National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov.

2006, Nagpur

STATE OF THE ART LECTURE

1. Rain Water Harvesting, Conservation and Management Strategies for Urban and Rural Sectors
* Dr. R. K. Sivanappan
1. Introduction Water is essential for all life and used in many different ways, It is also a part of the larger ecosystem in which the reproduction of the bio diversity depends. Fresh water scarcity is not limited to the arid climate regions only, but in areas with good supply the access of safe water is becoming critical problem. Lack of water is caused by low water storage capacity, low infiltration, larger inter annual and annual fluctuations of precipitation (due to monsoonic rains) and high evaporation demand. The term water harvesting was probably used first by Geddes of the University of Sydney. He defined as the collection and storage of any form of water either runoff or creek flow for irrigation use. Meyer’s of USDA, USA has defined it as the practice of collecting water from an area treated to increase runoff from rainfall. Recently Currier ,USA has defined it as the process of collecting natural precipitation from prepared watershed for beneficial use. Now a days water harvesting has become a general term for collecting and storing runoff water or creek flow ,resulting from rain in soil profile and reservoirs both over surface /under surface. Previously this was used for arid and semi arid areas, but recently their use has been extended to sub humid and humid regions too. In India water harvesting means utilizing the erratic monsoon rain for raising good crops in dry tracks and conserve the excess runoff water for drinking and for recharging purposes. 2. History of Rain Water Harvesting Water harvesting like many techniques in use today is not new. It is practiced as early as 4500 B.C. by the people of Ur and also latest by the Nabateans and other people of the Middle east. While the early water harvesting techniques used natural materials, 20th century technology has made it possible to use artificial means for increasing runoff from precipitation. Evenari and his colleagues of Israel have described water harvesting system in the Negve desert. The system involved clearing hill sides to smooth the soil and increase runoff and then building contour ditches to collect the water and carry it to low lying fields where the water was used to irrigate crops. By the time of the Roman Empire, these runoff farms had evolved into relatively sophisticated systems. The next significant development was the construction of roaded catchments as described by the public works Department of Western Australia in 1956. They are so called because the soil is graded into ditches. These ditches convey the collected water to a storage reservoir. Lauritzan, USA has done pioneering work in evaluating plastic and artificial rubber membranes for the construction of catchments and reservoirs during 1950’s. In 1959,Mayer of water conservation laboratory, USA began to investigate materials that caused soil to become hydrophobic or water repellent. Then gradually expanded to include sprayable asphalt compounds, plastic and metal films bounded to the soil compaction and dispersion and asphalt fiber glass membranes. Early 1960, research programmes in water harvesting were also initiated in Israel by Hillal and at the University of Arizana by Gluff. Hillal’s work related primarily to soil smoothing and runoff farming. Cluff has done a considerable amount of work on the use of soil sealing with sodium salt and on ground covered with plastic membranes.

* International Consultant in Water Resources & Irrigation, No:14, Bharathi park, 4th Cross Road, Coimbatore 641 043 1

Water harvesting was practiced more than 1000 years back in South India, by way of construction of irrigation tank, ooranis, temple tanks, farm ponds etc, but the research in India on this subject is of recent one. Work is taken up at ICRISAT, Hyderabad, Central arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, Central Research Institute for dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad, State Agricultural Universities and other dry land research centers throughout India. In Pakistan, in the mountainous and dry province of Balukhistan, bunds are constructed across the slopes to force the runoff to infiltrate. In China, with its vast population is actively promoting rain and stream water harvesting. One very old but still common flood diversion technique is called ‘Warping’ (harvesting water as well as sediment). When water harvesting technique are used for runoff farming, the storage reservoir will be soil itself, but when the water is to be used for livestock, supplementary irrigation or human consumption, a storage facility of some kind will have to be produced. In countries where land is abundant, water harvesting involves; harvesting or reaping the entire rainwater, store it and utilize it for various purposes. In India, it is not possible to use the land area only to harvest water and hence water harvesting means use the rain water at the place where it falls to the maximum and the excess water is collected and again reused in the same area. Therefore the meaning of water harvesting is different in different area/ countries. The methods explained above are used for both agriculture and to increase the ground water availability. The water harvesting for household and for recharging purposes are also in existence for long years in the world. During rainy days, the people in the villages used to collect the roof water in the vessels and use the same for household purposes including drinking. In South East Asian countries people used to collect the roof water ( thatched roof by providing gutters) by placing 4 big earthern drums in 4 corners of their houses. They use this water for all household purposes and if it is exhausted only they will go for well water. The main building of the Agricultural College at Coimbatore was constructed 100 years ago and they have collected all the roof water by pipes and stored in a big under ground masonry storage tanks by the sides of the building.
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These rainwater are used for all labs, which require pure and good quality of water. In the same way the rainwater falling on the terrace in all the building constructed subsequently are collected and stored in the underground masonry tanks Even the surface water flowing in the Nalla’s in the campus are also diverted by providing obstructions, to the open wells to recharge ground water. Hence Rainwater harvesting is as old as civilization and practiced continuously in different ways for different purposes in the world The only thing is that it has not been done systematically in all places. Need has come to harvest the rainwater including roof water to solve the water problems everywhere not only in the arid but also in the humid region. 3. Need for Rain Water Harvesting Water is a becoming a scarce commodity and it is considered as a liquid gold in this part of the country (especially in Coimbatore, Erode, Salem Districts of Tamil Nadu). The demand of water is also increasing day by day not only for Agriculture, but also for household and Industrial purposes. It is estimated that water need for drinking and other municipal uses will be increased from 3.3 MHm to 7.00 MHm in 2020/25. Similarly the demand of water for industries will be increased by 4 fold i.e. from 3.0 MHm ti 12.00 MHm during this period At the same time more area should be brought under irrigation to feed the escalating population of the country, which also needs more water. But we are not going to get one litre more water than we get at present though the demand is alarming. The perennial rivers are becoming dry and ground water table is depleting in most of the areas. In Coimbatore, the depletion is about 30-50m in the last 30-40 years. Country is facing floods and drought in the same year in many states. This is because, no concrete action was taken to conserve, harvest and manage the rain water efficiently. The rainfall is abundant in the world and also in India. But it is not evenly distributed in all places. India being the monsoonic country, the rain falls only for 3 to 4 months in a year with high intensity, which results more runoff and soil erosion. Total rain occurs only in about 100 hours out of 8760 hours in a year. It also erratic and fails once in 3 or 4 years. This is very common in many parts of the country.

