . response to stress. Tropic responses Tro p h i c is connected with how l i vi ng things i · cells on the shaded are growth responses in plants. o c c u p y th e first trophic level on a Mechani sm of phototropism in shoots. e. I ra p id acting Usually associated with short-term changes.Light //. � Electrochemical changes giving an electrical i mpulse. e . 1 . Chemical neurotransm itters used at most synapses."t ·. growth responses. muscle contraction. control of blood sugar. 2 Orange Book 8.g. e. g .1. e. Response is very local and specific such as a muscle cell or gland.some may go i n the p l ant transport system .g. :.tribution elongation Zone of from one side. autotrophic because th ey m a k e plant shoots have a pos itive tropic It is not c lea r what the receptor for phototro pis m is in shoots. The effector for the g rowth response is cell elongation. slower acting Can control long-term slower acting C o ntrols long-term e l ongation . feed and th e i r positi01 side elongate. auxins like IAA cause cell e l o n g a ti o n and not cell d i v i s i on. e . or restricted to specific target cells.the phloem. Some are involved in homeostasis. animals to have a nervous system and an endocrine system? Green Book 8. 8. Q1 Q2 Q3 Explain what is meant by the term p h otoreceptor. Fo r example response to l i ght and they are th e i r o w n food a n d therefore food c h a i n . Some can be relatively fast. Table to compare commun ication and coordination methods in plants and a nimals. g . an of auxins moves down from the shoot tip. auxins move down from the shoot tip towards the shaded side of the shoot.

a n d axons Na• channels open. +40 . cell body • ) Most vertebrate neurones have a fatty insulating layer called the myelin sheath wrapped around the axon a n d/or dendron .:)====_�=)�:.----2 Voltage-dependent Na• channels close._"' \ � Relay neurone f. K• diffuse back into the axon to recreate the resting potentiaL CJD Voltage-dependent Na• channel U Voltage-dependent K• channel Movement of ions in and out of the membrane during an action potenti a!_ I I K• channel Time � K• Green Book 8.<-.. dendrites The structure of neurones in a mammar Neurones are individual nerve cells. 1 . repolarising the membrane. ! axon I --«. motor and re l ay neurones is the relative position of the cell body Neurones are able to carry waves of electrical activity called action potentials (nerve impulses) over a long distance because the axons can be very long and the membranes are polarised (different charges on the inside and outside of the membrane). bundled together i n a p rotective towards the cell b o dy. The main difference between the structures of sensory. creating the uneven distribution of charge across the membrane. axon ' .... Sensory neurone A��======�==F=�======��( �I' . Dendrites conduct impulses conduct impulses away from the cell body.d � r�e ·�ransrti11 Dssion of a nerve ti mpulse In a resting neLrone there are more sod i u m ions outside the cell membrane than inside. and more potassium ions inside than outside. whereas nerves are several axons sheath.§: -70 resting potential I =ao=u=t t:: .All neurones (nerve cells) have a cel l body (containing the nucleus and most of the cell's organelles within the cytoplasm). Action potentials jump from one node of Ranvier to the next increasing the speed of conduction. Schwann cells wrap around the neurone. to nourish and protect it and produce the myelin sheath.Key + + + + + + + + outside inside 3 The membrane is hyperpolarised. This distribution of ions creates a potential d ifference (a difference in charge) of about -7 0 mV called the resting potential and the membrane is said to be polarised... 1 Voltage-dependent Na• flow into axon. � -�1' � ""Schwann cell cell body ) dendrites .=( === .. Voltage-dependent K• channels open. This increases the speed of conduction of a nerve impulse through a p rocess called saltatory conduction. dendrites (that conduct impulses towards the cell body) and an axon (that conducts impulses away from the cell body).. The inside of the resting neurone has a negative charge i n comparison to the outside d u e to the p resence of chloride ions and negatively charged proteins.2 Orange Book 8 . Voltage-dependent K• channels close.1. there are small gaps left uncovered called the nodes of Ranvier. H:Jwever..�. 0 depolarising the membrane. Potassium ion channels allow facilitated d iffusion of potassium ions back out of the membrane down their concentration gradient._c 2:: . "'i u c > E £ c � -o . The sodium-potassium pump creates concentration gradients across the membrane (sodium moves out and potassium moves in to the axon). K• leave the axon.

This ensu res that action potentials pass along as separate signals and are potentials are always the same for a specific n e u rone) A bigger sti m u l us increases the unidirectional (only acle to pass in one direction). 2 Orange Book 8. depolarising the membrane. voltage-dependent sodi u m ion channels open and sodium ions diffuse in. A threshold stimulus m ust be applied to produce an action potentia l . The membrane becomes hyperpolarised. Straight after a n action potential there i s a short refractory period when a new action potential can't be g enerated because the sodium ion channels can't reopen. ======i> progress ot the impulse Na' + + + Propagation of a nerve impulse along an axon.�-� !_��. Th1s increases the positive charge inside the cell. and sodium ions flow into the axon.�ne is stim ulated. 1 . Green Book 8 . repolarising the membrane. As the charge reverses. the sodium ion channels shut a r .+ aN � +� + + + + + + +�t� + + + :�2 second action potential ++ a change in the electrical charge (potential difference) across this part of the membrane The change in potential difference in the membrane adjacent to the first potential initiates a second action potential. high ++++++++++ high K' Na· At resting potential there is positive charge outside of the membrane and negative charge on the inside. Action potentials have an ali-or-nothin g nature (the values of the resti n g and action frequency of the action potentials (not the strength).Topic 8: Grey matt er *5 If a neurone cell rr. potassium ions diffuse back into the axon. r= --- action and voltage-dependent potassium K' third action potential A third second.+ t. dependent potassium ion channels open so that more potassium ions leave the axon. At the site of the first action action potential is initiated by the 4� -:�t� K' refractory period cause the nerve impulse to move along the potential. The membrane now carries a potential difference of about +4C mV This is the action potential and the m e m b rane is sa1d to be depolarised. so the charge across the rrembrane is reversed.eml. voltagedependent sodium ion channels open. with high sodium ion concentration outside and high potassium ion concentration inside. on the axon ++++++++++ first action potential 2 stimulation ++ When stimulated. Localised electric currents are generated in the membrane. Potassium ions leave the axon. In this way local electric currents axon. At the site of the first action potential the voltage-dependent sodium ion channels close ion channels open. restoring the resting potential. Sodium ions move to the adjacent polarised (resting) region causing 3 4 N� -+�� + -+ -+ -+ + . J voltage­ repolarising the m e m b rane.

5 Unit 5 : Exer ci s e a n d Coordination The point where one neurone meets another is called a synapse. The neurotransmitter can diffuse across the gap between the n e u rones (the synaptic cleft) and b i n d to receptors on the· postsynaptic membrane. some neurotransmitters are i n h i bitory and they may open chloride ion channels on the postsynaptic membrane. Calcium ions enter the neurone. i. At thr? tip of the axon a n impulse opens calcium ion channels then triggers the release of a chemical neurotransmitter (for example acetylcholine) from synaptic vesicles. 5 6 � \j 6 The membrane depolarises and . 1 An action potential arrives.before. Synapses membrane) the signal can o n l y pass in one d i rection (unid irectional). or it can diffuse away and be broken down. triggering a new action potential in the postsynaptic neurone. The sequence of events occurring when an action potential arrives at a synapse I ��l§!�i��---Q1 Q2 Q3 Explain the d i fference between depolarisation and hyperpolarisation.one. �-------__j 5 Neurotransmitter binds with receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. causing it to become hyperpolarised and therefore harder to get an a bove-thresho l d response needed to trigger the new action potential... postsynaptic mem brane I initiates an action potentiaL 7 When released the neurotransmitter will be taken up across the presynaptic membrane ( whole or after being broken 01 Look b a c k at your AS Biology notes for the structure of m e m b r a n e s a n d transport a c ross membranes. . Then a d d to your diagram any other ways that substances c a n m o v e across membranes. Calcium ion channels open. However.a d d i n g . post. Cation channels open. summation . 1 . so the response does not keep happe n i n g . � ® W � IL � }_ \@ 3 4 0 Q 0 neurotransmitter �J. 4 Neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft. "QJ t o :: fl 0 � synaptic cleft pres napt1c mem orane � (this is temporal summation). . Because the receptors a r e only o n one side o f the synapse (the postsynaptic Pre . Sodium ions flow through the channels. uni . . Synapses also act as junctions and a l low nerve i m p u lses to converge o r diverge because one neurone can meet many others at a single synapse. 2 Orange Book 8 . An enzyme is often present in the synaptic cleft to hydrolyse the neurotransmitter. N� CPS� + · II 7 I .after. How do the structure of the synapse a n d axon membrane ensure that nerve i m p u l ses are only able to travel in one d i rection/ Describe what happens to sodium ions when a neurone membrane is stimulated. down ) . synaptic vesicle i m pu lses arrive at a synapse at the same time their effect w i l l be combined a n d you are more l i kely to depola rise the postsynaptic membrane (this is spatial summation) If you have a strong sti m u l u s along o n e neurone many action potentials will arrive one after the other (due to the high frequency) and this will have the same effect 3 Calcium ions cause synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter to fuse with the presynaptic membrane. The neurotransmitter may also be taken back up into the presynaptic membrane ready to be used a g a m . axon If two or more excitatory 1 2 The membrane depolarises. If the neurotransmitter comes from an excitatory neurone it may open sod 1 u m ion channels on the postsynaptic membrane. B--� Green Book 8 . Sketch a d i a g r a m of a m e m b r a n e to show how sodium and potassium ions move d u ri n g a nerve impulse.

'-+ Receptors are specialised cells able to detect stimuli. Use this information to explain why light conditions. This means that gl utamate is not released across the synapse. The opsin binds to the membrane of the outer segment of the cell and this causes sodium ion channels to close. ------. A rod cell in the dark and in the light. Human eyes have two types of photoreceptor cells found in the retina on the back of the eye. dark . Compare p h ot o recepto rs in mammals and plants. but not in the light. The information from the optic nerve is processed by the brain in the visual cortex. you can't s e e colour well in d i m G reen Book 8 . Light energy is absorbed by rhodopsin which splits into retinal and opsin. and binds to bipolar cell. Q1 Q2 Q3 Explain why rods release a neurotransmitter in the dark.- rhodopsi n to retinal a d o sin Opsin binds to the me mbrane causing a series n p s egment Na+ m o e down inner segment (I' I concentration gradient v of reactions which result i n the Na • c an e s being closed. When there is less inhibition an action potential forms and is transmitted to the brain. Cones allow colour vision in bri ght l ight and are clustered in the centre of the retina. Receptors are often grouped together into sense organs.- . but are much more sensitive than cones and can work in dim light conditions. 5 �··_ . . released. Cation channels in bipolar cell open and v membrane becomes --a bipolar neurone a depola ri e d .-'= light di ffuse in Na � Na - + t hrou h open cation channels outer g -� __ light breaks down ____. h nl v- Na + actively �+ N <===i>- I \J li \_ '\ - ·-> pumped out Na + act ivel pumped out y (C[ O oO membrane slightly depolarised -40mV membrane hyperpolarised (�� No neurotransmitter is Neurotransmitter is released p re enting it depolarising. Describe what happens to rhodopsin when it is exposed to light. Rods only provide black and white vision.---- 01 Groups of three rod cells connect to a single bipolar cell whereas j u st one cone cell connects to a bipolar cell. Gl utamate usually inhibits the neurones which connect the rod cells to the neurones in the optic nerve. 2 . The inner segment continues to pum p sodium ions out of the cell and the membrane becomes hyp e rp o l arise d (more negative). enerating an action potential in the neurone of the s g optic nerve. 2 Orange Book 8 .

concerned with the higher brain functions such as decision making.-st The cerebellum is important for balance and coordinating muscle movements. It sends information to the body via the motor neurones to carry out movements. The main regions of the human orain. hearing. memory. sound Ce re b e ll u m Also involved i n recognition �nri sreerh (\pft tPmpor�l \oht>). some types of recognition and memory.--. The motor cortex also stores information about how t o carry out different movements.The cerebrum (cerebral cortex) is the largest part of the brain. including vision.. Which region of the brain is most associated wit h thin king a n d decision making/ Green Book 8 . reasoning. emotion and controlling all of the voluntary activities of t h e body.concerned with processing The regions of the cerebral hemispheres and their f unctions. . memory.concerned with processing information from the eyes. It includes the primary motor cortex which has neurones that connect d i rectly to the spinal cord and brain stem and from there to the muscles.----. Occipital lobe (visual cortex) . calculation. It is divided into two cerebral hemispheres connected by a band of wh i t e matter called the corpus White matter is so c a l l e d b e c a u s e it mainly consists of lots of myelinated axons.. breathing and blood pressure. i. processing i n formation from the eyes and ears. 01 02 D i stinguish between the cerebrum and the cere b e l l u m . Frontal lobe (also referred to as the higher centres of the brain) . midbrain The medulla oblongata controls many body processes such as heart rate.f--.concerned with orientation. The cerebrum is associated with advanced mental activity like language. Grey matter is where the synapses o c c u r and therefore where a l l the processing takes p l a c e and your memories are stored. auditory information.e. pituitary gland . Parietal lobe . calculation.. shape recognition and perspective. sensation. It is also concerned with forming associations (by combining information from the rest of the cortex) and with ideas.3 . 3 Orange Book 8. cal losum . colour. movement. Temporal l o b e . corpus callosum cerebrum The hypothalamus controls thermoregulation. planning and consciousness of emotions.-: .

