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M.K.Prasad SRGPTC, Thriprayar
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Operating Systems Overview
An operating system is a software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management of various activities of the computer and the sharing of computer resources. It hosts the several applications that run on a computer and handles the operations of computer hardware. Users and application programs access the services offered by the operating systems, by means of system calls and application programming interfaces. Users interact with operating systems through Command Line Interfaces (CLIs) or Graphical User Interfaces known as GUIs. In short, operating system enables user interaction with computer systems by acting as an interface between users or application programs and the computer hardware. Here is an overview of the different types of operating systems. Real-time Operating System: It is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior. The main object of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They either have an event-driven or a timesharing design. An event-driven system switches between tasks based of their priorities while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts. Multi-user and Single-user Operating Systems: The operating systems of this type allow a multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system, are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to have multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather, only the network administrator is the real user. But for a Unixlike operating system, it is possible for two users to login at a time and this capability of the OS makes it a multi-user operating system. Multi-tasking and Single-tasking Operating Systems: When a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under a singletasking system, while in case the operating system allows the execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system. Multi-tasking can be of two types namely, pre-emptive or co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support pre-emptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to the other processes in a defined manner. MS Windows prior to Windows 95 used to support cooperative multitasking.
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Examples of Operating Systems 1. Disk Operating System (DOS) DOS (Disk Operating System) was the first widely-installed operating system for personal computers. It is a master control program that is automatically run when you start your PC. DOS stays in the computer all the time letting you run a program and manage files. It is a single-user operating system from Microsoft for the PC. It was the first OS for the PC and is the underlying control program for Windows 3.1, 95, 98 and ME. Windows NT, 2000 and XP emulate DOS in order to support existing DOS applications. To use DOS, you must know where your programs and data are stored and how to talk to DOS. 2.UNIX UNIX is Multi-user Operating System. The UNIX environment and the client/server program model were important elements in the development of the Internet and the reshaping of computing as centered in networks rather than in individual computers. UNIX is written in C. Both UNIX and C were developed by AT&T and freely distributed to government and academic institutions. 3. Linux Linux is an operating system that was initially created as a hobby by a young student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He began his work in 1991 when he released version 0.02 and worked steadily until 1994 when version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel was released. The kernel, at the heart of all Linux systems, is developed and released under the GNU General Public License and its source code is freely available to everyone. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and redistributed, both commercially and non-commercially, by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. 4. WINDOWS Windows is first introduced as a personal computer operating system from Microsoft that, together with some commonly used business applications such as Microsoft Word and Excel, has become a de facto "standard" for individual users in most corporations as well as in most homes. However, Windows 95, 98, ME, NT, 2000 and XP are complicated operating environments. Certain combinations of hardware and software running together can cause problems, and troubleshooting can be daunting. Each new version of Windows has interface changes that constantly confuse users and keep support people busy, and Installing Windows applications is problematic too. Microsoft has worked hard to make Windows 2000 and Windows XP more resilient to installation problems and crashes in general.
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5. MACINTOSH The Macintosh (often called "the Mac"), introduced in 1984 by Apple Computer, was the first widely-sold personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI). The Macintosh has its own operating system, Mac OS which, in its latest version is called Mac OS X.
Classification of Computers Computers can be classified many different ways -- by size, by function, and/or by processing capacity. We will study the classification of computers by size. The size of a computer often determines its function and processing capacity. The size of computers varies widely from tiny to huge and is usually dictated by computing requirements. Super Computers The largest computers are supercomputers. They are the most powerful, the most expensive, and the fastest. They are capable of processing trillions of instructions per second. Examples of users of these computers are governmental agencies, such as the National Weather Service, and the National Defense Agency. Also, they are used in the making of movies, space exploration, and the design of many other machines. The Cray supercomputer is nicknamed "Bubbles", because of its bubbling coolant liquids. Cray supercomputers, the first of which was invented by Seymour Cray, now maintain 75 percent of the supercomputer market. Supercomputers are used for tasks that require mammoth data manipulation. Mainframe Computers Large computers are called mainframes. Mainframe computers process data at very high rates of speed, measured in the millions of instructions per second. They are very expensive, costing millions of dollars in some cases. Mainframes are designed for multiple users and process vast amounts of data quickly. Banks, insurance companies, manufacturers, mail-order companies, and airlines are typical users. Mainframes are often ‘servers’-- computers that control the networks of computers for large companies. Microcomputers Microcomputers can be divided into two groups -- personal computers and workstations. Workstations are specialized computers that approach the speed of mainframes. Often microcomputers are connected to networks of other computers. Microcomputers make up the vast majority of computers. Notebook Another classification of computer is the notebook computer. A notebook computer can fit into a briefcase and weigh fewer than two pounds, yet it can compete with the microcomputer.
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A larger, heavier version is called a laptop computer. Notebooks generally cost more than microcomputers but can run most of the microcomputer software and are more versatile. Like other computers, notebook computers are getting faster, lighter, and more functional. Personal Digital Assistant The smallest computer is the handheld computer called a personal digital assistant or a PDA. PDAs are used to track appointments and shipments as well as names and addresses. PDAs are called pen-based computers because they utilize a pen-like stylus that accepts hand-written input directly on a touch-sensitive screen. You have probably noticed delivery employees using these.
The CPU or Central Processing Unit, is the core of any computer. The processor (really a short form for microprocessor and also often called th CPU or central processing unit) is the central component of the PC. This vital component is in some way responsible for every single thing the PC does. It determines, at least in part, which operating systems can be used, which software packages the PC can run, how much energy the PC uses, and how stable the system will be, among other things. The processor is also a major determinant of overall system cost: the newer and more powerful the processor, the more expensive the machine will be. Types of Processors
The vast majority of microprocessors are embedded microcontrollers. The second most common type of processors are common desktop processors, such as Intel's Pentium or AMD's Athlon. Less common are the extremely powerful processors used in high-end servers, such as Sun's SPARC, IBM's Power, or Intel's Itanium. Historically, microprocessors and microcontrollers have come in "standard sizes" of 8 bits, 16 bits, 32 bits, and 64 bits. These sizes are common, but that does not mean that other sizes are not available. Some microcontrollers (usually specially designed embedded chips) can come in other "non-standard" sizes such as 4 bits, 12 bits, 18 bits, or 24 bits. The number of bits represent how much physical memory can be directly addressed by the CPU. It also represents the amount of bits that can be read by one read/write operation. In some circumstances, these are different; for instance, many 8 bit microprocessors have an 8 bit data bus and a 16 bit address bus.
8 bit processors can read/write 1 byte at a time and can directly address 256 bytes 16 bit processors can read/write 2 bytes at a time, and can address 65,536 bytes (64 Kilobytes) • 32 bit processors can read/write 4 bytes at a time, and can address 4,294,967,295 bytes (4 Gigabytes) • 64 bit processors can read/write 8 bytes at a time, and can address 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 bytes (16 Exabytes)
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Various Manufactures of Processors
Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC; SEHK: 4335; Euronext: INCO) is an American technology company, and the world's largest semiconductor chip maker, based on revenue. It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel was founded on July 18, 1968, as Integrated Electronics Corporation (though a common misconception is that "Intel" is from the word intelligence) and is based in Santa Clara, California, USA. Intel also makes motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphic chips, embedded processors, and other devices related to communications and computing. Intel 4004, Intel 8080, Intel 8088, Intel 80286, Intel 80386, Intel 80486, Pentium I, Pentium Pro, Pentium M M X, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium I V, Intel Atom, Intel Xeon, Celeron,Intel Dual Core, Intel Core 2 Duo, Intel Core i3, 5, Intel Core i7 etc. are the some of the premium processors of Intel.
Advanced Micro Devices ( AMD) is a leading global provider of innovative processing solutions in the computing, graphics and consumer electronics markets. AMD is dedicated to driving open innovation, choice and industry growth by delivering. The company started as a producer of logic chips in 1969, then entered the RAM chip business in 1975.
A M D K5, A M D K6, AMD Athlon, AMD Athelon XP, AMD Sempron, AMD Duron, AMD Athlon 64, A M D Phenom, Opteron etc are the some of the processors of AMD.
Cyrix Corporation was a microprocessor developer that was founded in 1988 in Richardson, Texas as a specialist supplier of high-performance math coprocessors for 286 and 386 microprocessors. The company was founded by former Texas Instruments (TI) staff members and had a long but troubled relationship with TI throughout its history. Cyrix founder Jerry Rogers aggressively recruited engineers and pushed them, eventually assembling a small but efficient design team of 30 people. Cyrix merged with National Semiconductor on 11 November 1997. The first Cyrix product for the personal computer market was a x87 compatible FPU coprocessor. The Cyrix FasMath 83D87 and 83S87 were introduced in 1989. The FasMath was the fastest 386-compatible coprocessor and provided up to 50% more performance than the Intel 80387. Cyrix FasMath 82S87, a 80287-compatible chip was developed from the Cyrix 83D87 and has been available since 1991 5
A motherboard is the hardware component that connects almost all of the other parts together in a computer. The motherboard is, in many ways, the most important component in your Computer. It's a large silicon wafer to which all other computer components connect.