The availability of water in the world, in India and in Tamil Nadu is given below with rainfall. Places Rainfall Population in mm 840 1150 6 Billion 1.0 Billion Availability of Water/Person/Yr M 3 /P/Year 700 2200

World India

Tamil Nadu 925

62.5 Million 750

If the availability of water is 1700 M3/p/y, there will be occasional water stress, and if it is less than 1000 M3/p/y, it is under water scarcity condition. Though India is not under water stress conditions but Tamil Nadu state is already under water scarcity condition, but there is no need for panic since it is possible to manage this condition as in the case of Israel where the availability is only about 450 M3/p/ y, by means of water harvesting, water conservation and water management. Water scarcity / stress is not limited to the arid regions; only but also occurring in high rainfall areas also. Chirapunji gets more than 11,000mm of average annual rainfall but face drinking water problem before monsoon commences whereas in Ralegoan Siddhi, in Maharastra there is no water scarcity problem though the annual average rainfall is only about 450mm. Hence to mitigate water problem / drought etc, there is an urgent need to follow our ancestral way of water harvesting and the latest technologies adopted in Soil and water conservation measures on watershed basis including roof water harvesting etc which are described in detail below. The Theme paper on Water vision 2050 of India, prepared by Indian Water Resources Society(IWRS) has indicated that a storage of 60 MHm is necessary to meet tbne demand of water for irrigation, drinking and other purposes. But the present live storage of all reservoirs put together is equivalent of about 17.5 MHm which is less than 10% of the annual flow in the rivers in the country. The projects under contruction (7.5 MHm) and those contemplated (13 MHm) are added, it comes only 37.50 MHm and hence we have to go a long way in water harvesting to build up storage structures in order to store about 60 MHm. More than 75% of the areas comes under
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hard rock in Tamil Nadu. Further the porosity of the rock is only about 3%. The natural recharge of rainwater in this region is only about 8 -12%, which is very minimal. Therefore there is an urgent need to take up the artificial recharge of the rain for which water harvesting and water conservation structures are to be build up in large scale. The rainfall in coastal area is more than 1200 mm (Chennai) still; drinking water is a problem in almost every year. This is because the entire rainwater is collected in masonry drains (from houses, streets/roads etc) are taken to the sea instead of taking into the ground water aquifers or in surface reservoirs by pumping if need be. The ground water available can be used during summer and make the aquifer empty so that the rainwater can be put into the aquifers during rainy period by suitable water harvesting measures. All the above details indicate the need for water harvesting measures in urban and rural area for the use of Agriculture, drinking and other purposes. 4. Methods of Water Harvesting in Rural and

Urban Areas
There are different / various system of water harvesting depending upon the source of water supply and places as classified below. a) In situ Rainwater harvesting • Bunding and terracing. • Vegetative / stone contour barriers. • Contour trenching. • Contour stone walls. • Contour farming. • Micro catchments. • Tie ridging methods • Farm ponds. b) Direct surface runoff harvesting • Roof water collection • Dug out ponds / storage tanks • Tankas • Kundis • Ooranis • Temple tanks • Diversion bunds • Water spreading c) Stream flow / runoff harvesting • Nalla bunding