A utilitarian ethical framework allows certain animals to be used in medical experiments provided the overall expected benefits are greater than the overall expected harms based on the belief that the right course of action is the one that maximises the amount of overall happiness or pleasure in the world. respecting their rights to such things as food. Evidence for critical windows for development has come from medical observations (e. However. This is pretty much the position in European law This all assumes that animals can suffer and experience pleasure.4 . children who develop cataracts before the age of 1 0 days may suffer from permanent visual impairment even if the cataracts are repaired at a later date) and from animal models Hubel and Wiesel used kittens and monkeys as models to investigate the critical window in visual development because of the similarity of their visual systems to that of humans. veterinary treatment and the ability to express normal behaviours. Eye has the cells no working connection to Synapses used by active strengthened. or how new drugs may affect us. From the point of view of medical research. Monocular deprivation before 3 weeks and after 3 months had no effect. They found that kittens deprived of light in one eye at 4 weeks after birth were effectively permanently blind in that eye.Topic 8 : Grey matter W"' are born with a range of innate behaviours (behavioural responses that do not need to be learnt) such as crying.g. Green Book 8. There are those who hold an absolutist view of animal rights and think we should never keep animals or use them in medical research. even though of th e retina and optic nerve work normally when exposed to light the light-stimulated eye. a much more widespread position is the relativist view that humans should treat animals well and minimise harm and suffering so far as is possible. water. It was thought that during the critical period (about 4 weeks after birth) connections to cells in the visual cortex from the light-deprived eye had been lost This meant that the eye that remained open during development became the only route for visual stimuli to reach the visual cortex. Here the emphasis is on animal welfare. is a very controversial area. the brain still needs much growth and development after birth through the formation of synapses and the growth of axons.3 Orange Book 8. axons are the visual Synapses only present for axons coming from cortex and is effectively blind. The use of animals as models for understanding how humans develop. Axons pass nerve impu lses to cells visual cortex. The iJnimals were deprived of the stimulus of light into one eye (monocular deprivation) at different stages of development and for different lengths of time. Visual development i s an e xamp l e of how the effects of nature a n d nurture can combine i n development The genes control the development of the responsive cells in the visual cortex (nature) but a stimulus frorr the environment is needed during the criti c a l window for the correc1 connections to b e made {nurture). in the Inactive synapses are eliminated. So the v is u a l cortex can only respond to this eye. :-�� Critical windows (or critical periods) for development are those periods of time where it is thought that the nervous system needs specific stimuli in order to develop properly. grasping and sucking.

In general if genes have a strong influence on the development of a cha racteristic. 6 . . . For example if there is a greater difference between those twins raised a p a rt than twins raised together it suggests some environmental influence. ii c o u l d use to test new drugs to Q3 w i l l a l s o have symptoms of schizophrenia. �"'. how long your hair is.t. However. twins raised a p a rt may not have completely different environments a n d twins raised together may develop different personal ities d u e t o a desire t o be different.-.. s u c h a s 3 g e a n d sex.. 3 Orange Book 8 . 01 What is your personal view on the use of a n i m a l s in m e d i c a l m a n y a fruit flies.. This demonstrates that some neurones have t h e a b i l ity t o change. e . . N u rture: Many cha racteristics are learnt or are heavily i n f l u e n ced by the environment. H u m a n behaviours.� �. iii wrinkles in the skin? How d o you justify your position? has schizophrenia there is o n l y a 1 5% chance that their twin will also have contribution of nature and n u rture on the development of schizophrenia? �-�'\. • Studies of i n d ividuals with damaged brain areas: Some patients who have suffered from brain d a m a g e show the a b i l ity to recover some of their bra i n funct1on. • !\!though it is not generally possible to experiment o n people.w "' � � �-�. What do these f i g u res suggest a b o u t the 80% chance that their twin m a l a ria. r{' . Green Book 8 . n . However. • Cross-cultural studies: I n vestigations into the visual perception o f groups from different cultural backgrounds support the idea that visual cues for depth perception are at least partially learnt.Unit 5: Exercise and Coordination �he 1role of natui"e and nurture � n braun y. We are the result of a mixture of genetic a n d environmental factors.. Explain why kittens a n d mon keys have been used i n experiments looking a t human brain development. Most of our cha racteristics are actually determined by nature a n d nurture o r nature via n urture. b mice. blood group. are matched s o it i s nore like a traditional controlled �xperiment in the l a b oratory. g . J. if one fraternal twin symptoms of schizophre n i a . d monkeys do you think you help treat i breast c a n cer. If one identical twin has schizophrenia there is cats. attitudes a n d skills m a y have a n underlying genetic b a s 1 s b u t a r e mod1fied by experience o r the environment i n a way which IS very complex. the stro n g e r the correlation w i l l be between i ndividuals for that trait. . then the closer the genetic relationship. e .. • Animal experiments: e .:. g .' ' . research? F o r example.... These suggest that genes help to form the bra i n and some behaviours before the baby is born. . t is possible to select a s a m p l e �arefully so a s t o e n s u r e t h a t non­ �xperimental variables.. .. Evidence for the relative roles of nature and n u rture i n brain development come from a variety of sources: • The abilities of newborn babies: Newborn babies have some i n nate capacities. such as some cancers.e'> . . how c Q1 Q2 Describe why it may be dangerous to leave a patch over the damaged eye of a c h i l d for a prolonged period of t i m e .. g . T n studies con help to wi estimate the relative contribution of genes a n d the environment Any differences between identical twins must be due to the effects of the environment Identical twins raised apart i n comparison to those raised together are particularly useful for study. the chance of devel o p i n g some diseases. suggest that external stimulation is important i n brain development • Twin studies: Identical twins share a l l the same genes. has a genetic basis... " -� J • Nature: Many of o u r characteristics develop solely u n d e r the influence of o u r genes with little influence from o u r environmem o r learning. Fraternal (non-identical) twins share the same n umber as any other s i b l i n g would. H u bel and Weisel's experiments on critical windows for sight. . For example. where a gene o r several genes interact to confer susceptib i l ity to the disease with environmental factors contributing to the risk of devel o p i n g the disease..

The core practical i s an example o f a simple investigation into habituation. sensory neurone from the siphon motor neurone to the gill 01 water jet gill Write out the reflex arc involved in the sea slug's response to water being sprayed onto its siphon. to evaluate your results a s it is often difficult to control many variables when using live animals in experiments. 2 Less neurotransmitter wate r jet g ill withdrawa l 3 There is less depolarisation of the postsynaptic membrane so no action potential is triggered i n the motor neurone. -abituation in a sea slug.S>J Learning is a process that results in a change in behaviour (or knowledge) as a result of experience. For example sea slugs (Aplysia) have been used to investigate habituation. depending on your method) yo u should consider any ethical and safety issues that may arise in your methodology. As this is a n exper i m e nt involving animals ( p o ss i b ly humans. Many invertebrates have been useful animal models for investigating the workings of the nervous system . B After several minutes of repeated stimulation of the siphon the gill no longer withdraws. (aZ• channels become less responsive so 1 With repeated stimulation.Topic 8: Grey matter . Ca2• is released. Suggest whether nature or nurt u re is likely to be responsible for the development of an innate reflex. Habituation is a very s mple type of learning that involves the loss of a response to a repeated stimulus which fails to provide any form of reinforcement (reward or punishment). Describing how to inv estig ate h a b ituation to a stimulus is a well be asked q u estions about req u i red practical so you may this during the exam. For learning to be effective you must remember what you have learnt. 02 03 Green Book 83 Orange Book 8J . Suggest why sea slugs used in this habituation experiment need to have been reared in captivity rather than in the sea. Initially the snail tends to retreat into its shell for a significant period of time after each tap. I t measures the time a snail spends withdrawn into its shell when you tap the surface it is moving on at regular time intervals or gently touch the snail's head. less Ca2• crosses the p resyna ptic membrane. It is also worth considering how C How habituation is achieved. It a llows animals to ignore unimportant stimuli so that they can concentrate on more rewa rding or threatening stim u l i . A Gill withdraws when siphon stimulated. As the tapping ccmtinues the snail stays in its shell for a shorter duration as it becomes habituated to the tapping. Memories (conscious and sub-conscious) are formed by changing or making new synapses in the nervous system .

Dopamine cannot move into the brain from the bloodstream. �� � . Dopamine is a neurotransmitter which is active in neurones in the frontal cortex. anxiety.�· s 3 Some drugs may affect the interaction between the neurotransmitter and the receptors on the postsynaptic membrane a) Some may be stimulatory by binding to the receptors and opening the sodium ion channels. I I postsynaptic m��� Different stages i n synaptic transmission that can be affected by drugs. The d1agram and following text show some of the ways synapses can be affected by drugs .) Treatments for depression often involve drugs that can help i ncrease the concentration of serotonin in the synapses. most of which aim to increase the concentration of dopam1ne i n the b ram. A lack of serotonin is l inked to clinical depression (prolonged feelings of sadness. loss of i nterest.Oopa�1ine arr-1d Pc���drtilsonJs disease Parkinson's disease is associated with the death of a group of dopaminesecreting neurones i n the brain (an a rea of the midbrain known as the substantia nigra). 2 I I I Some drugs may affect the release of the neurotransmitter from the presynaptic membrane. A variety of treatments a re available for Parkinson's disease. · � -.:. 7 . Some other treatments for Parkinson's are outlined later in this section Seroton�ru and de�oression Serotonin is a neurotransmitter linked to feelings of reward and pleasure. but the molecule which is used to make dopamine c a n . brain stem and spinal cord. This molecule is called L-dopa (levodopa) a n d c a n b e turned into dopamine t o help control the symptoms.- 0 0� oo 0 0 I 3 • �-- I I Green Book 8. etc. increasing the concentration of dopamine to reduce the symptoms of the disease.for example dopamine agonists (which mimic dopamine because they have a similar shape and are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease) bind to dopamine receptors and trigger action potentials.··. I I I The effe(t of dir���$ - O!fil synapses Many d rugs affect the nervous system by interfering with the normal functioning of a synapse. Prozac is a selective serotonin reuptake i n h ibitor (SSRI) that blocks the process which removes serotonin from the synapse. For example L-dopa used in the treatment of Parkinson's dtsease is converted into dopamine. ·. For example. blocking the receptors on the postsynaptic membranes and preventing the neurotransmitters binding. b) Some may be inhibitory. This results in the reduction of dopamine levels in the bra i n . See below for discussion on how SSRis might work . insomnia. hopelessness. 1 Some drugs affect the synthesis or storage of the neurotransmitter. restlessness.4 Orange Book 8. The symptoms of Parkinson's a re: • muscle tremors (shakes) stiffness of m uscles and slowness of movement • • poor balance and walking problems • difficulties with speech and breathing • depression. It i s associated with the control of movement and emotional responses. .

T aditionally most m edicines are developed from exist ing ch emicals (often extracted r from p lants). resulting i n t h e maintenance of a high concentrat ion of the neurotr ansm itter in the synapse and therefo re repeated actio n potentials (or in hibition) o f t h e postsy naptic neuron e.Topic 8: G'ey matter 4 So m e drugs prev ent the reuptake of the neurotransm itter back into th2 prr:. Expl a i n how L-dopa m ay reduce the symptom s of P arkinso n's disease. c�·n a ptic m embr ane. They can a lso be used to track degener ative diseases like A lzheimer's by co mparing scans over a period of t i m e . Look back at your notes on synapses and nerve impulses to help get your head around this section about how drugs can affec your nervous system. chemicals t hat affect m embrane-bo und proteins o r m i m ic t h e effect of naturally occurr i ng neurotra ns m itters can have a s i g nificant effect on defective or normal neural pathways. O ne of the many poss ible s ide effects of ecstasy use is depress ion as a result of the loss of s erotonin from the neuro nes b ecause o f the lack o f r eu pta ke. including an imal trials and clinical trials. lrruagn�1g technBques for t e btraira S everal imaging techniques are useful for m edical diagnosis and invest igati n g brain structure and fu nctio n . but the i nform atio n com ing from the human genome project (see next page for further details) co uld help develop drugs that are highly specific so that t h ey can b e eff ective in lower doses w it h fewer side effects.. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) i s a modified M RI techniq ue that can allow yo u to see the brain in actio n during live tasks . brain injuries and infections. The effect is the maintenance of a high concentr atio n o f s en. 7 . lo ng before t h ey can reach t h e market.rays. Q1 Explain why treating mental health problems with drugs is such Q1 Q2 Q3 Explain why people suffering from Parkinson's may suffer fro m depression. S u ggest how a new drug developed to be a s i m i lar shape to s e roto ni n may help treat clinical depression . strokes. the effects of drugs and diseases such as Park i nson's on the activity of the br a i n can now be seen using imaging techniques such as fMRI. T h e resolution is worse than M RI so small structures i n the b rain can't b e distinguished. Like M RI they o nly c a pture o n e mo m e nt in t i m e and s o o n ly look at struct ures and damage rather than functions. P h a rmacogenomics links pharmaceutical expertise (drug dev elo pment and m a nufacture) with the knowledge o f t h e hum a n genome.) G reen Book 8. Computerised axial tomography (CT or CAT) scans use tho usands of narrow beam X-rays rotated aro und the pat ient. New drugs have to go through a r igorous process of t esting.:he uptake of oxygen in active br ain areas. MRI scans can be used i n t h e di agnosis of tumou rs. a difficult process to get right. Som e drugs may inhioit the enzy m es involved in break i ng down the neurotransmitter in the synaptic c l eft. b ecause it detects activ ity in the brain by following .Jcu nin i n the synapse w h ic h b rings about t h e mood changes in the users of the drug. T h e more we k now about the specific proteins ( and t heir shapes) active in cells the more li kely w e are to f i nd complementary chemicals that can have the desired effect.4 Orange Book 8. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans use a m ag netic field and radio waves to m ake images of soft tissues like the br a i n . t h ey also use pot entia l ly harmful X. For exam p l e. (Remember that neurotransmitters are effectivE in extremely low concentratior a n d are active in very specific synapses within the brain. Fo r examole ecstasy (MDMA) works by prevent i ng the r e uptake of serotonin. 5 The development of new drugs A s w e have seen in this s ection. Proz ac is a common example of a s elective seroto n i n reupt ake i n hib itor (SS RI) that b locks t h e reuptake of seroton in in the treatm ent of depression.