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Organization: In one way or another, everything is eventually connected to the motherboard. The way that the motherboard is designed and laid out dictates how the entire computer is going to be organized. • Control:The motherboard contains the chipset and BIOS program, which between them control most of the data flow within the computer. • Communication:Almost all communication between the PC and its peripherals, other PCs, and you, the user, goes through the motherboard. • Processor Support:The motherboard dictates directly your choice of processor for use in the system. • Peripheral Support:The motherboard determines, in large part, what types of peripherals you can use in your PC. For example, the type of video card your system will use (ISA, VLB, PCI) is dependent on what system buses your motherboard uses. • Performance:The motherboard is a major determining factor in your system's performance, for two main reasons. First and foremost, the motherboard determines what types of processors, memory, system buses, and harddisk interface speed your system can have, and these components dictate directly your system's performance. Second, the quality of the motherboard circuitry and chipset themselves have an impact on performance.
Motherboard Form Factors The form factor of the motherboard describes its general shape, what sorts of cases and power supplies it can use, and its physical organization. For example, a company can make two motherboards that have basically the same functionality but that use a different form factor, and the only real differences will be the physical layout of the board, the position of the components, etc. In fact, many companies do exactly this, they have for example a baby AT version and an ATX version
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Illustration 1 : Motherboard Layout
Chipset A chipset, PC chipset or chip set refers to a group of integrated circuit or chips, that are designed to work together. They are usually marketed as a single product. The chipset also controls data flow to and from hard disks, and other devices connected to the IDE channels. The chipset consists of two main components, the North- and South- Bridge chips, which are connected over the PCI bus. The CPU, Memory and AGP talk to the
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Northbridge and the Southbridge handles all the I/O, including the ISA bus. Processors themselves also have different chipsets. Therefore, whenever you upgrade your computer's hardware, make sure you buy components that are compatible with the chipsets in your machine.
M ajor M otherboard M a nufactures
ASRock ASUS BioStar Gigabyte Technology Intel Corporation MSI Transcend FoxConn Microstar International
Diagram of a motherboard chipset
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Random Access Memory
Random access memory or RAM most commonly refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance. By storing frequently used or active files in random access memory, the computer can access the data faster than if it to retrieve it from the farlarger hard drive. Random access memory is also used in printers and other devices. Random access memory is volatile memory, meaning it loses its contents once power is cut. This is different from non-volatile memory such as hard disks and flash memory which do not require a power source to retain data. When a computer shuts down properly, all data located in random access memory is committed to permanent storage on the hard drive or flash drive. At the next boot-up, RAM begins to fill with programs automatically loaded at startup, and with files opened by the user
Different RAM Types and its uses The type of RAM doesn't matter nearly as much as how much of it you've got, but using plain old SDRAM memory today will slow you down. There are three main types of RAM: SDRAM, DDR and Rambus DRAM.
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SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) Almost all systems used to ship with 3.3 volt, 168-pin SDRAM DIMMs. SDRAM is not an extension of older EDO DRAM but a new type of DRAM altogether. SDRAM started out running at 66 MHz, while older fast page mode DRAM and EDO max out at 50 MHz. SDRAM is able to scale to 133 MHz (PC133) officially, and unofficially up to 180MHz or higher. As processors get faster, new generations of memory such as DDR and RDRAM are required to get proper performance. DDR (Double Data Rate SDRAM) DDR basically doubles the rate of data transfer of standard SDRAM by transferring data on the up and down tick of a clock cycle. DDR memory operating at 333MHz actually operates at 166MHz * 2 (aka PC333 / PC2700) or 133MHz*2 (PC266 / PC2100). DDR is a 2.5 volt technology that uses 184 pins in its DIMMs. It is incompatible with SDRAM physically, but uses a similar parallel bus, making it easier to implement than RDRAM, which is a different technology. Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) Despite it's higher price, Intel has given RDRAM it's blessing for the consumer market, and it will be the sole choice of memory for Intel's Pentium 4. RDRAM is a serial memory technology that arrived in three flavors, PC600, PC700, and PC800. PC800 RDRAM has double the maximum throughput of old PC100 SDRAM, but a higher latency. RDRAM designs with multiple channels, such as those in Pentium 4 motherboards, are currently at the top of the heap in memory throughput, especially when paired with PC1066 RDRAM memory. DIMMs vs. RIMMs DRAM comes in two major form factors: DIMMs and RIMMS. DIMMs are 64-bit components, but if used in a motherboard with a dual-channel configuration (like with an Nvidia nForce chipset) you must pair them to get maximum performance. So far there aren't many DDR chipset that use dual-channels. Typically, if you want to add 512 MB of DIMM memory to your machine, you just pop in a 512 MB DIMM if you've got an available slot. DIMMs for SDRAM and DDR are different, and not physically compatible. SDRAM DIMMs have 168-pins and run at 3.3 volts, while DDR DIMMs have 184-pins and run at 2.5 volts. RIMMs use only a 16-bit interface but run at higher speeds than DDR. To get maximum performance, Intel RDRAM chipsets require the use of RIMMs in pairs over a dual-channel 32-bit interface. You have to plan more when upgrading and purchasing RDRAM. Cache Memory Cache Memory is fast memory that serves as a buffer between the processor and main memory. The cache holds data that was recently used by the processor and saves a trip all the way back to slower main memory. The memory structure of PCs is often thought of as just main memory, but it's really a five or six level structure: The first two levels of memory are contained in the processor itself, consisting of the processor's small internal memory, or registers, and L1 cache, which is the first level of cache, usually contained in the processor.
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The third level of memory is the L2 cache, usually contained on the motherboard. However, the Celeron chip from Intel actually contains 128K of L2 cache within the form factor of the chip. More and more chip makers are planning to put this cache on board the processor itself. The benefit is that it will then run at the same speed as the processor, and cost less to put on the chip than to set up a bus and logic externally from the processor. The fourth level, is being referred to as L3 cache. This cache used to be the L2 cache on the motherboard, but now that some processors include L1 and L2 cache on the chip, it becomes L3 cache. Usually, it runs slower than the processor, but faster than main memory. The fifth level (or fourth if you have no "L3 cache") of memory is the main memory itself. The sixth level is a piece of the hard disk used by the Operating System, usually called virtual memory. Most operating systems use this when they run out of main memory, but some use it in other ways as well. Older Memory Types Fast Page Mode DRAM Fast Page Mode DRAM is plain old DRAM as we once knew it. The problem with standard DRAM was that it maxes out at about 50 MHz. EDO DRAM EDO DRAM gave people up to 5% system performance increase over DRAM. EDO DRAM is like FPM DRAM with some cache built into the chip. Like FPM DRAM, EDO DRAM maxes out at about 50 MHz. Early on, some system makers claimed that if you used EDO DRAM you didn't need L2 cache in your computer to get decent performance. They were wrong. It turns out that EDO DRAM works along with L2 cache to make things even faster, but if you lose the L2 cache, you lose a lot of speed. 168-Pin SDRAM PC100 SDRAM PC133 SDRAM 184-Pin DDR DDR-266 DDR-333 240-Pin DDR2 DDR2-533 DDR2-667 DDR2-800 DDR2-1066 240-Pin DDR3 DDR3-1066 DDR3-1333 DDR3-1600 DDR3-1800 DDR3-2000 DDR3-2133
Super Talent Memory DDR-400 DDR & DDR2 Memory
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Illustration 2: Different types of Memory Modules
Power On Self Test (POST) The computer power-on self-test (POST) tests the computer to make sure it meets the necessary system requirements and that all hardware is working properly before starting
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the remainder of the boot process. If the computer passes the POST the computer will have a single beep (with some computer BIOS manufacturers it may beep twice) as the computer starts and the computer will continue to start normally. However, if the computer fails the POST, the computer will either not beep at all or will generate a beep code, which tells the user the source of the problem. The steps of a POST Each time the computer boots up the computer must past the POST. Below is the common steps a POST performs each time your computer starts.
Test the power supply to ensure that it is turned on and that it releases its reset
signal. CPU must exit the reset status mode and thereafter be able to execute instructions. BIOS checksum must be valid, meaning that it must be readable. CMOS checksum must be valid, meaning that it must be readable. CPU must be able to read all forms of memory such as the memory controller, memory bus, and memory module. 6. The first 64KB of memory must be operational and have the capability to be read and written to and from, and capable of containing the POST code. 7. I/O bus/ controller must be accessible. 8. I/O bus must be able to write / read from the video subsystem and be able to read all video RAM.
2. 3. 4. 5.
If the computer does not pass any of the above tests, your computer will receive an irregular POST. An irregular POST is a beep code that is different from the standard one or two beeps. This could be either no beeps at all or a combination of different beeps indicating what is causing the computer not to past the POST. IBM BIOS beep codes Below are IBM BIOS Beep codes that can occur. However, because of the wide variety of models shipping with this BIOS, the beep codes may vary. Beep Code No Beeps 1 Short Beep 2 Short Beep Continuous Beep Repeating Short Beep One Long and one Short Beep Description No Power, Loose Card, or Short. Normal POST, computer is ok. POST error, error code shown on screen No Power, Loose Card, or Short. No Power, Loose Card, or Short. Motherboard issue.
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One Long and Two Short Beeps One Long and Three Short Beeps. Three Long Beeps One Beep, Blank or Incorrect Display AMI BIOS beep codes
Video (Mono/CGA Display Circuitry) issue. Video (EGA) Display Circuitry. Keyboard / Keyboard card error. Video Display Circuitry.