There is no use of spending huge sum of money when we notice the water scarcity for drinking. Irrigation water and drinking water through recharge of ground water Irrigation water and drinking water through recharging ground water 3. water repellent etc. Government is undertaking the wasteland / watershed development programs. water harvesting work should be included and executed. Case Study In Water Harvesting There are numerous case studies available in water harvesting both in Rural and Urban sectors. Region 1 Arid plains Types of Water Artificial catchments to capture rainfall (tankas or kundis in Rajasthan) Tanks or talabs in Rajasthan to capture surface runoff Use Drinking Drinking and irrigation Embankments / Irrigation obstructions across water & also drainage / Nalla to for recharging capture surface runoff 2 Semi Arid places Tanks / Ponds/Eri to capture surface runoff and also chains of tanks called cascade. bentonite. Plastic sheet. No. 5. In the urban sector. etc • Using chemicals for water proofing. The government of Tamil Nadu has laid condition that in any building construction.P. industry and agriculture. The following are the places where rain water / roof water . A comprehensive watershed development on watershed basisincluding water harvesting structures are given in the figure 1. rainwater harvesting is as old as civilization and is practiced in many countries including India from time immemorable. it is not perfect.. In Rural areas it is Soil and Water conservation measures taken on watershed basis to conserve and augment ground water. These activities / structure should be taken / constructed before the rainy season so that the rain water which goes as runoff outside the sub watershed / city limits can be collected and used directly or by recharging into the ground. Flood plains Mud embankment which may be breached during the floods. Plan of Action for Rainwater Harvesting As stated early. to get more run off water.• Gully control structures • Check dams – Temporary Permanent • Silt detension tanks • Percolation ponds d) Sub surface flow harvesting • Sub surface dams • Diaphragm dams e) Micro catchment’s / watershed • Inter terrace / inter plot water harvesting • Conservation bench terrace f) Runoff inducement by surface treatment • Roaded catchments • Use of cover materials – Aluminum foils. it is mostly roof water harvesting for direct use and recharging the ground water and also collecting of surface runoff from pavements / roads and recharging it into the ground through recharge pits or using abandoned / existing wells. Rubber. The authorities concerned should monitor the programme so that the drinking water problem can be solved in all 4 municipalities / corporation without any difficulty to some extent. M. But government and people remember this only when water is not available even for drinking purposes. but not done in a comprehensive / integrated manner / holistic saturating the watershed in all water harvesting measures. water region Maharastra 6. but in practice. Hence there is a need to take up watershed development programmes – mainly water harvesting measures in a scientific and systematic manner. 4 Hill and Diverted stream flows Irrigation Mountain Jammu. To sum up the following types of Water Harvesting System for different uses can be implemented in different parts of the country.

Singapore – office buildings.K. It means a role for everybody with respect to water. Rural areas a. Coimbatore 2001. • Center for Science and Environment – Making water everybody’s business. 1999. Tamil Nadu. Center of science and environment building at Delhi. TVS training schoool at Vanagaran. Kapilnalla watershed in Karnataka 2. Soil and Water Conservation and Water harvesting. R. PRICOL. they will also take good care of them. c. It is heartening to note that Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) and Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) have taken action to implement 5 the rain water harvesting to their Industry premises. Conclusions It is very important to make water everybody’s business. to manage their own affairs with the state playing a critical supportive role. • CII.harvesting has been implemented in a successful manner.. The Gujarat government has issued a general resolution for the effort that no new construction would be allowed if it does not have provision for roof top rainwater harvesting. A blue revolution. ICCI. A water-harvesting manual. Germany – office buildings. Rules and regulations have been framed for Rain Water Harvesting in all corporation. The people. ii.. R. b.A.. TWAD Board / office and PWD office at Chennai. Delhi. Aug 1998. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. iii. It means the empowerment of our Urban and Rural community... 1. all main buildings. ii. Ground water dams for small-scale water supply. NIH. Chennai vii. Japan – office complex. Foreign Countries i. Bhavans Book University. Tamil Nadu. Alankulam Taluk in Tirunelveli Dt. • Center for science and environment. . d. Ralegoan Siddhi in Maharastra state b. Institute of economic growth. Padi. Tamil Nadu Afforestation project. and Government should joint together and implement the rain water harvesting in a big way in all places in the years to come to solve water scarcity problem in the country. • Sivanappan. • Chitale M. Delhi 2001. Numerous Apartment buildings in Chennai. It will also develop the ownership (own water supply systems). v. New Delhi. Maheshwaram watershed in Andhra Pradesh. IT publication. 1998. • Rajiv Gandhi.K. Aravari watershed in Alwar Dt. e. New Delhi 2000. • Sivanappan.. Thailand – Many houses including thatched houses in villages. i. Rainwter harvesting – A guide. New Delhi. This would be valid in all 143 municipalities and 6 urban development authorities in the state. iv. f. If the above measures are implemented in Rural and Urban areas. Chennai – (Industry buildings) vi. Periyanaickenpalayam (Industry Building). National Drinking water missions Handbook on Rainwater harvesting. Urban Sectors Mostly the roof water harvesting measures are taken up. Sundaram and Clayton Ltd. 1995. Lakshman Nagar and Varisai Nadu inTheni Dt. Pune 2000. Soil and Water conservation and water harvesting will go a long way towards reducing misuse of government funds. Coimbatore iii. 2001. India i. of Rajasthan. Roorkee. Every household and community has to become involved in the provision of water and in the protection of water resources. a.e. NGO. Make water the subject of a people’s movement. 7. ix. Rastrapathi Bhavan. • Verma HN & Tiwan KN current status and Prospects of Rain Water Harvesting. Water harvesting. References • Ake Nilsson. iv. Coimbatore. municipalities and panchayat unions in Tamil Nadu. the drought in rural areas and drinking water problem in Urban and Rural population can be solved to some extent. 1988. • Stockholm water Symposium – ‘Water harvesting’ Stockholm. Further involving people will give the people greater ownership over the water project including watershed development. Chennai. Government of India. viii. In this way it is possible to solve water problems facing the county in the 21st century. New Delhi.