A genome is all of the DNA (or genes) of an organism.7 - . e. In addition new drug targets (specific molecules that drugs interact with to have their effects.. Transgenic animals (animals with a human gene added to them) can be used to produce useful drugs that can be harvested from their milk (or even semen) Liposomes and viruses are vectors used to insert genes into animal cells.1S��J:J"e t• • Who owns the information? Some groups have applied for patents on genetic sequences so that they have ownership.: . The drugs produced can be extracted and purified using downstream processing Insulin. is an example of a drug produced from genetically modified micro-organisms. gene guns (pellets coated with DNA) or a virus Restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA at specific sequences and DNA ligase is an enzyme that can be used to stick pieces of DNA together.= GM plants may be useful for producing edible drugs such as vaccines that can be stored and transported easily in plant products such as bananas or potatoes. including some of those genes responsible for inherited diseases.g. These make it possible to insert specific DNA sequences into the GM organism. The Human Genome Project also helps to provide information about evolution and increases our knowledge of physiology and cell biology. The Human Genome Project was a multinational project that determined the base sequence of the human genome. The Human Genome Project may also allow some diseases to be prevented.� � "" � pro�t u :e .. enzymes) have been identified Information about a patient's genome may help doctors to prescribe the correct drug at the correct dose. Micro-organisms such as bacteria are the most common target for genetic modification as they are relatively easy targets for gene transfer and can be grown rapidly in large quantities in fermenters. Who is entitled to know the information about your genome if it is sequenced/ Should insurance companies have access to the information? Will genetic screening lead to eugenics (the genetic selection of humans) and designer babies? Who will pay for the development of the new therapies and drugs/ Many possible highly specialised treatments may be very expensive and will only be suitable for a few people. � �'"0• � " -:- .4 Orange Book 8. If you understand what genes you carry you may understand what disease you are likely to be at risk from. Many new genes have been identified. Large numbers of identical GM plants can easily be produced. to treat type II diabetes. . • • • r .. · �'iL . or have to be paid for any treatments developed using the knowledge of that sequence. lri. Useful genes can be transferred into crop plants using a vector such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens. � Green Book 8. Drugs produced from transgenic animals include the blood clotting factors used to treat haemophilia.

extracted from the plant is inserted in to the Ti plasmid which is then returned to the bacterium. whole new plants can be grown from them. c ontainin g the new A. Ti plas mi d bacterial chromosome new gene Stage 3 The plant is infected with the modified bacterium and part of the Ti plasmid with the engineered gene becomes part of the plant chromosomes. resulting i n damage • • to the environment because they wo uld e ncourage f armers to use more selective herbicides to kill everything but the cro p. --·� l�:llili£ Q1 Outline some of the benefits an disadvantages of settin g up a Q1 Q2 Descri be what is meant by the term ' genetic po l l utio n of the environment'.4 Orange Book 8.? . Green Book 8.. . This preve nts f a rmers collecting seed and replanti ng. remember and apply your knowledge even in areas of the course which may appear tough.Topic 8: G re y m atter Ti plasmid Stage 1 The Ti plasmid is Stage 2 The gene to be carried to A.. bacterial DNA fromTi plasmid to develop on the plant. tumefaciens The genetic modification of plants. 7 . This could make them too expensive for some fa rmers . nationa l screening programme for a newly identified gene responsible for an inherited genetic disease.oncerns over tlh!e :"_ de\fe�o metr:lt ar�d t. tumefaciens causes a tumour Stage 4 new plant contain ing new gene grown from gall cells genes. � newgene .ise of genet8caUy :at1�s�ms (GIVnOs) When pr epar ing for your A2 Biology exams try to think why things are the way they are and areas of the course. This can after help you understand. • GM c ro ps may not produce fertile seeds. They could damage natural food c hains . tum. These are genetically engineered or transgenic plants. so they need to return to the biotech nology com pany to buy new seeds fo r each plant ing. I plant caused crown gall (tumour) --­ chromosome by A. Describe t h e benefits of using bacteria to produce a human protein (like i nsul i n) to treat a disease.'aciens. These plant cells contain the new gene. wild s pec ies) t h ro ug h c ro ss­ po l li nation antibiotic resistance genes are used to identify GM bacteria which co uld lead to antibiotic re sistance develo ping in other m icrobes GM crops could become super-weeds that out-compete ot her plants and may be resistant to herbicides. look for links between different • genetic po l l utio n (transfer of the genes to natural. If tumour cells are taken and cultured. So .

w: · . x:•ti r � . to: � � 'tt{�Jl - r-.. Describe the structure and function of sensJry. or ganis ms . I I LOll I LO12 L013 L016 L014 L015 L017 L018 ll010 L019 L020 L021 I I D D D D D D D D D D Describe how drugs can be produced using genet1cally modified organisms (plants and animals a n:i mi croor ganisms) . Discuss the risks a nd benefits of genetically modified . relay a nd motor neurones including the role of Schwann cells and myelin atio n. resulting in illnesses such as Parkinson's and depress1on Effects of drugs on neu rotransm itter and how this area is a source of research for new drugs. Consider the different methods used to study the devel opmen t of the brain. �-� �� '!"::o: . inc ludi ng ecstasy and those used to treat Parkinson's. Explain the ways that drugs a ffec t synapses in the brain. Discuss two ethical standpoints on the moral and ethical issues rel ati ng to the use of animals in medical research. hemispheres. Learning and Describe how animals. including the role of acetylcholine. usi ng the pupil reflex as an example. Describe what synapses do and how they work. Describe how the rod cells in the retina work to create Recall where the different regions of th e h u man br ain are and what each one does. Describe how pla nts detect light and res pon d. hypothalamus.@"�C!" !l) ili Respo nding to "": ·'Explain how the nervous system allows us to r espond to ' th e e nviro nme nt the world around us. systems Describe how differen t imaging techniques are used to study the brain. func tion al magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and (CT) scans. including magnetic resonance ima gin g computed to mo gr aphy (MRI). Uses of genetic modifica tio n Discuss how the Human Genome ProJect is helping to develop new drugs and some of the issues that arise. including humans. Explain how chemical levels in the brain m ay ch ange . Describe Hubel and Wiesel's work with monkeys and ·=· L07 L02 L08 L03 L04 LOS L06 L09 �· � · u�.By the end of this topic you should be able . can learn by habituatio n habituation. Compare plant hormones. animal hormonEs and the nervous system all as methods of coordination.' �tt� � D D D D � 'l D D D D D D D D D I D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B ra in de velopm ent kittens and how it ex plored the development of the brain. This should include the cerebral o b l ongat a . c erebell um a nd medulla Discuss the concept of a 'critical window' in the development of vision. Vision Structure of the human brain action potentials i n the opti c nerves . Describe how to in vest iga te h abit ua tion. The nervous system and nerve impulses Describe how a nerve impulse passes al ong an axon.

. ·-..· - _: studeii · · tanswer ·2�. •. It is also made clear what is being measured by the fMRI.· .. :. (Edexcel GCE Biology (Sa/ters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 5 June 2008. -: . "'.. The dopamine can diffuse across the synapse and bind to receptors and open sodium ion channels. (3) When provided with plenty of information to read and diagrams to look at.. . The student here includes 'more' and 'less' to make the comparison clear. Examiner com m�nts .' : . (4) what happens at synapses and how a neurotransmitter can stimulate an action potential in the next neurone . but doesn't explain how it stimulates neurones.Topic 8: Grey matter F �Jple with Parkinson's disease have poor control over their skeletal muscles.' _-.the activity of the brain... off drug on drug (a) Using the fMRI scans above. ·.. ' · . The drug may work by stimulating the release of more dopamine from the basal ganglia. • Make sure you make a comparative statement. � . This response describes what dopamine do:Js. Dopamine can be released from vesicles in the presynaptic membrane in response to calcium ions moving in through the membrane when an action potential arrives.� - . . This response gains full marks by going on to provide a possible explanation for the differences. --.-" . ·-· .' · . __:-:. There is more activity in the basal ganglia and less activity in the motor cortex for the person treated with the drug than the person with Parkinson's without the drug.. · Dopamine can bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. . (b) Explain how neurotransmitters.� _-. discuss the effects of this new drug on brain activity. -: . resulting in an action potential in the postsynaptic neurone.) . . ...' · . this question is comparing activity in different - regions of the brain and not the size of the different areas.· � ._ . but you should be able to recall .--': t )1 .� . . :·. Many candidates lost marks for this cuestion by referring to an increase or decrease in the area rather than the activity of the area. Don't get thrown by the context of the example. The most active areas are white. make sure you study it thoroughly to help you understand the context of the question and what the examiner is actually asking you about For example. L2rge numbers of neurones secreting dopamine are found in the basal ganglia region of the brain. such as dopamine. This response provides lots of specific detail about how a neurotransmitter stimulates a new action potential in response to the arrival of an action potential at the synapse.. a patient with Parkinson's disease without drug treatment and a patient with Parkinson's diseose taking drug t1eatment The scan shows a horizontal section with the front of the head at the top. The fMFI scans on the right show the results of a study where subjects did a standard fingertapping activity to investigate the effectiveness of a new drug treatment The results above right are from a healthy brain. . Student �nswe_r . . Sodium ions can enter the postsynaptic membrane and cause the membrane to depolarise.·:· .. st1mulate neurones. � -: ' '.. .. caused by a lack of the neurotransmitter dopamine. : . Parkinson's disease can be diagnosed and monitored using brain scans. You may not know much about exactly how dopamine works.

(3) (b) Hubel and Weisel covered one eye of kittens of different ages to investigate the timing of vis ua l develo pment in mammals. Suggest a n expla nation for (3) t hese obse rvations. B. (3) (b) Describe the detection of light in flowering p la nts. . (a) In humans. (3) Total 6 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology Adva n ced Unit 4 June 2008 Q3) 3 The diagram below shows a vertical section t h ro u gh a human brain. in a dog about 80-90% o f the photo receptors in the central region o f the retina are rod cells. Using the letters A. (2) Total 12 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 58 June 2007} . the c entral region of the retina has very few rod cells. C. Howeve r. state which region o f the brain: i I D I. D or E. (c) Some p eople have ethical objections to animal experiments. Kittens which ha d one eye covered at ea rlier or later times had normal visio n. Total 3 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 58 June 2005) - . Kittens which had one eye cove red from the fo urt h to the fifth week subsequently ha d ve ry poor visio n in t hat eye.I I! I 2 Detection o f light occLrs i n both mammals and flowering plants .111 1 (a) (i) Describe how the nervous system controls the pupil reflex in a mamma l i n response to l:: right light. S uggest one a dvantage to a dog of having more ro d ce l ls in t his regio n of the retina. II I· (a) coordinates movement Ill (1) (1) (1) (b) controls heart rate (c) receives sensory input fro m the eyes. (4) (ii) Describe and explain how myelination of ne urones is a n advantage in t his reflex pathway. S uggest how a biologist might j ustify the use of animals in experiments.