Below are the AMI BIOS Beep codes that can occur. Beep Code 1 short 2 short 3 short 4 short 5 short 6 short 7 short 8 short 9 short 10 short 11 short 1 long, 3 short 1 long, 8 short Descriptions DRAM refresh failure Parity circuit failure Base 64K RAM failure System timer failure Process failure Keyboard controller Gate A20 error Virtual mode exception error Display memory Read/Write test failure ROM BIOS checksum failure CMOS shutdown Read/Write error Cache Memory error Conventional/Extended memory failure Display/Retrace test failed Document CH000996 CH000607 CH000996 CH000607 CH000607 CH000383 CH000607 CH000607 CH000607 CH000239 CH000607 CH000996 CH000607
AWARD BIOS beep codes Below are Award BIOS Beep codes that can occur.
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Beep Code Description
Indicates a video error has occurred and the BIOS 1 long, 2 cannot initialize the video screen to display any CH000607 short additional information Any other RAM problem. beep(s) CH000996
If any other correctable hardware issues, the BIOS will display a message. Identifying external ports and interfacing Objective: To learn about different ports and how to connect devices to them. This diagram shows different ports available on the back panel of the PC
Illustration 3: Rearpanel Ports and onnectors
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Parallel port (LPT parallel port): As shown in the diagram parallel port with 25-pins can be used to connect a parallel port printer. Previously dot matrix, ink jet, bubble jet printers etc were connected to parallel port. Nowadays-parallel port is used to connect Dot-Matrix printers. Serial port: As shown in the diagram serial ports with 9-pins protruding outwards can be used to connect modem but it can also be used for connecting mouse, provided serial port mouse is available. VGA Port: VGA port which has 15-pins is used to connect a monitor. PS/2 Port: Two 6-pin PS/2 ports are there, one is violet to which keyboard is connected and other is Light green to which mouse is connected
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USB Port: Connecting a USB device to a computer is simple — you find the USB connector on the back of your machine and plug the USB connector into it. USB ports are used to connect to Injket Printers, Web Cams, Scanners etc. Ethernet Port: Ethernet port is used to connect a computer on network through RJ-45 connector Game Port: Game Port is used to connect joystick, which is usually used in video games Three more ports are available for multimedia connections. Green port is used connect speakers, blue port is used to connect headphones and light Orange is used to connect microphone.
Illustration 4: Rear Panel (Back of a PC)
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Identifying PC cards and interfacing.
Objective : To identify different PC cards and to learn how to install them. Sound card A sound card or audio board, which allows computers to output audio signals through speakers and or headphones.
Video card The video card is responsible for creating all that you see on your computer monitor VGA Card Network card This piece of hardware allows your computer to be connected to a network of other computers (known as a LAN or Local Area Network)
Procedure to install a sound card In this example we are going to install a sound card. NOTE: It is best not to install all your PCI hardware if you are building from scratch. Only install your video card and sound card right now. Once you have your operating system installed, turn off the computer and install the other components. This saves you from possible problems when loading up for the first time. 1. Remove any unnecessary temporary metal plates. Only remove the metal plates from the slots you are going to use. If you do not remove these, you cannot install any PCI components. Most either unscrew or pop out. 2. Locate PCI Slots on Motherboard. Your PCI Slots should look similar to the ones in the image below 3. Line up component with PCI slot and install. Simply line up the component with the slot and gently press down on both sides until it slides in place 4. Insert screw. There is only one screw needed to secure each PCI component in place. 5. Give it CD Sound. Remember that audio cable from the CD-ROM drive? Now we will connect the other end of it. If you want to hear audio when play a cd in your CD-ROM, you need to connect the CD-ROM to the Sound Card (or motherboard if your sound card is integrated in) using the audio cable as seen below. Refer to your sound card owners manual for correct placement. If you did not purchase a sound card and you have one integrated into your motherboard, refer to your motherboard owner’s manual for correct placement 6. Repeat for any other components. Every component is different but as long as its PCI compatible, it is installed the same way (except for the audio cable. It is installed only on sound cards and motherboards.) Identifying ports on the cards and interfacing Objective: To identify ports on the PC cards
MIDI / Game port is a port which is most commonly used for the game port which will allow you to connect a game paddle and or Joystick to the computer. This port will also allow you to connect a device such as a MIDI keyboard to the computer, additional information on this can be found in the Midi section. Line In connector allows you to connect a Cassette Tape, CD or record player to the computer. Line Out connector is the location which the speakers or headphones will be connected to get sound out of the sound card. Volume control is generally no longer found on sound cards. However for cards that do include this as a feature this allows for the volume to be turned up and
down on a non-amplified output such as a set of headphones. Microphone allows you to connect a microphone to the computer and record your own sound files.
Preventive maintenance of a PC
To learn how to maintain a PC so that it gives longer service without any problems. 1) System backups. Take the backup of data at regular intervals. Use floppy disks for small data and if data is very large perform backup using CD- RW or tape drives. 2) System cleaning. Floppy disk drives are vulnerable to dust as they contain a large opening in the system case through which air continuously flows. Therefore, they accumulate a large amount dust and chemical buildup within a short time. Where as cleaning a hard disk requires simply blowing the dust and dirt off from the outside the drive. 3) Cleaning motherboards:
First, clean the dust and debris off the board and then clean any connectors on the board. To clean the boards, it is usually best to use a vacuum cleaner. Also blow any dust out of the power supply, especially around the fan intake and exhaust areas. Use a duster can and blast the compressed air into the supply through the fan exhaust port. This will blow the dust out of the supply and clean off the fan blades and grill, which will help with system airflow. To clean the connectors on the board use the cleaning solutions. 4) Hard Disk Maintenance: De-fragmenting files: As you delete and save files to your hard disk they become fragmented ( they are stored on non contiguous areas on the disk). Before you defragment your disk use Scandisk to scan your hard disk. To scandisk your hard disk follow the below steps. Go to programs Accessories System tools Scandisk To scandisk your hard disk follow the below steps. Go to programs Accessories System tools Disk Defragmenter 5) Understanding CMOS To know and understand the features available in the CMOS. To enter into CMOS setup continue pressing Delete(Del) or F2 button while system is booting.
Steps to Assemble a Desktop Computer
Things to get in place before starting: • Anti-static wrist strap • Set of screwdrivers and pliers • Piece of cloth • CPU Thermal compound (recommended) • PC components Tip: CPU Thermal compound is not a necessity but it is recommended to keep your CPU cool under load conditions by helping heat dissipate faster. It is a must if you intend to overclock your PC. Note: You can find the meaning of an abbreviation at the end of this article under the heading Jargon Buster.
Step 1: Installing the motherboard Make sure you have all the components in place and a nice, clean and big enough place to work with.
Put your antic-static wrist strap on to prevent your components from getting affected. Make sure your hands are clean before starting. First we will be installing the motherboard which is a piece of cake to install. • Open the side doors of the cabinet • Lay the cabinet on its side • Put the motherboard in place • Drive in all the required screws Tip: Most motherboards come with an antistatic bag. It is advisable to put the motherboard on it for some time and then remove it from the antistatic bag before placing it in the cabinet. Step 2: Installing the CPU CPU is the heart of a computer so make sure you handle it properly and do not drop it or mishandle it. Also try not to touch the pins frequently so that they do not get dirty. Get hold of your motherboard and CPU manual. You need to place the CPU on the dotted white patch of the motherboard in a particular fashion for it to fit properly. There is a golden mark on the CPU to help you assist. Consult both your motherboard and CPU manual to see which position it fits exactly or you could also use try all the 4 positions.
Lift the CPU lever on the motherboard • Place the CPU properly on the motherboard • Pull down the lever to secure the CPU in place Warning: Do not try to push the CPU into the motherboard! Got the thermal compound? Now is the time to use it. Take small amount of it and carefully apply it on the top surface of the processor. Be careful not to put it on the neighboring parts of the motherboard. If you do so clean it immediately using the cloth. Tip: Thermal compounds should be changed once every six months for optimal performance. Step 3: Installing the heat sink
After installing the processor we proceed to installing the heat sink. There are different kinds of heat sinks that are bundled with the processor and each has a different way of installation. Look into your CPU manual for instructions on how to install it properly. • Place the heat sink on the processor • Put the jacks in place • Secure the heat sink with the lever After this you will need to connect the cable of the heat sink on the motherboard. Again look into the motherboard manual on where to connect it and then connect it to the right port to get your heat sink in operational mode.
Step 4: Installing the RAM Installing the RAM is also an easy job. The newer RAMs ie. DDR RAMs are easy to install as you don’t have to worry about placing which side where into the slot. The older ones, SDRAMs are plagued by this problem. If you want to use dual channel configuration then consult your manual on which slots to use to achieve that result. • Push down the RAM into the slot • Make sure the both the clips hold the RAM properly
Step 5: Installing the power supply
We will now install the power supply as the components we install after this will require power cables to be connected to them. There is not much to be done to install a PSU. • Place the PSU into the cabinet • Put the screws in place tightly Tip: Some PSU have extra accessories that come bundled with it. Consult your PSU manual to see how to install them. Step 6: Installing the video card
First you will need to find out whether your video card is AGP or PCI-E. AGP graphics cards have become redundant and are being phased out of the market quickly. So if you bought a spanking new card it will certainly be a PCI-E. • Remove the back plate on the cabinet corresponding to the graphics card • Push the card into the slot • Secure the card with a screw • Plug in the power connection from PSU (if required) High-end graphics cards need dedicated power supply and if your graphics card needs one then connect the appropriate wire from PSU into the graphics card.