increases crop yield by between 20% and 90%. Drip irrigation cuts water use by between 30% and 70% . reuse and recycling of waste water. knowledgeable and experienced personnel to be involved in management of water related activities and balanced distribution of water. Department of Agricultural Structures and Environmental Engineering. electronics and IT based devices. Agarwal ABSTRACT By 2025.1 Ground Water Recharge. Plants need water for: * Selection Grade Assistant Professor (Electrical Engineering). People and ecosystems are under threat from persistent chemicals like pesticides. Check dams. and optimum utilization. water management in agro-ecosystems. It requires as much as 2000 litres of water to grow 1 kg of rice. Jabalpur 482 004. The paper discusses related concerns and outlines what need to be done. College of Agricultural Engineering. distribution. water reuse. Water (with elements H + O) is a vital component for crop growth. 2006. 1. Key words : Fresh water. Water application losses in irrigation are quite high – almost 40 % of the total irrigation water is lost. Jabalpur 482 004 Email : jhagarwal@sancharnet. (Mrs. • Switching to less water-dependent crops. Global farming accounts for 70% of water use. watersheds and mini-ponds. trickle (macro and micro irrigation). and Efficient Systems • Watersheds. It is said there is enough freshwater in world – however. Email : vijaya_agarwal@gmail. Participation of women in conservation of water. Roof water harvesting (should be made compulsory and mandatory). There are no serious efforts to gain water by practices like rainwater harvesting. Per capita irrigated agricultural land is declining – main reason shortage of water. while only 17% of farmland is irrigated and it provides only 40% (estimated) of world’s food.O. Competent. Scientific management of water by making use of electronics and IT based aids like soil-moisture measurements.) Vijaya Agarwal ** Prof. • Efficient irrigation systems: Sprinkler. H. G-83 Krishi Nagar. Water table is falling steadily in intensive farming regions.2 Water needs of plants Agriculture accounts for 70% of fresh water use. it is not always available in the right place or right form. • Sequential water use : Reuse. water-application and water-use.. Reuse.O. drip. • • • Water conservation and higher efficiencies for water-conveyance.) J. Adhartal P. world population will be 8 billion – water will become scarcer. Krishi Nagar.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. Water Issues and Related Concerns * Prof. Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University. (Dr. fertilizers and heavy metals in waters. Adhartal P.in Phone : 0761 – 2680400 6 . 1. Nagpur 2. India uses around 15% of rain water while Israel almost 100% (see Appendix). The problem is mainly of access. recovery and recycling of waste waters.com Phone : 0761 – 2681820 ** Retired Director Instrumentation & Project Coordinator UNDP-GOI-MAEP. JNAU. compared with traditional irrigation.0 WHAT NEED TO BE DONE? – Some suggestions 1.. harvesting and conservation of water.

Transport of nutrients from soil to plant. 2. • Available with meter. • Soil moisture range: 5 – 50 % (volumetric) +/1%.5%. • No proportionate increase in yield. 5. • Rechargeable battery or mains operated. USA. continuous measurement of soil moisture over multiple depths in root-zone. Multi-Probe Sensor MP-917 (ESI Environment Sensors Inc.esica. Easy installation.• • • • Temperature regulation. EasyAG and Diviner 2000 (Sentek. It causes/ results in : • Spoilage of soil-health. and to optimize utilization of water by using efficient systems like sprinkler. • To decide about the irrigation inputs to crop by monitoring soil-moisture and crop-water stress.com ). electronic control unit. Sentek Soil Moisture Probes – EnviroSCAN.sentek..0 SOIL-MOISTURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS A variety of electronics and microprocessorbased devices for soil-moisture measurement are available for scientific water management in agroecosystems. computer. Gro-Point GP-ERS Moisture Sensor and Irrigation Management System (ESI Environment Sensors Inc.au ). and wastage of water and energy. • • • web site: www. • Rechargeable battery or mains operated. USA. • A single probe gives moisture profile.0 IT ENABLED SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR OPTIMUM UTILIZATION Use of Crop Simulation Models. Fig. • Intelligent Irrigation System. indicates the amount of moisture available to plants. Weather data and Knowledge Base(s): • To select appropriate crop and crop variety suitable to agro-climatic pattern. • To decide about the date of sowing. (b). • Low cost. salinity built up. 2 (a). web site: www.com. Automatic control of irrigation systems.com ). 2. • Loss of nutrients due to excessive leaching.. web site : www. (c) and (d) for photographs of some soil-moisture devices). web site : www.irrometer. Irrometer-Tensiometer Probe (Irrometer Company. to decide when and how much to irrigate. with a set of sensors. Photosynthesis. • Solid state. data download options for retrieving data in the field or remotely. electrical resistance type.esica. facilitates decisions on how much and when to irrigate. EnviroSMART. .3 Excess water harmful Excess water to crop is harmful. 1. non-point contamination (see Appendix . salinity built up. Tensiometric principle. duration of crop. 7 • • • These devices should be used for scientific management of water in agro-ecosystems to make efficient use of water and to minimize problems like water logging. Provides information on crop water use and water management in root-zone. Some of the devices are based on electrical impedance. software and irrigation controller. 3. Australia. Canada. • LCD display or datalogger or RS-232 with PC. Canada. web site : www.irrometer. Moisture-Point. • Contamination of surface and ground water. Salient features of five such devices are given below: 1. and switch to less water-dependent crops. and Transport of assimilates from plant parts to the produce location. Electrical capacitance principle. Watermark Soil Moisture Sensor – 200SS (Irrometer Company. 3. • Soil moisture range : 0 – 50 % (volumetric) +/1. Direct display of moisture.com). infrared thermometry and time-domain reflectometry.com ). drip and trickle irrigation. • Available with hand-held display or with data logger. 4.

