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# Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

## Spin networks, 6j-symbols and the Ponzano-Regge model of quantum gravity

J.W. Barrett
School of Mathematical Sciences University of Nottingham

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Outline
Introduction Planar spin networks Denitions 3d triangulations The Ponzano-Regge model Observables and regularisation The model via connections Functional integral Particle quantization Coupling 3d gravity to particles Particles without gravity

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model is a simple model of 3d

quantum gravity.
Explicit calculations can be carried out.

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Spin networks
Irreducible representations 1 a, b, . . . Irrep(SU(2)) {0, , 1, . . .} = 2
c d

ab cd

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Standard networks
a a

id : a a

aaC Caa

a =

= (1)2a (2a + 1) = a

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

3j and 6j symbols
3j-symbol
a b c

Cabc

Normalisation

c b

=1

6j-symbol

f b d

a c

a b c d e f

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Network reduction
c e f a f e a b c b a f b d c

a b c d e f

=
d

d a b c

a b e c f d

Theorem
A planar network is a sum of products of 6j-symbols and j .

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

## The dual triangulation

A closed planar spin network is dual to a triangulation of S 2 .

Theorem
The network reduction constructs a triangulation of B 3 . Then B 3 is dual to the network. Tetrahedra correspond to 6j-symbols, interior edges to j .

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

## Ponzano-Regge model for a compact manifold

Weight factor

W =

(1)2j (2j + 1)
interior edges tetrahedra

j1 j2 j3 j4 j5 j6

## State sum interior edges.

Z =
j1 j2 ...

Agrees with formula for network reduction. For other triangulations, sum is innite and requires

regularisation.

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Innite sums
Triangulations of B 3 not given by network reduction:
With interior vertices Interior edges dual to Bings house

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

## Geometric interpretation 3d quantum gravity

1 Length of edge = j + . 2
Euclidean geometries Z Minkowski geometries Z

eiSE e|SL |

boundary.

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

## Observables in a closed manifold

< f >= spins
a1 , a2 , . . . distances.

f (spins) W

f (j1 , j2 , . . .) =

(jk +

1 2

ak )

a1

a2

1 , 2 , . . . masses

f (j1 , j2 , . . .) =
k

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Regularisation
Extend the graph of observables by trees T meeting all vertices. Set these spins to zero.

## Theorem (with I. Naish-Guzman)

The Ponzano-Regge state sum is well-dened and independent of triangulation and regularisation if H 2 (M \ , ) = 0 for every at SU(2) connection with holonomy in the conjugacy classes given by 1 , 2 , . . ..

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Group variables
Oriented triangle g SU(2).

Lemma
For an oriented closed manifold W = triangles dg (2j + 1)Trj (h). edges
g2 g1

h = g1 g2 g3 . . .

h g3

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

## Partition function by integration

Summing over spins, Z = triangles This still requires regularisation. dg edges (h).

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Proof of theorem
With observables and regularisation T ,

dg

sin /2
2

(h)

tor(M \ )

sin2 /2

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Examples
1 0 2

Z =

sin
2 1 2 0

(0 )

Z = 1 |A(ei )|

< /3

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

## 3d Gravity Functional Integral.

1986 (Achucarro and Townsend) 3d gravity Chern-Simons. 1989 (Witten) Finite QFT. Z = SE =
M

eiSE de d

e (d + ) + e e e.

> 0 SU(2) SU(2). = 0 ISU(2). One loop exact. Flat SU(2) connections weighted with analytic torsion. No observables

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Quantization principle.

Principle: quantizing gravity automatically includes integration over space of particle trajectories.

X g X*(g)

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Feynman Amplitudes.

xi

xj

xi R3 , rij = |xi xj |

I= edges

G(|xi xj |)
k

dxk =

J (rij ) edges

G(rij ) drij

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

## Coupling Particles to Quantum Gravity

Replace kinetic part of Feynman amplitude I with 3d

## gravity state sum. dr spins J (rij ) Ponzano-Regge observable.

Fourier transform:

position space

momentum space

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

Gravitational effects.

Introduction

## The Ponzano-Regge model

Particle quantization

## Quantum Flat Space.

(Baratin and Freidel) Kinetic part of Feynman amplitude I is

## a new spin foam model. No gravity.

Model is Ponzano-Regge for the Poincar group. Works in 3d or 4d (JWB) Equivalent functional integral

eiS de d db dc S=
M

b (d + ) + c (de + e)