Step 7: Installing the hard disk Hard disk is another fragile component of the computer and needs to handled carefully. • Place the hard drive into the bay • Secure the drive with screws • Connect the power cable from PSU • Connect the data cable from motherboard into the drive
If your hard drive is a SATA one then connect one end of SATA cable into the motherboard and other into the SATA port on the hard disk. If your hard disk is PATA type then use the IDE cable instead of the SATA cable. Tip: If your PSU does not support SATA power supply then you will need to get an converter which will convert your standard IDE power connector to a SATA power connector. Step 8: Installing optical drive
The installation an optical drive is exactly similar to an hard drive. • Place the optical drive into the bay • Drive in the screws • Connect the power cable and data cable Tip: When installing multiple optical drives take care of jumper settings. Make sure you make one as primary and other slave by using the jumper. This is not applicable if the drives are SATA drives. Step 9: Connecting various cables First we will finish setting up internal components and then get on to the external ones. You will need to consult your motherboard manual for finding the appropriate port for connecting various cables at the right places on the motherboard.
Connect the large ATX power connector to the power supply port on your motherboard
Next get hold of the smaller square power connector which supplies power to the processor and connect it to the appropriate port by taking help from your motherboard manual • Connect the cabinet cables for power,reset button in the appropriate port of the motherboard • Connect the front USB/audio panel cable in the motherboard • Plug the cable of cabinet fans You are done with installing the internal components of the PC. Close the side doors of the cabinet and get it upright and place it on your computer table. Get the rest of the PC components like monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers etc. which we will connect now.
Connect the VGA cable of the monitor into the VGA port If mouse/keyboard are PS/2 then connect them to PS/2 ports or else use the USB port • Connect the speaker cable in the audio port • Plug in the power cable from PSU into the UPS • Also plug in the power cable of the monitor You are now done with setting up your PC. Power on and see your rig boot to glory. Step 10: Installing the OS and drivers We are done with the hardware part. Now get your favorite OS disks ready and the CD that came with your motherboard. • Set the first boot device to CD/DVD drive in BIOS • Pop in the OS disk • Reboot the PC • Install the OS • Install drivers from motherboard CD (applicable only to Windows OS)
Installation of Windows XP
Step 1 - Start your PC and place your Windows XP CD in your CD/DVD-ROM drive. Your PC should automatically detect the CD and you will get a message saying "Press any key to boot from CD". Soon as computer starts booting from the CD your will get the following screen: Step 2 - At this stage it will ask you to press F6 if you want to install a third party Raid or SCSI driver. If you are using a an IDE Hard Drive then you do not need to press F6. If you are using a SCSI or SATA Hard drive then you must press F6 otherwise Windows will not detect your Hard Drive during the installation. Please make sure you have the Raid drivers on a floppy disk. Normally the drivers are supplied on a CD which you can copy to a floppy disk ready to be installed. If you are not sure how to do this then please read your motherboard manuals for more information. Step 3 - Press S to Specify that you want to install additional device. Step 4 - You will be asked to insert the floppy disk with the Raid or SCSI drivers. Press enter after you have inserted the disk. Step 5 - You will see a list of Raid drivers for your HDD. Select the correct driver for your device and press enter. Step 6 - You will then get a Windows XP Professional Setup screen. You have the option to do a new Windows install, Repair previous install or quit. Since we are doing a new install we just press Enter to continue. Step 7 - You will be presented with the End User Licensing Agreement. Press F8 to accept and continue Step 8 - This step is very important. Here we will create the partition where Windows will be installed. If you have a brand new unformatted drive you will get a screen similar to below. In our case the drive size is 8190MB. We can choose to install Windows in this drive without creating a partition, hence use the entire size of the drive. If you wish to do this you can just press enter and Windows will automatically partition and format the drive as one large drive. However for this demonstration I will create two partition. The first partition will be 6000MB (C: drive) and second partition would be 2180MB (E: drive). By creating two partition we can have one which stores Windows and Applications and the other which stores our data. So in the future if anything goes wrong with our Windows install such as virus or spyware we can re-install Windows on C: drive and our data on E: drive will not be touched. Please note you can choose whatever size partition your like. For example if you have 500GB hard drive you can have two partition of 250GB each. Press C to create a partition. Step 8 - Windows will show the total size of the hard drive and ask you how much you want to allocate for the partition you are about to create. I will choose 6000MB. You will then get the screen below. Notice it shows C: Partition 1 followed by the size 6000 MB. This indicates the partition has been created. We still have an unpartitioned space of 2189MB. Next highlight the unpartitioned space by pressing down the arrow key. Then press C to create
another partition. You will see the total space available for the new partition. Just choose all the space left over, in our case 2180MB. Step 9 - Now you will see both partition listed. Partition 1 (C: Drive) 6000MB and Partition 2 (E: Drive) 2180MB. You will also have 8MB of unpartitioned space. Don't worry about that. Just leave it how its is. Windows normally has some unpartitioned space. You might wonder what happened to D: drive. Windows has automatically allocated D: drive to CD/DVD-ROM. Select Partition 1 (C: Drive) and press Enter. Step 10 - Choose format the partition using NTFS file system.This is the recommended file system. If the hard drive has been formatted before then you can choose quick NTFS format. We chose NTFS because it offers many security features, supports larger drive size, and bigger size files. Windows will now start formatting drive C: and start copying setup files as shown on the two images below : Step 11 - After the setup has completed copying the files the computer will restart. Leave the XP CD in the drive but this time DO NOT press any key when the message "Press any key to boot from CD" is displayed. In few seconds setup will continue. Windows XP Setup wizard will guide you through the setup process of gathering information about your computer. Step 12 - Choose your region and language. Step 13 - Type in your name and organization. Step 14. Enter your product key. Step 15 - Name the computer, and enter an Administrator password. Don't forget to write down your Administrator password. Step 16 - Enter the correct date, time and choose your time zone. Step 17 - For the network setting choose typical and press next. Step 18 - Choose workgroup or domain name. If you are not a member of a domain then leave the default settings and press next. Windows will restart again and adjust the display. Step 19 - Finally Windows will start and present you with a Welcome screen. Click next to continue. Step 20 - Choose 'help protect my PC by turning on automatic updates now' and press next. Step 21 - Will this computer connect to the internet directly, or through a network? If you are connected to a router or LAN then choose: 'Yes, this computer will connect through a local area network or home network'. If you have dial up modem choose: 'No, this computer will connect directly to the internet'. Then click Next. Step 22 - Ready to activate Windows? Choose yes if you wish to active Windows over the internet now. Choose no if you want to activate Windows at a later stage. Step 23 - Add users that will sign on to this computer and click next.
Step 24 - You will get a Thank you screen to confirm setup is complete. Click finish. Step 25. Log in, to your PC for the first time. Step 26 - You now need to check the device manager to confirm that all the drivers has been loaded or if there are any conflicts. From the start menu select Start -> Settings -> Control Panel. Click on the System icon and then from the System Properties window select the Hardware tab, then click on Device Manager. If there are any yellow exclamation mark "!" next to any of the listed device, it means that no drivers or incorrect drivers has been loaded for that device. In our case we have a Video Controller (VGA card) which has no drivers installed. Your hardware should come with manufacturer supplied drivers. You need to install these drivers using the automatic setup program provided by the manufacturer or you need to manually install these drivers. If you do not have the drivers, check the manufacturers website to download them. To install a driver manually use the following procedure: (a) From the device manager double click on the device containing the exclamation mark. (b) This would open a device properties window. (c) Click on the Driver tab. (d) Click Update Driver button. The Wizard for updating device driver pops up as shown below: You now get two options. The first option provides an automatic search for the required driver. The second option allows you to specify the location of the driver. If you don't know the location of the driver choose the automatic search which would find the required driver from the manufacturer supplied CD or Floppy disk. Windows would install the required driver and may ask you to restart the system for the changes to take affect. Use this procedure to install drivers for all the devices that contain an exclamation mark. Windows is completely setup when there are no more exclamation marks in the device manager.
Installing and Configuring Ubuntu LINUX
Requirements: We need the Ubuntu 10.04 LTS Desktop ISO image that corresponds to your hardware architecture (i386 or amd64), and that can be downloaded from here. When the download is over, burn the ISO image with your favorite CD/DVD burning application (Nero, CDBurnerXP, Roxio) on a blank CD at 8x speed. Reinsert or leave the CD in your CD/DVD-ROM device and reboot the computer in order to boot from the CD. Hit the F8, F11 or F12 key (depending on your BIOS) to select the CD/DVDROM as the boot device Wait for the CD to load...
We will see the wallpaper and the installation wizard. Select your language and click the "Install Ubuntu 10.04 LTS" button to continue...
The second screen will feature a map of the Earth. Upon the selection of our current location, the time for the final system will adjust accordingly. We can also select our current location from the drop-down list situated at the bottom of the window. Click the "Forward" button after selected your desired location... Test the keyboard On the third screen, we will be able to choose a desired keyboard layout. But the default automatic selection should work for most of us. Click the "Forward" button when you have finished with the keyboard configuration... Hard disk partitioning We have four options here: 1. If we have another operating system (e.g. Windows XP) and we want a dual boot system, select the first option: "Install them side by side, choosing between them at each startup." Note: This option will ONLY appear if we have another operating system installed, such as Microsoft Windows. Remember that, after the installation, the Windows boot loader will be overwritten by the Ubuntu boot loader! 2. If we want to delete our existing operating system, or the hard drive is already empty and we want to let the installer automatically partition the hard drive, select the second option, "Use the entire disk."
