Types of Trade Settlement
Open Account: Long experience of trading between buyer and seller Advance Payment Documentary D/P Collection Documentary D/A Collection Documentary Letters of Credit Factoring
Payment and Short Credit Mechanisms
Open Account: Seller bills buyer and dispatches goods No security for payment Simple to administer and few banking fees/costs Advantageous to importer May be difficult for regulatory reasons
To ensure the buyer should not be able to take possession of the goods until the buyer has paid or given a negotiable payment undertaking. Main international rules and practices applicable to such operations have been codified by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), and published in the Uniform Rules for Collections (URC). Latest version of the URC drawn up in 1995.
Parties to a Documentary Collection
Exporter Remitting Bank Presenting or Collecting Bank Additional intermediary bank possible Importer
Types of Payment
Documents against Payment (D/P) Documents against Acceptance (D/A) Buyer needs documents to collect goods No bank undertaking to pay
Banks pay exporter against presentation of shipping documents Exporter obtains independent bank payment undertaking Financing of exports become easier for exporter Exporter ensures fulfilment of exchange control regulations in importer¶s country For importer no payment without shipping and other documents to ensure quantity and quality Importer does not have to make advance payment to exporter
Factoring companies buy trade debts at a discount and manage client corporations¶ collection procedures Factor Buys Invoices from Seller Seller can obtain immediate discounted payment or payment on receivables maturity date Payment may be with or without recourse
local regulations. Importer wants to ensure performance while exporter wants to secure payment. languages and legal systems The Documentary Letter of Credit is widely used to reduce the financial risks of trade. Diversity of customs. standards.
.Why Documentary Credits
Exchange of goods and services across national boundaries brings greater problems to both buyer and seller than does domestic business. currencies.
by telex or by SWIFT
.Why Documentary Credits
Few of the rules are subject to any national or international law. Applicability when the clause is incorporated in the Credit Three major parties: the beneficiary. publication no. but not foolproof. Provisions of International Chamber of Commerce & Industry (ICC) important.500 dated 1993. the opening or issuing bank and the applicant Issuing of L/C: by post. Generally adopted set of rules for credits known as the Uniform Customs and Practice for Letters of Credit (UCP) issued by ICC.
concept of `with¶ or `without¶ recourse Transferable: can be transferred only once (Article 48 ). can be transferred to more than one party Standby: not a documentary L/C but a guarantee issued by a bank in a L/C format
.Different Types of Letters of Credit
Revocable: Can be amended or cancelled at any time before payment made by another bank (Article 8) Irrevocable Unconfirmed: Under UCP 500 (Article 6c) all L/Cs are irrevocable unless specified otherwise Irrevocable Confirmed: Confirming Bank adds his backing.
normally with recourse. Also Payment and Acceptance Credits. Concept of `restricted credit¶. Advance Payment or Red Clause Credit Revolving Credits Back to back L/C
Sight Credit: On presentation of documents at the paying bank Deferred payment: Payment on maturity date Negotiation Credit: Advising Bank or another Bank buys the documents from the exporter.
Check List for Issuing/Accepting L/C
Quality of Issuing Bank Method of Payment: Sight or Deferred Basis Transport Documents Other Documents Documents: Banks deal in documents not in goods or services (Article 4) Should not contain excessive detail (Article 5a) Timing: UCP norm is max. 21 days after shipment date for presentation of documents (Article 43)
.Responsibilities and Obligations of Banks
Issuing Bank: Prime obligation Advising Bank: Only obligation to authenticate the credit and passing it on promptly to beneficiary (Article 7) Confirming Bank: takes over payment responsibilities of the issuing bank as far as the beneficiary is concerned Reimbursing Bank: Responsibility of Issuing Bank to provide proper reimbursement instructions Applicability of Force Majeure clause (Article 17) limiting banks¶ liability on account of Acts of God. etc. riots.
