Fundamentals of Oil Industry

& Gas

By Hemant Kumar Domain Consultant Energy Practice

By the end of this presentation you’ll learn
• • • • • • • • The importance of energy in our lives Overview of oil and gas supply chain What are hydrocarbons Where do crude oil and natural gas come from How are they produced How are petrol, diesel etc are produced How are they delivered to us Who are various players in the industry

Chapter- 1 Introduction to Energy

You check your mails on your PC and find that you’ve won a quiz contest Picture This You read about the increase in crude oil prices in the newspaper You wash your most favourite T-shirt in washing machine You store the delicious dish you cooked last night in your fridge You spend quality time with your family watching a movie “dog’s life” .

And light bulbs/tubes keep your house glowing at night .Your house is sufficiently heated to protect you from cold weather.

The electricity comes from the power plant which runs on natural gas or coal .And all that needs electricity to keep your day to day life running smoothly.

Fortunately we have various ways to do that Train for long distances Public Transport for daily commutation Our personal vehicles for outings Planes for faster long distance travel And we need roads for our vehicles to run on .And Picture This Also World is not so small and we require the means to move from one place to another.

And we need fuel for all these modes of transport. Unless of course you want to use a bicycle To build roads we need TAR which is also called COAL TAR…… .…….

And can we live without food? Thanks to cooking gas. preparing food is no more inconvenient Plastic bags are widely used to carry the vegetables and other food items Vegetables we love to eat also need fertilizer We need fertilizer to grow the food crops .

recreation. The all-important energy comes from various sources like Crude oil & Natural Gas Wind Water Coal Sun . we live. travelling.. The way.To cut a long story short. needs lot of energy. for preparing foods. comfort and safety.

geothermal. gases and solids. Crude oil & Natural Gas Biomas s Wind Geothermal Sun Water Non Renewable Nonrenewable energy sources come out of the ground as liquids. and biomass. wind. crude oil and natural gas are all considered fossil fuels because they formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago Nuclear Fuel Coal .Types of energy Renewable Renewable Energy is energy derived from resources that are regenerative (can be replenished in a short period of time) or for all practical purposes cannot be depleted Renewable energy accounts for about 14% of the world's energy consumption The five renewable sources used most often include hydropower (water). Non-renewable sources of energy can be divided into two types: fossil fuels and nuclear fuel Coal. solar.

which are nonrenewable energy resources. we also need to know where it comes from.Welcome to Oil and Gas industry • Now that we have understood the importance of energy in its various forms. When we talk about hydrocarbons. produced and delivered to us by oil and gas companies who engage in multiple activities which will be described in this presentation So let’s get ready to learn about oil and gas industry. In the next chapters we’ll try to know more about hydrocarbons which are very important source of energy and critical to our economic growth and survival. contribute almost 50% of the total world energy requirement. we should know that they are found. • • • Finding & producing hydrocarbons Transporting hydrocarbons Refining hydrocarbons Selling the petroleum by products . Hydrocarbons (oil and gas).

Industry is organized into three broad categories based on the activities performed Platform Producers Upstream Midstream Downstream Retail .Petroleum Value Chain Picture below gives an overview of the supply chain of the oil and gas industry. Truck Refineries Wellhead Producers Terminal/Storage/H ub Location Bulk Terminal Storage Gas Stations Platform Producers Platform Producers Source:http://www. They are mainly a) Upstream (Finding & producing hydrocarbons) b) Downstream (Refining hydrocarbons and producing saleable petroleum byproducts) c) Retail (Selling the byproducts to all the users who need them). though is not a very popular term is used to describe the transport part.

2 Origin of Oil & Gas .Chapter.

What Hydrocarbons are • Hydrocarbons are naturally occurring chemicals that are made up of just two elements – carbon and hydrogen. • Chemicals based on carbon and hydrogen are called as hydrocarbons • The Simplest Hydrocarbon is methane (CH4) is made up of one carbon. four hydrogen atoms • From now we’ll use terms hydrocarbons and oil & gas interchangeably (which is perfectly alright) .

i. silt and mud.eia. As soon as the oxygen is used up. the remains were covered by layers of sand.. Over the years. Continued burial. These produce tiny droplets of hydrocarbons Source.http://www. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth.html#How%20used .e. the hydrocarbons. decay stops and the remaining organic matter is preserved." Nowadays the terms petroleum is used as a common denotation for crude oil and natural Heat and pressure from these layers helped the remains turn into what we today call crude oil .doe.Origin of Oil and Gas Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment even before the dinosaurs. subject the organic matter to higher temperatures and pressures. which cause physical and chemical changes in the organic. Hydrocarbon Formation Once the body of prehistoric animals and plants became trapped they partially decomposed using up the dissolved oxygen in the sediment.

