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By Kelly Friske Class: Algebra (any level) Grade level: High school Unit: Extension lesson or Number Theory unit Time: Two 45-minute classes or one 90-minute block Goals and Objectives Instructional goals: The goal of this lesson is to expose students to modular arithmetic and its many uses in our daily lives and things such as product codes and more. Specific objectives: Content: Students will be able to: y Explain how modular arithmetic relates to the division algorithm. y Give examples of how modular arithmetic is used in their world. y Explain the use of modular arithmetic for telling time as well as for use in UPCs, IBMs and ISBNs. Skill: Students will be able to: y Compute an answer to a problem using modular arithmetic. y Examine UPC, IBM and ISBN numbers for accuracy using the appropriate algorithms. y Determine the check digit of a UPC, IBM or ISBN code using the appropriate algorithm and what they know about modular arithmetic. Rationale The following standards from the Common Core are addressed in this lesson: High School Number and Quantity y Choose and interpret units consistently in formulas Standards for Math Practice y Look for and make use of structure. The following standard from NCTM is addressed in this lesson: y Use number-theory arguments to justify relationships involving whole numbers Modular arithmetic is a topic of number theory because it examines equivalence classes, the relationships of remainders of division problems. Modular arithmetic is a beneficial topic for high school students to study because it used in many real-world applications but is not included in the traditional math curriculum because it of its discrete nature. Resources
Burger, Edward B., and Michael Starbird. "Crazy Clocks and Checking Out Bars." The Heart of Mathematics: an Invitation to Effective Thinking. Emeryville: Key College, 2000. 83-90. Print. Mohr, Jonathan. "Check Digits." UofA Augustana: Augustana Home. 1999. Web. 02 Nov. 2011. <http://augustana.ab.ca/~mohrj/algorithms/checkdigit.html>. Materials and Equipment needed y Document camera y Warm-up questions sheet y Application information sheet (Mohr) y Sticky notes with check equation type and number on them y Don t be Tricked worksheet Procedure Content: In this lesson students will be introduced to modular arithmetic and some of its uses and applications. They will learn to use it to check the validity of UPC and ISBN numbers and to determine missing check digits. Activity 1: Warm-Up and Predictions (10 minutes) Today we are going to learn about something called modular arithmetic. Although this is a new math topic to you, you use modular arithmetic all the time in your lives. We are going to discover what it is through these problems: Warm-Up 1. It is 10am and in 75 hours your flight leaves to go on vacation in Hawaii. What time does your flight leave? (75/24=3r3, so 10am plus 3 hrs = 1pm) 2. The second hand on the clock starts at the 12 (or zero seconds) after 1000 seconds where will the second hand be pointing? (1000/60 = 16r40 so that second hand will be at 40 seconds of pointing at the 8.) 3. You bought a computer on January 5 that came with a 400-day warranty. What is the last day that your warranty would cover any repairs or replacement? Use a 365day year. (400/365=1r35. 31-5 = 26, 35-26 =9, February 9th) 4. Quick write: Based on these example problems, I predict modular arithmetic _(include a couple of sentences about that sort of processes you think are used) ___. Think-Ink-Pair-Share: After all students have had a chance to do the warm-up questions and written something for the quick write. Have students talk to their partner about what they wrote. Then, ask for volunteers to share their predictions with the class. Activity 2: Mini-Lecture (10 minutes) Like you discovered in your warm-up, we use modular arithmetic often in our life s, especially having to do with time. Modular arithmetic, like you all pointed out, is dividing numbers but then, really just paying attention to the remainder. I am going to use our warm up questions as examples.
1. In number one, we want to do the problem 75 equals what modulo 24 because there are 24 hours in the day, we could have also done 75 modulo 12, if we did not care about am or pm. 75 equals 3 modulo 24 because when we divide 75 by 24 we get a remainder of 3. On the board write: 75= 3 mod 24. We abbreviate modulo with mod. 2. In number two, the problem is 1000 equals what mod 60 because there are 60 seconds in a minute. 1000 equals 40 mod 60. I figured this out by first dividing 1000 by 60 which equals 16.666. I only care about the remainder, which in this case refers to the .666 part. But my answer is always a whole numbers, so the remainder is actually .666 times 60 because that is what we divided by, .666 times 60 is 40. One the board: 1000 = 40 mod 60. 3. Now looking at the work that you did for number 3, I want you to work with your partner to try and write the modular arithmetic problem that you completed to find the answer. Looking for: 400 = 35 mod 365. You have actually done some pretty difficult modular arithmetic already. Normally the numbers that we use are closer to 10 or so instead of 60 and 365. We are going to practice some more common modular arithmetic problems. Example problems: I will model and share my thinking on the first 2 and then gradually release the responsibility to the students. y 10 = x mod 4 In this problem I want to know the remainder when I divide 10 by 4. I always know what I am dividing by because it is the number after the word mod. I know that 4 goes into 10 2 times evenly and then there are 2 left over, so x equals that two that are left over, or the remainder. 33 = x mod 11 Here, I want to find the remainder when I divide 33 by 11. Well 11 goes into 33 evenly, so there is no remainder. In this case then x=0 because there is no remainder. 29 = x mod 7 You do this one on your own. What number are you dividing by what? Once you have your answer, check it with your partner. After a minute, ask a student you know has the answer to share. X=1. 126 = x mod 10 Let s do one more practice. Turn to your partner and share your answer with them. (pause to allow students to solve problem) In this problem x equals 6. This problem was mod 10 which is probably one of the easiest kinds to solve because the answer is always going to be whatever number is in the one s place.
Quick Write: On your warm up sheet complete these statements: To compute the answer to a modular arithmetic problem I __________________________. The answer represents _______________________________. Allow students a couple of minutes. Then ask them to share with their partners. And ask for volunteers to share their ideas with the class.