Should be consistent with each other and complete Conform with the terms of the credit Comply with the provisions of UCP Banks must examine all documents stipulated in the Credit with reasonable care Each bank will have a reasonable time not exceeding seven banking days following the day of receipt to examine the documents (Article 13b) Concept of discrepant documents (Article 14)
Options for Banks dealing in Discrepant Documents
Ask beneficiaries to make corrections Accept minor discrepancies and pay under reserve Obtain indemnity from seller Telex/fax details of discrepancies to the issuing bank and request permission to pay Send the documents on collection
Marine or Ocean Bill of Lading
They are documents of title. Should be signed by ship¶s master or his named agent (Article 23) If stated that goods are on board. but no recourse Transhipment allowed unless prohibited in L/C
. then dated Load port and disport should be named `On Deck¶ transport document not allowed Clean Transport Document (Article 32) Quasi-negotiable: transferable by endorsement and physical delivery.
road and air transport documents are issued only in non-negotiable form with the goods consigned direct to a named consignee. Today goods often travel faster than the related documents.Other Transport Documents
Some multi-modal transport operators (MTOs) also issue negotiable documents for transport operations where the goods are carried by several different modes of transport. Rail. Usually this will be the buyer unless the goods are consigned to a bank
Rail or Inland Waterway Transport Documents (Article 28) Post Office and Courier Receipts (Article 29) Freight Forwarders¶ and Warehouse Receipts (Article 30)
.Other Transport Documents
Non-Negotiable Sea Waybill (Article 24) Charter Party Bill of Lading (Article 25) Multimodal Transport Document (Article 26) Air Transport Document (Article 27) Road.
Commercial Invoices (Article 37) Consular Invoice Certificate of Origin Weight List Packing List Inspection or Survey Certificate Test Certificates
Insurance Documents (Articles 34.36): Same currency as the Credit.35. Minimum amount to be CIF or CIP plus 10%.
processing/ production/ manufacturing.Export Finance in India
Export Finance is made available to exporters for the specific purpose of procuring/ purchase. packing and shipment of goods meant for exports Mainly working capital advance extended to exporters to meet their pre and post shipment requirements
purchase of raw materials. processing them and converting them into finished goods for the purpose of exports The type of limit depends upon the nature of production and procurement system concerning the commodity to be exported Clean Export Packing Credit (EPC) can be granted when first class clients have to give advance payment to the suppliers
.Pre-shipment Export Finance
This is extended to the customers for procuring goods.
work-in-process and finished goods meant for exports are available as security. The processing/ manufacturing may be undertaken by the exporter himself or through sub-contractors as captive units.
. Packing credit hypothecation is extended where raw materials.Pre-shipment Export Finance
The clean advance is converted to EPC hypothecation/ pledge or secured shipping loan depending upon the nature of the commodity.
. In such cases packing credit loan can be granted in the form of pledge.Pre-shipment Export Finance
Sometimes exporters have to obtain the raw materials in bunched lots or the material procured may be sizeable in nature. Once the goods are ready for shipment and the exporter/ supplier has handed over the goods to the transporter/ clearing and forwarding agents for effecting the shipment. the advance can be granted as secured shipping loan.
back to back L/C facility can be extended.Pre-shipment Export Finance
Where the exporter procures goods from subsuppliers. The L/C or order is stamped with the Bank¶s stamp in order to prevent the exporter from availing of EPC from another source. then the exporter has to submit the original L/C or order once it is received. EPC is usually released on the basis of L/Cs or a confirmed order.
. EPC can be granted to sub-suppliers. If EPC is granted on the basis of a cable or telex message from the overseas buyer.
Pre-shipment Credit can be in Indian Rupees or in Foreign Currency.Pre-shipment Export Finance
Pre-shipment advance is usually granted up to a maximum of 180 days or expiry of relative LC or order. the advances will cease to qualify for concessional rate of interest ab initio. whichever is earlier. each packing credit sanctioned should be maintained as a separate account for the purpose of monitoring of sanction and end-use of funds. All pre-shipment finance is self-liquidating in nature from post-shipment finance. If pre-shipment advances are not adjusted by submission of export documents. This facility was given as exporters complained that interest in India was high. In some cases EPC can go up to 360 days. Ordinarily.
Banks should mark off individual export bills. without insisting on prior lodgement of letters of credit/firm export orders. However. as and when they are received for negotiation/collection.
.Pre-shipment Export Finance
Banks may release the packing credit in one lump-sum or in stages as per requirements In the case of clients with good track record banks may extend Pre-shipment Credit µRunning Account¶ facility. against the earliest outstanding preshipment credit on 'First In First Out' (FIFO) basis. letters of credit/firm orders should be produced within a reasonable period of time to be decided by the banks.