Note: This option is recommended for most users who do not have another operating system installed or who want to erase an existing one, for example Windows OS. 3. The third choice is "Use the largest continuous free space" and it will install Ubuntu 9.10 in the unpartitioned space on the selected hard drive. 4. The fourth choice is "Specify partitions manually" and it is recommended ONLY for advanced users, to create special partitions or format the hard drive with other filesystems than the default one. But it can also be used to create a /home partition, which is very useful in case you reinstall the whole system. Here's how to manual partitioning with /home: - Select the "Specify partitions manually (advanced) and click the "Forward" button; - Make sure that the selected hard drive is the right one. /dev/sda is the first physical hard drive. /dev/sdb is the second hard drive in our machine. So, make sure that we know which is the one we want to format! Otherwise, will lose ALL DATA on that hard drive; - Let's say that the selected drive is empty (no other operating system or important data on it), but it has some partitions on it. Select each one of those partitions and click the "Delete" button. After a few seconds, it will say "free space." Do this with the other partitions from the selected hard drive, until they're all deleted and you have a single "free space" line; - With the "free space" line selected, click on the "Add" button. In the new window, type 2000 in the "New partition size in megabytes" field and select the "swap area" option from the "Use as:" drop down list. Click the OK button and, in a few seconds, we can see a "swap" line with the specified size; - With the "free space" line selected, click on the "Add" button. In the new window, select the "Primary" option, type a value between 10,000 and 50,000 in the "New partition size in megabytes" field and select / as the "Mount point." Click the OK
button and, in a few seconds, we can see an "ext4 /" line with the specified size; - With the "free space" line selected, click on the "Add" button. In the new window, select the "Primary" option, type a value between 30,000 and 50,000 (or whatever space you have left on the drive) in the "New partition size in megabytes" field and select /home as the "Mount point." Click the OK button and, in a few seconds, we can see an "ext4 /home" line with the specified size. This is how our partition table should look like. If so, click the "Forward" button to continue with the installation... WARNING: Be aware that all the data on the selected hard drive or partition will be ERASED and IRRECOVERABLE. Click the "Forward" button to continue with the installation...
Submission of User details On this screen, we must do exactly what the title says. Fill in the fields with your real name, the name you want to use to log in on your Ubuntu OS (also known as the "username," which will be required to log in to the system), the password and the name of the computer (automatically generated, but can be overwritten). Also at this step, there's an option called "Log in automatically." If we check the box on this option, automatically be logged in to the Ubuntu desktop. Click the "Forward" button to continue...
In the final step of the installation, we can select to install the boot loader on another partition or hard drive than the default one, but it is only recommended for advanced users. If someone is installing to a USB memory stick, as if it was a USB hard drive, then they should know that the installer will mess with their computer's hard disk drive MBR. Therefore, click the "Advanced" button and select the correct drive (the USB stick in this case)...
The Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx) operating system will be installed... After approximately 10 to 18 minutes (depending on your computer's specs), a popup window will appear, notifying that the installation is complete, and will need to restart the computer in order to use the newly installed Ubuntu operating system. Click the "Restart Now" button...
The CD will be ejected; remove it and press the "Enter" key to reboot. The computer will be restarted and, in a few seconds, will see the Ubuntu boot splash... At the login screen, click on the username and input password. Click the "Log In" button or hit Enter...
Install Driver Software
On the desktop, right-click My Computer, and then click Manage. Under System Tools, click Device Manager.
The devices that are installed on the computer are listed in the right pane. 3. Expand the category of the device that you want to configure NOTE: The device may be listed under Other devices.
Right-click the device for which you want to install the driver, and then click Properties. NOTE: The device may be displayed as Unknown device, or as a generic device. 5. Click the Driver tab, and then click Update Driver.
The Upgrade Device Driver wizard starts. 6. Click Next. 7. Do one of the following: o Click Search for a suitable driver for my device (recommended), and then click Next. -oro Click Display a list of the known devices for this device so that I can choose a specific driver, and then click Next. Click Have Disk, click Browse, locate the .inf files that you downloaded in Step 2: Obtain the Driver, click an .inf file, and then click Open. 8. Follow the wizard instructions to install the driver. 9. Restart the computer.
Install a printer driver locally
Installing a printer driver is a Windows function, not a PowerPoint one. Before installing a printer driver, quit PowerPoint and your other programs. Read over the installation instructions that came with your printer. When in doubt, follow the instructions there rather than the ones below. Click Start, Settings, Control Panel. Double-click "Printers & Faxes" Double-click "Add Printer" to start the Add Printer Wizard
• • •
The Add Printer Wizard Welcome screen Click Next
Local or Network Printer
• • •
Click "Local Printer" Make sure there's NO checkmark next to "Automatically detect and install ..." Click Next
• • •
Select a Printer Port If your printer is actually attached to the computer, click "Use the following port" and select the port your printer's attached to. If you're installing a driver only to keep PowerPoint happy, choose LPT1: or FILE: (it doesn't really matter, since you'll never actually print to the port) If you're installing a local driver but need to print to a network printer, look for the printer's port on the network and choose it, if available. If not, choose LPT1: for now. You can change the setting later. Click Next
Install Printer Software If installing a real printer, select your printer manufacturer and printer model here. If you have an installation disk or CD that came with the printer, click "Have Disk" and locate the INF file for the printer (check the printer's documentation for specific instructions). If installing a printer only to keep PowerPoint happy, choose the HP LaserJet 4V/4MV as we've done here Click Next
Name Your Printer
• • • •
Give the printer a name (this is the name you'll use to select it later) If installing a printer just to make PowerPoint happy, you might want to give it a name that indicates it isn't a real physical printer (PPT Pacifier, or the like) Click "Yes" under "Do you want to use this printer as the default printer" (this option may not appear in all Windows versions; see Notes below) Click Next
Printer Sharing • Click "Do not share this printer" • Click Next
Print Test Page Click No
Completing the Add Printer Wizard • Review your choices. Click Back if you need to change anything • Click Finish Motherboard Layout Diagram
1 2 3 Exercise 1:
Define each of the following terms.
________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Hardware______________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Software_______________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Supercomputer__________________________________________________ _______________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Mainframe_____________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Microcomputer__________________________________________________ _______________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Notebook Computer______________________________________________________
Computer______________________________________________________ _________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ 9. Personal Digital Assistant_______________________________________________________ __ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ 4 Short Answer Give at least 5 examples of how you have recently used a computer in your everyday life: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Exercises Key 1. Computer
An electronic device that operates under the control of a set of instructions that is stored in its memory unit. It accepts data from an input device and processes it into useful information, which it makes available on its output device.
The physical components of the computer and any equipment connected to it.
The set of instructions that the computer follows in performing a task.
Classified by size, the largest classification of computers.
Classified by size, the second largest classification of computers.
Personal computers or desktop computers.
7. Notebook Computer
A personal computer that can fit into a briefcase.
8. Laptop Computer
A larger, heavier version of a notebook computer.
9. Personal Digital Assistant
Classified by size, the smallest classification of computers. It is a handheld computer.
Short Answer Give at least 5 examples of how you have recently used a computer in your everyday life: These answers will vary. Important Points to Remember Applications software: Software that allows you to perform a task or solve a specific problem. A backup system A way of storing data in more than one location. Byte : A byte A unit of storage usually made up of eight bits. It represents one character - a letter, digit, or symbol. Central Processing Unit : Central Processing Unit (CPU) is an Electronic circuits that interpret and execute instructions and communicates with the input, output, and storage devices. Data Raw: Data Raw unprocessed facts to be processed by the computer. Documentation: Documentation Instructions provided with software that includes steps required for installation and use of the product. Freeware Software: Freeware Software considered to be in the public domain and may be used or altered without fee or restriction. Gigahertz :Gigahertz (GHZ) A billion machine cycles per second. Hardcopy :Hardcopy Output produced by a printer. Hardware: The equipment associated with a computer system; it is responsible for performing four basic functions: input, processing, output, and storage.
Input devices: Hardware devices that accept data in a form that the computer can utilize; they send the data or instructions to the processing unit to be processed into useful information. A hard disk : An internal disk, a metal platter coated with magnetic oxide that can be magnetized to represent data. Machine Cycle : A machine cycle Four steps performed by the central processing unit in carrying out the instructions of a program. Megaflop: A megaflop One million floating-point operations per second. Megahertz: (MHz) One million machine cycles per second. Memory : Primary storage that works with the CPU to hold instructions and data in order to be processed. Office suite: A package of software that contains pieces of software. It is sold as a single package and is designed to work together. Operating Systems: software The set of programs that lie between applications software and the hardware devices; it controls the overall activity of a computer. Output device: A hardware device that displays the processed information to the user. Random access memory (RAM): Memory that the computer user can access. Read only memory (ROM): Memory that contains programs and data that are permanently recorded when the computer is manufactured. Secondary or auxiliary storage: A more permanent form of storage that does not depend on a constant flow of electricity. Shareware: A form of free software; however, the author of shareware hopes you will make a voluntary contribution for using the product. Softcopy: Monitor output. Software: A program that consists of instructions used to control hardware and accomplish tasks. Exercise 2:
1. ____ Hardware devices that accept data in a form that the computer can use. 2. ____ Raw unprocessed facts to be processed by the computer. 3. ____ Electronic circuits that interpret and execute instructions and
communicate with the input, output, and storage devices. 4. ____ Four steps performed by the central processing unit in carrying out the instructions of a program.
