ELECTRONICS SYSTEM & TECHNOLOGIES **Biomedical Technology** 1.

A mammography service examined 327 patients during the third calendar quarter of 1996. 719 films were exposed during this period, eight of which were repeats. What is the repeat rate? a. 45.5% b. code 2.45% c. 1.1% d. 54.52% ANS. 1.1% 7.

Power rating=42 kW Who completes the development of first computed tomographic (CT) scanner (EMI, Ltd.) in 1973? a. Mistretta b. Forssmann c. Kuhl d. Hounsfield ANS. Hounsfield It is the study of the response of an image receptor to x-rays a. sensitometry b. xeroradiography c. xeroradiometry d. spectrometry ANS. Sensitometry Ratio of radiographic contrast with a grid to that without a grid a. grid ratio b. contrast improvement factor c. Collidge factor d. Bucky factor ANS. contrast improvement factor

ANS d. sphygmomanometer 15. Given the energy level of 6.624x10^-18 J imparted to an electron stream by an X-ray device, calculate the frequency in MHz. a. 10^6 MHz b. 45.29 MHz c. 10^10 MHz d. 300 MHz ANS. 10^10 MHz f= E/h f= (6.624x〖10〗^(-18) J)/(6.624x〖10〗^(34) J-s) f= 10^10 MHz



A type of luminescence where the visible light is emitted only during the stimulation of the phosphor. a. fluorescence b. phosphorescence c. after glow d. any of the above ANS. Fluorescence If a heart measures 12.5 cm from side to side at its widest point, and its image on chest radiograph measures 14.7 cm, what is the magnification factor? a. 0.85 b. 1.18 c. 0.15 d. 2.2 ANS. 1.18 MF= (image size)/(object size) MF= (14.7 cm)/(12.5 cm) MF= 1.18 Radiation doses in the range of approximately200 to 1000 rad produce the a. Gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome b. Central Nervous System (CNS) syndrome c. Hematologic syndrome d. Prodomal syndrome ANS. Hematologic syndrome Ratio of incident to transmitted radiation through a grid ratio of patient dose with and without grid a. Bucky factor b. Damadian factor c. Grid ratio d. Roentgen equivalent ANS. Bucky factor A radiographic single-phase unit installed in a private office has a maximum capacity of 100 milliseconds of 120kVp and 500mA. What is the power rating? a. 42 kW b. 60 kW c. 600W d. 24kW ANS 42 Kw Power rating=(0.7)x (mA x kVp)/1000 Power rating=(0.7)x ((500)(120))/1000




10. Analysis of persons irradiated therapeutically with superficial x-rays has shown that the skin erythema dose required to affect 50% of persons so irradiated is about a. 200 rad b. 400 rad c. 600 rad d. 800 rad ANS. 600 rad

It was first noted by Heinrich Hertz in 1887 and won Albert Einstein the Nobel Prize in 1905. It refers to the emission of electrons from a clean metallic surface (phototube) when electromagnetic radiation (light waves or X-rays) falls onto that surface. a. Photoelectric effect b. Compton effect c. Bremsstrahlung d. Mie effect ANS. Photoelectric effect Unit of radiation exposure or amount of X-ray radiation that will produce 2.08x10^9 ion pairs per cubic centimetre of air at standard temperature and pressure (STP). a. Curie b. Roentgen c. Radiation absorbed dose (rad) d. Gray ANS. Roentgen




ECG recording requires a bandwidth of 0.05 to ___Hz a. 1000 b. 540 c. 100 d. 40 ANS.100 Find the potential generated if blood flowing in a vessel with radius 0.9 cm cuts a magnetic field of 250 G. Assume a volume flow rate of 175 cubic cm per second. a. 206 uV b. 309 uV c. 903 uV d. 260 uV ANS. 309 uV E= QB/50πa E= ((175 cc.s)(250 G))/(50π(0.9cm)) E= 309 uV d.


18. An optical electronic device that measures the color concentration of a substance in solution. a. colorimeter b. flame photometer c. spectrophotometer d. chromatograph ANS.colorimeter 19. Recording of heart sounds a. ultracardiography b. cardioacoustics c. electrocardiogram d. phonocardiography ANS. Phonocardiography 20. Recorder for measuring galvanic skin resistance a. electrodermograph b. electromyograph c. electrocorporealograph d. electrogalvanograph ANS.electrodermograph



13. Period during which heart contracts. a. Diastole b. Systole c. block mode Synapse ANS. Systole 14. Apparatus for measuring blood pressure a. defibrillator b. electrocardiogram c. plethysmograph d. sphygmomanometer

4B/5B Encoding d. foldover distortion c. slope overload c.2 x 10e-14`W B = 120 kHz a. What proportion of the maximum output voltage is produced? a. 100 Mbps d. Samuel Baudot ANS. A block coding technique in which four bits are encoded into a five bit code a. Richard W.2 dB . 4 Mbps ANS. CCITT ANS.65 ANS6. Inaccuracies caused by the representation of a continuously varying quantity as one of a number of discrete values. twice the bandwidth of a signal d. It consists of 36 unique codes representing the 10 digits and 26 uppercase letters a. LRC c. 0.length character code developed for machines rather than for people a.024 Mbps ANS. 9.368 Mbps b.867Vmax d. PCM d.2 dB ANS. equal to the highest frequency of a signal c.stop bit 20.CRC For the given parameters. either a or b d. A bit pattern or a character added to the beginning and the end of a frame to separate the frames a.84 Mbps b.048 Mbps d.84 Mbps 17.876Vmax 2. Hamming The most reliable convolutional coding scheme for error detection a. Hamming c. codec c. 4.**Digital and Data Communications** 1. 9672969442 ANS. 10. What is the bit rate of STS – 1? a. A network with bandwidth of 10 Mbps can pass only an average of 12000 frames per minute with each frame carrying an average of 10000 bits. 2 Mbps c. CRC d. 1 Mbps b.35 d. flag c.4B/5B Encoding 18. VRC ANS.76 = 40 n = 6.Flag 7. determine the energy per bit-to noise power density ratio C = 10e-12 W fb = 60 kbps N = 1. neither a nor b ANS. 0.0.786Vmax b.56 b. Frameguard d. 3. Gray Code c. Richard W. Flag b. equal to the lowest frequency of a signal b. 2B1Q Encoding c. ASCII Code b. 20.4 GHz ANS. stop bit ANS. Baudot b. 10 Base 2 d.02nb + 1. The minimum sampling rate according to Nyquist Theorem a. ANSI b. twice the highest frequency of a signal ANS. What is the throughput of this network? a.2 dB b. Firewall c. delta modulation ANS. 5. 14. PPM c.either a or b 11. 10 Base-T c. trailer b. one or more bits to indicate the end of transmission a. code 39 c. 4294967296 232 = 4294967296 16. distortion d.678Vmax ANS. 14.480 Mbps c. 2.2 dB c. Discrete code b. Distortion created by using too low a sampling rate when coding an analog signal for digital transmission a. A signal at the input to a mu-law compressor is positive with its voltage one-half the maximum value. 6927694924 c. escape byte d. 6. alias signal b. continuous code d. 1.2 dB d. Footprint ANS. 51.35 13. Baudot Code ANS.63 c. William R.ANSI 19.10 Base 5 6.51. 8.35 SNRdB = 6.quantizing errors Circuit for digitizing voice at a low data rate by using knowledge of the way in which voice sounds are produced: a.1.22. 2449692769 d. A telephone subscriber line must have an SNRdB above 40. . 1000 Base-T b. aliasing b. 22. A national standards organization that defines standards in the United States a.Baudot Code The early pioneer in the development of errordetection and correction procedures: a.delta modulation 15. Emile Baudot d. 2. unipolar code b.368 Mbps **Electronics/Communications** 1. 16. EBCDIC code d. 1. What is the minimum number of bits? a. 3.vocoder A coding scheme that records the change in signal level since the precious sample a. 3. checksum b. An IPv4 has an address space of how many? a.2 Mbps Throughput= (12 000 x 10 000)/60 = 2 Mbps 12. vocoder b.code 39 The first fixed. 3 Mbps d. 64 kbps c. 0. 5. The thick coaxial cable implementation of standard Ethernet a. 4294967296 b. In asynchronous transmission. ADC ANS. 10 Base 5 ANS.twice the highest frequency of a signal It is used in wireless applications in which stations must be able to share the medium without 2. 0. 6. Hamming b. 4A/5A Encoding ANS. a. quantizing errors ANS. 20 code ANS. FCC c. ITU d.876Vmax c. What is the overhead (number of extra bits) in the DS3 service? a. sample-and-hold circuit d.