What a petroleum bearing rock looks like • Oil can be found with in the depth of ranging between 2km – 9km .Origin of Oil and Gas Facts • Oil & gas do not occur in an underground pool but lies in the pore pace of the rocks which are also called the source rocks • The oil & gas are forced through the rock on account of three reasons •Expansion of the oil itself •Expansion of gas from above •Pressure of the encroaching water from below.

Sounds simple!! Isn’t it? Except that a petroleum reservoir is more complicated in its nature and very difficult to find out. You can imagine a sponge soaked with water or petrol. in its pores. take a bucket. A rock will contain the hydrocarbon the same way. A word of Caution: Don’t try it at home ☺ If it’s very difficult to do. Try mixing them together and resulting mixture would resemble a reservoir. don’t worry. Does it make life difficult for those looking for large deposits of oil and gas? Not exactly! .Origin of Oil and Gas-Do it yourself You can visualize what a rock containing crude oil & natural gas would look like. a can of petrol and gas. As shown in the picture below. However a source rock as we call it will be no good on its own as oil & gas therein will leave the source rock and migrate to other areas.

oil and gas originate in source rock and once fully formed they start moving towards the surface through channels in the rocks surrounding the source rocks.Petroleum System As we learnt. Petroleum SystemIs a oil & gas bearing structure containing source. reservoir and cap rocks. An oil & gas field consists of one or many such petroleum systems Petroleum System Source Rock Pore is a small open space between the rock particles Permeability is provided by the channels connecting different pores .Origin of Oil and Gas. Once their upwards movement is impeded by non permeable rocks also called trap or seal or cap rocks they tend to accumulate in the porous (containing pores) and permeable rocks also known as reservoir rocks.

3 Oil & Gas Exploration & Production .Chapter.

Finding Oil & Gas Oil & gas fields are identified using seismic data which is obtained from Seismic Surveys Seismic Data Acquisition Seismic Survey Seismic Data obtained from Seismic Survey Computer generated model of underground rocks and trapped oil&gas reserves Seismic Data processed at the Workstation .Exploration.

This allows the working platform to rest above the surface of the water. Used in shallow depth Jack up Rig Semisubmersible Rig Drill Ship Semi-submersible Rig.floats and retains its stabilized position by means of anchors fixed on the seabed.Exploration. .is a ship designed to carry out the drilling operations in deep water. as opposed to other floating rigs.Finding Oil & Gas To confirm the interpretations of the seismic data. A drill ship must stay relatively stationary on location in the water for extended periods of time. drilling is done which is also called as exploratory drilling. Used in deep waters Sea Bed Water Level Drill Ship. Drilling is done using drilling rigs each adapted to different water depths (more than 2000 m in some cases) Jack up Rig. dynamic propulsion (thrusters) or a combination of fitted with long support legs (3 0r 4) which are lowered until they rest on the sea bottom. This positioning may be accomplished with multiple anchors.

Exploratory Drilling Once an area has been selected and the right to drill thereon has been obtained. A drill string is composed of hollow lengths of pipe leading to the surface. The most common method of drilling in use today is rotary drilling. which is the most important part and also is hollow and very heavy. Rotary drilling operates on the principle of boring a hole by continuous turning of a bit. is attached to the drill string. Drill Bit . actual drilling may begin. The bit. As the hole gets deeper. more lengths of pipe can be added at the top.Exploration.