. (a) Define the term polygenic. such as heart disea se or lung cancer. Other scientists t hink that genetic screening should not be carried out because it w i l l create extra problems for society. so the next step is to fi nd out what the rest of the genes do. (1) Explain what the results o f t his study show about the roles of genes and the environment in schizophrenia. (3) Total 8 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) A dvanc ed Unit 1 June 2004) � ' � .es c:=.r be used to investigate t he role o f genes in behavio ur . (1) (b) Some scientists want to use knowledge gained from the Human Genome Project to screen peop l e to find out if they have a genetic predisposition to certain diseases. (i) Suggest how knowing that you were more likely than other people to develop heart disease or lung ca ncer could help you to lead a longer. (2) Total 4 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 58 June 2006) 5 The Human Genome P roject ha s discovered the location of 30 000 genes.ch as schizophrenia are thought to b e polygenic. Only a small number of human genes have a known function. healthier life (2) (ii) Suggest how compulsory genetic screening of everyone might be o f benefit to society.5%. Conditions �:.Topic 8: Grey matter 4 Twin stuc. (2) (iii) Suggest why people might vote against compulsory g ene ti c screening in a referend um. (c) The probability of two unrelated people both having schizophrenia is 0. (a) Explain what is meant by the word 'genome' . ( 1) (b) If one monozygotic twin has schizophrenia then the probabiliTy of the second twin having the condition is 46%. Predict what you would expect the percentage probability to be if schizophrenia was entirely caused by genes. They think that screening can help people to lead a heal thie r life. schizophrenia in identica l (monozygotic) twins was investigated. The frequency o.

(i) nerve impulse transmission Total 13 (2) (ii) hyperpolarisation of rod cells i n the retina._. Suggest how bungaratoxin causes these effects.. The graph shows changes in oxygen concentration for some isolated mitochondria. cancer and diabetes (i) Suggest two reasons why identifying people at risk might be of benefit to (2) the people who are tested (ii) Suggest three disadvantages or ethical objections posed by the Human Genome Project. Studies of venomous snakes. (3) Total 7 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 2 June 2005) . (2) (b) The Human Genome Project is making it possible to identify people who may be at risk of developing medical conditions such as heart disease. (5) (b) Bungaratoxin can be isolated from the venom of the Prugasti krait In minute amounts.· �·� u� I � -------------------Time/milliseconds (a) (i) Describe and explain the trends shown on the graph above. (iii) State the location of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. (iv) Describe how ATP is synthesised in the electron transport chain. I I -� 0 ot) c ·c :J �� �:0 § ro c c .=! X 0 0 V\ 6 . (2) marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 58 June 2008) 3 (a) Explain what is meant by the Human Genome ProJect. Describe the role of ATP in the following processes . ( 1) ( 1) (4) (b) ATP is used to provide an immediate supply of energy for biological processes. often as a result of interference with chemical transmission from the motor neurones to the muscles at the neuromuscular junctions.1 Muscle paralysis is common in many cases of poisoning. (3) Total 8 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 58 June 2007) I 2 I Isolated mitochondria in a solution containing inorganic p hosphate and an electron donor can be used to study respiration. such as the Prugasti krait (Bungarus fasciatus) have played a part in the investigation of this chemical transmission. it can cause paralysis of the diaph ragm and intercostal muscles by its effects at synapses . (a) Describe the normal sequence of events that occurs within a muscle fibre after stimulation of a neuromuscular junction. (3) (ii) Name an electron donor used in the electron transport chain in mitochondria .. An electrode is used to record changes in oxygen concentration while mitochond ria respire.

0 5 �t?illltil Started investigation Got into bath Lying in bath Got out of bath t.0 Describe the c ha nges i n body temperature that o c c urred during this investigation. a n exercise bicycle was used. An investigation was car ried out into the effect of cycling s peed on the breathing rate of a healthy student In this investigation. He stayed in the bath for 10 minutes. i mmediately after. T he student rested for 5 minutes betwee n each period of cycling.eiU1iij ����-37.5 368 25 (i) I Sitting on a chair Sitting on a chair 37. (2) (b) In a n i nvestigation. Explain how sweating is i nvolved in the regulation of body temperature.9 j 10 15 20 36. the rate of sweating i n humans i n crease. then got out and sat o n a c hair. T he results are s hown in the table below. D uring the investigation. he got i nto a bath of water at a temperature o f 18 oc.. 0 (rest) 18 15 20 25 12 14 17 20 27 (a) Ca lculate the percentage increase in breathing rate. The results of this investigation are shown in the table below. (Edexcel GCE Biology Advanced -paper 6112/01 June 2008) (2) Total 4 marks . After 5 minutes.4 (a) At high environmental temperatures. his breathing rate was recorded . (3) (ii) S uggest expla nations for the changes in body te mperature that occurred between the fo llowing time intervals: 5 to 10 minutes 1 5 to 25 minutes (3) Total 8 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology Advanced -paper 6 7 7 2101 June 2008) 5 The breat hing ra:e of the student was meas ured at rest. T his i nvestigation was repeated at cycling s peeds o f 20 a nd 25 km per hour. as the cycling s peed i ncreased from 10 km per hour to 25 km per hour.0 36.7 36. (2) (b) Suggest a n explanation for these results . before cycling at 15 k m per ho ur for 2 minutes. Show yo u r working. he recorded his body temperatu re at regular time i ntervals. afte r which his breathing rate was again measured. He rested for 5 minutes. He then cycled at 10 km per hour fo r 2 minutes and. a healthy vo lunteer meas ured his body temperature..

produces ATP. Glucose Stage 1 i . (ii) State which of the stages shown in the diagram I 1.6 (a) The diagram shows some of the stages of anaerobic respiration in a muscle cel l .I. (1) Total 6 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology Advanced Unit 4 -paper 3 June 2008) I . (i) Explain why the Krebs cycle is described as a metabolic pathway. (b) The Krebs cycle occurs during aerobic respiration and is an example of a metabolic pathway.I I (ii) State precisely where in the cell the Krebs cycle occurs. list all the stages that involve an oxidoreductase enzyme. (2) I (1) . Usin<:J Lhe leller) A to F drHJ Lhe information given in the diagram.I Glycolysis phosphorylated GC sugar ' phosphorylated 3C sugars Stage 2 I l Substance A Stage 3 I ( 1) l Lactic Acid Stage 4 I I (i) Name substance A. Oxidoreductase enzymes are involved in some of the reactions in the Krebs cycle. ( 1) 1 x reduced NAD third I �F >econd fourth 4C acid � first acetyl coenzyme A (2C) I 6C 8 \ 4C acid 4C acid � 1 x reduced 4C acid i:c SC acid � �co · 1 x reduced NAD I 2 1 x reduced NAD I COz I FAD (c) The diagram shows some of the stages that occur in the Krebs cycle. uses ATP 2.

and is calculated by m u ltiplying the tidal volume by the breathing rate .. . This a p paratus is used to measure the volume of air breathed in and out and the frequency of breathi n g under different conditions. j 0 5 10 15 Timeis 20 25 30 35 0 10 15 Time/s 20 25 30 35 The minute vo lume is the volume o f oxygen ta ken into the l ungs in 1 minute.· ..7 (a) The diagram be low shows a spirometer. (2) Total 7 marks (Edexcel GCE Biology (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Unit 58 June 2004) - . ca lculate the minute vo lume at rest Show your working. L- . (2) (b) Cardiac output a lso increases during exercise. . (2) (ii) Calculate the i nc rease in the minute vo lume that occurred in this pe rson as a result of the exercise. (i) Sldle whal is meant by cardiac o utput ( 1) (ii) Exp lain how inc reases in minute vo lume and cardiac output during exercise enab le ra pid delivery of oxygen to musc les. Show your wo rking. (i) Using the i nformation on the graphs. The results are shown in the gra phs be low At rest During exercise 1 I � t' ·. rotating drum water A s pirometer was used to compare a person's breathing at rest and dur ing e xercise.

Remember that you will need to draw on your own knowledge of the course as well as the content of the article to answer the questions. (2) (f) Suggest why taking aspirin may slow a person's recovery from an i nf ection (g) D escr ibe the role of calcium 1ons in muscle contraction. Suggest how this could have occurred. Questions The scientific artiriP yotJ hn vP <. (3) (e) Ex plain how the study of pigs has led to a genetic test for malignant hyperthermia in humans. (2) (c) Explain how sufferers of c ysti c fibrosis can be detected by a sweat test (2) I t I t: I' I I I • (d) Explai n why marathon runners and cyclists are at a high risk of heatstroke at the end of a race. �I I I. You will need to ask your teacher to find you a copy ""nd read it carefully before you answer the questions. • Seek help with any difficult ideas and key words in the article. nrlnJJtPrl fr o m a hook C<'li!Pd '/ ife at the Extremes: the Science of Survival' by Fr ances Ashcroft Use the information from t he article and your own knowledge to answer the following questions. edex cel c om. (3) (4) :I i (Total 20 marks) Some background research into major items in the article may he!p your understanding. For example. see question (g) in the comprehension practice. . . 5 exam: • Read the article carefully and check any key words you don't understand. When preparing tor the comprehension section of the Unit Adapted from 'Life at the Extremes' . it may help to build up your own glossary of terms.This com prehension is based on the Unit 6 A2 Bio logy paper in June 2006. 1 ' I� · • Your teacher does not know the questions and is therefore free to be a mentor in helping you to prepare for the exam. (a) Ex plain how humans ar e able to survive in dry air at temperatures above 100°( (4) • Identify aspects of the A-level specification which are woven into the article and make sure you know the relevant A-level detail of material from the specification. I' I ·f ll I .ttJrliPrl i<. particularly if they are barriers to your understanding of the article. (b) I n uits have evolved short stocky bodies. Available from the Edexcel website www. by Frances Ashcroft Pu blished by Flamingo 2001 ISBN 006551254.

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The marks are awarded as fo llows: resea rc h & ratio nale (11 marks).' 'Piax mouthwash will kill more bacteria than Listerine mouthwa sh .ResultsPru5 '"-/ Examiner tip � Choosing your own interesting question can often result in high�r marks. I � 1 l include a clear statistical do the same as your friends or classmates. . commu nicating (6 marks) . make sure you are really familiar with the marking criteria before include lots of irrelevant matenal. Good hypotheses: • 'There i s a sign i fi cant pos itive correlation between soil moisture content and the di stribution of is a significant difference between the rate of growth of pollen tubes from fresh pollen and • ' Th ere creeping buttercup (Ranuncu/us repens). . �"'�· try to 'prove· anything or just try to demons t rate a welldocumented 'fact'.' pollen stored for 14 days. As a rough -so research & rationale would be about 700 words. interpreting & eva luation (9 marks). stateme nt. or A2 level biology and make it repeat a core practical or a basic procedure from a book. observing & recording (8 rra rks). R es earch t extbooks. Keep a careful check on your word count. I. discuss this with your teacher to make sure that it will be possible to collect sufficient data to meet all the criteria and that it can be carried out safely. However. guide use the mark allocations reports to be too long. scientific journals and the Internet but make s ure that yo u only include material that is relevant to your hypothesis. ' . · · i:J. ------- include illustrations that are rot referred to or lots of graphs when one would do. Yo u must i ndicate clearly in yo ur report exactly where yo u have used your researched info rmation. r '1 ·. planning ( 1 1 marks). forget to refer to the marking criteria when writing up your investigations. � irwes ti gdlE: unE: variable only. 1 try to invest igate an interesting question.Unit 6: Practica l Bio logy and Investigative Skills I Ii II I You have to produce a report o n an experimental investigation. It is very common for because research & rationale is no t all relevant. cl ear hypothesis i mp ro ves your chances of ach i e ving a high mark in all the criteria . � - - base your hypothesis on sound AS simple and clear.' Poor hypotheses: • • 'Seaweeds on a rocky shore will show zonation. ' ! I ' II A good. Later sections tend to be rushed or too brief. T here a re LS marks available. . (see Unit 3 Advice on referencing) . which you have planned. carried out and interpreted individually. include clearly labelled subsections to match the criteria. This is ohen you start.20% of the total A2 marks . This is a reasoned explanation fo r your hypothesis. magazines. 1.