router ANS. -23 dBm ANS. 11001) a. H. 10.5 MHz signal.6 dB 4. parity ANS. 323 ANS. what is the total transmitted power? a.5 MHz = 70. CRC c. 3.12 Megabits 1. Noise figure ANS.641 W 4. Dynamic range b. Given the reference temperature T0 = 290 K. Two 10101 XOR 11001 = 01100 ( presence of two 1) 9. What is the address space of IPv6? a. 264 c. such that: NF = 10 log NR = 3.gateway It is an undesired shift or width change in digital bits of data due to circuitry action which causes bits to arrive at different times a. Two-dimensional parity check ANS. 6. An address space is the total number of addresses used by the protocol. The modulation index of an AM radio station is 0. Figure of merit c. Spread spectrum ANS. 12 Gigabits b.5 d. Analog and Digital Electronics. An error detection method which uses one’s complement arithmetic a. 120 Megabits d. it is the ratio of the maximum input voltage level to the smallest voltage level that can be quantized a. A/an _______ is a range of frequency in which the upper frequency is double the lower frequency.321 d. An FM transmitter system is using a 1MHz crystal oscillator to generate a very stable 108MHz final carrier frequency.spread spectrum 3. 7.2 dB b. 2 Gigabits c. 1. H. find the noise figure of the system. 20µ s b. 72 ANS.20µ s Determine the Hamming distance for the codewords ( 10101.2128 It is a standard designed by ITU to allow telephones in the public telephone network to talk to computers/terminals connected to the internet a. determine the frame duration. modulation b. 232 b. Simple-parity check d.23 dBm dBm for 200 mW = 10 log (200mW/1mW) = 23 dBm 2. What is the multiplier value? a. 23 dBm d.123 c. such as IPv4 and IPv6. If the receiver is receiving 200 mW. -46 dBm c. 12 Megabits ANS. 688 W ANS. 50µ s c. multiple access d. 438 W c.Dynamic range A multiplexer combines four 100-kbps channels using a time slot of 2 bits.5MHz x n N = 108/1. 296 d. 3. 8. 2128 ANS. The sensitivity of a radio receiver is given in terms of dBm. A computer monitor has a resolution of 1200 by 1000 pixels. impulse c. Multiple access c. a. 11.5MHz (filtered output) 36MHz – 34. Quality factor d. NR = Noise ratio Rearranging the above to find NR gives: NR = (375/290) +1 = 2. five ANS. 1.200 times 1000 pixels x 10 bits = 12 Mb 1024 colors requires 10 bits . H.5 = 72 **Electronic Communications** 1. 111 b. The noise temperature is given by: where: NT – noise temp.5 MHz = 1. If the carrier power is 500W. 100µ s d. 46dBm b.6 dB The total noise temperature of the antenna and receiver is NTtot = 75+ 300 = 375. Bridge b. . 400µ s ANS.jitter In PCM system. 0. two c. Checksum b. what is the corresponding dBm of this signal? a. The sum output of the mixer is filtered out. 641 W d. how many bits are needed to send the complete contents of a screen? a. 391 W b.6 dB c. 108 b.323 a. 6. Gateway c. one b.29 The Noise figure is the decibel equivalent of the noise ratio. 72 Basic Block Diagram of the FM carrier generator: 1 MHz carrier > x 36 > Mixer > Multiplier > 108MHz carrier First Multiplier output: 1MHz x 36 = 36 MHz Mixer output: 36MHz + 34.97 dB d. while the difference is fed to another multiplier in order to generate the final carrier frequency. alias b. jitter d. three d.Checksum It is a connecting device between two internetworks that use different models a. Repeater d. An antenna with a noise temperature of 75 Kelvin is connected to a receiver input with a noise temperature of 300 K.interception by an eavesdropper and without being subject to jamming from a malicious intruder a.02 dB ANS. 7. Microelectronics. 5. 210 = 1024 **Laws and Ethics. Power Line Communications** 1. 3 c. H.5 MHz (difference fed to the next multiplier) Multiplier stage: Output = 108MHz Output = 1.75. The output of the crystal oscillator is fed to a x36 multiplier circuit then mixed with a 34. If each pixel uses 1024 colors. 3.

Which of the following is the most widely used UTP cable that can carry baseband data at rates up to 100 Mbps at a range up to 100m? a. refractive index c.3 Hz ANS. autodyne ANS.000 ( 1 + 0. shielded-pair ANS.8 Hz  =  fm  = sin -1 N/S = sin -1 1/2. 66W c. The S/N input is 3:1. 66kW d. 7. Which of the following is the reason why it is not widely used? a. velocity factor b.8 Hz b.The signal is difficult to demodulate 14.0. 40kW ANS. The maximum voltage standing wave of an RG-11/U foam coaxial cable is 52 V and its minimum voltage is 17 V. 1 λ d.26 The reflected power is 26 % of the incident power : .8 Hz 16. the signal is difficult to demodulate ANS. CAT 4 b. 47.67 Hz d. Em = Emax – Ec = 125 – 85 = 40 V m = 40V/ 85V = 0. 62.7)(3x108 m/s) T= 47. What circuit is used to return the frequency response of a signal to its normal. parallel-resonant d. lossy b. 108 degrees b. SWR = Vmax/ Vmin = 52/17 = 3. a.47 m = Em/ Ec Emax = Ec + Em . What is the modulation index? a. 12 c.05 +1 Thus : Г 2 = (0.high-level modulator 15. CAT 5 c.05 . 97% ANS. dielectric constant d.26% Г 2 = Pr/Pi Г = SWR-1 SWR+1 .66kW Pt = Pc ( 1 + m2/2) Pt = 50. lossless c. 14. 5/8 λ ANS. Determine the worst-case output S/N for a narrowband FM receiver with deviation maximum of 10 kHz and a maximum intelligence frequency of 3 kHz.0. It is the ratio of the speed of propagation on a line to that of light in free-space.1/10λ 6.8 Hz c. padder d.6 ns ANS. 4. capacitive c.8 degrees c. What is the frequency deviation caused by the noise if the modulating frequency is 1. 1/10λ d. the signal has a low S/N c. How many wavelengths long are required for a pair of conductors to be considered as a transmission line? a. a.51 3. resonant ANS. the short-circuited transmission line behaves as a(an) ___________ circuit.82 /2) Pt = 66. low –level modulator b. 1. 4. 4.547. 0. twin-lead wire d. 47. 52 degrees d. octave d. a. the signal is weak at high frequencies d. stripline b. inductive b. trimmer b. frequency doubler c. ¼ λ c. 2.8 = 0. a. microstrip c.52ns c. b. a. The total transmitted power of an AM broadcast transmitter with a carrier power of 50kW when modulated 80 percent is: a. CAT 5e d.a.8. 2. a.6 ns 8. highlevel modulator c.velocity factor 10. differentialamplifier modulator d. 10 A small variable capacitance in parallel with each section of ganged capacitor is called _______.05 – 1 = 0. 16 ANS. a. One of the advantages of DSB is the savings of great deal of power. “flat” level? 3.51)2 = 0.33 ns b.8 μs d. ½ λ b. 26% c.CAT 5 Г = 3.3652)(1. a. 10 b. 51% b.resonant 11. ½λ b. 250 degrees ANS. input to an FM receiver has a S/N of 2.3. 0. 3.460. 23. CAT 6 ANS.6 ns T= L/ (Vf x Vc) T= 10 m/ (0. 2 λ ANS. 14 d.108 degrees Θ = 360 td / T T =1/f = 1 / 4MHz = 250 ns Θ = 360 (75) / 250 = 108 degrees Which of the following is a flat conductor separated by an insulating dielectric from a large ground plane that is usually one-quarter or one-half wavelength long? a. lattice modulator ANS. 76. **EST** 1. series-resonant ANS. The modulated peak value of a signal is 125V and the unmodulated carrier value is 85V. Determine the phase-shift represented by a 75 ns delay of a 4 MHz signal to a 75-ft cable with a dielectric constant of 2. 547. 1.parallel-resonant 5. 3% d.3652  = (0. trimmer At exactly one-quarter wavelength.octave 2. non-resonant d.7.5KHz and the permitted deviation is 4KHz? a. How many percent of the incident power is the reflected power? a.½ λ A mismatched transmission line is also referred to as a ___________ line. If the input in a transmitter is collector-modulated.68 d. converter c.32 ANS. microstrip One complete revolution around a Smith Chart represents _________ wavelengths.000 W Pt = 66kW 13. ¼ λ c.47 12.5KHz) = 547. if its velocity factor is 0.47 b. 9.107. Determine the time taken for a signal to travel down a 10 m transmission line. standing-wave ratio ANS. a. the system is called a _______________________. bandwidth harmonics ANS.47 c.5kW b. the signal occupies a narrow bandwidth b.