Activity 3: Reading and Learning about Applications (30 minutes) With your small groups you are going to read some descriptions about how modular arithmetic is used other than for time. This information sheet covers three main applications that we are going to learn about and use. You are going to read about all of them and then your group is going to become experts about one application. What that means is that your group will share with the class how your process works and show us with an example. While you are reading I will come around and tell you which one your group will need to become experts about. Show the following on the document camera and explain each step. Before you read: y Make predictions about how modular arithmetic is used in the things listed in the reading. Scan the reading and then talk to your group. During your reading: y Write down any words, phrases or operations that you are not familiar with. After you are done reading: y Write an explanation in your own words of how to use the three checks explained in the reading. (You should each have your answer written in your own notebooks.) After you notice that all the groups have begun reading go around and hand out sticky notes that say which application they will be responsible for and the number that they will use for an example (see pictures below). Tell the IBM groups that their check equation will not work on this number because it is a fake. They should try to change the check digit to make their equation work. There can be more than one group per type of check equation. Groups: y What are check digits and check equations and what is their purpose? (1 group) y ISBN, 0-446-61039-9 (2 groups) y IBM, 5588 3201 2345 6789 (2 groups) y UPC, 7 86936 80587 1 (2 groups) **If 45 minute class stop here on first day and allow students 5-10 minutes the next day to meet with their groups to prepare to present. Activity 4: Group Explanations and Examples of strategies (20 minutes) Each group will have 5 minutes. If there are doubles, choose one group to present and then have the other group add anything that the first group may have left out. Expert group: It is your time to show your expertise. Your group will come up to the board, tell us about the topic you are experts on, explain the process and then work through your example if you have one. Audience:
Groups who are listening; be sure to take notes and ask questions if you have them because once the group has presented you should be an expert on that type of check as well. Check digit/number group ISBN check: This is the ISBN number from the book The Rescue by Nicolas Sparks. Show picture on document camera for the group explaining. The explanation should include some of the following aspects: - The ISBN number is 0-446-61039-9. - Like the article says the number furthest to the right is the check digit, which means that it is not actually used in coding the book, so it really doesn t mean much. How the equation works: - Work from right to left when labeling positions. In this algorithm the 0 is position 10. We use a weighted code according to position in this check equation so that is going to look like this: 10(0)+9(4)+8(4)+7(6)+6(6)+5(1)+4(0)+3(3)+2(9)+1(9) - When you multiply this entire thing out and add it all together you get 187. - The directions say that this check equation is mod 11. That means that I want to know what 187 is mod 11, so I divide 187 by 11 and get 17, which is a whole number which means there is no remainder and so 187 = 0 mod 11. What does it mean if the answer is not zero? If we got any answer other than zero either we did something wrong or the ISBN number was incorrect.
IBM check: Show picture on document camera, explanation should include most of the following: Process - We are going to use this credit card to see if the number that is used is real. The number is 5588 3201 2345 6789. - The article tells us that to check this number we are going to multiply all of the numbers in even positions by 2.
Casting out nines - If the number becomes a double digit they told us to do this process called casting out nines . All that means is that we are going to take those numbers mod 9 which actually always ends up giving you the same answer as just adding the two digits of the number together. We will do the process and see how it works as we go. Example - Remember that we are counting the positions from the right, so since there are 12 numbers the first one on the left is even: 2(5)+5+2(8)+8+2(3)+2+2(0)+1+2(2)+3+2(4)+5+2(6)+7+2(8)+9 This simplifies to: 10+5+16+8+6+2+0+1+4+3+8+5+12+7+16+9 Now, if the number is two digits we have to find what it is mod 9 which means we really just have to had the digits: 10 = 1 mod 9 which is 1+0 16 = 7 mod 9 which is 1+6 12 = 3 mod 9 which is 1+2 Last there is one more 16 which is 7. Add all of these numbers and the others together and you get 77. This check equation is mod 10. I know that 77 = 7 mod 10. I am supposed to get zero if this is a valid credit card number so that must mean that it is fake! How to change the check digit - If you want to make this number a real credit card number what would you change the check digit to? They should change the check digit to a 2 because then the sum would be 70 which equals 0 mod 10. UPC check: Show picture from the movie The Last Song on document camera, explanation should include most of the following: - The UPC is 12 digits long so it includes all of the numbers, even the little 7 and 1 on the ends. 1 is our check digit. 7 86936 80587 1 This check equation is like the one for IBM, but the even digits are multiplied by 3 instead of 2, and these is no need to cast out nines. 3(7)+8+3(6)+9+3(3)+6+3(8)+0+3(5)+8+3(7)+ 1 Multiply these and add them together to get 140. Then the equation tells us to do this mod 10. I know that 140 = 0 mod 10 because 140 is a multiple of 10. Because I got a zero I know that this UPC is a real one!
Class Quick-Write: In what ways is modular arithmetic useful? Can you think of any additional applications for modular arithmetic? Final Activity: Don t be Tricked worksheet (20 minutes remaining time) You are going to use these check equations to investigate whether ISBN numbers are valid and complete ones that are incomplete. You may start this worksheet now with a partner and then you will need to finish it for homework. Assessment I will be informally assessing students throughout this lesson. I will assess their understanding of modular arithmetic computations based on their responses and questions during the practice problems in my mini-lecture and their quick writes. While students are reading the article in groups, and afterwards while they are talking about their ideas, I will circulate through the classroom and monitor students progress and understanding of the check equations. My formal assessment of the objectives for this lesson will be from the Don t be Tricked worksheet that they will hand in the following day. It will be graded on using the check equation and modular arithmetic correctly.
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