• • 'Make a clear plan of action including a trial experiment. • Co�sGdering "-'ariabl�lt is unlikely that you will be able to control every single variable but you must show that you have considered all the important factors that could affect your results and that your planned investigation will yield some scientifically meaningful data. Include a separate section for discussion of possible variables and how you intend to control them or take them into account. + What risks are associated with each? Poorly planned data collection can lead to the completion of many statistical tests or graphs which do not actually relate to the hypothesis you are testing. Beware of making your own judgements of things like colour changes. collett:t vaiid �nd rceiiab�e d�ta Always ensure you are really testing your chosen hypothesis. You need to use a simple trial experiment to do this. List all procedures and chemical compounds used.Your report must give clear evidence of how you have thought about and developed an effective and safe method to test your hypothesis. Select your sampling sites carefully to make sure you do not introduce more variables Measuring some abiotic factors can help to ensure they are not affecting the results. (a) In the laboratory You should be able to control most variables here but even if apparatus is limited. etc. use what is available. can limit marks in planning and in + Can the risks be eliminat � No ! � Change planned method. try to devise a method that will help you to be consistent. You must show that your investigation can be carried out safely by including a risk assessment The diagram below shows one approach to this assessment. you may not have a thermostatic water bath but you could use a beaker of water to hold temperature constant. not later For example chose your statistical test and number of repeat measurements in advance. This should explain what materials you intend to use and details of quantities and concentrations. Trial experiments are an ideal way to do this. Decide how your data is to be analysed before data collection. (b) In the field Many variables are more difficult to control in the field but they still need careful consideration. IIVtia -<ing sure yo�. for example. This interpreting & evaluation. What precautions must be taken to reduce risk to a safe level? � I I � -- . You also need to show exactly how you are going to use your trial to develop the final method.

a!. not just an exercise to justify what you have already decided. If you are working in the laboratory you must try out your method and check to see if you can obtain the results you need. I I I I I I I I I . with reasons.as which were shaded by large trees a n d the depth of water was quite different in some parts. If you are working in the field you must visit the site and try out your sampling technique. You can a c h i eve high marks by writing this once then listing any a m e n d m e nts you make. Simply following i nstructions or copying a common experiment from a book will only gain a few marks.' 'It is obvious from my table that there was only a very small differe n c e in my results when I increased t h e concentration by Make sure that your trial experiment is an i mportant part of your planning..: p ·€ rH Y.' I Is your chosen range of values suitable'� How accurately can you take measurements? Is there anything that can be done to make your measurements more accurate and reliable'� Are there any variables that you have not taken into account! • I I • I (b) In the field • • Is the whole of the selected site suitableI Do you need to choose sampling sites to avoid introducing other variables/ Can you identify the important species/ I • • Does your proposed sampling method allow you to collect sufficient data I I Don't write a detailed method twice. In order to gain high marks you will need to show that you have used the results of a trial to amend and develop your method. The trial does not have to be extensive but it should produce some evidence or simple data that you can use to explain any modifications you make.j u E! un-�s (a) In the laboratory • . after your trial..est�o�s fo .' 'The stream I was using h a d lots of ar..The followi n g are good examples of how to use a trial experiment to c h a n g e your method: 'The c l e a r areas of a g a r were not circular so I decided to trace them on graph paper and measure the area by counting squares. tr3� · 1% each time. I changed this to 5% e a c h time so that the effect was m u c h more obvious. I I I §o�:rce imp@�l:�Bll tt t<J�_. I searched further downstream until found an unshaded section with a n even depth but there w a s a pool with slow-flowing water a n d a n a rrower section with a faster moving stream.

. A v er y common mistake is to • • Li nes of ' be st fit' are not a requirement at A2 level and s hou l d normally be avoided .83 min or 1 7 0 s is a very large error. accurate labels with a pprop riate Sl u nits where possible.. • Mo st s im p l e line gr a p hs are best presented by joining points accurately with a ruler. � 20 0 .� �:.---f-- 15 r---r---- . -e .----- il.-- NE 400 � "' "' -:o � .Q ::: :. Avoid us ing 'sample number' as an axis . • Use clear. Your gra p h needs to be directly l i n ked to yo ur hypothesis a nd help you to make conclusio ns f rom your data. using the correct Sl units a nd at a level of a c c uracy that is se nsi b le bearing i n mind the methods you use. Ma k e sure there is a clear summary ta ble showing the values used to draw your graph .11 A .Make sure yo u record your data in a c lear tab le. so give this so me careful tho ught. There are a s ur prising number of basic errors in selecting and drawi ng gra phs of a suita b le type. • • Put units in the headings on ly.. selecting suitable size classes for eac h data set and then plotting a hi stogram for each on the same axes would a l low you to com ment on such thin gs as the spread of data. Recording 2 m i n 50s as 2. accurate headings i nclu ding un its . Do not use numbers of significant figures that cannot be justified by your method A simple way to apply t hi s rule is not to use a greater n u m b e r of s ig ni fi ca nt figu res tha n shown in your actual measurements.. �• .----._�c.. • R e m em b er to use zeros (2 is not the same as 2 00). • record time from a stopwatch as a decimal or as two units. 35 30 LJ 0 Key shaded area unshaded area . • It is better to leave a scattergram without a line rather than draw one by gu esswor k ..----- 600 500 25 . This is almost always meaningless when attempting to a n a lys e trends and patter ns in data a nd es pecia l ly when random sampling has been used. • • Use a consistent number of si g ni fi cant fi gu res for all data (in c ludi n g man ipulated figures such a s means).5min instead of 2. "f". " _ � :. 300 10 r---- 2 200 100 c "' "' f-- 0 0-99 100-199 20)-299 300--399 400-499 Area of leaf/mm 2 500--599 600--699 700-799 WI 0 unshaded area shaded area . � . which wo uld give yo u only limited i nformatio n on which to make detailed comments. However. starti ng with basic princi ples : • • Normally there should b e o n ly o n e or two graphs. Axes should have clear. any overlap and skewed distribution . not with individual readings. .2 ::> c E f-. This might lead to a very simple two-column bar graph. you may have two sets of samples fro m which you would calculate two means. If you are looking for significant differences in your i nv estigation.-: .

Take samples from each area.g. If the chance of getting these results is lower than the sig n ifica n ce level then you would reject the null hypothesis.05. It is very unlikely the averages will be identical so you can calculate the chance (probability) of obtaining results like yours.g. even if the two samples were not really different. This is a null hypothesis. �:u:�mp�es o'! !11 U � � �ypotheses • There is no significant difference in the numbers of mayfly nymphs found in slow­ flowing streams and fast-flowing streams.Unit 6: Practical B i o l ogy and Investigative Skills I Imagine you are taking random samples from two areas and you wish to decide whether they are different To make this decision scientifically you need to follow these rules: 1 2 3 I I I I Begin by assuming that the averages of the two samples are the same. You can use a re s ults of your stati sti cal t e st in arithmetical mean (average) .g. Spearman's Rank C orrelation test tests for significant association or 'goodness of fit' e.the middle value of your data where half the sample measurements are above this value and half are below mode . • . the test statisti c but not to explain median .the measurement which occurs the greatest number of times in your sample. This can be written as a probability of p=0.the sum of a l l the measurements divided by the number of measurements • compute r programme to calculate its meaning. C hi Squared test e • Other statistical �erms You cannot achieve more than 4/5 marks if you do not explain the You are also expected to understand the following terms where applicable: • your own words. using a statistical test 4 If the chance (probability) calculated is higher than the significance level then you must accept that your first assumption is correct and there is no difference. I I � �. To find this value for your data you normally have to calculate a test statistic and then look up the probability in a published table. t-test o r Mann Whitney U test test for significant correlations e. • There is no significant correlation between the abundance of creeping buttercup a n d soil moisture content.-. ' 1 - You are not expected to know the formulae or fine details of each test. � g n ificance ��ve�s In most i nvestigations you should use a significance level of 5% . The three types of test you are most likely to consider are: • : I ' te sts for s i gnifi can t difference e. �. You should concentrate on selecting the correct type of test and demonstrating your understanding of how to interpret the results. This means there are 5 chances in 1 00 that the results you obtain could occur even if there was no difference between the two sets of data.

For the highest marks you will need to evaluate your chosen sources. 'I set up a series of co l o u r standards to make my judg em ent of the end-point as accurate as It wo u l d be more accurate to filter my samples and use a coiori mete· to give a precise measurement. You must use your biolog1cal knowledge and link it very clearly to your data.It is vital that you begin by describing accurately the trends and patterns shown by your data. hypothesis that' o r 'agrees with the Poo r limitations : • • admiss1ons of practical mcompetence when describing li m i ta tion s tri a l experi m ent Good l imitations: • suggestions of l im ita :i ons that should have been eliminated by sensible planning or a possible but this was still very subjective. This will prevent you omitting importa nt details or repeating yourself. Use the advice given in other parts of this section of Unit 6 to tabulate your results accurately and choose the right form of graph.you should have thought about this in planning and JUSt doing more of the same will not normally improve your method modify your investio. Keep your sentences short but accurate and use a spelling check. . Use more cautious lim itations I t i s expected that you will take a n object1ve. critical look at the method you have used and assess how it might affect the reliability of your conclusions. The important question to ask yourself is 'no matter how carefully I carry out this investigation what factors could still cause variations in my repeat readings/' terms s u c h a s 's u p p orts the s u g g e st i o n th a t' . This does not mean simply adding a lot of biological theory. At this stage do not be influenced by theoretical expectations.Jation so that it begins to test a completely different hypothesis • Corru m u L"ll n �ati ng High-scoring reports always make it clear where each of the criteria has been addressed by using sub-headings. Avoid terms s u c h as 'proves that' or 'shows that'.' This section should follow from your analysis of limitations. You will be given credit for selecting information from sources in 'research & rationale' but for higher marks you must use at least one professional journal and list all your sources in a bibliography. identifying where in your report each has been used. especially for scientific terms. describing their credibility to scientists as a whole. If you have identified factors which could cause variations then what modifications could be made to your method to minimise their effect/ Don't: • simply suggest taki:1g more samples . The next stage is to try to interpret your results using biological pnnciples.

2 Catalyses reaction of carbon dioxide with RuBP.m content. light intensity/solar input.any three). predators. 12 NAOP ---\' ----+ [JU 1 glucosl! r------�� .. herbivores..----' f I I 12 gtycerate 3-phosphate r �-------·� 6 carbon dioxide i : ��- I j . herbivores. 1 X 104 so NPP= 0.NPP 2 The place where an organism lives and the role it = QQ 1 reduced NADP.-_. 3 I � �i(i.any three of: competitors. but only in the light. both in the 160 light and the dark.:=:::=::: - f------->-1 J<. i plays (job it does) there. �� 1 2 glyceraldehyde 3·phosphate � NAOP (GP} ::::. I permeable to many substances which need to enter or leave the chloroplast gated and active transport channels.8 10 : = 0. TT 1 First need to work out the energy that is actually transferred to consumers. biotic.salinity.t� cooto.any three of: competitors.any three of: TT 1 lOGALP l I . I :�::+lZP• -. At all other times both types of oxygen. predators.e.soil factors (as in I I I I I I I outer membrane inner membrane fully permeable many open protein channels 01 .8 X 104 1 . but not always. parasites. are being used in respiration therefore levels are falling due to this. temperature.e. predators. together with open channels 01 .� '---. It is sometimes. electron carriers photolysis enzyme(s) large surface area an organism is its I I enzymes for all UR stages including Rubisco e.5% QQ 1 In recreating RuBP and in the formation of GALP. what the pH is. b loss of electrons TT 1 The alga produces oxygen from the water it uses in photosynthesis. i. The fall in 2 in the light is offset by its release from water.1. parasites. any three of: pH.1 x 1 04 I 10 x 100= 12. which are chemically indistinguishable. organic matter 2 Niche is a combination of what an organism does (e. its feeding type) and where it lives. Woodland: abiotic. water content texture.9 X respiration loss.::t rrP��ory pigments.. 8 X 1 04 I Production of primary consumers so efficiency= 0·1 x X 0. herbivores. mineral content I thylakoid space granum provides a site for light-dependent reactions stroma light-independent reactions photolysis of water chlorophyll. other . biotic. Sand dunes: abiotic.( -r. easier to work out. ATP 2 a gain of electrons.soil factors (as in competitors.the 'address' and role of niche. Transect is a path along which occurrences of things are recorded (such as what plants grow there.. It is the total fixed minus I 104 .g. ..(tlt f(k.12 reduced :. = 0. biotic. particularly of percentage cover.any three). gridded to make estimates. - rf.. carbon fixation. used in the 'first' step.g. parasites. 3 I It is QQ 1 a soil factor. i. • � thylakoid light -dep wudl(�I � reactions membrane �.Urni t ! : lopRc 5 - I QQ 1 R GPP. where it does it. Rocky shore: abiotic. etc) Quadrat is a fixed area sampling device.

3 most rap1dly. n temperature records. QQ 1 E. most horses closely related/humans are not It should show that human activity has increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere by addmg more carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels and also decreasing the amount that plants and trees take in through deforestation. Use of biofuels would reduce use of fossil fuels and are carbon neutral as the C02 released 1n combustion has only recently . There is no significant (selection) pressure for change 2 They break down biomass and release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through respiration. temperature of body. return to holding tank after inspection. destroying habitats etc. n 1 Unot 4� TopQC 6 QQ 1 Any three from: l ife cycle of an insect. TT DNA has fewer differences (in racehorses). been f1xed 1n photosynthesis. ice core data. DNA Sketch of carbon cycle similar to the carbon cycle on page 26. the more likely the profile is to be unique. in the sandy shore we see all stages at the same time. TT 1 In both there is a change to conditions that suit other species. Both mineral content and water-holding capacity also increase. use a soft plastic pipette to get them out of the water. i. in the body we see only one stage. fingerp rints are likely to be more similar. QQ 1 reproductive isolation 2 Because the survivors must reproduce and pass on the favourable allele. pollen analysis. continues to rise throughout. succession of insects Because they had only been separated for a relatively short tiMe. probability of DNA profile being unique much smaller. (Or pupils may explain that evolution takes not just a few hundred years. but this falls away again as a few species eventually dominate. rigor mortis.g. in both there is a change in the species or distribution of species with time. . QQ 1 introns 2 Because the more STRs looked at. never observe for more than 5 minutes. mating times. � 0 � ·� eo 0 200 � ·� 0 i .e. This leads to an increase in species number. they are carbon neutral. The increase in photosynthesis levels will not be sufficient to balance the increase in carbon dioxide levels Species numbers reach a peak at 500 m from the reference poin t whereas the orga n ic matter content .n 1 30 :\eforestation would increase co2 intake from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. Conditions improve with distance from the reference point (on the beach) as organic matter accumulates in the soil due to death of plants. The disadvantage is that they take up land which could be used for growing food.ll � z QQ 1 The temperature at which it catalyses its reactions 2 The study of seasonal events such as flowering times. n 1 Must be handled properly (kept in water with at least 10 g of salt per litre and better to have 35 g salt /I). There are few species in the first two quadrats because these are highly specialised pioneers in harsh conditions. 2 Biofuels only release as much carbon as they have absorbed while t h ey are growing. make sure mouth of pipette widE enough. Although photosynthesis lEvels will increase it will be limited by other factors such as temperature or light levels.) The chance mutations that might be beneficial have not happened. migration. tree ring data. hatchmg t1mes. state of decomposition.