horizontal range ANS.66dBi d. a. unilateral ANS. a loading coil d. between the minor side-lobes ANS. pre-emphasis b. Hertz antenna d. a. 41. an EIRP meter c. support is easier ANS.94 dBi c. multiplexing b. physical construction is easier b. frequency-multiplier ANS. ANS. a. none of the choices ANS. more cost-effective c. 17. It is the most common means of overcoming the problems of quantizing error and noise. measured at the feedpoint. Low-Power Dipole Array b. all of the choices ANS. bi-directional b. 39. 39. 10. Field strength at a distance from an antenna is measured with a.end effect **Electronics System & Technologies** 1.62(3)2 0. Antennas that transmit an equal amount of energy in the horizontal direction are called a. none of the above ANS. from +90° to –90° b. coil d. miller effect ANS. fading d. Cannot be determined ANS. 37. active antenna b.top hat loading 20. companding c. anti-aliasing ANS. Which has a greater gain? a. Marconi antenna b. de-emphasis c. It is a phenomenon caused by any support insulators used at the ends of the wire antenna. Which of the following methods is used to lower the resonant frequency of a shortened vertical antenna? a. a field-strength meter 3. Calculate the gain (relative to an isotropic) of a parabolic antenna that has a diameter of 3 m. a field-strength meter ANS. passive antenna c. Calculate the efficiency. 79.\ A half-wave dipole is sometimes called: a. The first antenna has a higher gain. skin effect b. radio signals reflecting off the ground An antenna can be matched to a feed line using a. The shape of the electromagnetic energy radiated from or received by an antenna is called the a.8 dBi b. 93% 5. electromagnetic pattern c. unidirectional c. a slotted line b. a dipole d. antenna polarization c.8 G = 10 log 9474. c.8 G = 39. a.075 m G = 0. b. a shorted stub b. 7. tower sway ANS. Log-Periodic Dipole Array 9. A receiving antenna with a built-in preamplifier a. Hertz antenna An antenna's beamwidth is measured a.0752 G= 9474. the number of nodes decreases d. ________________ means that the characteristics and performance of an antenna are the same whether the antenna is radiating or intercepting an electromagnetic signal. faraday effect d. from front to back d. antenna reciprocity 19. antenna reciprocity b. buildings and other structures on the ground c. The second antenna has a higher gain. Both antennas have the same gain d. radiation pattern 13. antenna pattern ANS. directivity 4. an LC network c. end effect c. 92% d. more cost-effective 12. 90% b. signal shape b. 6. mounting is easier d. radio signals reflecting off the ground b. 91% c. omnidirectional d. LC antenna ANS. A dipole antenna has a radiation resistance of 67 ohms and a loss resistance of 5 ohms. respectively. directivity d. carrierrecovery d. Which of the following is not a reason why most halfwave antennas are mounted horizontally at low frequencies? a. Yagi antenna c. omnidirectional 14. amplifying d. faulty connection of the feed cable ground ANS. companding 18. permittivity c. all of the choices As the length of a "long-wire" antenna is increased a. between half-power points c.8 dBi 21. Log-Periodic Dipole Array c. radiation pattern d. de-emphasis 2. loading coil b. top hat loading c. between half-power points "Ground Effects" refers to the effects on an antenna's radiation pattern caused by a. focal factor b. Low-Power Directed Array d. active antenna 11. drooping radials d.53 dBi ANS. efficiency decreases c. The second antenna has a higher gain. Log Power Dipole Array ANS. a. the number of lobes increases LPDA stands for a. 93% Efficiency = Rr / Rt = 67 / (67 + 5) = 93% Two antennas have gains of 5. the number of lobes increases b.8 dBi G =  2 D2/ 2  = 3x108/ 4MHz = 0. . an efficiency of 60% and operates at a frequency of 4 GHz.5 dBd. 8. antenna grounding d. The ability of an antenna to send or receive signals over a narrow horizontal directional range is referred to as a.3 dBi and 4.a. . grounding ANS.

a Q section 21. A source provides 1 W to the isolator. A transmitter and a receiver is 45 km apart. A one-quarter wavelength of coaxial or balanced transmission line of a specific impedance connected between a load and a source in order to match impedances is a.5m c. 750 mW d. TE20 ANS. TE11 b. the SWR will be 1:10 c. TM22 d. 1 W b. collinear d. The mode is a. but absorbs RF power in the opposite direction. 4. How far from the transmitter could a signal be received if the transmitting and receiving antennas where 40 m and 20 m. How much power returns to the source? a. Hertz antenna b. Which antennas usually consist of two or more halfwave dipoles mounted end to end? a. Why does the downlink frequency appear to vary by several kHz during a low earth orbit satellite pass? a. broadside array 19.45 x 108 m/s b. 450 longitude d. 00 latitude 32.51 m 24. 00 longitude b. 10. Iridium b. S/N b. respectively. How much power is dissipated in the load? a.52 m ANS. 5. What is the phase velocity of a rectangular waveguide with a wall separation of 3 cm and a desired frequency of operation of 6 GHz? a. is inversely proportional to the phase velocity d. half-wave dipole d. multiplexer b. is greater than in free space b. shield c.43 x 108 m/s 23. wide-bandwidth array d. causing the Doppler effect 1.isolator 29. above level terrain? a.5 km 25. A stacked collinear antenna consisting of half-wave dipoles spaced from one another by one-half wavelengths is the a.43 x 108 m/s . Yagi ANS. a Q section d.15.7 dB and a return loss of 26 dB. The most ambitious LEO constellation to date is ______. collinear 18. An isolator has a forward loss of 0. Globalstar 22. 54. a. 4. 00 latitude c. 5.638 mW 27. 535 µW d. By how much must the path between the towers clear the obstacle in order to avoid diffraction at a frequency of 11 GHz? a. a. 45. 250 mW b. EIRP ANS.5 km b. minimum power transfer will take place d. 10.44.7 dB and a return loss of 26 dB. The distance between the satellite and ground station is changing. TE10 c. end-fire array c. None of the choices ANS. counterpoise ANS. parasitic array 16.5m ANS.4 km d. 7. An isolator has a forward loss of 0.5. circulator c. radome b. 8.5. G/T c. 17. When the characteristic impedance of the transmission line matches the output impedance of the transmitter and the impedance of the antenna itself. wave trap ANS.5 m b. The wavelength of a wave in a waveguide _________. Teledesic d. C/N d. a balun b. depends only on the waveguide dimensions and the free space wavelength c. isolator d. a. broadside array b. Geostationary satellites are located at ____ with respect to the equator. a. The distance between the satellite and ground station is changing. Yagi antenna 17. the SWR will be 10:1 b.4 km c. 350 µW c. an autotransformer c. shroud d.53 x 108 m/s d. Suppose that there is an obstacle midway between the transmitter and receiver. 3. parasitic array b. 11.43 x 108 m/s ANS. parasitic array ANS. causing the Kepler effect b. It is a microwave device that allows RF energy to pass through in one direction with very little loss.76 m d.5m d. Yagi antenna ANS. 851 mW c.52 m b. and the load is resistive with an SWR of 3. causing the Doppler effect ANS.35 x 108 m/s c. The distance between the satellite and ground station is changing. NAVSTAR c. 44.5 m 28. A basic antenna connected to a transmission line plus one or more additional conductors that are not connected to the transmission line form a a. 9. By how much should two antennas be separated for space diversity in the 11 GHz band? a. bi-directional array c. causing the Bernoulli effect c. A signal propagated in a waveguide has a full wave of electric intensity change between two further walls. The distance between the satellite and ground station is changing. a. Hertz b. dummy load ANS. causing the Boyle’s Law effect d. collinear antenna d. The quality of a space-link is measured in terms of the ______ ratio. 638 mW ANS. and the load is resistive with an SWR of 3. and no component of the electric field in the direction of propagation. A source provides 1 W to the isolator. An antenna made up of a driven element and one or more parasitic elements is generally referred to as a a. is directly proportional to the group velocity ANSWER:is greater than in free space 31. Marconi antenna c. a. maximum power transfer will take place 20. 900 latitude ANS. A metal wrapped around the parabolic antenna aperture to eliminate sidelobes interfering nearby stations is called a. 5. G/T 33.shroud 30. bass drum ANS. TE20 26. 690 µW ANS. maximum power transfer will take place ANS. The distance between the satellite and ground station is changing.51 m c. 7. Marconi c.

a. 12 GHz ANS. 384 Mm d. MUF c.54 dB.5 Hz f2 = 2x f1 where x = 1/3. fading c. center frequency ANS. 31. 2 c. 46000 km ANS. A group of filters has 1/3 octave of spacing. Variation in signal loss caused by natural weather disturbances. 7.87 km d. Cut-off frequency d. 99.39000 km What is the nominal uplink frequency for the Ku band? a. beamwidth decreases to 1/3 of its former value. 382 Mm c.1 2. MUF c.68 W c. ANS. average height d. 1 b. c. 380 Mm b. 58.3 Voltage = log-1 (1. 69 dB-SPL SPL@1m/1W = 85 dB-SPL (given) SPL@20m/1W = 85 . 75 Hz d.85 W b. Gain increases by 9.reverberation 2. a. How far away is it? Assume circular orbit. A number from 0 to 1 representing the ability of a surface material to absorb sound energy is known as .384 Mm What is the length of the path to a geostationary satellite from an Earth station if the angle of elevation is 300? a. 65 dB-SPL d. 95.5 km c. 31 V d. 31.ANS.5 Hz 6. beamwidth increases to thrice of its former value. weather loss ANS. 42400 km d. 3. What effect will the change in frequency have on the gain and beamwidth of the antenna? a. Gain increases by 9.5 V c. Gain decreases by 9. The moon orbits the earth with a period of approximately 28 days. The owner wants to use the same dish with a new feedhorn. 4.775 Volts ] 26 = 20 log [ voltage in Volts / 0. 14 GHz To cover all inhabited regions of the earth. reflection d. It uses a polarizing voltage of between 9 and 48 V of DC supply applied to its diaphragm by an external power supply. a. The height above the earth’s surface from which a refracted wave appears to have been reflected… a. 15.5 Hz c. for Ku-band (12 GHz) satellites. the number of polar-orbit satellites required is a. actual height b.28) + 8 = 137. Gain decreases by 9. 58. 6 GHz b. 3.5 km ANS. d. 4. echo b. beamwidth decreases to 1/3 of its former value. 386 Mm ANS. 5. 96. If the initial frequency is 25 Hz.Teledesic 2. 15. Dynamic b. Critical Frequency Electromagnetic waves that are directed above the horizon level.5 Hz ANS. 4 GHz c. sky waves d. 99. An acoustical phenomenon wherein the sound continues to persist after the cause of sound has stopped resulting in repeated reflections is called… a. 5 ANS. Critical Frequency b. spreading loss d.54 dB. 6. Cut-off frequency d. The highest frequency that can be used for skywave propagation between two specific points on earth’s surface.54 dB.5km b. 55. a. reverberation c. diffraction ANS.775 V ] 26 / 20 = log [ voltage in Volts / 0.775 V ] = 1.20 log (20m/1m) = 59 dB-SPL SPL@20m/10W = 59 + 10 log (10W/1W) = 69 dBSPL 5.65 W ANS.775 V Voltage = 15. How loud is the SPL at distance of 20 meters if this speaker is driven to 10 W of electrical power? a. fading Determine the radio horizon for a transmit antenna that is 200 m high and a receiving antenna that is 100 m high a. Critical Frequency b. a. a. 4.5 V A type of microphone that uses the principle of a capacitor as a means of transduction. 5. Ribbon d.68 = 10 log W + 120 W = log-1 [(137. 14 GHz d. **Communications / Broadcast** 1. The by-stander is 100 ft away from the bank. 6. Critical Frequency 7. surface waves c. 82 dB-SPL b. ground waves b. attenuation b.3) x 0. 58. 6400 km b. virtual height The highest frequency that can be used for skywave propagation between two specific points on earth’s surface. Condenser Determine the sound power in Watts produced by the bank’s alarm if a by-stander heard the alarm at a sound pressure level of 100 dB-SPL. 39000 km c. A satellite-dish owner has a 3 meter dish designed for C-band (4 GHz) operation. sky waves 3.54 dB. 12. what is the next frequency available for the filter? a. **Printing** 1. b. mean height ANS. 56.5 V V (dBu) = 20 log [ voltage in Volts / 0. 62 V ANS. 79 dB-SPL ANS.Carbon ANS. space waves ANS.Condenser c. + 26 dBu is how many volts? a. virtual height c. fraction of an octave f2 = 21/3 x 25 = 31. beamwidth increases to thrice of its former value. 97. a. 3 d.68 – 120)/10] W = 58. beamwidth decreases to 1/3 of its former value.65 Watts A loudspeaker produces an SPL of 85dB-SPL at 1 meter distance and input electrical power of 1 W.75 V b.56 W d.68 dB-PWL 137. 69 dB-SPL c. mid frequency ANS. Gain increases by 9.54 dB. 50 Hz b.65 W PWL = SPL + 20 log D(m) + 8 PWL = 100 + 20 log (100/3.