Washington. Conservation of water should be taken as a way of life and widely adopted.ifas. T. No. Sentek – Australia < www.. Issue 8. Water’s presence in agro-ecosystems should be treated on a holistic approach. D. F. recovery and recycling of waste waters) should be planned wherever possible so that the load on fresh water can be reduced. Germany. irrigation. 1994. 1998 – ongoing. Rijsberman. E. Washington. P. An integrated GIS and knowledge-based decision support system in assisting farm-level agronomic decision-making. an integrated water management practice consisting of three main components – rain water harvesting.com > . • 4. pp. Creel and R. Document # HS909.Z. United States Department of Agriculture.• • • To apply fertilizer to crops through irrigation water by computer-controlled fertigation techniques. Zazueta.com > . December 1997. F. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. 29. De Souza. 14. SELECTED READING • Goodchild. temperature. Sequential water use (reuse. • Hinrichsen. and by employing scientific management tools it should be judiciously used. Oxford University Press. Population Information Program.sentek. Simonne. D. chemical treatments. Cooperative Extension Service.. etc.. A. ARS National Program # 201 on Water Quality and Management : Component I – Agricultural watershed management. and G. Basic irrigation scheduling in Florida < http:// edis. and D.nps. 49-67. M.). The World’s Water 2000 . Rainwater harvesting should be made mandatory. D. Molden. Finding The Balance: Population and Water Scarcity in the Middle East and North Africa. In: Global . A Strategy for Managing Water in the Middle East and North Africa.ufl. Fahimi. Irrigation scheduling as a means of applying the right water amount and monitoring soil moisture for vegetable crops grown in Florida in the BMP era. Parks and L. F. L. To adopt controlled environment farming wherever easily feasible: This provides monitoring and control of lighting. Sanitation and Water. F. B. Geballe and W.J. ESI – Canada < www. G. International Conference on Freshwater.G. Vol. Environmental Modelling with GIS. Cook. 3. J. Horticultural Sciences Department. Balancing water uses: water for food and water for nature (Thematic background paper).O. Gainesville.au > . Baltimore. 2003 < http:/ /edis. watersheds and mini-ponds..ars. 2002. Robey and U. Component II – Irrigation and drainage management. 2000. Izuno. DC. University of Florida. F. Sha and W. December 2000.T. Island Press. 1995. Population Reference Bureau.F.0 CONCLUDING REMARKS Water is a very valuable resource. Solutions for a Water-Short World. University of Florida.. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.edu/HS166 > Rijsberman. 8 • • • • • • • Population Reports. Burch. J.gov > Li. AMBIO – Journal of Human Environment. Cooperative Extension Service. F. Geogr. H. World Bank. < www. D. Rainwater Harvesting Agriculture: An integrated system for water management on rainfed land in China’s semiarid areas. DC. Smajstrla. • Bian. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department. For agriculture.J. 2002. humidity.esica. Upadhyay. • Soil-Moisture Systems. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. To adopt a GIS coupled soil-water-balance computation system to calculate the available residual soil-moisture for its better utilization. • Berkhoff. Hochmuth. 477-483. Washington. pp. Bonn. Syst. 37 December 2001.irrometer. Series M.S. New York.M. Z. CO2 level. Steyaert (Eds.T. B.usda. 1993. B. R.. There are no serious efforts to gain water by practices like rainwater harvesting.R.2001: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. DC.ifas. Boman. Hong. Gleick. nutrients supply. and highly efficient crop production – should be adopted.. Pitts and F. Component III – Water quality protection and management. Gainesville. S. Haman. Irrometer – USA < www.com.ufl. water-saving micro-irrigation.edu/AE111 > Bulletin # 249.

(d) Soil-Moisture Probe working on impedance principle. 16-22 March 2006). . 9 [Note : Photographs of the probes from websites / product literature. Soil-Moisture Probes : APPENDIX 1. 17 March 2006. Lomborg). . 670 p. Sri Lanka) System / Uses Food – irrigation Food – rainfed Domestic & industry In-stream ecology Flood runoff Permanent grazing Grasslands Forests & woodlands Arid lands All others Total % of Rainfall 2 4 1 8 27 18 11 17 5 7 100 (a) Soil-Moisture Probe for moisture measurements in the root zone of a crop (Sensors are mounted on a screwable insert ) (b) Tensiometer type soil-moisture probe. Molden for the 4 th World Water Forum. Rainfall Facts : Percentage of Rainfall consumed to support direct and indirect human uses of water (Source: IWMI. (c) Sentek Soil-Moisture Probe working on capacitance principle. Beyond more crop per drop (Note prepared by F. Rijsberman and D. International Water Management Institute. Cambridge. 2004. Mexico. Press release. Cambridge University Press.B.• crises. IWMI. global solutions (Ed. 2. Disclaimer: No preference to any particular firm by the authors]. Sri Lanka.