5. ____ Programs and data that are permanently recorded when the computer is
manufactured. 6. ____ A billion machine cycles per second. 7. ____ Hardware devices that display the processed information to the user. 8. ____ A million machine cycles per second. 9. ____ A more permanent form of storage that does not depend on a constant flow of electricity. 10.____ A package of software that contains several pieces of software. It is sold as a single package and is designed to work together. 11.____ A program that consists of instructions used to control hardware. 12.____ An internal storage disk; it is a metal platter coated with magnetic oxide that can be magnetized to represent data. 13.____ A form of free software; however, the author hopes you will make a voluntary contribution for using the product. 14.____ Instructions provided with software that includes steps required for installation and use of the product. 15.____ Memory that the computer user can use. 16.____ Output displayed on a monitor. 17.____ Output produced by a printer. 18.____ Primary storage that works with the CPU to hold instructions and data to be processed. 19.____ Software considered to be in the public domain; it may be used or altered without fee or restriction. 20.____ Software that allows you to perform a particular task or solve a specific problem. 21.____ Equipment associated with a computer system; it is responsible for performing four basic functions: input, processing, output, and storage. 22.____ A set of programs that lie between applications software and the hardware devices; it controls the overall activity of a computer. 23.____ A storage unit that is usually made up eight bits and represents one character, letter, digit, or symbol. 24.____ A way of storing data in more than one location. 25.____ One million floating-point operations per second.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Exercise Key Input devices Data CPU Machine cycle ROM Gigahertz Output devices
8. Megahertz 9. Secondary or auxiliary storage 10. Office suite 11. Software 12. Hard disk 13. Shareware 14. Documentation 15. RAM 16. Softcopy 17. Hardcopy 18. Memory 19. Freeware 20. Applications software 21. Hardware 22. Operating systems software 23. Byte 24. Backup system 25. Megaflop
A network is an interconnection of two or more devices in order to enable transfer of data or information from one place to another. Advantages 1. Sharing of hardware resources 2. Sharing of software resources 3. Central storage and data security 4. Easier and faster sharing of information Disadvantages 1. Costly hardware and software 2. Need for an administrator to take care of the network Types of Computer Networks 1. Local Area Network (LAN) A network consisting of two or more computers that are interconnected by means of cable in a single location is called as Local Area Network. In a LAN, the computers can take any one of the three functions as detailed below. Peer-to-peer : This is an example of a simple network where two or more computers are directly connected to each other and share resources. There is no central control over the network. Peer networks are organized into workgroups. Access to individual resources has to be controlled through a password. There is no restriction on the number of computers on a peer network. Server Based Network : In this type of networks, there is a main computer called as the SERVER that controls the networks and provides central storage space for information. The other computers that are connected to the server are called as CLIENTS, or WORKSTATIONS, or DUMB TERMINALS.
Hybrid Network : These types of network are a combination of both peer-to-peer network and server network. 2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A network of computers that are interconnected within a specific geographical area like a university campus or a city is called as Metropolitan Area Network or Campus Area Network (CAN) 3. Wide Area Network (WAN) A network of computers that are interconnected over a large area is called as a Wide Area Network. The computers are connected by means of cables, telephone lines, satellites or radio transceivers. Components of a Computer Network 1. Server 2. Workstations 3. Network Interface Card (NIC) 4. Network media 5. Connector 6. Connecting devices Types of cables Coaxial cable Coaxial cable has a single strand or multi-strand of copper. The wire is enclosed in plastic foam for insulation. The foam is surrounded by a second conductor, a wire mesh or metallic foil. The wire mesh protects the central conductor from electro magnetic interference. It also provides proper grounding for the central conductor. Coaxial cable transmit data typically at 10 Mbps. Data is transmitted in the form of electric current and are comparatively slower than fiber-optic cables.
Twisted-pair cable These cables have one or more pairs of copper wires that are twisted. The twisting reduces external interference. There are two types of twisted pair cables. 1. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) and 2. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP). STP cables are shielded
with aluminium or polyester present in between the outer jacket and the wires. UTP cables do not have this shielding.
Fiber-optic cable These cables are mainly used as backbone in a WAN. Data is transmitted in the form of light signals. The inner core is enclosed in a layer of glass called as a cladding, that reflects light back into the core. A plastic sheath surrounds each fiber. Fiber-optic cables are capable of transmitting data at a very high speed offering data transfer speeds ranging from 100 Mbps to 2 Gbps and are more expensive. Plenum cable In coaxial cables, PVC is used as the outer jacket for insulation. When the cables have to be run in the space between the false ceiling and the floor above, a special type of cable called as plenum-grade cable has to be used. When burned, PVC gives off poisonous gases, so a fire resistant cable such as the plenum-grade cable is used. It is more expensive and less flexible than PVC insulated coaxial cables.
Network Connectivity Devices Any network grows over a period. This growth creates the need for attaching more computers in the network. Expansion of a network is of two types, they are a) Expansion within a network b) Joining two networks More computers can be attached in a network by using additional cables and connectors. But once the network architecture is stretched beyond a point, it reduces the data transmission speeds. In such a situation, there arises a need for special devices, which can amplify the signals and send them over longer distances. The following devices can be used to expand a single network without connecting it to other networks. a) Hubs (Active, Passive and Intelligent) b) Repeaters c) Switches d) Bridges e) Multiplexers a) Hubs These are the connecting points in a network where UTP and STP cables are used. Hubs amplify signals and split them so that the signals reach their destination. Hubs can be of three types based on their function. Hubs are available in configuration of 4/8/16/32 ports for connecting 4/8/16/32 computers respectively. To add more computers to the network cascading of hubs can be done. Cascading is nothing but taking the signal from one hub to another hub. This is allowed only for Active hubs. Active hubs : These hubs provide connection points for cables to be attached from each computer in the network. The hub in turn is connected to the main computer called as the Server. Active hubs are mainly used in Star Topology. Passive hubs : These hubs merely act as junction boxes for extending the network. They cannot amplify or split signals. Intelligent hubs : These hubs have special instructions stored in the ROM that help in signal regeneration and path selection. An intelligent hub has the ability to choose the path where the signal has to reach instead of sending the signals along all paths. They can also choose the quickest path for sending the signal.
b) Repeaters The signals that pass in the network media (cables) are prone to weakening called as attenuation. This results in loss of signals. In order to prevent this, a repeater is used to boost the signal allowing it to travel over longer cable distances. c) Switches Switches operate at the data link layer and are responsible for receiving and transmitting frames. Switches use MAC (Message Authentication Code) address from the host’s NIC cards to filter the network. Switches work in full-duplex mode (100 Mbps) where the signals can be transmitted and received between the switch and the computer simultaneously. Switches are available in configuration of 8/16/24/32 ports for connecting computers. d) Bridges Bridges are used to cross from one circuit, channel or element over to another. It is a device that connects two LAN segments together, which may be of similar or dissimilar types, such as Ethernet and Token Ring. A bridge is inserted into a network to segment it and keep traffic contained within the segments to improve performance. Bridges learn from experience and build and maintain address tables of the nodes on the network. By monitoring which station acknowledged receipt of the address, they learn which nodes belong to the segment. Bridges are protocol independent; routers are protocol dependent. Bridges are faster than routers because they do not have to read the protocol to glean routing information. Bridges with more than two ports (multiport bridges) perform a switching function. Today's LAN switches are really multiport bridges that can switch at full wire speed. e) Multiplexers These devices use a technique called as multiplexing where many different signals are combined and transmitted and at the receiving end, they are demultiplexed to reach the appropriate destination. The transmission signals of cable TV is an example of multiplexing where multiple channels are send in a single coaxial cable and the demultiplexer present in the TV recognizes the appropriate signal.
Inter-network Connectivity Any network consisting of two or more networks is called as an inter-network. The Internet is an example of this. An inter-network may have different types of networks
like Ethernet, Token ring, and ATM. The following devices can be used to expand an inter-network by connecting it to other network. a) Routers A device that forwards data packets from one local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) to another. Based on routing tables and routing protocols, routers read the network address in each transmitted frame and make a decision on how to send it based on the most expedient route (traffic load, line costs, speed, bad lines, etc.). Routers work at layer 3 in the protocol stack, whereas bridges and switches work at the layer 2. Routers are used to segment LANs in order to balance traffic within workgroups and to filter traffic for security purposes and policy management. Routers are also used at the edge of the network to connect remote offices.
b) Brouters Brouters are a combination of a router and a bridge.
c) Gateways These are sophisticated devices combining both hardware and software. Gateway helps in connecting disparate networks. They take care of protocol conversion so that data received from any network can be interpreted in your network and used. d) CSU/DSU Channel Service Unit/Digital Service Unit help in using the existing telephone line for transmitting signals. Apart from sending signals CSU/DSU also shield your network from voltage currents that come through the telephone network. Network Topology The term topology, or more specifically, network topology, refers to the arrangements or physical layout of computers, cables, and other components on the network. The three popular topologies are bus, star and ring. Each topology has its strengths and weakness.