000 km above the earth’s surface if the earth’s radius is 6400 km. a. 0 T = = =4h 2r s v 37x 3m . spot d.786 miles b. SCADA ANS. FDMA b. circular d.dynamic range ANS. 526. nighttime period An AM broadcast service area in which groundwave field of 1mV/m (60dBu) is not subject to objectionable interference or objectionable fading. the required obstruction painting and/or lighting must be imposed on mast or tower more than … from the ground level. ITU-R S 009 c. signal-to-noise ratio c.5 to 1605 kHz c. 39.39. a. a. propagation pattern c. Reflection coefficient d. what is the minimum frequency separation in any service area for adjacent AM radio stations? a. bearing ANS. perigee b. 76 km/s b.5 to 1705 kHz Part of broadcasting in a day that refers to that period of time between 1000 UTC to 2200 UTC. azimuth & elevation b. Headroom b. The location of a satellite is generally specified in terms of a. 6. 36 kHz d. apogee c. ITU-R S.latitude & longitude T = orbital period C = circumference v = orbital velocity C = 2 r = 2π ( 6400 + 36. 1440 mins 10.000 km d. The height above mean sea level of a satellite in a geosynchronous orbit around Earth is: a. TDMA d. 36.1001-2 d. elliptical ANS. none among these ANS. 535 to 1705 kHz d. footprint Calculate the length of the path to a geostationary satellite from an earth station where the angle of elevation is 30  . 76 m/s c.786 NM c.000 ) = 266.4 x 106 m 4 11 x01 v= = . primetime period ANS. 35. vertical As per Phillipine standard.6 km/s2 ANS. frequency allocation of AM Radio Broadcasting is from… a. longitude & latitude c. 7. vertical c.004 ANS. An ITU radiocommunication standards for satellite services which provides information on the range of frequencies that can be used by fixed satellite service systems for emergency and disaster relief operations. A satellite access technique where each earth station transmits a short burst of information during a specific time slot. a. ITU-R S.600 sec d. 7. 39.6 km/s 5. ANS. DAMA c.786 feet d.000 km b. 4. 7. apex d. 535 to 1605 kHz b.(earth’s radius = 6400 km. 7. 250 ft ANS. 1440 sec ANS. 1440 mins b. azimuth & elevation 5. Sound absorption c.a. daytime period b. horizontal b.5 to 1705 kHz ANS. Where : v = velocity in meters per second d = distance above earth’s surface in km v = 1 40 x 1 1 ( 5 + 0 0 6 ) 4 0 0 = 7. a. 36 kHz 2. 3.000 km 2 d r h − c θ −i θ =( +) ( o ) r rs 2 s n 3. dynamic range **Satellite Communications** 1. 3. what should be the polarization of the radiator? a.000 mi c. primary service area b. gain d. 40 kHz b. A point in the orbit of an object orbiting the earth that is located closest to Earth. subsatellite point ANS. 36. 200 ft d. secondary service area c. 100 ft b. 150 ft Regarding the design of AM antenna. 35. azimuth & elevation b. The outline of a communications satellite antenna pattern on the earth is known as: a. 9.Absorption Coefficient Formula : Where : Τ= 8.0 0 60 0 C 2 4 1 6m 6 x 6. ITU-R M1854 b. .ITU-R S. c.000 mi.1001-2 **Communications / Broadcast Engineering and Acoustics** 6. footprint ANS. beam b.35. true north ANS. UTC stands for Universal Time Coordinates. 200 kHz c. experimental period d. a. 24 days c. height of satellite above earth is 36 X 103 km) a. primary service area In antenna mast or tower construction. Room Constant ANS. a. perigee Find the velocity of a satellite in a circular orbit 500 km above the earth’s surface. 35. Find the orbital period of a satellite in a circular orbit 36. a. 526. 1 /s 0 0 or 1440 minutes C v 1. nighttime period c. bearing d. As per Philippine standard. 7k /s 30 m (6 0 +4 ) 3 . 150 ft c. latitude & longitude true morth d. 526. The difference in dB between the loudest level of sound and the softest passage of sound is known as a.6 km/s = Formula : v d 6 4 0 ( +0 ) 41 x 0 1 1 4.786 km ANS. 300 kHz ANS.786 km 2. TDMA ( Time Division Multiple Access) An earth station antenna look angle is determined by : a. Formula : 8. intermittent service area d. Absorption Coefficient b. 35.6 km/s d.

50 – 15000 Hz d. Frequency allocation of FM broadcast in the Philippines… a.TV Pick-up station 21. 5. At NTSC standard.556 usec 19. 485 b. 19. 4. sky wave c. 66.85 m c.35 MHz ANS. What is the equivalent line period? a. 30 kW c. none among choices ANS.96 m d. 1 MW 17. 3. εr = 2? a. AM DSB FC b. 10 W b.579455 c.36 m . 100 kW b.579545 15. 200 W ANS. visual carrier frequency of channel 9 16. 10.580545 d.264 Hz.25 MHz c. Class C d. 199. 19 kHz c. Determine the visual carrier frequency of TV channel 9 a. line frequency = 15734.7. 7 MHz ANS. TV Satellite link station ANS.96 kW ANS. Class B What is the modulation used for the stereophonic subcarrier of FM composite baseband signal? a.25 = 187.0 m b.960 W or 19. the total number of symbol combinations is 64 symbols and the number of bits to produce this is… n = log2 64 = 6 bits per symbol Therefore the ideal RF bandwidth is… BW = fB / n = 36 Mbps / 6 bits BW = 6 MHz 22.25 MHz fNLB = 174 + (N – 7)6. 5 MHz c. AM VSB ANS. a. Exact value of color subcarrier frequency (MHz) is … a.2 MHz b. 88 – 108 MHz 23. 6 MHz d.sky wave 9.96 kW 12. 6 MHz 20. At NTSC standard.556 usec ANS. 4 MHz b. 174 – 216 MHz ANS. Nominal RF bandwidth of NTSC TV channel… a. what is the ERP of the station in kW? a. 64.5 MHz c.96 kW GANT = 6 dB = 4 ERP = (5000 – 10) x 4 = 4990 x 4 = 19. 525 18. 63. 65. If the power loss in transmission line is around 10 W and the antenna has a power gain of 6 dB. 175. AM DSB SC c. TV Pick-up station b. 187. 63. 38 kHz ANS. What is the maximum allowable ERPs for channels 7 – 13 in Metro Manila and Metro Cebu? a. 585 ANS. The output power of an FM transmitter is 5 kW. PAL c.25 MHz d. 19. space wave d. AM DSB SC 13. For a total capacity of 36 Mbps and 64-QAM of digital modulation. ground wave b. low band frequency of channel 9 fVC = 186 + 1.579554 b.556 usec fH = 15734. 535 – 1605 kHz b.556 usec d. 0. 3. 350 kW d.579545 ANS. NTSC b. 15 kHz b. 35 W What is the classification of an FM station having an ERP not exceeding 30kW? a. 316 kW c. 1. using Arithmetic Progression f9LB = 174 + (9 – 7)6 = 174 + (2)6 = 174 + 12 = 186 MHz. SECAM d.25 MHz ANS. 3. TV STL station c.187. What is the maximum power allowable for remote pick-up stations used as broadcast auxillary services for AM and FM broadcast stations? a.25 MHz.19 kHz 11. A land mobile station used for the transmission of TV program materials and related communications from the scenes of events occuring at remote points from TV broadcast station studios to TV broadcast station. What is the mode of radio wave propagation that utilized ionosphere as a medium of transmission and / or reception of radio signals? a. 88 – 108 MHz c. Class A b. what is the ideal RF bandwidth? a. 15 W c.NTSC 14. What is the pilot subcarrier frequency used in FM stereophonic transmission? a. 193.556 x 10-6 = 63. 35 W d.556 usec c. 525 c. 3. 30 kHz d. 1. 5 kW b. all of these ANS. Class B c.264 Hz H = 1 / fH = 1 / 15734. What is the wavelength of a radio signal travelling at a frequency of 220 MHz in a coaxial line having Teflon foam as its dielectric.264 H = 63. 4. TV Inter-city Relay station d. 6 MHz For a 64-QAM. 3. the number of lines per frame = ________ lines/frame a. 20 kW d. 1 MW ANS. What is the color TV system adopted by the Philippines? a. 6 MHz d. 0.25 MHz b.556 usec b. AM SSB d. Class D ANS. 8. 625 d.