WHY RAINWATER HARVESTING? Rainwater harvesting means the activity of direct collection of rain water which can be recharged in to the ground water to prevent fall of ground water level or storing in surface or underground water tank. poor water quality and high cost involved in operation and maintenance. The most part of the earth surface i. about 71 % is covered by water. The state of Maharashtra covers an area of 307. Over half of this population is in rural area which faces problems related to water. The human beings require water for various purposes. India is well endowed nations in the world in terms of average annual rainfall. 2 % water is in the form of ice and glaciers and only 1 % is fresh and potable water. Conventional sources like open well. Nagpur 3. K. It is the most scientific and cost effective way of recharging the ground water and reviving the water table. Due to faster industrialization and urbanization and increase in population water demand is increasing day by day. * Lecturers in Civil Engineering Dept. We are now increasingly becoming aware of the importance of water to our survival and its limited supply. It can be done at individual as well as in a community level.e. It is also a common observation that underground water table is depleting due to uncontrolled extraction of water. Govt.S. all of which finds its way to the storm water drains. A. Out of total volume of water available on the surface of the earth 97 % is saline water. This way we can be self sufficient in terms of domestic water requirements and not just dependent on the actions initiated by government or any other local body. K. 3. Rain water harvesting can play important role for solving the water problems. 2006. It is unbelievable but it is true that Cherapunji which gets 11000 mm annual rainfall still suffers from serious drinking water shortage. Hence. Patil ABSTRACT Water is our most precious natural resource and something that most of us take for granted.713 square km and supports a population of 82 million. It provides naturally soft water and contains almost no dissolved minerals or salts. Patil ** G. in the deserts of western India it is as low as about 100 mm. INTRODUCTION India is one of the developing countries. There is significant spatial imbalance in water resource available and water demand. 1. It offers advantage in water quality for both irrigation and domestic use. 4. College of Engineering. Rainfall in India is highly irregular. Every year a great amount of water is being lost that falls on terraces. arsenic and other heavy metals. it is becoming necessary to bring water from distant places increasing the cost of conveyance. It is most suited in today’s context due to following reasons. Therefore. Aurangabad (M. bore well and piped water supplies have failed due to depleting water tables. Rainwater Harvesting Techniques * Dr. it is necessary to opt for rainwater harvesting measures for fulfillment of water requirement. Though India’s average annual rainfall is 1170 mm.) 431 005 10 .National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. Most of it is concentrated during a few months of the year and maximum amount flows away resulting in poor recharge of ground water. 2.

4. Keep the roof always clean. The capacity of the water tank may be taken about 50 m3.5 m x 1. Conveyance system i.5 to 1. 3. A six metre diameter collecting pit of 1. The T2 is used for periodical back washing of filter and cap T1 is used for backwash drainage. This pit may get filled 10 to 15 times in one monsoon and can recharge water up to 200 m3.0 m inside the well. Water flowing out of the plot can be directed to this pit.e. A 75 mm diameter PVC pipe is connected to the bore well casing pipe after first layer of 75 mm pebbles. This method is effective in the area where permeability of soil is more. This roof water filter is first practiced at Dewas and hence the name Dewas roof water filter. from 100 square metres roof area about 50 m3 of water can be percolated through this filter. This recharge trench may get filled many times as per availability of used or rain water. the surface area utilized for capturing the rainwater.5 m x 1. The percolation of water 400 to 1000 m3 per year is possible through this structure.5 m x 0. Keep the cap T1 and T2 always closed. 1. The percolation of water through this pit of the order of 200 m3 per annum is possible.Collecting rainwater as it falls from the sky seems immensely sensible in areas struggling to cope with potable water needs. Some of the important methods are discussed one by one as discussed in coming paragraphs. especially in rainy season so that quality of rain water falling on roof is not deteriorated. 3. Rainwater is one of the purest sources of water available as it contains very low impurities.5 m depth is excavated around the bore well casing pipe. The capacity of the pit may be taken up to 10 m3. like tanks or cisterns or percolation pits used for collecting or holding the water.6 m depth is made at the bottom of large pit and filled with filter media. COMPONENTS OF RAINWATER HARVESTING STRUCTURE All rainwater harvesting structures will have three basic components: 1. Filter pit is filled with sand. Do not recharge rainwater for first two days in rainy season. For average condition in Maharashtra. Water can be recharged throughout the year either by using used water or rainwater. The cost of this roof filter excluding connecting pipe is about Rs 800. Otherwise suitable pit may be excavated depending upon the availability of space near well.5 m x 0. the system of pipes or percolation pits through which water is transported from the catchment area to the collection device. Utilization of Rainwater for Well Recharging Rainwater flowing in the farm is diverted to a water collecting tank of size 6 m x 6 m x 1. Fig. An inverted elbow is connected to the pipe. 11 2. Utilizing Rainwater for Dewas Roof Water Filter Dewas is the name of the city located in Madhya Pradesh. The cost of this structure may come about Rs 7000. Utilizing of Rainwater for Bore well Recharging Arrangement of bore well recharging is as shown in fig.6m is made at the bottom of large pit. Rain water harvesting systems can be adopted where conventional water supply systems have failed to meet people’s needs. This method is effective in the area where permeability . 2. Catchment area i. pebbles larger than 20 mm and pebbles/boulders larger than 75mm pebbles is filled in three equal layers and connected to the well by 150 mm diameter PVC pipe and this pipe projects 0. In this two caps are provided as T1 and T2. 5. 3. Collection device. Utilizing Roof Water to Recharge Trench The roof water collected can be recharged through recharge trench.e.1 shows details of Dewar roof water filter. Fig. Small pebbles of size 6 mm are on entry side of rainwater.5 m near well and a small filter pit of size 1. Another small pit of 1. total rainwater falling on the open plot can be recharged by making recharge pit.2 shows details regarding recharge of open well by runoff from farm. Utilization of Rainwater for Recharging Pit Where there is no well or bore well in the house. Use of medicine for water purification is made through cap T2. It can be made easily using sand pebbles of different sizes. METHODS OF RAINWATER HARVESTING There are different ways by which rain water harvesting is carried out.