Oil ••Drilling aawell is aavery costly activities especially in deep water. The life of an oil field continues for many years years Production Production . On an average the strike rate varies between 5% to 15%. quantity of oil and gas do not justify the investment in development. It also means the of them would be dry holes. On an average region where exploratory activities are being performed.e.Oil & Gas Production Exploration Exploration •Oil companies have to drill many exploratory wells before discovering •Oil companies have to drill many exploratory wells before discovering aa potential oil filed which is also called as prospect. decision is taken whether to develop the field for commercial extraction or stop further activities in case the producible for commercial extraction or stop further activities in case the producible quantity of oil and gas do not justify the investment in development. For example 10% strike rate the strike rate varies between 5% to 15%. It also would mean one prospect among 10 exploratory wells drilled. extraction can start. studies and the eventual construction of the installations constitute the development stage of the field. means the 99of them would be dry holes. extraction can start. Once everything installations constitute the development stage of the field. attempting to recover the maximum quantities of oil and gas in the safest attempting to recover the maximum quantities of oil and gas in the safest conditions. The success rate also known as strike rate depends on the geological history of the particular known as strike rate depends on the geological history of the particular region where exploratory activities are being performed.e. These forecasts. Once everything is in place. drilling more wells in the area confirmed by appraisal drilling i. Drilling well is very costly activities especially in deep water. Oil companies are using the modern technologies to increase the strike rate companies are using the modern technologies to increase the strike rate during exploration during exploration •Hydrocarbons discovered by the initial exploration wells are further •Hydrocarbons discovered by the initial exploration wells are further confirmed by appraisal drilling i. •Enormous thought goes into the best way of extracting the hydrocarbons. decision is taken whether to develop the field •Following appraisal drilling. drilling more wells in the area •Following appraisal drilling. studies and the eventual construction of the conditions. These forecasts. The life of an oil field continues for many is in place. For example aa10% strike rate would mean one prospect among 10 exploratory wells drilled. The success rate also potential oil filed which is also called as prospect. •Enormous thought goes into the best way of extracting the hydrocarbons.

Thus. However drilling horizontal involves a lot of technical complexity and is also more costly Reservoir Small Drainage Area for Vertical Well Large Drainage Area for Horizontal Well . such wells only cross the reservoir over the limited height of a vertical or near vertical cross section. •. at least several km² and sometimes more than 100 km² A traditional well (vertical or slightly deviated) only draws oil or gas from a radius of a few tens of meters.Oil & Gas Production Production consists of bringing the hydrocarbons contained in the subsurface to the surface. the technique enables a significant reduction in the number of wells necessary for a given development. Question is. The horizontal well has a much greater length of contact with the reservoir. how many wells are required? Imagine A field spreads over a vast area. A large number of vertical wells would therefore be necessary to completely extract the contents of a reservoir. Moreover. This requires the use of a large number of wells.

safety equipments and other installations are set up.Oil & Gas Production. To ensure safe production from the high pressure fields.Development It’s not enough to drill wells in a field to ensure production. The picture below shows an offshore oil platform which takes production from 10-12 wells housed within the platform Oil Wells .

4 Oil & Gas Transportation .Chapter.

gas and water are separated and impurities like condensate.Transportation The crude oil & gas transportation begins from the wells where production from different wells is taken to a large processing platforms via small diameter (2-8 inches) pipes. refineries & gas processing units via pipelines or tankers (more about these later) . sulfur. At process platform oil. After processing crude oil and gas are sent to the their respective destinations. hydrogen sulphide removed.

FPSO’s find their application in sub sea wells in remote and deep water fields. In a sub sea well wells are located on the seabed as opposed to the conventional wells at the surface Oil Tanker The FPSO is usually a decommissioned oil tanker which has been stripped down and equipped with facilities to process and stabilize the crude oil and enable it to be connected to another oil tanker or transport tanker.Transportation FPSO ( Floating Production Storage Offloading) are used where it’s not possible or economically justifiable to install sea bed pipelines or expensive process platforms. at which point the transport tanker connects to the stern to the stern or bow of the FPSO and offloads the oil. Sea Bed . Oil is processed and accumulated in the FPSO until there is sufficient to fill a transport tanker.

Broadly there are four modes of oil & gas transportation Pipeline. Let’s learn a little more about them . volume. Since most of crude oil & gas are found in remote places like deserts. Railways & Trucks. Sometimes many modes of transports are utilized to achieve this goal. However in majority of the cases Maritime (large oil tankers) and Pipelines are the most preferred means of transport. distance. sea or hills. accessibility. transportation of crude oil to its destination (refineries) is sometimes very complicated. Maritime Pipelines Truck Railways Many factors determine the choice of one mode of transport over another like cost. Maritime. the need to be sent to the refineries/processing units for further processing. time and availability.Transportation Once the crude oil and natural gas are separated.