8.6. a.6) / 0.50) Graph ANS.85 x MUF = 0.4 MHz For flat terrain analysis. The lowest portion of the ionosphere that is useful for long-distance communication by amateurs.36 m/sec (or 212 x 106 m/sec approx. 30° Using Snell’s Law… Sqrt (εr1) sin θi = Sqrt (εr2) sin θr Sqrt (1) sin 45° = Sqrt (2) sin θr θr = sin-1 [(Sqrt (1) sin 45°) / Sqrt (2)] = sin-1 (0.01 m = 1 cm SHF band wavelength classification is ranging from 1 cm to 100 cm. D 26. A radio communication link is to be established via the ionosphere. 12 MHz c. angle diversity d. frequency diversity 29. a. 30° ANS. The power density is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source. what is the classification of Super High Frequency? a. frequency diversity b.034.3 MHz c. Snell’s law c. 8. quadrature diversity ANS. A graph which shows the radiation in actual field strength of electromagnetic fields at all points which are at equal distance from the antenna is known as… a. Radiation Pattern c.space diversity 28.5 MHz ANS.82 = 6. D b. 24.2 MHz b.82 Rloss Rloss = (30 – 24. E c. F2 ANS.273] = 66. Faraday’s law b.932) = 8. millimetric ANS. What is a diversity scheme that uses two (2) different frequencies in a simplex path? a. 27.431-6 Tables 1 & 2 Wavelength Classifications. 13 MHz d.5) = 30° 25. 28° d. A phenomenon on the surface of the sun with appearance and disappearance of dark irregularly shaped areas. What is the value of its loss resistance? a. 12 Ω d. E 33. metric b. What should be done to increase the transmission distance at frequencies higher than HF bands? a. 6.centimetric SHF band: 3 GHz – 30 GHz λmax = 3 x 108 / 3 x 109 = 0. 36. This is often termed as the Kennely-Heavyside layer. at the midpoint of the path and the critical frequency is 4 MHz. frequency diversity b. D b. increase antenna height c. a. F1 d. angle diversity d.82 (30 + Rloss) = 30 = 24.13 MHz Nmax = 2 x 106 per cm3 = 2 x 106 x 106 per m3 = 2 x 1012 per m3 fc = 9 x sqrt (Nmax) = 9 x sqrt (2 x 1012) fc = 12.96 m c = 3 x 108 m/sec = 300 x 106 m/sec velocity factor vf = 1 / sqrt (εr) = 1 / sqrt (2) = 0.707 = vP / c Therefore the velocity of the radio signal in the coaxial line is … vP = 0. 8. 26° c. tan i = d/2hv i = tan-1 [d/2hv] = tan-1 [500/2(110)] = tan-1 [2. 11-year sunspot c. 75 Ω b. As per ITU-R Recc. 0. space diversity c.Inverse Square law 32.4 MHz approx. SID b.5854 Ω or 6.85 (9. 8. Gauss law ANS.96 m approx.132.58 Ω approx.58 Ω η = Rd/(Rd + Rloss) 0. What is the angle of refraction in a Teflon (εr2 = 2) medium of a radio wave from air (εr1 = 1.73 MHz or 13 MHz approx. This law is known as… a. 11 MHz b.82 = 30/(30 + Rloss) 0. Frequency Response b. centimetric d. V. 24° b.0) if its angle of incidence is 45°? a.4 MHz d.1 m = 100 cm λmin = 3 x 108 / 30 x 109 = 0. An ionosphere layer also termed as “absorption layer” because it absorbs most of the frequencies above 100 kHz is known as the … layer. F2 ANS.40275 = 9.25° = 4 / 0.ANS. increase antenna gain b. 8. 31.932 MHz via Secant Law OWF = 0. What is a diversity scheme that uses two (2) separate antennas and receivers for each single transmitter? a.) so that the wavelength of the signal is … λ = vP / f = 212 x 106 / 220 x 106 = 0. a. 15 Ω c. space diversity c. Therefore it is centimetric wave. Radiation Pattern 34.11-year sunspot 35. What is the critical frequency of a layer if the maximum value of electron density is 2 x 106 per cm3? a. If the distance between the radio stations is 500 km. quadrature diversity ANS. Inverse Square law d. F1 d. what is the suitable value for the optimum working frequency? Use flat terrain analysis. Ionospheric storms ANS. The efficiency of an antenna is 82 %. The maximum virtual height of the layer is 110 km. Smith Chart d.25° angle of incidence MUF = fc x sec i = fc / cos i = 4 / cos 66. E c.963636… m or 0.707c = 0. decimetric c.4422 MHz or 8. 14 MHz ANS.58 Ω ANS.707 (300 x 106) = 212.6 + 0. about 100 to 115 km above the earth is known as the… layer. 30. increase transmitter power . Sporadic E-layer d. FCC F(50. Its radiation resistance is 30 Ω.

2 dB b.3 W From Inverse Square Law. How much power was fed into the test antenna? a.57 x 10-4 W/m2 is measured 50 meters from a test antenna whose directive gain is 2. control computer d. 0. 0.trunk lines 11.PR = -76 dB – (-100dBm) = 24 dBm = 250 mW A telephone signal takes 2ms to reach its destination. 1 W b. 2 W c.cluster In Celluar Telephone Systems. . the four vertical frequencies are ____. Identical telephone numbers in different parts of a country are distinguished by their ___.2 X 2 + 0. occurs when the central office capacity is exceeded ANS.93 / 1.15 dB.97 km d. Which of the following factors must be considered in the transmission of a surface wave to reduce attenuation? a.6 dB d. in erlangs c. frequency c. 6. the MTSO increases power level ANS. 200 mW c. In DTMF. 20 hertz AC ANS. occurs on the local loop when there is an electrical power failure c. increase antenna height 37.the unit is “handed off” to a closer cell In a cellular telephone system.76 dB at mobile power contol? a. each cell site contains a ____.d.forward links A CDMA mobile measures the signal strength from the base as -100 dBm. A power density of 1.2t + 0. TRA ANS.occurs when the central office capacity is exceeded 12.HF SOLUTION (IF PROBLEM SOLVING): c = 3 x 108 m/sec λ = 11 m = c / f f = 3 x 108 / 11 = 27 MHz approx. coaxial cable b.4 = 0.in erlangs 3. What is the total radio horizon distance between an 80 ft transmitting station and a 20 ft receiving station? a. local loops c. forward links b. repeater b. a. these are transmissions from base stations to mobile units (Downlink) a.97 mi ANS.8 dB VNL = 0.97 mi SOLUTION (IF PROBLEM SOLVING): dRH (TOT) = sqrt (2 x hT) + sqrt (2 x hR) dRH (TOT) = sqrt (2 x 80) + sqrt (2 x 20) dRH (TOT) = 18.twisted-pair copper wire 13. with echo cancellers b. 150 mW b. 4. What is the designated band of station’s frequency? a. 20 hertz AC d. all choices ANS.64 PR = PFED x GANT PFED = PR / GANT = 4. touch tone processors c. 18. 250 mW d. the call is terminated c.repeater When the signal from a mobile cellular unit drops below a certain level.8 dB ANS. site d. **Wireline and wireless ** 1. UHF ANS. the unit is “handed off” to a closer cell d.64 = 3. trunk lines d.2t + 0.PR Where: PT = transmitted power in dBm PR = received power in dBm PT = -76 dB . PD = PR/4πd2 PR = PD x 4πd2 = 1. a. 0. call blocking is: a. language digits b. Central offices are connected by: a. 0.48 volts DC a. fiber-optic ANS. In a cellular telephone system. 3 W d. which is within 3 – 30 MHz range designated as HF band 39. HF c. What should the mobile transmitter power be set to as a first approximation.. both a and b b. TRX d. antenna polarization d.250 mW PT = -76 dB .4 dB = 0. cannot occur in the public telephone network b.007 W or 3 W approx. Cluster c. ANS. 18.all choices 38. 53. 4 W ANS. in terms of the grade of service ANS. 5. shielded twisted-pair copper wire d. 90 volts DC b. 53. by the relative congestion d.4 dB c. A radio station operates at 11 meter wavelength. 0.8 dB The typical voltage across a telephone when on-hook is: a. VHF d.97 mi 40. reverse links c. MF b.4 dB Where: VNL = minimum required via net loss in dB t = time delay in ms for propagation one way along line VNL = 0. a. In telephony. 48 volts DC c.15 dB/10] = 1. Telephone traffic is measured ____ 8. access digits ANS. 300 mW 9. increase receiver sensitivity ANS. The cable used for local loops in telephone system is mainly: a.93 W approx. group of cells is called ___. sector b. considering . Calculate the via net loss required for an acceptable amount of echo. electrical properties of the terrain b. cell segment ANS.66 km b. a. the cell site switches antennas b.66 mi c. 48 volts. what action occurs? a.57 x 10-4 x 4π(50)2 = 4.area codes 2. 90 volts. 7. 18. direct link to a branch exchange ANS. area codes c. twisted-pair copper wire c. 10. occurs only on long-distance cables d. none of the above ANS. is the radiated power GANT = log-1 [2. central office codes d.