7. most of the suspended materials are filtered out.of soil is more. Every year. 3. The percolation of water through this pit of the order of 100 to 200 m3 per annum is possible. 6. The rate gradually decreases due to setting of slit at the top. The top of the casing pipe is provided with a cap which is about 600 mm below the sand bed to prevent suspended material from entering the well. A typical recharge tube well is designed as follows : 1. outer pipe of the bore well is designed by providing slotted perforated sections against aquifers. Utilizing Roof Water to Collect into the Storage Tanks Rainwater from the roof surface is drained through gutters into storage tanks. it may be allowed on the filtered bed so that it takes down the slit accumulated in the filter bed into the well which is being developed. During pumping when the water is clear. Storage tanks may be either above or below the ground and should be properly covered. stone chips and sand in layers with boulders at the bottom and sand at the top. The storage tanks should have provision of an adequate enclosure to minimize contamination from human. The rooftop is used as the collection device. A borehole of 50 cm diameter is drilled to the desired depth. A 20 cm diameter casing i.e. College of Engineering. This pit is filled with small rounded boulders. The depth of the recharge tube well should be about 30 metre below the water table in the area. Beyond this is a coir wrapping as a final protective filter before water enters the well. which connects the storage tank. 7. The top one metre of the casing assembly in this pit is filled with sand. Utilizing Surface Rainwater to Recharge Tube well Depleted aquifers are directly fed with surface rainwater by using a recharge tube well so that recharge is fast and evaporation and transit losses are zero. The end of the gutter. The annular space between the borehole and the pipe is filled with good gravel and developed with a compressor till it gives clear water. A pit of dimensions 6 m x 6 m x 6 m is dug with the tube well at the center. 4. To prevent contamination and dust to flow into the storage tanks there is a provision of a hand movable gutter connection which can be manually moved to divert the water out. Every year the well is developed with a compressor once immediately after the storage structures become empty because the water level is shallow immediately after the monsoon and development is effective. When flood water filters through the sand. In order to release the air present in the casing assembly during the percolation process of floodwater. It is also advisable to drain the first flow to get rid of the dust and contaminants from the roof top. animal or other environmental contaminants. 6. The cost of this structure may come about Rs 5000. 2. 5. The air releasing pipe is then extended to one of the banks where the vent is constructed. Guttering generally made of PVC is used to transport the rainwater from the roof top to the storage tanks. 8. Through this method the entire filter bed also gets cleared of the silt during the time of infiltration. . Aurangabad is being considered for study purpose. The capacity of the trench may be taken up to 20 m3. a filter mechanism is provided at the top. CASE STUDY OF RAIN WATER HARVESTING FOR BUILDING IN URBAN AND VILLAGE AREA Rain water harvesting system for annexure building of Govt. To stop the suspended solids from entering the recharge tube well. The 12 second sand filter surrounding the slotted section of the well at the top prevents the remaining suspended material entering the well. the air vent is provided through a 75 mm diameter pipe connected to the recharging tube well within the top 600 mm through a reducer tee of dimensions 200 mm x 75 mm. after the rainy season about one meter of the sand at the filter bed has to be replaced. In apartments more than one storage tanks can be used and they can be interconnected through connecting pipes. should be attached with a filter to prevent any contaminants to get into the storage tank.