Slow-twitch fibres have a good 02 supply so they use aerob1c resp1rat1on to produce ATP which does not produce lactate. both nucleic acids. flagellum. QQ 1 Similarities. TT 1 DNA unwinds. mRNA strand assembled from coding strand of DNA. this does not take very long. populat1on of a named bacterium? molecule with anticodon at one end and amino acid at the other . mRNA associates with ribosome. (polypeptide chain bound to other chains or other molecules to make protein). long-term store of chemical energy. pilus. but developing new drugs does take a long time. sys tem if same 'intruder' encountered tn the future . I ��! Because the high temperature might slow down bacterial reproduction as well as enhance the immune response and phagocytosis.any two from: both reproduce. glycolysis. Reduced NAD is used to reduce pyruvate into lactate so that glycolysis can continue. anticodon on tRNA associates with codon on mRNA and polypeptides bind together to make polypeptide chain. glycogen is insoluble. ATP releases small quantities of useful energy when hydrolysed. T helper activation body cells as well as the 2 ATP is never stored. both have protein. capsule. phosphorylation. 3 Muscles can only contract (shorten) so another muscle acting in the opposite direction is needed to extend the contracted muscle once it relaxes. tRNA molecules bring amino acids to ribosome.template strand TT 1 Answers should include reference to four or more of the following points: rapid reproduction of the bacteria. 2 ATP is hydrolysed which causes the myosin head to change shape. enzymes. organic molecules. there is a wide variety of protetns. ATP also used in active transport of calcium ions back in sarcoplasmic reticulum. glycogen contains a lot of stored energy that is not immediately available for the cell to use. if same ' intru der ' inf ect ed cell help more rapid activation of immune encountered in the future produce antibodies activate B cells NAD is used to oxidise the triose phosphate (sugar) which produces ATP. 3 QQ 1 Which antibiotic is most effective in controlling the 2 Incubating below 30°C discourages growth of human pathogens. ATP binding frees the myosin from the cross-bridge.tRNA complementary copy of template strand. there is selection for the resistant phenotype or gene. there are many gene mutations or a relevant mutation is more likely in a given time. but can be rapidly produced or used in a cell. ATP is soluble. ribosome. glycogen is a large.any two from: bacteria have cell wall. protein synthesis. mesosome. there 1s a great deal of variation in microbes· ' microbes are selected.mRNA DNA transcribed to mRNA. DNA and/or RNA. Air is allowed into the Petri dishes to discourage the growth of anaerobes. Even if the last base of the codon is changed by mutat1on the correct amino acid will still be coded for. 3 Calvin cycle. muscle contraction (sliding filament theory).QQ 1 intron 2 Each amino acid is coded for by more than one codon. 2 QQ 1 Lactic acid/lactate builds up in fast-twitch fibres. Differences. (post-transcriptional changes take place). plasmid. cell membrane. mRNA travels out of nucleus into cytoplasm. 1 made from made from B cells after activated by anttgen on phagocyte destroy viruses or bacteria in infected help more B c e lls after T helper activation rapi d activa tion of immune system QQ 1 Any four from: active transport.

-� -- ------- - - -- � - ���� -

�--�-- ---------

...... ...... ......

""""'1

If

TT 1 Similarities: phosphorylation involved, hydrogen
carrier involved, ATP/glucose/tnose phosphate/ glycerate phosphate/eq involved; redox Differences: NAD/NADP; ATP produced/neede4. glucose used/produced; overall oxidation of glucose in respiration/reduction of C02 in photosynthesis, many more intermediates in Calvin cycle; cytoplasm/ chloroplast

increase; hairs raised on skin, behavioural responses such as increased movement, put on extra clothes, etc.

TT
Some animals have lots of fast-twitch fibres for speed and power, e.g. predators to catch prey. Some antmals may have lots of slow-twitch fibres, good breathing and circulatory systems (may be lightweight) for endurance, e.g. mtgratory birds who have to fly continuously for long distances.

QQ 1 carbon ---+ C02; hydrogen ---+ H2 0 2 Oxidative because the energy is transferred by redox
reactions. Phosphorylation because ADP gains a phosphate group.
3

QQ

Increased chances of obesity could lead to increased

blood pressure ---+ increased chance of damage to endothelium of arteries, higher concentration of low density lipoproteins---+ increased chance of plaque/ atherosclerosis-+ coronary heart disease.
2

Without 02 there will be nothing to accept the electrons (and hydrogen ions) at the end of the electron transport chain. The cell will run out of NAD and FAD so nothing can oxidise the compounds ;n the Krebs cycle (and link reaction)

Less cytokines released---+ less activation of specific B and T killer cells
-+

less chance of destroying

pathogen before tt can multiply enough to cause damage to tissues and create symptoms of the sore throat
3

TT 1 Glycolysis in cytoplasm, link reaction and Krebs cycle
in matrix of mitochondria, oxidative phosphorylation/ electron transport chain on cristae of mitochondria.

Transcription factors bind to the promoter site of the gene allowing the RNA polymerase to bind (transcription initiatton complex) allowing transcription to take place so mRNA can be produced

TT QQ 1 4.95 dm3 per minute 2 Sketch should inciJde repeated irregular QRS waves
without many (or any visible) P and T waves.
3

Opinions will vary, but your c:nswer may consider other issues such as sports equipment, funding and time for training, coaching, altitude training, and diet You should give your opinion and justify your answer.

Heart would conti1ue to beat because it is myogenic, but would not chc:nge in response to changes in the body. However, it vvould still be able to respond to hormonal changes such as the release of adrenaline.

TT 1 Short-term effects: stroke volume and heart rate
increase -+ cardiac output increases. Rate and depth of breathing (tidal volume) increases-+ ventilation rate increases. Long-term effects: stroke volume increases so resting heart rate decreases.

QQ 1 Photoreceptors detect light.
2

Positive phototropism in shoots enables them to grow towards the light. Roots are negatively phototrophic to help them grow down into the soil away from the ltght.

3

cell elongation

QQ 1 A change in a factor brings about a response that
counteracts the change so that the factor returns to a

TT The two systems worktng together provide greater coordination and control between short-term and long-term responses and changes. Nervous system is fast for immediate response, endocrine system includes control of growth and development.

2

norm value Core body temperature will rise above 37'C; heat stroke; hypothalanus may become damaged; enzymes may be denatured; membrane proteins may be denatured; transport and respiration may be impaired; coma and/or death may result.

3

Heat gain centre of hypothalamus stimulates effectors; sweat production nhibited; reduced blood flow to the skin, shivering, metabolic rate (of liver) may

Ill
QQ 1 Depolarisation makes the p.d . across the membrane
less negative (because positive sodium ions move into the cell), whereas with hyperpolarisation the p.d. becomes more negati ve (e. g . if negative chloride ions
3

looking at human brain development. You would not be allowed to do the same experiments on human children. Schizophrenia is mainly determined by genes, but there is probably a small envi·onmental influence.

I

I

2

The refractory peri o d means that the sodium ion

move into a cell at an inhibitory synapse) .

TT 1 There is no correct answer, but your opinion should be justified with ref erence to potential benefits of
developing the new drugs, rEquirement for animal tests before human trials, animal welfare/rights issues.

I

channels can not reopen which prevents another action potential be ng triggered. Synapses only have

receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.
3

Voltage-gated sodiJm ion channels open and sodium ions diffuse into the cell.

TT 1 Sodium ions move in during action potential,
potassium ions move out. During recovery, sodium

r I

ions diffuse out du -i ng resting potential/state. Other labels could include passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, osmosis, endocytosis, exocytosis, etc . wit h su itable examples.

ions pumped out and potassium ions in. Potassium

QQ 1 stimulus- jet of water-+ pressure receptor on siphon -+ sensory neurone -+ motor neurone -+ gill muscle response g ill withdraws 2 Sea slugs raised in the sea may already be habituated
-+ -

I

due to water currents and tidal changes in the sea.
3 G enetic programming (nature) is likely to be

responsible for innate reflexes, because they are not influenced by the environme n t (nurture).

QQ 1 In the dark rod, cells remain slightly depolarised
because of the opEn sodium ion channels and continually release the inhibitory neurotransmitter.
2 3

QQ 1 Dopamine is active in the part of the brain that deals
with emotions. The other symptoms of Parkinson's and the knowledge that there is no cure would also leave many people feeling depressed.
2 3

breaks down into opsin and retinal. Photoreceptors in plants are chemicals like phytochrome, in mammals they are specialised cells like rods.

L-dopa can pass into the brain and be made into dopamine. T he new drug may bind to serotonin receptors

TT 1 Rods are more sensitive than cones but do not detect
cell- three rod cells converging on a single b i polar cell in low light levels than a single cone cell. d1fferences in colour. Spatial summation at the bipolar cell have a greater chance of affecting the biopo l ar

and mimic the effect of seroto n i n causing action potentials to form.

TT 1

Del i very of drugs to the spec ific area of the brain in ti m e needed dif ficu ! Vimpossi ble . the correct concentration and released at the precise

QQ 1 The cerebellum is concerned with the control of
balance and movement, the cerebrum is involved in the ability to think, see, learn and feel emotions, etc.
2

QQ 1 Genes may be transferred into wild species.
2

t h e frontal lobes of the cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres)

Can be produced cheaply, in bulk and easily purified. The human protein is produced rather than using an animal protein so there should be fewer side effects.

TT

QQ 1 The child may become blind because the eye was deprived of l i ght during the critical window. 2 Kittens and monkeys have a similar vi sual system and brain to h u mans so they are good models for

1

Benefits: early treatmenVpreventative care; carriers can choose to avoid having children/use embryo/fetal screening. Disadvantages: stress for those with gene; cost ; some couples may choose not to have children; insurance issues; eugenics issues.

:Jni't: tJ.:
1

opit: 5
2
2

ref. at disadvantage in other environment; (Allow converse argument)
4

(a)

1. thylakoid/granum;

(c) faster life cycle of bacteria/converse/eq;
greater selection pressures on bacteria (e.g. antibiotic use); ref plasmid transfer in bacteria/eq; larger numbers of bacteria hence larger gene pool!eq; ref. mutation; 2

2. membrane;

(b) A ATP;
B

reduced NADP/eq;

(c) photolysis; (d) 1. less carbohydrate production;
2. less reduced NADP; 3. less reduction of carbon dioxide;
4. less ATP (to supply energy); 5. less conversion of GP to GALP; 4

Total

8

marks

Total
2

9

marks
1

(a) 1. C is bactericidal;
2. bactericidal kills bacteria;
3. B is bacteriostatic; 4. bacteriostatic prevents reproduction/growth; 3

(a) Measure {growth/height/number of leaves/mass/
dry mass}; Growth with copper and {without copper/control/ range of copper concentrations}; Reference to controlling variables; Reference to {repeats/means/calculation of percentage growth}; 2

(b) 1. bacterium is no longer affected by antibiotic A;
2. reference to mutation/changed {gene /DNA}; 3. reference to resistance;
4. reference to selection/eq; 5. reference to plasmid transmission/horizontal

(b) Plants compete/eq;
For {ions/water/nutrients/nitrates/tightlspace/eq} Tolerant plants less well adapted/converse/eq So tolerant plants {smaller/less dry mass}/ converse/eq Idea: Results are due to competition only because trays 1 and 3 growing the same; Manipulated figures;

inheritance;

4

(c)

1. lawn bacteria/eq; 2. reference agar plate/eq;

3. antibiotic in well!multidisc/eq;
4. incubation qualified; 5. measurement of clear area/eq; 6. bigger area implies more effective; 7. reference to safety/aseptic technique/eq; 4

4

(c) Decreases/more non-tolerant;
No benefit; Competes less well; 2

Total Total
8

11

marks

marks

2

(a) 1. similar route for infection;
2/3.examples of means of transmission;
4. immunosuppression in HIV/eq; 5. reference to opportunistic infection/eq;

3

(a)

(i)

GPP and NPP similar to start with; both increase; (after 2 days) GPP and NPP diverge/eq; figures in support; 2

2

(b) T(-ceii)IT-Iymphocyte/T-killer; (c) 1 . signal from surface protein;
2. activation of PKR; 3. ref. to protein synthesis/translation/eq;
4. no production of virus; 5. cell death/cell function disrupted:

(ii) more energy is used in metaboltsm/eq in {older/bigger} plants; figures in support; suitable explanation, e.g. protein synthesis/ flower initiation/differentiation/ref. to herbivores; more photosynthesis tissue; (as grows)/eq; 2

3

(d)

1.

rapid reproduction. more likely in given time;

2. many (gene) mutations/relevant mutation 3. ref. to variety of proteins;

(b) GPP-NPP=Rieq;
biomass production reduced by respiration/eq; 2
6

4. large variation;
5. selection; 6. of resistant phenotype/gene; 7. short time; 8.