Total internal reflection b. reverse links c. Waveguide dispersion Recent laser developments for fiber-optic communication include a.770Hz. Modal dispersion b. ANS.Fresnel 9. the most commonly used fiber(s) are a. IMSI stands for:: a. It is the central part of the optical communication system a. Dispersion d. section center c. AMPS stand for: a. Power levels c. 679Hz. Red c. 852Hz.1633Hz b. 1209Hz. Use a higher frequency light source b. Responsitivity b. Cable dispersion ANS.941Hz c. voice channels are called: a.Base Station Controller 22. 1208Hz. high group frequencies c.regional center 20. 697Hz. Power consumption The dispersion of light in fiber-optic cable caused by a portion of the light energy traveling in the cladding is called a. high group frequencies c. Mobile Switching Center c. 1336Hz.1477Hz.770Hz. The bandwidth of voice-grade signals on a telephone system is restricted in order to: a.1633Hz 15. Waveguide dispersion d.1336Hz. 50 and 62. In Mobile Communications. In the telecommunications industry. ** Electronics and Communications** 1. Power consumption d. top group frequencies ANS. all of the above ANS. Distributed feedback (DFB) b. Basic Service Code ANS.5 micron c. forward links b. the Vertical frequencies is also known as a.770Hz.941Hz c. Infrared b. Step index ANS. Basic Service Contract b.1477Hz. Advanced Mobile Phone Service ANS. 1336Hz. Rayleigh c. In DTMF. BSC stands for: a. American Mobile Phone System b. low group frequencies b. 1209Hz.Advanced Mobile Phone Service 21.1633Hz b. Maximum Signal Carrier b.Distributed feedback (DFB) and vertical cavity surface emitting (VCSEL) Which of the following considerations is important when deciding between using a diode laser or an LED? a.reverse links 16. Vertical cavity surface emitting (VCSEL) c. Intermodulation System Interference ANS.traffic channels 24. 941Hz d.770Hz. Minimize the core diameter 5. Snell ANS. these are transmissions from mobile units to base stations (Uplink) a. the Horizontal frequencies are a. 852Hz.852Hz. International Mobile Subscriber Identification c. In Cellular Radio. In Celluar Telephone Systems. Response time b. 50 micron b. Interim Mobile Subscriber Identification d.1747Hz. In GSM.low group frequencies 18.852Hz. 50 and 62.770Hz.Infrared 2. 10. frequency hopping c. traffic channels c. none of the above ANS.1477Hz. all of the above ANS. the horizontal frequencies is also known as a. low group frequencies b. Fresnel d. 125 micron ANS. talking channels ANS. mid group frequencies d. 679Hz. voice channels d.852Hz. Optical Fiber c. This is the highest-ranking office in the DDD network in telephony in terms of the size of the geographical area served and the trunking options available. Which is not an important characteristic of a light detector? a. the correct explanation of diffraction was given by a. Response speed ANS.Response time In 1815. Maxwell b. 62. Minimum Signal Carrier 6.1747Hz. The most common light used in fiber-optic links is a. prevent "singing" c. 3. a. Violet d. 1336Hz. GSM uses: a. bottom group frequencies d. MSC stands for: a. TRX d.1209Hz. 4. all of the above ANS. In Cellular Radio.International Mobile Subscriber Identification 8. Distributed feedback (DFB) and vertical cavity surface emitting (VCSEL) ANS. Base Signal Controller d. bearer channels b. Use plastic cladding c. Numerical aperture c. 1208Hz.941Hz 14. Ultraviolet ANS. In Mobile Communications. Light Source b. Photodetector d. Integrated Mobile Subscriber Identification b. allow lines to be "conditioned" b. direct-sequence modulation d. Base Station Controller c. primary center b. Heterojunction d.1633Hz ANS.a. Mobile Service Cellular d.1633Hz ANS. Failure characteristics ANS. top group frequencies ANS. In Cellular Radio.5 micron d. All the above ANS. regional center d. In DTMF.high group frequencies 17. 697Hz. Dark current c.frequency hopping 25. CDMA b. Advanced Mobile Phone System d. Step index A technique that is used to minimize the pulse dispersion effect is to 7. Analog Mobile Phone Service C.Optical Fiber . allow signals to be multiplexed d.Mobile Switching Center 23. Material dispersion c. In DTMF. Temperature sensitivity d.5 micron The abrupt change in refractive index from core to cladding of fiber-optic cable is called the a. TRA ANS.1336Hz. allow signals to be multiplexed 19. a. 697Hz. 941Hz d. Minimize the core diameter d.

140 b.51. Zoning c. 20.852 b. Bulkhead c. the fractional difference between the indexes is: ∆=(n1-n2)/n1 =(1. Splicing b. the fractional difference between the indexes is: ∆=(n1-n2)/n1 =(1.6◦ c. refractive index of 1. 8. Top loading d. An optic fiber is made of glass with a refractive index of 1. 20. Centralized Clock? a. What is the acceptance angle? a. Broadside action d.Quanta 12.II 14. 1. 0.Bandwidth b Beamwidth c.Zoning 6.Polarization Placing a metallic array on the antenna effects to increase the current at the base of the antenna. Grounding c.Alternation b. Launching takes place from air. -25dBm b.55 =0. to have __________. Non-resonant antenna b.0258)] = 0.Stub b. Azimuth ANS. Light Ray b. Broadside array c. FDDI . Quanta d. feed d. Cladding d.0258)] = 0. a.352 By equation (20. 3. The light energy that is always emitted or absorbed in discrete units a. 4. Both a & c ANS. Polarization d. End-fire array ANS.352 By equation (20. a. the acceptance angle is: Θ0(max)=sin-1NA= sin-10. Repeatability ANS. It is a mixed. a.0258 By equation (20. focus b. Launching takes place from air. The ratio of the focal length to the mouth diameter is called __________ of the parabola. and also to make the current distribution more uniform.55 and is clad with another glass with a .032 d.51.3. a. Coordinates c. It is a layer of plastic that surrounds a fiber or group of fibers a.0258 By equation (20. Resonant antenna c.Propagation b.10).55 and is clad with another glass with a refractive index of 1.25)(100)]/(10)] =(1 x 10-4)(1 x 10-25) =0. Transmission line d. FDDI . the numerical aperture is found to be: NA=n1√(2∆) =1. -35dBm P=0. waveguide ANS. 22. Reciprocity d. determine the optical power 100km from a 0.316µW P(dBm)= 10log = -35dBm 3. -35dBm d.1mW light source. 10 Base-FB (Backbone) c. bandwidth d. 23. None of the above ANS. Azimuth ANS. a.Broadside action 13. FDDI . 18. a.6◦ For a single-mode optical cable with 0. aperture ANS.6◦ d. What numerical aperture does the fiber have? a.55-1.55 =0.25-dB/km loss.Aperture 11. a.55√[(2)(0. a. Antenna arrays d. Curving d.25)(100)]/(10)} =1 x 10-4 x 10{[(0. Note: such reflectors are often used at that frequency as antennas outside broadcast television microwave links. Antenna c. 10 Base-FL (Link) b.352 7. Corresponds to a resonant transmission line.50 d. Buffer Tube ** Signal Processing and Control Systems ** 1.Top loading What principle that states that the properties of an antenna are independent of whether it is used for transmission or reception. a. Buffer Tube b. by inference. A structure-generally metallic and sometimes very complex-designed to provide an efficient coupling between space and the output of a transmitter or input to a receiver. -30dBm ANS.8).Beamwidth 2.Broadside b.8750 ANS. Jacket ANS. Elementary doublet ANS. and the dipole antennas describe so far have been resonant. 12. Which of the following Ethernet fiber optic standard uses synchronous. -45dBm c. Calculate the beam width between nulls of a 2-m paraboloid reflector used at 6GHz. Polarizing ANS.235 ANS.51)/1. Footprint d. Escon ANS. 70 c. with that due to an isotopic antenna radiating the same total power.Resonant antenna 14. What is this called? a. a. 0.Directive gain(b) Any array that is directional at right angles to the plane of the array is said.8◦ b. Boson c. directivity b. Light ANS.Reflector b.50 This is often used to cure the problem of great thickness required of lenses used at lower microwave frequencies or for strong curved wavefronts. Refers to the direction in space of electric vector of the electromagnetic wave radiated from an antenna and is parallel to the antenna itself. An optic fiber is made of glass with a refractive index of 1. 0.11). the numerical aperture is found to be: NA=n1√(2∆) =1.Principle of reciprocity 5.11. The angular separation between the two half-power points on the power density radiation pattern.10). just as in camera lenses. a.352=20.6◦ By equation (20.1mW x 10-{[(0.352 c. resolution c. Diplexer c.11). Directive gain c. Hi PPI d. 0. 0. a. 9.10 Base-FB (Backbone) 13.antenna The ratio comparing the power density generated by a practical antenna in some direction.51)/1.55-1.55√[(2)(0.I c. 10 Base-FP (passive) d.6◦ ANS. 10. Feeding ANS. multiple-service standard to allow the transmission of voice and video over an FDDJ network.II b.