of any nation in the world. has significant portions of the system above ground. is extensive. up to several tens of millions of tons per year. it’s one of the of the largest pipeline systems in the world.S. The oil travels in the pipelines at speeds of around 2m/sec (7km/h).Oil Transportation-Pipelines Pipelines are large diameter tubes that can transport enormous quantities of oil. 800 mile long. The oil circulates by means of pressure maintained by pumping stations located every 60 to 100 km. Carrying capacity of a pipeline is expressed in terms of thousands barrel per day Pipeline shown in the picture is Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). unlike most pipelines. pipelines permit the movement of crude oil to these areas with little or no disruption to communities everywhere. Since oil is produced in areas far away from major marketplaces where population and manufacturing centers are located. that connect regional markets . The United States has the largest network of energy pipelines – both oil and natural gas -.S. Due to the very nature pipelines are considered to be the safest. There are approximately 55. The network of crude oil pipelines in the U.24 inches in diameter) in the U. It’s also the most photographed pipeline as it.000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 . most efficient and economical way of transportation. Pipelines are owned by the oil companies or third party operators who lease the pipelines to the oil companies.

Small size vessels used for short hauls (carrying capacity. based on their carrying capacity. In order to benefit from economies of scale companies typically charter the largest possible vessel that can be accommodated in their arrival and discharge ports. and the top ten owners account for 26.80. independent owners account for approximately 80.000 to 80.Mid size vessels used for short to medium hauls(carrying capacity.000 dwt and greater) Suezmax and Aframax.4% of the tanker capacity.10.000 dwt) • • • The seaborne crude oil transportation business is highly fragmented and is generally provided by two types of operators: independent ship owners and captive fleets of privately and state owned oil companies.Oil Transportation-Maritime Maritime transport involves transporting crude oil through large oil tankers. The six categories of vessels are: ULCCs and VLCCs (Ultra and very large crude oil container) – Largest vessels used for long hauls(carrying capacity.000 dwt). These two are most commonly used. Within the industry.200.000 to 200. The oil tanker fleet in divided into six major categories. Panamax and Handysize.4% of the world tanker fleet .

planete-energies. things are quite different. for the same quantity of energy. it occupies a volume 600 times greater than that of oil.Gas Transportation Overall. This means that. the gas is in a gaseous state at normal pressures and temperatures.http://www. But in detail. These gas pipelines are not visible: for reasons of safety and security they are buried underground. That would cost … 600 times too much! The most usual method of transportation is therefore by gas pipelines. liquefied natural gas) is used Source. Overland or underwater transport by gas pipeline is preferred. with the aid of compression plants positioned at regular intervals along the network. there is no question of chartering vessels to transport gas in its gaseous state. Therefore. a method of maritime transport based on the liquefaction of the gas (LNG. The compressed gas circulates at high speed in a gas pipeline. the problems of transport and of storage of gas are the same as for oil. production and consumption points are far apart and gas has to be taken from one to the other. Unlike oil.html . In certain cases where the construction of gas pipelines is technically impossible or too

They are committed to holding stocks of petroleum products (crude and finished products) equivalent to 3 months of import quantities. These commitments have been incumbent on members of the European Union since 1968.Crude Oil Storage • • • At the marine terminal. the cargo of crude oil is discharged through pipelines to storage tanks in the refinery Storage tanks come in varying size (more than 500. Depending on the country.000 litres) and can often be buried underground due to safety and security reasons In addition. the developed countries have realized for a long time now the strategic importance of oil. the strategic stocks are managed by state or private organizations (or both) • Storage tanks at a marine terminal Storage tank .

and there is no need to refrigerate the gas to liquefy it as in LNG.html . Only drawback is that such ideal sites are not numerous and in most of the cases liquefaction of gas to convert it into LNG is the only option Ariel view of a LNG plant • Source. Underground reservoirs offer enormous storage capacities to the extent of billions of m³. so that injection of the gas is not too expensive in energy storage of gas is essential.Gas Storage • Due to reasons such as seasonal fluctuation or supply-demand change.http://www. There are two ways to store the natural gas. All one need is a suitable geological site which must must possess good reservoir and cap rock conditions and be located at a sufficiently shallow depth (around 500m).planete-energies. in LNG form in large tanks & underground reservoirs.


• Oil Spill Pipeline Leak The largest oil spill involving a U. everything must be done to avoid pollution. the main issues are those of safety. vessel occurred when the Exxon Valdez oil tanker emptied 11 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound off the coast of Alaska in 1989. 1. 10. Storage facilities ensuring total safety and security must therefore be planned for petroleum products. killing hundreds of thousands of birds and marine animals and soiling more than 1. not only accidental oil spills but also the deliberate discharging of polluting products such as the residue from tank and bilge cleaning. .200 miles of rocky beach. At sea.2 billion to clean up the spill. It took company four summers. Most dangerous are oil spills which pose enormous threat to the environment Same precautions go for storage also as enormous quantities of oil transported are not used immediately.S.000 workers. On land the state of oil pipelines must be continually kept under surveillance and worn equipment replaced.Transportation & Storage-Safety Aspects • Whether oil is transported from production sites to the refineries by maritime or pipeline methods. security and respect for the environment.000 boats. 100 airplanes & $1.