Total
4

marks

long drug development time;

2

(a) proportion of total alleles;
for one gene (in a population)/eq; 2

Total
3

8

marks

(b) different alleles exist/ref. mutation;
advantage in specific environment; ref. selection pressure; more likely to reproduce; allele passed to offspring more often;

(a)

1. T helper cells {destroyed/damaged/reduced in

number/cell lysis/eq}; 2. no T killer cell {production/activation}leq; 3. B cells activation/plasma cells production/eq;
4.

(less/no) antibody production/eq;
4

5. phagocytosis/phagocytes;

.

4. 2 Total 7 marks (c) 6 1. 5. 4 (a) (characteristics) controlled by more than one gene/many genes. 3 dim light/night vision}/eq. 4. to sensory neurone. 4. ref. 4. slight delay at AV node. to inform health service {planning/budget/ priorities}/identify people at risk. ref. need rapid response to protect retina. correct use of figures. 3 (b) 1. 3. (c) A (cerebrum). the need to be particularly careful when of Ranvier. I mpulses pass along bundle of His. 5. 2. 2. circular muscles contract/radial muscles relax. 8. ref to motcr neurone. ref. 6. correct direction of impulse described/ 3 Total 6 marks ventricles contract from the base up. therefore the dog will have better {vision in Reference to airborne/droplet infection. 3. 2. to utilitarian philosophy. test {medicines/treatmen�s}lgive greater understanding of the {human/animal} body. {faster/eq} impulses due to. through {travel/team sports/idea of runners meeting from other areas}!eq. 2 Total 12 marks 2 (a) 1. to critical vvindow/critical period/sensitive 2 period. 2.4. to absorption of light (by phytochromes). passes over both atria. 3. 2. 3 4 Total 5 marks (a) B ( cere bell um). 8. ref. (b) (Only a small cut) because damage is less/less bleeding/less pain. idea that dog can look directly at object (in Total 6 marks 7 (a) sinoatrial/SA node /SAN /pacemaker. 3. growth of axons/formation of synapses/ (ii) 1. enviro nment has an effect/genes and environment (interact). to saltatory conduction. 3. e. to path og e ns/disease causing organism. . to phytochromes. i m pulses pass to the brain. dogs are {more active at night/nocturnal}/eq. 6. pupil {contracts /constricts/becomes (c) An explanation to include two from: 1. could have treatment in advance of onset visual stimulation is essential for visual development. ref . - people. (b) C (medulla). conversion of PR to PFR red light. 4. name two forms {PFR and PR/P730 and P660}. Total 3 marks Un�t 5: Topic 8 1 (a) (i) 1. 7. kittens less than 4 weeks old have not developed (visual cortex) {connections synapses} or kittens ove r 5 weeks old have already developed (visual cortex) (connections/ synapses} 3 breathing rate/depth of breathing/contraction of {respiratory/intercostals/diaphragm muscles}}. to visual cortex. to animal experiments helping to (a) (i) B (ii) A (muscle opposite) . (b) 1. 4 5 (ii) 1. ref. to innate/inborn/autonomic response. 4. ref. 2. 2 Total 4 marks smaller}. weakened/ suppressed immunity (with hard exercise). 2. 4. 5. 3. (light hits) photoreceptors (on the retina). to example. (b) 1 00%/above 95% suitably qualified reference to mutations. 2 3. expected benefits greater than expected harms/eq. resulting in ventricular systole. resulting in atrial systole. 2. ref.g. early {treatment/diagnosis} {may reduce problems later/may help determine the appropriate dose of medication}. (resulting in) increased {rate of ventilation/ 5. 6. along Purkyne fibres. (b) Any four from : dark)/eq. ref. (rods contain) rhodopsin. 5. 2. wave of electrical impulses/depolarisation from SA node. reduces chances of harm when testing on (c) ref . through fall in natural killer cells/phagocytes/ lymphocytesff helper cells/B and T cells. 7. avoid smoking/eat a special diet/avoid fatty foods/ more exercise. multifactoria l . impulses along parasympathetic nerve. to convergence/summation/eq. 1 . conversion of PFR to PR AND reference to far red l ight. of condition/ could make preparation for coping with problem/more check ups/closer monitoring. depolarisation only occurs at the nodes (a) the total of all the {genes/g 2netic material/DNA! alleles} in {humans/an organism 1 (b) (i) 1. ref. inactive synapses eliminated. 2. Recovery is rap i d/shorter stay in hospital/eq. 3 one knows one is pa-ticularly at risk. AND reference to 5. myelin acting as an {electrical/ eq} insulator. ref to Schwann cells producing myelin. 3. ref. Less risk of infection/inflammation. 3.

to determine m edi ca l research priorities. Any two from: without genet ic defects.1 3. those at risk/people might have to declare results of screening to get insurance. pressu re to have abortions/to avoid having chi ld ren. 6. im plicat i on for insurance premiums. advising people with defective genes about having ch i ldre n/d ecidi n g whether to abort I I I I I I I affected fetuses. cost too much/too much taxation. one of the points above from: 4. easier to cope if you don't know in advance/prefer not to k now/creates needless stress. 2. 2 1. 9. Any one development mark in the context of 7. 4. 8. 3. thus reducing cost /burden to society. 5. undue intrusion into people's lives by government/infringement of {civil liberty/ human rights}. lac k of confidence in {government/ {h ea lth/l i fe} insurance too expensive fer I administrators} to keep data confidential/ data protection issu es. 5. the benefits are not worth the r i s k s /costs. reduces insurance premiums for people (iii) 6. risk of discrimination. 3 Total 8 marks I I I I I I I I I I I .

2. reference to little fluctuation in the pollen data from different ages. 5. 3. {nutrient/eq} agar plate. (Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks ) (d) 1. low temperature of incubation below 30°C. (Accept reducing power. (Accept carriers have passed as electrons idea) 2 (ii) More inodence of TB in the population/eq. GP is (reduced)/ eq. 8. 2. (ii) carriers avc:ilable again/electrons passed to NADP/eq. pine was not growing but has become established rrore recently. systematic sampling /random sampling does (d) Award one mark for each of the following points.chlorophyll/eq. reference to distributed across several climatic zones. 3. Y) 3 . (c) 1. 2. 2. 2 5 (b) 1. appl1cation of sample of antibiotic described incubation described. 3. not show distribution/eq. (southern boreal and temperate regions) are warmer climates. {density/thickness/eq} of rings changes with climatic conditions/thicker ring indicates warmer year. Increase in number of new cases in Africa and Europe. 2 . (a) 1. reference to reduction. carriers can not {accept/take up/eq} 5 (b) (i) 1. reducing agent) 3. 3 6. 2 3. because RuBP cannot take up CO /eq. fixed/constant area. 8. ref clear/inhibition zone. 12 Total 2 marks 2. 3. Any relevant man1pulation of data. Decrease in number of new cases in Asia and South America. 2. 2 2. 3. Total 5 5 marks 6. 2 reference to a change between 8700 and 6390 years ago. (ignore Petn dish) {lawned/inoculated/spread/eq} with bacteri u m/eq. Y. to produce GALP/eq.NADP/ NADP+/eq. 2 3 mes osomes X Total 12 2 marks 4. because no GP {formed/available}/eq. ref aseptic technique/aspect of. 1. lower rates of immunisation against TB. 4. 5. increase in HIV infection. (boreal and temperate regions) are cold 6. cytoplasm 5.Unit 4 1 2. (larch/spruce) are only found in boreal and (Max 4 if no safe work1ng) Safe working - northern temperature regions (in present day). pine is only found in southern boreal and temperate regions (in present day). 2. 7. 4. tree types can be identified from their pollen. (/\\low mpts as 1 a ppl ied capsid they can be to their --------�---+-nucleic acid X X X ribosomes X )( incorrect reduced cycle/eq. 2 Total 12 marks 4 1. (b) 1. 4. A higher proportion of HIV positive people are infected by TB. reference to sampling. 3. 2. during light-independent {stage/eq}!Calvin (c) (i) 1 electrons return to chlorophyll (so there is fluorescence). 4 (c) Two from 1 . easy so can be repeated. immune system. 4. {larch/spruce} were growing but died out/eq. increased travel. HIV positive people have weakened 3. 5. climate has become warmer/eq. 3. 2. immigration from countries with high incidence of TB. (a) X. 4. (a) 1. pollen only produced by {fully-grown/mature/ eq} trees. 2. NADP stays reduced /NADPH not used/eq. Ref. sampling along changing conditions/ environmental gradient. Petn dish not completely sealed. because electron carriers are reduced. (because NADPH not used) all electron carriers reduced/path B blocked/eq. 7. 5. 2 (b) (i) D (ii) 1. to opportunistiC infection. trees need to {grow/eq} for a long time before maturity/eq. TB bacteria {mutate/become resistant to antibiotics}. valid comparisons possible. 5 climates. provides {H/electrons/eq}. idea that dendrochronology uses evidence from {tree/annual} rings. (therefore mere) electrons {return to chlorophyll/follow path A/eq}. 1. electrons. because rubisco inactivated/eq.

correct reference to ATP (supplies energy) for active transport/reference to sodium­ potassium pump/eq. (b) 1. 3.(c) 1. (iv) 1. 3. (iii) cristae/inner membrane/stalked particle. 5. d1fferent communities at different distances. 9. more coverage by plants in 5/converse. 4 (b) (i) 1. inhibits acetylcholinesterase/breakdown enzyme/(bungarotoxin) not affected by breakdown enzyme. calcium (ions) binds to troponin. who decides who deserves very expensive treatment on the NHS?. 3. more species in 5/converse. [this marking point could be a development of 3 marking point 2] Total 7 marks . 2 (b) (i) 1. reference to oxygen (concentration) decreasing/eq. actin slides over the myosin. to determine base sequence. correct ref.knowing something might happen may cause psychological stress even if it never happens in your lifetime/people may not believe test is reliable/people may not want to know. suited to more species further from beach. to chemiosmotic theory. hydrogen atoms split into protons and electrons/eq. {stress/anxiety}. (ATP)formed by {phosphorylation of ADP/ oxidative phosphorylation }leq. 2 (ii) 1. different species present. 5 10 {ATP hydrolysis/ATPase}. sodium ions pumped out (of the axon)/ restores (membrane to) resting potential. correct reference to oxidative phosphorylation. correct reference to ATP (supplies energy) for active transport/reference to sodium­ potassium pump/eq. reference to {ADP concentration/eq} is limiting. (ATP causes) myosin head to detach. 2. 3 1 (ii) reduced NAD/NADH/NADH2. (might be) climax community/mature community. to warn people when there is a risk that if they have children they may have genetic disorders. reference to competition. more organic matter in 5/converse. 17 more species). organic matter (increase with distance from beach). 8. 2. 3. to {sodium ion/Na+Jcation} channels/ hyperpolarisation/permanent depolarisation} of postsynaptic membrane. 4. electrons transferred along electron carriers/ a series of redox reactions/eq. data protection issues. rclcuse of ADP and inorganic phosphate. greater (decrease) when ADP is added. to plan medical provision (for the individual). 9. {civil rights/personal freedom}. few species near beach. 7.4g 3 more matter. 6. consequence of increased organic matter (e. (ii) 1. 4. oxygen is needed for respiration/eq. to determine NHS priorities/eq. may lead to (other ethically questionable) developments such as 'designer babies'/ eugenics/immigration. 2. 3. 4. (d) 1. to warn people at risk to take precautions/ make lifestyle changes. 7.g. 6. will make it easier to develop {ways of treating genetic deficiencies/gene 2 therapy}. may lead to discrimination over {jobs/ insurance premiums}. mineral content). no nerve impulses/action potentials/ continuous action potential/eq. {binds/blocks/fits 1nto} receptor on postsynaptic membrane. few dominant species. similar shape (to neurotransmitter). ref. ref to prevention of release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic membrane. reference to pioneer species. 6. to map (human) chromosomes/to find where each gene is located on (human) chromosomes. may mean people put under (undue) pressure to {have abortions/not have children}. {calcium ions/Ca2+} released from sarcoplasmic reticulum. 5. {protons/eq} move (into matrix) down a {concentration/electrochemical} gradient. 3. (a) 1. 2. 5. 7. 4. 2 Total 13 marks 3 (a) (i) 1. 5. 4. 3. international project (about human genes). 5.who will have access to genetic information about individuals. myosin head attaches to binding site/cross bridge formation. 4. 6. 5. 6. 2. 2. 2. 6. (pumps sodium ions out) of inner segment/ maintains (more) negative charge inside the membrane/eq. oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor/ water is formed. 3 times more plants. 4. 3. 5. 5. (troponin) causes tropomyosin to move. myosin head {moves/nods forward/eq}. 4.g increased water holding. 8. 5 Total 12 marks (a) 1. 8. exposing (myosin) binding sites (on actin). 2. 3.who should decide who should have genetic tests:>. 3 Total 8 marks 2 2. 2. 2. credit figures (e. 2. through stalked particles/ATP synthetase/eq. {protons/eq} moved into intermembrane space/eq. (oxygen used to) convert ADP to ATP (in respiration).

