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Modular Arithmetic Lesson

# Modular Arithmetic Lesson

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10/27/2014

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# Modular Arithmetic in Our Lives

By Kelly Friske Class: Algebra (any level) Grade level: High school Unit: Extension lesson or Number Theory unit Time: Two 45-minute classes or one 90-minute block Goals and Objectives Instructional goals: The goal of this lesson is to expose students to modular arithmetic and its many uses in our daily lives and things such as product codes and more. Specific objectives: Content: Students will be able to: y Explain how modular arithmetic relates to the division algorithm. y Give examples of how modular arithmetic is used in their world. y Explain the use of modular arithmetic for telling time as well as for use in UPCs, IBMs and ISBNs. Skill: Students will be able to: y Compute an answer to a problem using modular arithmetic. y Examine UPC, IBM and ISBN numbers for accuracy using the appropriate algorithms. y Determine the check digit of a UPC, IBM or ISBN code using the appropriate algorithm and what they know about modular arithmetic. Rationale The following standards from the Common Core are addressed in this lesson: High School Number and Quantity y Choose and interpret units consistently in formulas Standards for Math Practice y Look for and make use of structure. The following standard from NCTM is addressed in this lesson: y Use number-theory arguments to justify relationships involving whole numbers Modular arithmetic is a topic of number theory because it examines equivalence classes, the relationships of remainders of division problems. Modular arithmetic is a beneficial topic for high school students to study because it used in many real-world applications but is not included in the traditional math curriculum because it of its discrete nature. Resources

Burger, Edward B., and Michael Starbird. "Crazy Clocks and Checking Out Bars." The Heart of Mathematics: an Invitation to Effective Thinking. Emeryville: Key College, 2000. 83-90. Print. Mohr, Jonathan. "Check Digits." UofA Augustana: Augustana Home. 1999. Web. 02 Nov. 2011. <http://augustana.ab.ca/~mohrj/algorithms/checkdigit.html>. Materials and Equipment needed y Document camera y Warm-up questions sheet y Application information sheet (Mohr) y Sticky notes with check equation type and number on them y Don t be Tricked worksheet Procedure Content: In this lesson students will be introduced to modular arithmetic and some of its uses and applications. They will learn to use it to check the validity of UPC and ISBN numbers and to determine missing check digits. Activity 1: Warm-Up and Predictions (10 minutes) Today we are going to learn about something called modular arithmetic. Although this is a new math topic to you, you use modular arithmetic all the time in your lives. We are going to discover what it is through these problems: Warm-Up 1. It is 10am and in 75 hours your flight leaves to go on vacation in Hawaii. What time does your flight leave? (75/24=3r3, so 10am plus 3 hrs = 1pm) 2. The second hand on the clock starts at the 12 (or zero seconds) after 1000 seconds where will the second hand be pointing? (1000/60 = 16r40 so that second hand will be at 40 seconds of pointing at the 8.) 3. You bought a computer on January 5 that came with a 400-day warranty. What is the last day that your warranty would cover any repairs or replacement? Use a 365day year. (400/365=1r35. 31-5 = 26, 35-26 =9, February 9th) 4. Quick write: Based on these example problems, I predict modular arithmetic _(include a couple of sentences about that sort of processes you think are used) ___. Think-Ink-Pair-Share: After all students have had a chance to do the warm-up questions and written something for the quick write. Have students talk to their partner about what they wrote. Then, ask for volunteers to share their predictions with the class. Activity 2: Mini-Lecture (10 minutes) Like you discovered in your warm-up, we use modular arithmetic often in our life s, especially having to do with time. Modular arithmetic, like you all pointed out, is dividing numbers but then, really just paying attention to the remainder. I am going to use our warm up questions as examples.

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Quick Write: On your warm up sheet complete these statements: To compute the answer to a modular arithmetic problem I __________________________. The answer represents _______________________________. Allow students a couple of minutes. Then ask them to share with their partners. And ask for volunteers to share their ideas with the class.