These are the three major topologies used in networks. Ethernet uses bus, hub and switch topologies. Token Ring uses ring and switch. Patch Chord Patch Chord is just an UTP cable with RJ-45 connectors connected at both the ends. The patch chord may be straight cable or cross over cable depending upon the application where it is used.
RJ 45 Jack
RJ45 Colors and Wiring Standards
T-568B Straight-Through Ethernet Cable
Both the T-568A and the T-568B standard Straight-Through cables are used most often as patch cords for your Ethernet connections. If you require a cable to connect two Ethernet devices directly together without a hub or when you connect two hubs together, you will need to use a Crossover cable instead.
RJ-45 Crossover Ethernet Cable
How to Build an Ethernet Cable Instructions: Pull the cable off the reel to the desired length and cut using wire cutters or scissors. If you are pulling cables through holes, it's easier to attach the RJ-45 plugs after the cable is pulled. The total length of wire segments between a PC and a switch or between two PC's cannot exceed 100 Meters (328 feet) for 100BASE-TX and 300 Meters for 10BASE-T. 2. Start on one end and strip the cable jacket off (about 1") using a wire stripper or a knife. Be extra careful not to nick the wires, otherwise you will need to start over. 3. Spread, untwist the pairs, and arrange the wires in the order of the desired cable end. Flatten the end between your thumb and forefinger. Trim the ends of the wires so they are even with one another, leaving only 1/2" in wire length. If it is longer than 1/2" it will be out-of-spec and susceptible to crosstalk. Flatten and insure there are no spaces between wires. 4. Hold the RJ-45 plug with the clip facing down or away from you. Push the wires firmly into the plug. Inspect each wire is flat even at the front of the plug. Check the order of the wires. Double check again. Check that the jacket is fitted right against the stop of the plug. Carefully hold the wire and firmly crimp the RJ-45 with the crimp tool. 5. Check the color orientation, check that the crimped connection is not about to come apart, and check to see if the wires are flat against the front of the plug. If even one of these are incorrect, you will have to start over. Test the Ethernet cable.
Ethernet Cable Tips: A straight-thru cable has identical ends. A crossover cable has different ends. A straight-thru is used as a patch cord in Ethernet connections. A crossover is used to connect two Ethernet devices without a hub or for connecting two hubs. • A crossover has one end with the Orange set of wires switched with the Green set. • Odd numbered pins are always striped, even numbered pins are always solid colored.
• • • •
Looking at the RJ-45 with the clip facing away from you, Brown is always on the right, and pin 1 is on the left. • No more than 1/2" of the Ethernet cable should be untwisted otherwise it will be susceptible to crosstalk. • Do not deform, do not bend, do not stretch, do not staple, do not run parallel with power cables, and do not run Ethernet cables near noise inducing components.
TCP/IP TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It was developed for the US Department of Defense to allow communication between different types of computer and networks. Now it is a widely used networking protocol. TCP and IP are the two best known protocols in the suite. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides reliable sequence delivery of packets between clients. The Internet Protocol (IP) provides packet delivery between hosts. IP Addressing In a TCP/IP environment communication between hosts and servers on the internetwork is transparent. This is because each node using the TCP/IP protocol suite has at least one unique 32 bit Internet Protocol (IP) address. A router “reads” the destination address in an IP packet and makes a routing decision based on this address. All hosts on an inter-network require unique addresses. IP address can be represented as a group of four decimal number (in the range 0 to 255), separated by decimal points. This is known as dotted decimal notation. They can also be represented in binary or hex. Each IP address identifies a hosts within the inter-network. Part of an IP address identifies a particular network, part identifies a subnet and part identifies a specific host within that sub-network. An IP address can be represented in dotted decimal notation or binary or hexadecimal notation. For example : Dotted decimal 22.214.171.124 Binary 10000010.00111001.00011110.00111000 Hexadecimal 82.39.IE.38 Logically an IP address contains two parts. They are 1. Network ID 2. Host ID In order to provide a method for assigning addresses in simple and easy manner, the IP address is classified for different types of networks like large, medium and small networks. IP Address Classes Depending on your networking requirements, you are assigned (by your service provider) specific classes of IP address. They are five classes of IP addresses: A, B, C, D and E. Class A: Address range from 1 to 126. These addresses use the first byte to specify the network and the last three bytes to specify the host. Class A addresses are assigned to system in a small number of networks and a large number of hosts.
Class B: Address range from 128 to 191. These addresses use the first two bytes to specify the network and next two bytes to specify the host. Class B addresses are assigned to systems in universities and commercial organizations. Class C: Address range from 192 to 223. These addresses use the first three bytes to specify the network and the last byte to specify the host. Class C addresses are assigned to systems in a network with small number of hosts. Class D: Address range from 224 to 239. These addresses are used for broadcasting messages over an inter-network. These addresses are also used for multicasting. Class E: Address range from 240 to 255. These addresses are reserved for research purposes and future use.
Subnet Mask Subnet is a physical segment in a TCP/IP environment that uses IP addresses derived from a single network ID. Subnetting: One part is used to identify the segment as a unique network other part used to identify the hosts. This is known as subnetting. Example Class room Students in the class Here Class room - Subnet Students - Network ID Students name - Host ID Subnet mask is a 32b bit address and is used to (1) block out a portion of the IP address to distinguish the network ID from the host ID (2) specify whether the destination host IP address is located on a local network or remote network. Each host on a TCP/IP network requires a subnet mask number Default subnet masks – used when a network is not divided into subnets Custom subnet masks – used when a network is divided into subnets
Default gateway IP routing is the process of sending data from a host on one network to a remote host on another network through a router or routers. In IP terminology routers are referred to as gateways. The router uses a path to deliver packets, which is defined in its routing table. Routing table contains the IP address of router interfaces that connect one router with other. Important Points to Remember: Bridge A combination of hardware and software that recognizes the messages on a network and passes on those addressed to nodes in other networks. Software on the user’s computer that allows the user to access the Internet via the service provider, using a graphical interface.
Data communicationsComputer systems that transmit data over systems communications lines such as telephone lines or cables. Download files E-mail File Transfer (FTP) Host computer Hub Internet Protocol Retrieve from another computer and store them. The ability to send messages directly from one computer to another. A standard way to transfer copies of files on the Internet. The mainframe computer in a WAN. A device that repeats signals and connects a group of computers to a network. A rapidly growing web of networks from around the world -- simply, a network of networks.
Internet Service ProviderProvides the server computer and the software required (ISP) for you to connect to the Internet.
Widely used automatic mailing manager.
Local Area Network (LAN) A network of computers that share hardware, software, and data in small geographic area. Modem Newsgroups A device that converts a digital signal to an analog signal and vice versa. An informal network of computers that allows the posting and reading of messages in newsgroups that focuses on specific topics. Software that enhances the value of a browser by increasing its features. A special computer that directs communications traffic when several networks are connected together. ResourceA unique address on the WWW. Documents that contain text, graphics, sound, and/or video and have built-in connections called hyperlinks. A related collection of Web pages. Area NetworkA network of geographically distant computers and terminals.
Plug-ins Router Uniform Locator (URL) Web pages Web site Wide (WAN)
World Wide Web (WWW) The largest and most popular part of the Internet; it is the graphical part of the Internet.
Exercise 3: Complete each of the statements below by filling in the blanks with terms found in the Computer Network Concepts module.
1. Computer systems that transmit data over communications lines such as
telephone lines or cables are called _____________________________.
A ___________________________ is a device that converts a digital signal to an analog signal and vice versa. It is short for modulate/demodulate. ____________________is a technology that is capable of moving data at 128,000 bps over any modem. of geographically distant computers and terminals is a __________________________________.
4. A network
To ___________________ files means to retrieve files from another computer and store them. To ___________________ files means to send files to another computer. A network of computers that covers a small geographical area is a ___________________________________. A special computer that directs communications traffic when several networks are connected together is a _____________________________. Sending messages __________________. directly from one computer to another is
10. A __________________________ is an automatic mailing manager. 11. 11. The ______________________ is a rapidly growing web of networks from
around the world - a network of networks.
The largest and most _____________________.
13. 13. It is the graphical part of the Internet.___________________ are
documents that contain text, graphics, sound, and/or video and have built-in connections called ________________________.
A related collection of _________________________________. A unique address on _______________________________. the
16. 16. A __________________________ is the software on the user’s computer
that allows the user to access the Internet via the service provider using a graphical interface.
17. 17. The __________________________ provides the server computer and
the software required for you to connect to the Internet. AOL is an example.
18. 18. Computers on the Internet have a standard way to transfer copies of files.
This program is called _________________________________. Exercise Key
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Data Communications Systems Modem Integrated Services Digital network, ISDN Wide Area Network (WAN) Download
6. Upload 7. Local Area Network (LAN) 8. Router 9. E-mail 10.Listserv 11.Internet 12.World Wide Web (WWW) 13.Web pages 14.Web site 15.Uniform Resource Locator (URL) 16.Browser 17.Internet Service Provider (ISP) 18.File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Some Troubleshootung Tips and Techniques
Common Troubleshooting Strategies Here are five common-sense techniques and strategies to solve common computer hardware problems. (1) Trial-and-error Personal computers are highly modular by design. The most powerful troubleshooting technique is to isolate the problem to a specific component by trial-anderror. Swap compatible components and see if the system still works. Try different peripherals on different machines and see if the same problem occurs. Make one change at a time. (2) "It's the cable, s-----." More than 70% of all computer problems are related to cabling and connections. Ensure all cables are connected firmly. IDE and SATA cables and power cables can often go loose. Ensure microprocessor, memory modules, and adapters such as video card and sound card are inserted correctly and didn't "pop-up" during transportation. (3) Don't be frustrated! Don't be afraid of computer problems. It is often the best opportunity to learn. Trouble-shooting is part of the fun of owning a computer. Imagine the satisfaction you could get by solving a problem yourself.