Chapter.5 Oil Refining .

sulphuric or acid products which are very corrosive for metals That is why the crude oils must be purified and transformed into products having an almost constant composition.Refining Crude Oil Why do we need to refine the crude oil? Why can’t we build engines that run on crude oil? We need to refine the crude oil because • Crude oil is an unstable mixture of several hydrocarbons in varying quantities according to the density of the products • There is not one type of crude oil but a multitude of different crudes • Different crudes contain dissolved gases. These transformations are carried out in refineries. well adapted to their use. Let’s learn more about the refining and refineries… .

a refinery takes crude oil and turns it into gasoline and hundreds of other useful products. Gasoline. Fuel oil. Lubricating oil. Typical refinery products are LPG. 365 days a year and requires a large number of employees to run.Introduction to Petroleum Refinery A refinery is a factory. Diesel. Kerosene. Workers ride bicycles to move from place to place inside the complex. A refinery can occupy as much land as several hundred football fields. Asphalt and Tar . A typical refinery costs billions of dollars to build and millions more to maintain A refinery runs twenty-four hours a day. Paraffin wax. Just as a paper mill turns lumber into paper.

Output is commercial products which are used by us Crude Oil Primary Processing Raw Products Secondary Processing Commercial Products Separation Conversion . b) Conversion (Cracking) and c) Reforming d) Blending & Treatment Crude oil contains many components which differ in boiling points. Moreover crude oil can be categorized under •Light •Heavy (Asphaltic) •Sweet (Non-sulfurous-less than 1% of sulfur) •Sour (Sulfurous-more than 1% of sulfur)) Crude oil processing consists of two parts Primary Processing. refining breaks crude oil down into its various components. All refineries perform four basic steps: a) Separation (Distillation).What does refining actually do? Essentially. which then are selectively reconfigured into new products.Output is raw (primary) products Secondary Processing. relative solubility.

including kerosene and diesel oil distillates. The lightest including gasoline and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). where they condense back to liquids. vaporize and rise to the top of the tower.Primary Processing-Separation Primary processing involves distillation at atmospheric pressure or under vacuum.) Source.eia.html . while the heaviest fractions with the highest boiling points settle at the bottom. Medium weight liquids.http://www. called gas oils.doe. (Heavier liquids. Distillation causes separation of breaking up of crude oil into various petrochemicals Inside the towers. separate lower down. stay in the middle. the liquids and vapors separate into components or fractions according to weight and boiling point.

Primary Processing-Separation AS we learnt that distillation is done using two methods a) Atmospheric distillation b) Vacuum Distillation Atmospheric distillation Vacuum distillation .

Secondary Processing-Conversion Primary products require further adjustment of chemical composition in order to become suitable for sale or petrochemical processing.html . The process. into high-octane gasoline components. We’ll learn more about these processes Source.doe. skinny towers that loom above other refinery structures. Conversion is directed towards maximum gasoline production Cracking unit Cracking is not the only form of conversion. heat exchangers and other vessels. horizontal vessels and tall. moderate pressure and catalysts to turn naphtha. Alkylation’s. instead of splitting molecules. relatively low-value fraction. rearrange them to add value. A cracking unit consists of one or more tall. Reforming uses heat. bullet-shaped reactors and a network of furnaces. This transformation takes place during conversion stage. thick-walled. a which essentially is cracking in reverse. Other refinery processes. for example.eia. The most widely used conversion method is called cracking because it uses heat and pressure to "crack" heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter ones.http://www. takes place in a series of large. makes gasoline components by combining some of the gaseous byproducts of cracking.

oil is cracked in the presence of a finely divided catalyst which is maintained in an aerated or fluidized state by the oil vapors. significantly lowers the viscosity of heavy crude-oil residue without affecting the boiling point range. wherein heavier feedstocks are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce more desirable products. FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING HYDROCRACKING Hydrocracking is a two-stage process combining catalytic cracking and hydrogenation.Secondary Processing-Conversion Some of the conversion processes are shown below VISBREAKING A mild form of thermal cracking. DELAYED COKING . In delayed coking the heated charge (typically residuum from atmospheric distillation towers) is transferred to large coke drums which provide the long residence time needed to allow the cracking reactions to proceed to completion.