84 Mbps 11. Is an OSI Layer which is responsible for providing error-free communications across the physical link connecting primary and secondary stations (nodes) a. Peer-to-peer client/server network 12. Is a redundancy error detection scheme that uses parity to determine if a transmission error has occurred within a message and is sometimes called message parity. Is a device which operates in the Network layer and it makes forwarding decisions on the basis of network addresses a. Session Layer 6. 2. MA b. Longitudinal redundancy check 5. Dynamic range 3. Is a multiport bridge that provides bridging function. In fiber optics. Dedicated client server network b. Planck’s law c. Radiometry b. Router b. hub c. 50 Mbps d. it is a measure of the conversion efficiency of a photodetector. Control Register register b. Dynamic range ANSWER: d.Planck’s law 19. a. a. Channel service unit c.Pulse spreading Data comms 1. Absorption c. Photoelectric effect b. It is the ratio of the output current of a photodiode to the input optical power and has the unit of amperes per watt a. Optics ANS. Static fatigue 18. Light Sensitivity ANS. 48 bits Ans. Static fatigue b.544 Mbps c. Delta modulation 4. Control and Status Register d. QAM b. Photometry 20. Is one in which all computers share their resources with all the other computers on the network. Router 10. electrons are emitted. Switch c. Pulse spreading b. Planar diffusion c. Peer-to-peer network d. c. hub d.048 Mbps b. Data modem b. OC-1 (STS-1) line rate is a. a. Optometry d. CSMA/CD d. Longitudinal redundancy check b. A phenomenon also called stress corrosion resulting if the glass fiber is exposed to long periods of high humidity? a. Differential c. a. 40 bits 9. a. Switch ANSWER: d. Checksum ANSWER: a. A phenomenon in optical fibers communication system that is caused by the difference in the propagation times of light rays that take different paths down the fiber.Data Link Layer b. 51. Command registerANSWER: b. 32 bits 8.84 Mbps d. All of the above ANSWER: b. Microbending ANS. Is a PCM system which uses a single bit PCM code to achieve digital transmission of analog signals a.Trellis Coding PCM d. 5 Mbps ANS. Splitter d. 20 Mbps c. The science of measuring only light waves that are visible to the human eye a. For an optical fiber 10km long with a pulse-spreading constant of 5ns/km. Is an n-bit data register inside the UART that keeps track of the UART’s transmit and receive buffer registers a. CSMA c. 10Mbps b. Rayleigh scattering d. Spectral Response d. Presentation Layer ANSWER: a.20Mbps 16. Step size b. Repeater b. The theory which states that when visible light or high-frequency electromagnetic radiation illuminates a metallic surface. 3 Mbps ANSWER: b. None of the above ANS. Wavelength distortion c. IP version 4 address length is 32 bits d.15. Quantization Error d. a. Switch b. Is used to interface DTEs to digital transmission channels a. Photoemission effect d. Peer-to-peer client/server network c. Resolution c. Router Channel service unit ANSWER: d. Data Link layer 2. a. Repeater d. 51. Vertical redundancy check c. 1. Delta modulation c. Transport Layer d. Dispersion ANS. determine the maximum digital transmission rates for return-to-zero. 24 bits c. CSMA/CD 7. a. The process of constructing an ILD that is similar to LED except that the ends are highly polished. Photometry c. Character Parity Check d. Status Word register . Is an access method used primarily with LANs configured in a bus topology. Is the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the smallest possible magnitude that can be decoded by the digital-to-analog converter.epitaxially grown b.Lasing 21. Router ANSWER: c. lasing d. Responsivity c. Dark current b. CSMA/CA ANSWER: a. Ray Theory of light ANS.Responsivity 17. Scattering loss d. Status Word ANSWER: a.

reflection coefficient delay b. scatter space wave d.a. ER d. The highest frequency that can be set back to earth by the ionosphere. directivity 9. a. HF c. normal d. 11. Is an empirical record of a system’s actual bit error performance a. wavefront b. space wave c. potential 7. standing wave ratio ANSWER:c. directive gain c. Hamming code b. BER 15. V/C c. of low powers required b. they are very reliable ionosphere easily ANSWER:c. sky wave ANSWER:c. differential mode c. range d. standing wave ratio d. The electric field intensity is measured in: a. they are very reliable the transmitting antennas d. It is a result of an increase in the charge density in dielectric materials. UHF 12. V/m b. V/m ANSWER:a. . ANSWER: a. A measure of mismatch in a transmission line 3. wavelength c. common 10. BER c. a. radio horizon c. all of these ANSWER: a. MF (Medium Frequency) ANSWER polarization 8. Is an error-correcting code used for correcting transmission errors in synchronous data streams. if wave is sent vertically upward. normal d. Typical mode of radiation of helical antenna is: a. VHF d. potential difference c. VLF waves are for some types of services because a. critical frequency d. power gain d. FSK c. Hamming code RADIO WAVE 1. The maximum horizontal distance between the transmitter and the receiver for line of sight propagation is known as: a. In what major RF band is ground wave basically applied? a. wavelength distance d. vertical b. power density c. maximum usable propagating frequency frequency (muf) b. polarization b. a. dipole moment d. EBCDIC c. end fire ANSWER: d.The electric field is perpendicular to the earth’s surface. are of convenient size c. Bisync Code b. directivity 13. propagation 13. Trellis Code d. EER b. It refers to the maximum antenna gain a. TCM ANSWER: d. BERT ANSWER: b. QAM b. a. It is a piece of transmission line which is normally short-circuited at the far end. a. vertical horizontal ANSWER:a. the polarization is: a. service region ANSWER: a. cut-off frequency ANSWER: critical frequency 5. C/m 6. they penetrate the 2. radio horizon b. circular c. V-m d. DPSK d. It is the distance between two wave fronts having the same phase at any given instant. MF b. Modulation which combines encoding and modulation to reduce the probability of error. end fire mode b. 4. Travel in a straight line from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna a. wave ANSWER a. single hop distance c. ground wave b. TCM 14. field intensity ANSWER:b.

TDM 6. The type of radio transmission that uses pseudorandomly switched transmissions is known as 18. length d. shorted end of the line c. Bandwidth requirements of the channel c. conductor ANSWER: c. none of these ANSWER: b. 19. Which region of the ionosphere is mainly responsible for long-distance night time communications? .35 0. Using an oscilloscope to display overlayed received data bits that provide information on noise. reflection c. length radius ANSWER: c. Ionospheric fading characteristics 4. a. 0. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM 17.25 c. midsection ANSWER:a. Occurs when the radio beam is at point of grazing over an obstacle. The acronym CDMA refers to ________. rhombic a. D layer A layer d. 0. conductor spacing b. Which is properly terminated antenna? a. diffraction absorption ans: diffraction b. Delta modulation b. a. Characteristic impedance of a transmission line is the impedance measured at the _______ when its length is infinite. CSU/DSU d. CVSD ANSWER: b. Loopback ANSWER:a.25 SOLUTION ( IF PROBLEM -SOLVING) Ref Coeff = (30 – 50)/(30 + 50) = 0. E layer c. Capture-division multiple-access systems d. 92. input 2. 16. Over Frequency Division Multiplexing c. conductor diameter c. 92. Power consumption ANSWER: c. rhombic c.4 + 10 log F + 20 log D b. Spread spectrum c. Channel-division multiple-access systems b. FSK systems are much superior to two-tone amplitudemodulation systems with respect to a. stub c. Noise performance b. 0. A special digital modulation technique that achieves high data rates in limited-bandwidth channels is called a.4 + 20log F + 20 log D DATA 1. Statistical concentration d. jitter. quarter wave transformer a.2 + 10 log F + 20 log D d. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing b. a.a. output d. 0.15 b. space loss a. Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation ANSWER: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 8. Carrier-division multiple-access systems c. hertz 14. DPSK DPSK c. Compression a. Optional Frequency Division Modulation d. ANSWER: a.2 + 20 log F + 20 log D ANSWER: b. b. terminator b.10 d. Spread spectrum does not depend upon its c. ANSWER: b. Pulse-coded modulation (PCM) c. dipole d. Using radio to transmit gathered data on some particular phenomenon without human monitors is known as a. 92. Eye pattern b. 3. input b. The characteristic impedance of a transmission line calculation formula is b. Calculate the reflection coefficient. The acronym OFDM refers to ________. A 50 ohms transmission line is connected to a 30 ohm resistive load.4 + 20 log F + 20 log Dd.25 20. marconi b. The technique that uses the BPSK vector relationship to generate an output with logical 0s and 1s determined by comparing the phase of two successive data bits is a. Code-division multiple-access systems ANSWER:Code-division multiple-access systems 7. 94. stub d. Ionospheric fading characteristics d. 94. A microwave communications system. Eye pattern 5. F layer ANSWER: d. refraction d. Constellation pattern c. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) ANSWER: c. Radio facsimile a. Synthesizing a. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) d. F layer b. Facsimile 15. and linearity is called a a.