Of course the fun could ran out quickly once you are frustrated and have spent too much time on the same problem. If you feel frustrated, it's time to leave it for a while and go back with some new ideas or call someone who can help. Rule of thumb: You shouldn't spend more than three hours on the same problem at one time. (4) Take notes! Take notes of what you have done and all the error messages. You may need to use them later. For instance, when you see an unusual blue screen with an error message, copy the entire message onto a piece of paper. In many situations, that message may point to the right direction in getting the problem solved quickly. (5) Take a look? It's OK to open a computer case and take a look inside. There is only 5V and 12V DC voltage supplied to the components outside the power supply. Of course, still always power down and unplug the power cord first. 1 Troubleshooting Tips for Cases and Power Supplies
The most important part of a computer case is its power supply. Unfortunately, it's also the part that has most of the problems for a case. There are two situations when a new power supply may appear dead on arrival (DOA) when they are actually working as described below: Most cases and power supplies these days are made and tested in China and other Asian countries where 220V electricity is used. Desktop computer power supplies do not switch the power voltage automatically. If the factory forgets to turn the manual switch back to 110V for the North American market after testing, the power supply would appear DEAD if you use on a 110V-outlet. Therefore, always check the voltage setting on the back of a new power supply FIRST if it appears dead. Do not expect an ATX power supply to work by simply plugging the power and turning on the switch. ATX power supplies are soft-switched on and off by the motherboard and BIOS. Therefore, you must plug it to a working motherboard with a working microprocessor, memory and video card to work. If your computer does not turn on after you turn on the power switch, it may not necessarily mean a dead power supply. The problem might be with the motherboard, microprocessor, memory or video card instead. You must examine all these components to isolate the problem. The most effective technique to tell if a power supply is causing any problem is to use a different one to see if it solves the problem. Alternatively, you can plug the old power supply to an existing, working computer to see if it works there.
More than 70% of all computer problems are related to cabling and connections. Ensure that you all the power plugs are connected firmly, including power connections to your motherboard and all the drives. Make sure the cooling fan inside the power supply is working all the time. Reach out to feel the fan behind your case often. Clean the fan if necessary. If your case feels warmer than room temperature, check the power supply fan first. 2 Troubleshooting Tips for a New Motherboard
More than 70% of all computer problems are related to cabling and connections. Ensure all cables are connected and connected firmly. IDE and floppy ribbon cables and power cables can often go loose. Ensure microprocessor, memory modules, and adapters such as video card are inserted correctly and didn't "pop-up" due to vibration. System has no power at all. Power light does not illuminate, fan inside the power supply does not turn on, and indicator light on keyboard does not turn on. PROBABLE CAUSE Power cable is unplugged. Defective power cable. DIAGNOSIS Visually cable. inspect SOLUTION power Make sure power cable is securely plugged in. try Replace cable.
Visual inspection, another cable.
Power supply failure.
Power cable and wall socket are OK, but system Contact technical support is still dead.
Use different socket, repair Faulty wall outlet;circuit Plug device into socket outlet, reset circuit breaker or breaker or fuse blown. know to work and test. replace fuse.
System inoperative. Keyboard lights are on, power indicator lights are lit, and hard drive is spinning. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION
Turn off computer. Take Using even pressure on both Expansion card is partially cover off system unit. ends of the expansion card, dislodged from expansion Check all expansion cards press down firmly on slot on the motherboard. to ensure they are securely expansion card. seated in slots. Defective expansion card. Turn computer off. Make sure expansion card is Remove an expansion secure in expansion socket. card.
System does not boot from hard disk drive, can be booted from floppy disk drive. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION
Check cable running form When attempting to run the disk to disk controller on the FDISK utility described in Connector between hard board. Make sure both ends the HARD DISK section of drive and system board are securely plugged in; the manual you get a unplugged. check the drive type in the message, INVALID DRIVE Standard CMOS Setup (in SPECIFICATION. your motherboard manual). Format hard disk; if unable Damaged Hard Disk or Disk to do so, the hard disk may Contact Technical Support. Controller. be defective. Fformat the hard drive(See Backing up the hard drive is Hard Disk directory or FAT HARD DRIVE section of extremely important. All Hard is scrambled. manual). Copy your backup Disks are capable of data back onto hard drive. breaking down at any time.
Error message reading "SECTOR NOT FOUND" or other error messages indication certain data is not allowed to be retrieved. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION
Back up any salvageable data. Then do a low level format, partition, and high Use a file by file backup A number of causes could level format of the hard drive( instead of an image backup be behind this. see Hard Disk section of your to backup the Hard Disk. manual for instructions). Reinstall all saved data when completed.
After install an expansion card (network card, tape drive card, etc.) the system no longer works properly. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION
No power to monitor.
Change the interrupt or RAM address on the new All or part of the system expansion card. See the may be inoperable. The documentation that came new card may work but a with the new card in order to mouse or COM port may change pin settings. many not work. expansion devices come with proprietary software that will assist you in doing this.
Screen message says "Invalid Configuration" or "CMOS Failure." PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION
Incorrect information Check the configuration Review system's equipment. entered into the program. Replace any Make sure correct configuration (setup) incorrect information. information is in setup. program.
Screen is blank. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION
No power to monitor.
Check the power connectors to monitor and to system. Power connectors may be Make sure monitor is loose or not plugged in. connected to display card, change I/O address on network card if applicable. See instructions above. See instructions above.
Monitor not connected to computer. Network card I/O address conflict.
SOLUTION Reboot computer. Re-install memory, make sure that all memory modules are installed in correct sockets. Check jumper and switch settings on display card. See display card section for information of settings. Use anti-virus programs (McAfee/PC-cillin, E-port, etc) to detect and clean viruses.
Memory problem, display card jumpers not set correctly.
Screen goes blank periodically. PROBABLE CAUSE Screen saver is enabled. DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Disable screen saver.
Keyboard failure. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Reconnect keyboard. Check keys again, if no improvement, replace keyboard.
Keyboard is disconnected.
No color on screen. PROBABLE CAUSE Faulty Monitor. CMOS incorrectly set up. DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION If possible, connect monitor to another system. If no color, replace monitor. Call technical support.
C: drive failure. PROBABLE CAUSE SETUP program does not have correct information. Hard Drive cable connected properly. not DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Boot from drive A: using DOS system disk. Input correct information to SETUP program. Check Hard drive cable.
Cannot boot system after installing second hard drive. PROBABLE CAUSE Master/Slave jumpers not set correctly. Hard Drives not compatible / different manufacturers. DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Set master /Slave jumpers correctly. Run SETUP program and select correct drive types. Call drive manufactures for compatibility with other drives.
Missing operating system on hard drive. PROBABLE CAUSE CMOS setup changed. has been DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Run setup and select correct drive type.
Certain keys do not function. PROBABLE CAUSE Keys jammed or defective. DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Replace keyboard.
Keyboard is locked, no keys function. PROBABLE CAUSE Keyboard is locked. DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Unlock keyboard
The purpose of the Boot.ini file in Windows XP
Windows (specifically Ntldr) uses the Boot.ini file to determine which operating system options to display when the Startup program is running. By default, Boot.ini is not flagged as a read-only system file and generally does not require any manual modification. If you must change the contents of this file, use the System tool in Control Panel: 1.Click Start button, click Control Panel, and then double-click System.
. Click the Advanced tab, and then click Settings under Startup and Recovery.
Typically, the Boot.ini file contains the following data:
[boot loader] timeout=30 default=scsi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\winnt [operating systems] scsi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\winnt = "Windows NT" /NODEBUG C:\ = "Previous Operating System on C:\"
The following list describes the meaning of the data in the Boot.ini file:
• The "timeout" variable specifies how long Windows waits before choosing the default operating system. • The "default" variable specifies the default operating system. • The term "scsi(0)" means that the primary controller (that is frequently the only controller) is responsible for the device. If there are two SCSI controllers, and the disk is associated with the second controller, the controller is named "scsi(1)". If the system uses IDE, enhanced IDE (EIDE), or Enhanced Small Device Interface (ESDI) drives, or if the system uses a SCSI adapter that does not have a built-in BIOS, replace "scsi" with "multi". • The term "disk(0)" refers to the SCSI logical unit (LUN) to use. This may be a separate disk, but most SCSI setups have only one LUN for each SCSI ID. • The term "rdisk(0)" refers to physical disk 1. • The term "partition(1)" is the partition on the first drive in the computer. If there are two partitions, partition C is partition(1) and partition D is partition(2). • A multi-boot parameter calls for checking the Winnt folder to start from a specified SCSI controller's disk and partition. • "/NODEBUG" specifies that no debugging information is being monitored. Debugging information is useful only for developers. • You can add the /SOS option to display driver names while the drivers are being loaded. By default, the OS Loader screen only shows progress dots. • "Previous Operating System on C:\" implies that the "previous operating system" is MS-DOS, because "C:\" is an MS-DOS path.