For example. .Reforming Reforming is another process designed to increase the volume of gasoline that can be produced from a barrel of crude oil. Hydrocarbons in the Naptha (another petroleum byproduct) stream have roughly the same number of carbon atoms as those in gasoline. Reforming rearranges Naptha hydrocarbons into Gasoline molecules CATALYTIC REFORMING Catalytic reforming is an important process used to convert low-octane naphthas into highoctane gasoline blending components called reformates. but their structure is generally more complex.

sulfur. such as whether the gasoline will be used at high altitudes. oxygen. To make gasoline. .Blending & Treatment The finishing touches occur during the final treatment. Impurities like Sulfur are also removed to make Gasoline as clean as possible CATALYTIC HYDROTREATING Catalytic hydrotreating is a hydrogenation process used to remove about 90% of contaminants such as nitrogen. vapor pressure ratings and special considerations. refinery technicians carefully combine a variety of streams from the processing units. and metals from liquid petroleum fractions. Among the variables that determine the blend are octane level.

http://www. the same barrel can be processed to yield more heating oil in winter. it gets bigger after it is popped.doe. You can see below that petroleum in its more refined form contribute heavily to the modern economy. However that would also mean something else will be produced Source. Wax Fuel Oil Power Station Tar (bitumen ) for roads If you are still wondering how much of what is produced here is a general breakup of the quantity of petroleum products produced in a refinery.html#How%20used .Some More About Refinery To Summarize every barrel of crude holds remarkable potential. This gain from processing the crude oil is similar to what happens to popcorn. However the product mix can be changed as needed. For example. It provides the building blocks for countless products we depend on every day. Bottled Gas Petrol Other Products Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Chemical Works Heavy Fuel Oil Jet Fuel Jet Fuel Diesel Fuel & Heating Oil Gasoline Diesel Fuel Lubricating Oil Don’t be surprised to know that a barrel of crude oil after refining will provide slightly more than 1 barrel of petroleum products.eia.

Some More About Refinery
Types of refinery
•Topping – CDU •Hydroskimming – CDU + Reformer •Cracking – CDU + Cracker •Coking – CDU + Cracker + Coker

Some of the refineries we may not have heard of
In India
•Haldia Refinery (IOC) 116,000 bpd •Panipat Refinery (IOC), 240,000 bpd •Digboi Refinery(IOC), 13,000 bpd •Gujrat Refinery(IOC), 68,000 bpd •Barauni Refinery (IOC), 116,000 bpd •Guwahati Refinery (IOC), 20,000 bpd •Mathura Refinery (IOC), 156,000 bpd •Bongaigaon Refinery(BRPL), 48,000 bpd •Manali Refinery (CPCL), 185,000 bpd •Jamnagar Refinery (RIL), 660,000 bpd •Mumbai Refinery (HPCL), 107,000 bpd •Vizag Refinery (HPCL), 150,000 bpd •Mumbai Refinery (BPCL), 135,000 bpd •Kochi Refinery, 146,000 bpd •Numaligarh Refinery (NRL), 58,000 bpd •Mangalore Refinery (MRPL), 190,000 bpd

World's Largest Refineries
•Paraguana Refining, Venezuela - 940,000 bpd •SK Corporation, South Korea - 817,000 bpd •Reliance I, India - 661,000 bpd •GS Caltex, South Korea - 650,000 bpd •Exxon Mobil, Singapore - 605,000 bpd •Reliance II, India (proposed) - 580,000 bpd •Exxon Mobil, Baytown, USA - 557,000 bpd •S-Oil, South Korea - 520,000 bpd •Hovensa LLC, Virgin Islands - 495,000 bpd •Exxon Mobil, Baton Rouge, USA - 493,500 bpd •Shell Eastern, Singapore - 458,000 bpd

Chapter- 6 Oil Distribution

Oil Logistics
Each one of us is a user of petroleum products. Between the refinery, where heating oil, diesel, petrol and gas are produced, and the end user, there is a distribution network that is responsible for getting these products to their final destination. Making available to each person the right product, at the right time, at the right place and at the lowest cost and in optimum conditions of safety and security, is the objective of petroleum logistics.