hp ANSWER: energy 21. In an S/H circuit. c. remote d. Telemetry may be defined as _____ metering. decoded b. a. distance b. Flow control d. Complexity of design ANSWER: Slope overload 17. codec a. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) c. specialized c. Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) b. Use 8-bit PCM code and include 24 voice channels d. error b. The relationship for bit rate to ________ bandwidth is defined by the Shannon-Hartley theorem. energy c. Pulse-position modulation (PPM) ANSWER: Pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) 14. Nyquist rate d. c. a. data ANSWER: Remote 13. Blue c. Protocol c. d. channel d. PSK ANSWER: Modem 20. amplifier ANSWER: Channel 22. a. ______ implies that both analog and digital signals share the same channel bandwidth. Noise characteristics 25. Flat-top time d. modem d. alias c. re-created d. b. Foldover distortion and aliasing ANSWER: Fold over distortion and aliasing 24. codec c. FSK PSK FPF FSK Bandwidth characteristics Simplicity in design Frequency response of the intelligence signal ANSWER: Noise characteristics 15. A(n) ________ is a single LSI chip containing both the ADC and DAC circuitry a. Radio teletype d. Line control b. minimized ANSWER: re-created 11. detected c. Yellow b. b. Foldover distortion b. Use delta modulation and include 48 voice channels c. c. c. ANSWER: codec modem DSP codec ASIC FSA ANSWER: a. a. joule d. Ans: hybrid AM Hybrid FM RF 16. the time that it must hold the sampled voltage is a. b. PPM and PWM are superior to PAM systems in a. 12. A(n) ________ is used to allow a digital signal to be transmitted on an analog channel. Red d. Error signals associated with the sampling process are called a. The AT&T T1 lines Use 16-bit PCM code and include 24 voice channels b. Acquisition time c. Which is not a type of pulse modulation? a. 10. a. a. A procedure that decides which device has permission to transmit at a given time is called a. . The acronym for the form of data transmission in which the modulating wave shifts the output between two predetermined frequencies is _____. a. b. Aliasing c. d. Brown ANSWER: Brown 19. The NRZ digital signal-encoding format has a ________ component in the waveform. The ground wire in a USB cable is ______ a. d. Pseudorandom implies a sequence that can be _____ but has the properties of randomness. Aperture time b. b. Radio telemetry c. Use delta modulation and include 24 voice channels ANSWER: Use 8-bit PCM code and include 24 voice channels 18. Radio multiplexing ANSWER: Radio telemetry 9. a. modem b.b. Dmin ANSWER: Aperture time 23. Sequence control ANSWER: Line Control b. Pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) d. The major difficulty faced by delta modulators is Excessive noise producing errors Slope overload Insufficient frequency response of the intelligence signal d. The bit ________ is the amount of power in a digital bit for a given amount of time. c.

as a ratio? a. a. 3. The input S/N is 2 2. . 0.4Q ANS.3 0.38 x 10-23 J/K (35 + 40 + 52)K (1MHz) = 1. -75dBm SOLUTION (IF PROBLEM-SOLVING) S = Sensitivity = -74dBm + NF + 10log∆f + desired S/N S = -174 + 8 + 10log(200.38 x 10-23 J/K)(293 K)(6 x 106 Hz)(300 d. 0. 3Q Using the energy equation W=KE2 – KE1 Q = 0. BSC c. At the output. 1.75 x 10-12W c.5m(2v)2 – 0.113TV/m ANS.24µV SOLUTION (IF PROBLEM-SOLVING VN = = 4(1. 25 SOLUTION (IF PROBLEM-SOLVING) ᵟ = φ x fi = 0.38 x 10-23)(302)(6 6 x 10 )(50) = 2. a. 2124mV b.4 µV 4(1. 1.5 µ V d. -15 1.For an electronic device operating at a temperature of 17°C with a bandwidth of 10 kHz. 3Q d.E=0. A Satellite receiving system includes a dish antenna ( Teq = 35 K) connected via a coupling network (Teq= 40 K) to a microwave receiver (Teq=52 K referred to its input).001 2. 134dBm b. b. -84dBm b. c.5 4. pseudorandom b. quantizing ANSWER: interleaving 1. The signal power at the input to an amplifier is 100µW and the noise power is 1 µW. Answer: 2.15 x 10-12W SOLUTION (IF PROBLEM-SOLVING) PN = KT∆f = 1.5 kHz 75 kHz = 30 2.4 x 10-6 V = 5.15 µV c. 130dBm c. 5.475 MV/m b.000) + 15 S = -98 dBm 5. Suppose you want to store 1. 5. 0.4 µ V b. A 300Ω resistor is connected across the 300Ω antenna input of a television receiver. – 130dBm ANSWER: c. Determine the worst-case output S/N for a broadcast FM program that has a maximum intelligence frequency of 5 kHz.7 µ V ANSWER: a. 1.38 x 10-23)(290)(1 x 104) = 1.75 x 10-15W b. Calculate the receiver’s sensitivity a. The bandwidth of the receiver is 6MHz.5mv2) = 3Q W N(dBm) = 10log (4 x 10-17) = -134 dBm 0.4 µV SOLUTION (IF PROBLEM-SOLVING) VN = = Ω) = 5. -134dBm SOLUTION (IF PROBLEM-SOLVING) N = KTB B = 1 x 104 Hz 4 x 10 -17 3. Q b. 4.5mv2 = 3(0. It is desired to operate a receiver with NF = 8dB at S/N = 15 dB over a 200-KHz bandwidth at ambient temperature.00 J of electric potential energy in a volume of 1. 30 d. and the resistor is at room temperature . Suppose that energy Q is required to accelerate a car from rest to v. 0. What is the magnitude of the required electric field? a. 3 T(kelvin) = 17°C + 273° = 290 K = (1. 3 d.5mv2 - condition 2 W=2mv2 – 0. the signal power is 1W and the noise power is 30mW. interleaving d. 3.75 x 10-15 W 6. 4. . 5.5 b.336MV/m c.a.5 b.03W NF (ratio) = 100 =3 33. neglecting friction. d.2Q c. Noise figure Total temperature Equivalent temperature Noise temperature a.5 x 5 kHz = 2. c.475 MV/m d.Find the noise voltage applied to the receiver input. Equivalent temperature of a passive system having the same noise power output of a given system.24µV 8. What is the noise power to the receiver’s input over a 1MHz frequency range? a. -80dBm d. determine the thermal noise power in dBm . The noise voltage produced across a 50Ω is input resistance at a temperature of 302°C with a bandwidth of 6 MHz is ______. 2. -134dBm d. b.15 x 10 W d. c. -98dBm c. How much added energy would be required to increase the speed from v to 2v? a.5 c.00 m3 in vacuum.5 kHz ** Signal Processing and Control Systems** a. 6. What is the amplifier noise figure.225TV/m d. a. ANSWER: dc dc sinusoidal harmonic parity Reed–Solomon codes utilize a technique called ________ to rearrange the data into a nonlinear ordering scheme to improve the chance of data correction a. 3005mV d. 4 SOLUTION (IF PROBLEM-SOLVING) (S/N)p = 100µW = 100 1µW (S/N)o = 1W = 33.5mv2 – 0 - condition 1 W = 0. noise temperature 7.12 µ V c.

a.Bernoulli’s equation 8. Calculate the speed of light in this substance. a. Radio waves b. Snell’s effect ANS. 1. Hyrdofluid equation 3. what refers to waves. molecular-kinetic speed c. Clairut’s equation equation c. Due to their short wavelengths these are often used in radar systems and for studying the atomic and molecular properties of matter. AM waves d.7o ANSWER: 60o ANS. 0. 2. Maxwell’s equation b.00 x 108 m/s d.25 x 108 m/s c.900c fires a robot space probe in the same direction as its motion. commonly generated by electronic devices. 0.982c ANS. charge velocity ANS. What do you call this effect? a. find the direction of the reflected ray. what term refers to the average speed of the charge carriers? a. In fluid mechanics. a. 3.900c b. In electromagnetics and wave theory.00J/m3 E=0. with speed of 0. In addition. 60o d. this shows that the pressure of a fluid decreases as the speed of the fluid increases.3m to 10-4 m. If the incident ray makes an angle of 60o with the normal. . 49. 3.microwaves ANS. focal divergence c. 2. 0.700c relative to the spaceship. Microwaves c.00m3 = 1.drift speed 4. whose wavelengths ranges from approximately 0. What is the probe’s velocity relative to the Earth? a.u=1. 0.3o c.25 x 108 m/s 9.spherical aberration 7. The wavelength of the red light from a helium-neon sensor is 633 nm in air but 474 nm in the aqueous humor inside our eyeballs. parallax error d.25 x 108 m/s b. the pressure of a fluid decreases as the elevation increases.475 MV/m (a) a. A spaceship moving away from Earth with speed of 0. Bernoulli’s d.982c 6. drift speed d. spherical aberration b.00J/1. In optics. drag velocity b. 0.25 x 108 m/s 5.345c c.700c d. this effect refers to the blurring of the image produced on a concave mirror due to the convergence of rays far from the mirror to other points on the principal axis. Material a is a water and material b is a glass with index of refraction 1.3o b.52. 34. Radar waves ANS. 91. In electrodynamics.

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