appropriate {reference to I description of} latent heat.6 and 46.55 x 12. This could be a problem because a rise in body temperature may help to kill bacteria (1) and increase the activity of macrophages (1) in the non-sr. They were therefore able to identify the human gene for malignant hyperthermia through compar son to the identified gene for porcine stress syndrome (2).) . increased me:abolism I shivering I eq. 2 Total 7 marks f therefore reduces fever in the body (1). increase in cardiac output increases volume of oxygenated blood reaching muscles. This allows myosin to join to actin (1) starting the contraction of the muscle. 3 marks) g Ca2+ ions are released into the sarcoplasm (1) from the sarcoplamic reticulum (1) i1 response to a nerve impulse arriving at the neuromuscular junction (1). 2 marks) Aspirin blocks the synthesis of prostaglandins (1) and 7 (a) (i) values between 0. 4. lowest {at 15 minutes I when 'he got out of bath'}.1 and 1. 4 marks. at the end of the race there will be less air flow over the body( 1) so less 5weat may evaporate (1). 2. 2 marks) c Sufferers of cystic fibrosis have a CFTR protein channel does not work (1) As a result less water moves from cells into sweat glands (1) so the sweat ends up with a higher concentration of salt than normal that can be detected in the sweat test (1) (Max. 2. (b) (i) a {series/seqLence/eq} of(chemical) reactions/ each step is controlled by an enzyme/product of one reaction is the substrate for the next/eq. Ca2+ ions attach to troponin (1) causing tropomyosin to move. (Max. D(and) F.0 and 42.3 x 36 =values between 3 9. 2. calculation. (c) (stages) B. generates heat I eq. (Max. 3. temperature dropped {from 0 to 15 minutes I when in the bath}. (stage) 3. 4. increased by about 6 times/increase of between 33. 2. increased diffusion of oxygen into blood(or muscle). 2 marks) d Marathon runners will generate a lot of heat during the race because of the high rate of respiration ( 1) However. This cooling can contin ue as long as the person is able to replace the water and salt lost due to the increased sweating (1) (Max. (Max. temperature of water lower than body temperature i eq. 1.4 ('>' 1. (3) Total 8 marks 5 Unit 5: Comprehension practice t"nodel answers a Temperature receptors in the skin and hypothalamus detect the rise in temperature (1) and cause an increase in the volume of sweat produced (1) The sweat evaporates from the surface of the skin taking heat energy away from the body (1 ). (Max. {carbon dioxide I low pH} stimulates breathing I eq. increased need for oxygen I eq. 1 (ii) As the minute volume increases the tidal volume(volume of oxygen breathed in) increases. (stage) 1. (ii) matrix of a mitochondrion. 4 marks) . 2 (b) (i) heart rate x stroke volume or volume of blood pumped out of the heart in 1 minute. (2) (as cycling speed increases) more carbon dioxideproduced.:ecific immune system. 1. credit a m2nipulated change in temperature. (2) (b) (i) 1. exposing myosin binding sites on the actin filaments (1). 2. (2) Total 4 marks 6 (i) pyruvate/pyruvic acid.9%). 3. 15 to 25 minutes: 3. answer(= 92. increased {from 15 to 25 minutes I when sitting on the chair}. (Max. heat lost by onduction (to water). b Inuit with short stocky bodies are at a selective advantage (1) because they have a lower surface area to volume ratio (1) and will therefore lose less heat to their surroundings. Total 6 marks (a) (ii) Porcine stress syndrome was noticeably similar to malignant hyperthermia (1). 3 marks) e (b) (a) 1.8dm3 min-1. evaporation of water(in sweat).4 to 0.8 and 6. reducing the effectiveness of the body's response to the infection. (ii) values between 1. C. This may cause the core te11perature to rise (1) resulting in a heat stroke. (evaporation) has a cooling effect I eq.6 dm3 min -1.0. (3) (b) (ii) 5 to 10 minutes: 1. 2 2. 3. =values 2 between 4.

39 19.56.56-7.80 11 eukaryotic cells 17-19.57 42 8-10.22 allele frequency 10-11.22-4.78 9-11.56.45.91 atmosphere atrazine 24 atria 50 axon 62-5.22.62.56.69.56.62.23.42.46.70 10.86 evidence 15.74.92 data ecosystems electrode electron 12.90 abundance 10 adenosine t riphosp hate (ATP) 93 adrenaline 45-9.34-6. 47.22 48-9.65-7.22.92 70. 74 depression 54.21.77.59.11 32-3.22.100 9.90 32. 11.26-7.54-5.15.18.68.77 environment enzyme 10.89 experiment fats ferm enters fibres flexors forensics fossil fuels gametes 8 1.42.61.91 21. 84-9.87. Charles 18.72.56.59.66.22.28-32.92 34.56 glucose 45.14-15.93 bacteriostatic biofuels biomass biotics blood bones brain stem 23. 48-9.91 global warming 8.54 debate decay 26-7 12. 22.36.78.26.28.32-5.22.35 AIDS 16-17.50.41-3.22.22.54.84.60.88 5 1.42.23.58.24. 17. 56 51.17-19.56.52.50-2.80 aerobic respiration 32.21-2.47.54.25.30. 90.24 28 57 17 9.41.92 disease distribution 12.91 8-11.36 decomposition deforestation 91 31.72-3.85. 40-1.36.36.36.81 17.91 evolution 45.73.30-1.19.67-8.47-8.76.91 12-13.59 8-9.68. 71-2.93 glycogen 45-9.58-9 50-1 11-12 66.75 dopamine drugs 55.40-1.22.87.38 19.36 antibodies 33-4 antigen a n tigen presenting cell 33 8.77-8 32.22.34-6.21.50-6.47 11.79.3 1-2.57.48.70-3.64.26.93 glycolysis 32 glycoproteins 11 granum gastrointestinal tract .25.54.26 13.26.94 diffusion 32-7.72-3.90-1 cardiac cycle cardio\·ascular disease cellulose cerebellum cerebral hemispheres cerebrum chcm iosm o sis 12 72 44-5.32-9.16-17.15.15.20-1.46-7.26-8.16.67-8. 45-6.93 electrophoresis entomology Calvin cycle cancer capillaries capsid carbohydrates carbon carbon cycle carbon dioxide 36 27 12-13.72.58-9.72-4.78 diabetes diastole 50-1 49.38-9.37.40.38 34.92 32-4.68.75 11.abiotics absolutist view 13.36 degenerate code dendrites 62 dendrochronology 18.89 46 17.70.41 94 depolarisation 70-1.53 66. 50-1.85-6.88.46-9.26-7.49.73-4.94 34 genital tract genomics 17 18-22.77-8.38.85.67 12-15.90 DNA 11. 22-3.72 44.43.19.54-5.90 18-19.24.18-19.74.94 66 66 48-9.82.36.70-2.80 anaerobic respiration 44-5 antagonistic pairs antibiotics 23.30-1.20.39.21-2.22 12-13.84.55-6.22-3.56-7 44 27.24.36.90 24-5 16 34 16 gene mutations genetics 17.44.17.92 amino acids 46-7.26.91 chemoreceptors chlorophyll chloroplast chromatography circulation climax community coenzyme concl usio ns condensation conferences consumers copper 13.81.22 28.86 exercise 9.62.75.13.80.56.22.22.10.68.90 54. 74 bacteria bactericidal correlation cortex cytoplasm Darwin.91 allele 16.84.

59 17.71 50-2.74.68-71.71.19.66.25 21 13-16.22-3. 36 21 9-10.81.78.42.58.53-4.65.62 68 15.78.75-6 61.56.91 28-9.94 11.54.10.47.59.77-8 38 12.54 9-11. 56 45 44-5. 32.80.59.26 62 10-11. 22.55 30-1.46-7.64-5.22.92 17.74. 59.78-9.27.90-1 .78 44-5.92 27. 62 10.66.graphs greenhouse effect greenhouse gas gross primary productivity growth rates habitat habituation health heart hepatitis C herbivores histogram 87 HIV homeostasis hormones hybrid sterility hydrogen hydrolysis hyperthermia hypothalamus hypothesis immune system immunity infection insulin interferon introns invertebrates investigation 87.69.74 45.22.20.90.35-9.47.34-6.44-5.24 8-11.93 51-2.78 44.93 8.43. 71.62-6.35.34.92 30-1.34.69-71.35 17.15.58.22-3.66.39 44.25.92 10.43 15.66.36.35.74.54-6.46-9.78 71.15. 26 54 60.67 11.25 44-5.52.74 32.42.32.66.61.85-6 46-7 26.48-9.56-7.78-9 16-17.57. 54.40.38-9 28 21.74 51-2.84 47-9.22.22 93 72 28 33 32.47.69.70.90-1 60-1.74-5.69-71.54-5 27.91 9 44.94 42.47-9.48-9 8-9.22.23.61. 11 60 9.56-61.30-9.21-2.37.89 79.30-1. nature nerve impulse nervous system neuromuscular neuromuscular junction neurone neurotransmitter nitrate nitrogen nodes of Ranvier nucleic acids nucleus nurture nutrients obesity optic nerve organelles organisms 72-4.22 69.42 52-3.22 16.38-9.85.60. 91-2 62 44 SO.14-17.54.93 39.51.76 12. 54.47 14.62-4.74 16 8-9.26.93 osteoporosis oxidation oxygen parasites Parkinson's disease pathogens peer review peptide phagocytosis phenology phosphate phosphorylation photolysis photoperiodism photophosphorylation photoreceptor photosynthesis phototropism pioneer species plasmids politics pollen polymerase polypeptide polysaccharides population potassium predators 54 9.74.34-6. 74-5 34-6.62-4.73.90 10.31.90 90-1 70-1.35-6 71.22.76 8-13.54-6.84-5.40-1.55-7.36 32-3.82 52-3.48-9 45-7 53.92 20.75.67.93 84-5.51.84.38.87 18-19 18 12.42 46 18-19.22 60-1.42.39.64.24.26-8.90 net primary productiYity isolation isotopes joints journals Krebs cycle laboratory lactic acid larvae ligaments light-dependent reactions light-independent reactions limpets lipids lipoproteins liposomes locus lymphocytes lysozyme macrophages magnetic resonance medulla mesosomes metabolism methane microbes microorganisms mitochondria 16.55.87-9 32-3.90-1 motor neurones MRI scans mRNA muscles mmation mutations myelin sheath myofibrils myogenic myoglobin myosm natural selection 60.22.23 10-11.69 21.74.78 32.22 34.22.60.26.57.94 57.78-9.46-7.92-3 30-1 27.74.58-9 16 68 45.39.58.56.15 13.82 72 32.93 13 32 21 18.22 30 32.36.80.28-9.81.

89 60 13 70-1 44.48.26.35.28-9 17.57 11 15 34 30-1.25-7.74-5.35-7.57 14-15. respirometer retina ribosome rigor mortis risk assessment 47.54.67.28.22.27. 72 94 17 13.85 62 44 44 44-5 68.64.10-13.91 54.20.22.73.67. 92 17.36-7.74.85.92 27 35.76 46-9.90 proteins 11-12.86.43 18 16-17 32.56.22.70-1 44.29.23.27.78 29.36.40-1.67-8.35. 74 21.29.82.62.39-41.44-5.47.22. 53. 23.94 62.promoter prosthesis 71.38-9. William woodland respiration 8.52.78 30-32.42.90-1 44 55 52.51-3.80. pupae pupil pyruvate quadrat receptors reduction reforestation relativist vievv reproduction research 90.15.61.30-3.56 15. 18.20-1.68. 91 64 8-10. saltatory conduction sarcolemma sarcoplasm sarcoplasmic reticulum schizophrenia Schwann cells science scientists sensory neurones seres serotonin skeletal muscle solar energy speciation species spirometer starch stimuli stroma succession Sun survival symptoms synapse technology temperature tendons testosterone thermoreceptors thylakoid membranes 56-7. 43.43.9' 13-17.27.20-2.78.55.67.42.70 19.45-9.69-71.77.56 15 16-17. 92.74.42 51 16-17 57 51-2.59 50-1 32-3.91 45 topography toxins transcription transect w I I l translation trees tropomyosin .39.55-6 14-15.35-6.56.17-18.63 60.91 51.89 1sodilation ventilation \'entricles vir us es \·ision Wilberforce.17.81 11-12 64.67 16.76.74.36. 77. 94 55 53 troponin tuberculosis \'agus nerYe variation · 45 32.23.43 30 13.56-8.78-9.64-7. 29.69 11 13.55.73.21. 84.92 39 60-1.39.

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