Am overview of petroleum distribution network

and aviation fuel A petroleum depot consists of 10 to 30 steel tanks.000 and 300. Each depot has 3 to 12 loading bays for the road tankers that will deliver the products to different consumers. In absence of any intermediary storage centres. on average between 10. A tank can be as large as 60 000 m3. Other advantage of having depots is smoothening demand-supply imbalance caused by increased demand or disruption in supply.Oil Logistics.000 m3. That’s where strategic stocks also come into picture The petroleum products are taken from the refineries to the depots by bulk transport methods: pipelines. it would require large numbers of road tankers covering enormous distances everyday to meet the consumption needs.Petroleum Depots Taking the petroleum products directly from the refinery to the customer is a complicated task.planete-energies. The products are regularly inspected throughout the whole distribution chain. to guarantee the maintenance of product quality and the absence of contamination by mixing. as well as special diesel fuels used by farmers and fishermen. The principal products stored are heating oil. petrol and diesel. from the refinery to the end user. Depot capacities are very variable. trains of tanker wagons. river/canal barges.http://www. boats. Petroleum depots are used as intermediate storage to serve a particular Ariel View of Petroleum Depots Source.html .

Oil Logistics-Delivering to the End User Last step in petroleum supply chain is delivering the finished products to all the users who need them. the distribution network involves intermediate stages. large numbers of road tankers deliver fuel to filling stations and heating oil and gas to individuals and to companies. are supplied directly from the refineries by rail (tanker wagons). The major users. From petroleum depots.adventuresinenergy. Refinery Delivering fuel to the consumers Road Tankers Depots Hypermarket Petrol Pumps Petrol Pumps Petrol Pumps Source:http://www. industrial plants. Let’s know more about these filling/gas station. by river and canal barges or even by pipelines carrying finished . For the other consumers like us.

fueling station. The most common fuels sold are gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. the term service station ("servo") describes any petrol station. And finally in Indian English. . In Japanese English.“ Elsewhere in the English-speaking world the form "petrol station" or "petrol pump" are used. The term "gas station" is mostly used in the United States and Canada. compressed natural gas (CNG).Oil Logistics-Gas Station Filling station. it's called a Petrol Pump or petrol bunk. where petrol is known as "gas" or "gasoline. biodiesel. In Australia. hydrogen. or kerosene. it is called a "gasoline stand". Some stations carry specialty fuels such as liquified petroleum gas (LPG). ethanol. gas station or petrol station is a facility which sells fuel and lubricants for motor vehicles.

from the refinery to the end user.htm . to guarantee the maintenance of product quality and the absence of contamination by mixing.phmsa.Gas Logistics The products are regularly inspected throughout the whole distribution chain.http://primis.

Prices and Taxes Did you know that the price that you pay at the pump is a lot higher than the cost price of the products? Why this difference? It results from the fiscal policy in the consumer country. As you can see.78 litre) at a petrol pump in US in 2004. 18% to refining costs& profits. 12% of what you paid went to distribution & marketing. Figure shows the various components of price of a gallon (3. Price of petroleum products vary from country to country as tax rates are different. 23% to federal and state taxes and 47% to crude oil. For example in Europe taxes on petroleum products are as high as 70% as a result of which a litre of petrol would be costlier in Europe than in US .

http://primis. Oil & Gas Industry Supply Chain Till this point. Please go through the following picture to have a quick recap of what you have learnt so far.htm .gov/comm/PetroleumPipelineSystems. you should have the understanding of the supply chain in Oil and Gas industry.phmsa.

A quick Recap before we move to the last section We learnt so far • The importance of energy in our lives • Overview of oil and gas supply chain • What are hydrocarbons • Where do crude oil and natural gas come from • How are they produced • How are petrol. diesel etc are produced • How are they delivered to us .

Chapter.7 Oil & Gas Producers .

