Turbovisory Instruments

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Shaft Eccentricity Turbine Speed

Axial Shift

To Condenser

Differential expansion

Bearing Vibrations Sealing

Eccentricity
• What is eccentricity? The circle can be said is an ellipse with zero eccentricity. Reason of Eccentricity • Sagging due to weight ( Mechanical related) • Uneven expansions ( Temperature related ) • Bearing Problems ( Mechanical Related )

What is eccentricity and how it is measured? • Deviation of mass center to geometrical center. • Generates vibrations • Increases with speed • Measured in microns / millimeters

Type of measurements
• Inductive type ( 50Hz to 20KHz) • Proximity Type ( 500 Khz to MHz)

10Khz

A1

A2

B2

B1

OSC

DM

LP Filter 4rth order

AMP Peak Detector

4-20mA 0 – 500 microns

Proximity Sensor
• It is a flat coil of wire located at the end of a ceramic tip, protected by epoxy fiber glass. • Probe generates EMF at radio frequency. • As the EMF cuts any conductor nearby its vicinity eddy currents are produced which absorbs the power. • The loss of power is proportional to the gap between the conductivity meter and the probe. • This sensor also generates voltage oscillations proportional to the air gap and hence the signal is demodulated to stable DC output as that of inductive sensor.

Vibrations
• The most vital parameter to be logged during startup, shutdowns and also during normal running conditions. • Can be transmitted radially as well as in axially . • Calls for immediate action, since they lead to catastrophic disaster.

Why vibrations are created?
• Due to unbalance conditions • Load changes • Mechanical looseness

Vibrations measurement
• They are measured in microns ( amplitude of vibrations) or mm/sec ( speed at which it vibrates) • They are normally measured in mm/sec as it gives fatigue and the other gives stress. • There are two types of transducers that can measure velocity
– Magnetic type ( 10hz – 150hz, < 6g) – Piezo electric type ( Accelerometers )

Magnetic Type sensors
• Based on the fundamentals of fleming’s right hand rule. • Here there is a permanent magnet which when vibrated causes relative motion wrt a coil, generating emf directly proportional to the rate of vibrations.

Accelerometers
• Main constituent is Piezo electric crystal • Vibrations induces force on the crystal. • The vibration produces force on the crystal which then generates proportional voltage.

Axial Shift of the Rotor
• The thrust bearing is the point at which the rotor is connected to the stator axially, at the front end of HP turbine. • Result of thrust in HP, IP, and LP turbines

Causes for increment of axial shift
• Increment of axial thrust
– Resistance to steam flow inside turbine – Bearing failure – Oil flow failure

Axial Shift Detector
• Reluctance type transducer supplied with 10V rms and 1953 Hz supply in bridge configuration • Basic components are as follows
– – – – – Detector coils (LVDT) Amplifier Rectifier Lineariser amplifier

Differential expansion of Rotor and Cylinder • The difference in their rate of expansion is due to thermal inertia inbetween rotary and stationary elements • It is basically rotor axial expansion – stator axial expansion • Normally it is a positive value

Occurrences of high differential Expansion
• High Positive value
– – – – During Startup Low Load running High exhaust temperature Restrain to casing expansion

• High Negative value
– During Shutdown – High Load running – Low exhaust temperature

Detector of Differential Expansion • It is same as axial shift detector , expect here we have two axial shift detector that are arranged in bridge configuration.

Casing expansion
• • • • Turbine is anchored nearly in the middle of LP Casing Expansion in the front is cumulative of the casing from the anchor point. It also shows the degree of thermal soaking done. Expansion is also measured in the middle pedestal Abnormal expansion indicates serious fault
– Less  jamming, lack of freedom of movement – More  permanent creep

Casing expansion Measurement
• • • LVDT – Linear Variable Differential Transformer ( More Used )
– Does not have mechanical linkages, hence life is more

Rectilinear Potentiometer – Has mechanical linkages , hence less life LVDT – Linear Variable Differential Transformer ( More Used )

+
OSC 10KHz

-

AMP

Rectifier

Smoothening ckt

Speed Measurement
• • This is the most important parameter of the power plant, and if not monitored properly may led to irreparable disaster There are three ways of measurement
– Slotted wheel – voltage pick ups when subjected to magnet field – Permanent magnet is connected in the shaft which when rotated generates voltage proportional to the speed – Eddy current pick ups. – Laser

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