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Lecture Objectives

To relate the meaning of diffusion with several unit operations To differentiate between the basic types of diffusion To apply diffusion to a binary system and appreciate the concept of mass diffusivity To evaluate mass diffusivities from available data and formulas from the Handbook. ©UST Ch.E. Department

**Unit 1 Principles of Mass Transfer
**

Diffusion Principles

What is Diffusion?

It is the movement of component(s) through a fluid. Can you see diffusion in the following unit operations?

Distillation Gas Absorption Liquid Extraction Leaching Drying

©UST Ch.E. Department

**Basic Types of Diffusion
**

Molecular Diffusion (Ji)

The movement is due to difference in concentration Ji is the rate of molecular diffusion of component i in mole/area-time

Convective Diffusion (Ei)

The movement is due to mechanical means (velocity difference) Ei is the convective diffusion rate, same unit as J i

**Diffusion Rate is also called Molar Flux (Ni)
**

Generally, Ni = Ji + Ei

©UST Ch.E. Department

1

2-456) Using Formulas from Handbook and in textbooks (Geankoplis.NA ©UST Ch.2-454) Using Formulas from Handbook and in textbooks (Geankoplis.dCA dz Unit of DAB: JB = DBA . A and B. Department 2 . MSH) Magnitude Range of DAB Liquid Systems Using Tables from Handbook (2-235/p. MSH) ©UST Ch. Foust.E. If B is moving in a direction opposite that of A. Department ©UST Ch. Department where DAB is mass diffusivity of A in B L2/time Assignment: Show when DAB = DBA ©UST Ch. Department Evaluation of Mass Diffusivity Gaseous Systems Using Tables from Handbook (2-324/p.E.E.dCB dz Let N = Net Molar Flux = NA + NB Note: The flux is also dependent on direction. Treybal. The molar fluxes of A and B may be related to the molecular and convective fluxes as follows: NA = JA+ EA NB = JB + EB Binary Diffusion Molecular Diffusion Equation is based on Fick’s Law: For unidirectional transfer in the z direction: JA = DAB . Treybal. Foust.11/28/2009 Binary Diffusion This involves diffusion involving a system composed of only two components.E. then NB = .

T in K φB =association factor for solvent B –solvent VA = molar volume of A (cc/mol) at normal boiling point μB = in cP ©UST Ch.E. Department Pertinent Equations from Handbook Wilke-Chang Equation (Dilute.5-52 ©UST Ch. Department ©UST Ch. Department 3 .11/28/2009 Pertinent Equations from Handbook Fuller-Schettling-Gillings Equation (Non-Polar Gases) MAB 1 1 MA MB DAB in cm2/s. Nonelectrolyte Liquid Mixtures) DAB in cm2/s. P in atm. Department ©UST Ch. T in K.E.E.E. ∑vA & ∑vB from Atomic Diffusion Volume Table 5-12/p.

Department Exercises Use the formulas from the Handbook for the following: 1. C. 2. ©UST Ch. Find the mass diffusivity of carbon dioxide in carbon monoxide at 25 deg. Find the mass diffusivity of caffeine in water at 35 deg. Find the mass diffusivity of benzene vapor in: a) air at 20 deg. Estimate the mass diffusivity of oxygen in toluene vapor at 2 atm and 38 deg. C and 1. 4. Find the mass diffusivity of acetic acid in acetone at 30 deg. Estimate the mass diffusivity of carbon dioxide gas in liquid ethanol solvent at 1 atm and 30 deg. C and 1 atm. C. Determine the mass diffusivity of methanol vapor in air at 600 Torr and 30 deg.2 atm. C. 3.11/28/2009 Exercises Use the tables from the Handbook for the following: 1. Department 4 . 3. C and 1 atm b) carbon dioxide at 35 deg.E. C and 800 T 2.E. C and 85 kPa. ©UST Ch.

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