are also generally categorized as majors or supermajors. which are often training centers too. the major oil companies and OPEC. • Companies operating in the oil sector as suppliers of services to oil companies. drilling. production equipment ). or develop fields that have been abandoned by the major companies. manage oil production and defend national interests in the hydrocarbon sector. •Companies specializing in gas distribution. Halliburton. such as OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries).Maurel et Prom in France. Total and Chevron/Texaco. Examples include Exxon Mobil. Example Suadi Aramco. Among the best known: Schlumberger. the largest gas producer in the world •National agencies & government departments with responsibility for energy matters (For example DOE (Department of Energy) in the United States the DOE •International organization. mainly for exploration and production. •Research institutes. BP. Shell. A myriad of companies. organizations and consultants all play a part in the “hydrocarbon universe” •National companies. depth imaging. But they are not the only ones. which. the largest in terms of proven reserves and production. which take over oil fields near the end of their useful lives. For example French Oil Institute •Independent consultants and other organizations or individuals who offer consultancy & design services and technical audits to the oil companies . OAPEC (the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries) or the IEA (the International Energy Agency).Oil & Gas Companies There are numerous actors in the world of oil and gas. Transocean Sedco Forex These companies are involved in specific technical areas (geophysical surveying and analysis. such as Gazprom. supplying oil companies with personnel and equipment that the latter do not own or employ themselves. of course. •Small independent oil companies.Goservices. The best-known are. in many countries. •International Oil Companies. Example.

.Some Statistics on Oil Majors Look at the graphs below to find out how the five majors compare with the other top companies in the world Profit (Million $) Revenue (Million $) Believe it or not. but Shell’s daily production is enough to meet India’s daily Energy consumption.

Qatar. As a result. the main objective of this organization was to redress the split of income between the oil producing countries and the oil companies. have become very limited. Kuwait and Iran. the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Venezuela. Libya.The Institutions and Other Organization OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) •Was founded in 1960 by Iraq. But since 2004.Nigeria and Indonesia . OPEC has virtually lost its ability to control prices. Algeria. At the beginning. Iraq. at regular or extraordinary conferences. to take account of the state of the world economy and its requirements. in favor of the former. Venezuela. (what is called excess capacity). This system has allowed OPEC to fix a range for oil prices and thus to maintain price stability. Saudi Arabia. Kuwait. •OPEC works on the principle of limiting oil production by means of the allocation of quotas (authorized maximum quantities) to each of its members according to their reserves. which have tended to soar in the recent times •Eleven members of OPEC are Saudi Arabia. Iran. OPEC production has been working at almost full capacity and the possibilities of increasing production further. These quotas are adjusted.

as a reaction. In addition. The IEA keeps a sharp eye on the evolution of oil markets. all of which are industrialized countries and major hydrocarbon consumers. and to the use of oil as an economic arm by Arab countries. in which it recommended consumer countries to take preparatory steps to limit their oil consumption. With regards to the Kyoto protocol. The IEA is an autonomous unit within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (the OECD). It was created in 1974. the IEA made a report public on the 28 th of April 2005. economic growth and environmental protection. it had 26 members. They have also undertaken to pool information. In a completely new and unexpected step.The Institutions and Other Organization The International Energy Agency (IEA) • IEA unlike OPEC is an association of consumer countries. governments of the member countries have undertaken to implement joint measures to deal with emergency situations concerning petroleum supplies. • • • . and also plays a more and more important role in the protection of the environment. at the initiative of the United States. The IEA works towards security of energy supplies. It is an intergovernmental organization for the co-ordination of energy polices. In 2005. both to the OPEC offensive when petroleum prices rocketed at the end of 1973. the IEA seeks to establish common ground and compromise solutions between signatories and non-signatories (the United States and Australia) of the protocol.

Chapter.8 Production & Consumption Pattern .

Russia. Total world oil consumption as of 1st Jan 2007 were 1. Million Barrels as on 1st Jan 2007 Source. Nigeria and rest of world. Kuwait.147. UAE) boasts of 60% of total world oil reserves followed by Venezuela.Reserves Middle East (Saudi Arabia. Iraq. Libya.World Oil and Gas Review .507 million barrels per day. Iran.

Consumption US is way ahead of the pack when it comes to oil consumption followed by China.World Oil and Gas Review . Germany and India. Japan. Thousand Barrels per Day as on 1st Jan 2007 Source.5 million barrels per day. Russia. Total world oil consumption as of 1st Jan 2007 was 84.

Production Saudi Arabia claims the maximum contribution to the world oil production followed by Russia. Iran.7 million barrels per day Thousand Barrels per Day as on 1st Jan 2007 Source. Total world oil consumption as of 1st Jan 2007 was 83. US. Mexico and China.World Oil and Gas Review .

Consumption. Production and Reserves Comparison Snapshot .

html A cross section of an oil tank Back

An inside view of a petrol pump/station Back .

gov/basics/petroleum_ basics.html .html • http://www.html • http://science.html • ctive/all_5000.You can visit these sites for more learning • http://www.doe.howstuffworks.html •

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