Post Shipment Export Finance
Post-shipment finance means any credit provided by a bank to an exporter from the date of extending the credit after shipment of goods to the date of realisation of sale proceeds. Post-shipment advance mainly take the form of (i) Export bills purchased/ discounted/ negotiated (ii) Advances against bills for collection (iii) Advances against duty drawback receivable from Government
. post shipment credit for a period exceeding one year can be granted. For export of capital goods. Credit can be granted for the normal transit period in the case of demand bills and a maximum period of 180 days in the case of usance bills.Advances against shipping documents
May be granted against bills drawn under LCs or against non credit bills where goods are shipped under firm order. Further economic and political conditions and exchange control regulations of the buyer¶s country have to be checked. In such cases creditworthiness of both exporter and overseas buyer have to be assessed.
.Advances against duty drawbacks
Banks may grant post-shipment advances to exporters against their duty drawback entitlements as provisionally certified by Customs Authorities pending final sanction and payment. Such advances would be eligible for concessional finance and refinance from RBI up to a maximum period of 90 days from the date of advance.
The facility may be extended in one of the convertible currencies. Euro. etc. Pound Sterling. viz.
. US Dollars.Export Credit in Foreign Currency
With a view to making credit available to exporters at internationally competitive rates. Japanese Yen. ADs have been permitted to extend pre-shipment credit in foreign currency (PCFC) to exporters for domestic and imported inputs of exported goods at LIBOR related rates of interest.
To enable exporters to have operational flexibility. Repayment may be with documents relating to any other export order: `running account¶ facility
.75% over LIBOR/ Euro LIBOR. The lending rate to the exporter should not exceed 0. banks may extend PCFC in one convertible currency for an export order invoiced in another convertible currency. excluding withholding tax Usually for a maximum period of 180 days PCFC should be self-liquidating in nature.
Rediscounting of Export Bills Abroad Scheme (EBR)
The exporters have the option to avail of preshipment and post-shipment credit either in rupee or in foreign currency. can also arrange for themselves a line of credit with an overseas bank or any other agency (including a factoring agency) for discounting their export bills. The exporters. on their own. However. if the preshipment credit has been availed in foreign currency. To cover mainly usance export bills up to 180 days usance from the date of shipment
. the post-shipment credit has necessarily to be under the EBR scheme.
post-shipment credit up to 90 days Exporters under special financial package to receive concessional rate of interest for extended period of 365 days Interest rates for foreign currency loans to exporters will be at LIBOR plus a maximum 0.Interest Rates to Exporters
Banks at present charge a maximum of 250 basis points below PLR. Rates will be applicable for pre-shipment up to 180 days.75%
The risk of loss or damage to the goods is covered by marine and general insurance ECGC covers risks of exporters normally not covered by other institutions Standard Policies issued by ECGC cover commercial and political risks
.Export Credit Guarantee Corporation
Risks involved in export trade are usually more than that involved in internal trade.
ECGC contd. when such non-acceptance is not due to the exporter¶s action
Commercial Risks covered include: Insolvency of buyer Buyer¶s protracted default to pay for goods accepted by him Buyer¶s failure to accept the goods.
revolution or civil disturbances in the buyer¶s country Cancellation of export licence or imposition of new export licensing restriction in India
Political Risks covered include: Restrictions on remittances in the buyer¶s country or any Government action which may block or delay payment in Rupees to the exporter War.ECGC contd.
Following risks are not covered by the policy: Disputes in quality Causes inherent in the nature of the goods Default of an exporter or his agent Fluctuations in exchange rate
The exporter is expected to include all shipments made by him in a period of 12 months for which the policy is valid by way of declaration to ECGC.ECGC contd. The premium payable is determined on the basis of monthly declarations of the exporter The policy may cover both political and commercial risks (comprehensive policy) or cover only political risks. ECGC pays up to 90% of the loss on claims submitted to it
ECGC offers a number of special risk covers to take care of exporters executing projects abroad. exchange fluctuation etc. Guarantee protects the bank against failure of the exporter to repay the advance on account of his insolvency or protracted default to repay. In order to encourage large scale use. The two most popular guarantees issued by ECGC are the packing credit guarantee and post-shipment guarantee.
. they are available on whole turnover basis also.ECGC¶s other policies
ECGC also covers advances made to exporters by banks at the pre-shipment and post-shipment stage.