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Particle quantization

J.W. Barrett

School of Mathematical Sciences University of Nottingham

Introduction

Particle quantization

Outline

Introduction Planar spin networks Denitions 3d triangulations The Ponzano-Regge model Observables and regularisation The model via connections Functional integral Particle quantization Coupling 3d gravity to particles Particles without gravity

Introduction

Particle quantization

Introduction

quantum gravity.

Explicit calculations can be carried out.

Introduction

Particle quantization

Spin networks

Irreducible representations 1 a, b, . . . Irrep(SU(2)) {0, , 1, . . .} = 2

c d

ab cd

Introduction

Particle quantization

Standard networks

a a

id : a a

aaC Caa

a =

= (1)2a (2a + 1) = a

Introduction

Particle quantization

3j and 6j symbols

3j-symbol

a b c

Cabc

Normalisation

c b

=1

6j-symbol

f b d

a c

a b c d e f

Introduction

Particle quantization

Introduction

Particle quantization

Network reduction

c e f a f e a b c b a f b d c

a b c d e f

=

d

d a b c

a b e c f d

Theorem

A planar network is a sum of products of 6j-symbols and j .

Introduction

Particle quantization

A closed planar spin network is dual to a triangulation of S 2 .

Theorem

The network reduction constructs a triangulation of B 3 . Then B 3 is dual to the network. Tetrahedra correspond to 6j-symbols, interior edges to j .

Introduction

Particle quantization

Weight factor

W =

(1)2j (2j + 1)

interior edges tetrahedra

j1 j2 j3 j4 j5 j6

Z =

j1 j2 ...

Agrees with formula for network reduction. For other triangulations, sum is innite and requires

regularisation.

Introduction

Particle quantization

Innite sums

Triangulations of B 3 not given by network reduction:

With interior vertices Interior edges dual to Bings house

Introduction

Particle quantization

1 Length of edge = j + . 2

Euclidean geometries Z Minkowski geometries Z

eiSE e|SL |

boundary.

Introduction

Particle quantization

< f >= spins

a1 , a2 , . . . distances.

f (spins) W

f (j1 , j2 , . . .) =

(jk +

1 2

ak )

a1

a2

1 , 2 , . . . masses

f (j1 , j2 , . . .) =

k

Introduction

Particle quantization

Regularisation

Extend the graph of observables by trees T meeting all vertices. Set these spins to zero.

The Ponzano-Regge state sum is well-dened and independent of triangulation and regularisation if H 2 (M \ , ) = 0 for every at SU(2) connection with holonomy in the conjugacy classes given by 1 , 2 , . . ..

Introduction

Particle quantization

Group variables

Oriented triangle g SU(2).

Lemma

For an oriented closed manifold W = triangles dg (2j + 1)Trj (h). edges

g2 g1

h = g1 g2 g3 . . .

h g3

Introduction

Particle quantization

Summing over spins, Z = triangles This still requires regularisation. dg edges (h).

Introduction

Particle quantization

Proof of theorem

With observables and regularisation T ,

dg

sin /2

2

(h)

tor(M \ )

sin2 /2

Introduction

Particle quantization

Examples

1 0 2

Z =

sin

2 1 2 0

(0 )

Z = 1 |A(ei )|

< /3

Introduction

Particle quantization

1986 (Achucarro and Townsend) 3d gravity Chern-Simons. 1989 (Witten) Finite QFT. Z = SE =

M

eiSE de d

e (d + ) + e e e.

> 0 SU(2) SU(2). = 0 ISU(2). One loop exact. Flat SU(2) connections weighted with analytic torsion. No observables

Introduction

Particle quantization

Quantization principle.

Principle: quantizing gravity automatically includes integration over space of particle trajectories.

X g X*(g)

Introduction

Particle quantization

Feynman Amplitudes.

xi

xj

xi R3 , rij = |xi xj |

I= edges

G(|xi xj |)

k

dxk =

J (rij ) edges

G(rij ) drij

Introduction

Particle quantization

Replace kinetic part of Feynman amplitude I with 3d

Fourier transform:

position space

momentum space

Introduction

Particle quantization

Gravitational effects.

Introduction

Particle quantization

(Baratin and Freidel) Kinetic part of Feynman amplitude I is

Model is Ponzano-Regge for the Poincar group. Works in 3d or 4d (JWB) Equivalent functional integral

eiS de d db dc S=

M

b (d + ) + c (de + e)

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