The population of the city is more than 10 lakh. PVC pipe accessories = Rs 10000/IV) Tube Well 100 m deep and 2 H. pump = Rs. If this roof top rain water harvesting scheme is implemented all civil engineering students from this institute will have a role model. 12000/b. Protection wall with perforation = Rs 8000/e.per m = Rs.8 Quantity of water to be harvested per year: 364 m3 Requirement of soak pit: 3 m x 3 m x 2 m I) Cost of excavation : 18 m3 x Rs. 75 mm to 100 mm size aggregate = Rs. Estimate for rain water harvesting system for annex building Area of building : 2159. The annual rainfall is 650 mm per year. No one can neglect the importance of rainwater harvesting. So it is proposed to conserve the rain water by allowing it to percolate so as to meet underground water. Labour cost for filling material ( Lump sum) = Rs. The average annual rainfall of Aurangabad town is around 700 mm/year. Presently the water is supplied to the town by Municipal Corporation.60/= Rs. The institute needs water about 350 m3 per day. 8000/d. the water is supplied to town on alternate day. Considering the capacity of water treatment plant. According it is proposed to collect roof water from at least ten hoses from each village. The tentative estimate is as given below. 6000/13 II) Cost of material for filling of soak pit a. 2500/c. Sand = Rs. 15 mm to 25 mm size aggregate = Rs.142680/Rain water harvesting system for village community This system is designed for the village community situated in locality where there is scarcity of water.5 m (Two numbers) I ) Cost of excavation : 2 x 54 m3 x Rs. The water is supplied by panchayat/local authority alternate day.45 m Average annual rainfall at Aurangabad : 700 mm Coefficient of runoff : 0. 15 mm to 25 mm size aggregate = Rs. Aurangabad. 12000/c. PVC pipe 4" size total length 120 m @Rs 85/per m = Rs 10200/c.8 Quantity of water to be harvested per year : 1209.47 m3 Requirement of soak pit : 6 m x 6 m x 1. Incase of summer season the water is supplied by tankers.60/= Rs. Labour charges (Lump sum) = Rs 20000/d. 2500/b.P. In last few years it is observed that the ground water level of the town is being depleted. It is also proposed to collect rainwater from roof of Annex building of this institute.20000/b. 6480/- III) Plumbing cost a. 2000/- . 75 mm to 100 mm size aggregate = Rs. PVC pipe 6" size total length 200 m @ Rs 100/. It is proposed to conserve rain water collected on top of every house and common rain water harvesting system is designed for group of 10 houses having approximate area of 70 m2 each Estimate for rain water harvesting system for village community Area of group of houses : 700 m2 Perimeter: 340 m Average annual rainfall: 650 mm Coefficient of runoff: 0. Sand = Rs.78 m2 Perimeter of building : 335.The Government Engineering College is located in Marathwada region of Maharashtra State. It is essential to conserve the rainwater not only in the city itself but also in areas surrounding to Aurangabad.30000/Total Expenditure = Rs142680 /The total cost of rain water harvesting system project is Rs. 1080/- II) Cost of material for filling of soak pit a. These students will see the system and in future they will be motivated to implement roof water harvesting system elsewhere.

1-7 2. Kaushal Kishore (2004) “Rain Water Harvesting”. Irrespective of fast development in all fields of science there can be no substitute to water. Labour cost for filling material = Rs.d. Hence. S. Two cases of roof top water harvesting for urban and rural area have been considered in the present study. it is necessary that each person collect the raindrops failing on his roof. and Waghmare S. Protection wall with perforations = Rs 2000/e. and farm and recharges it under ground. it is necessary to opt for various water harvesting measures. pp. plot.Nanded. Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Review.G. 44-51 14 . 29-30 May 2006. Similarly for other building roof top rain water harvesting can be implemented. (2006) “Rain Water Harvesting” Conference on ‘Engineering Technology for Efficient Rain Water Harvesting and Soil Conservation’. It is the responsibility of government organization as well as individual to harvest each drop of water falling on earth surface.B. .A.pp.42-48 Magar R. PVC pipe 4" size total length 200 m @Rs 85/per m = Rs. and Aswar D. 5000/III) Plumbing cost a. REFERENCES 1. PVC pipe accessories = Rs 6000/Expenditure for one unit of ten houses = Rs 46080/CONCLUSION Water is essential element of life.G. (2006) “Towards Self reliance for Water Needs through Rain Water Harvesting” Conference on ‘Engineering Technology for Efficient Rain Water Harvesting and Soil Conservation’.S. Gawai A. In fact there is no village and habitation in India that cannot meet its basic drinking and cooking needs through rainwater harvesting techniques. For this. if we do not harness available sources of water and use them judiciously with proper care the problem of water scarcity is going to be serious.G.pp. Labour charges (Lump sum) = Rs 8000/c. 29-30 May 2006. S. May 2004.Nanded. Everyone knows that.T.G.17000/b.

15 .

National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. 2006, Nagpur

4. Harvested Rainwater for Drinking
*Dr. N. Balasubramanya

Abstract It is clear from the World water quantity that out of total available water, only 0.3% is available for human consumption. But today even this is getting polluted due to human activities like mining, industrialization has created acute shortage of potable drinking water. Rain water harvesting is one of the most ancient and easy methods that can be adopted at urban and rural level efficiently. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using harvested rainwater as a source of drinking water without causing any health risk. This can be achieved by adopting suitable storage technique efficient and economical treatment methods. Roof harvested rainwater samples were collected from five different places of Bangalore during October 2005. The water samples were collected and stored in good grade plastic containers and were subjected to periodical treatments (like chlorination, solar disinfections and use of silver nitrate) and tests fro and use of silver nitrate and tests for physical chemical and Biological parameters up to May 2006 as per IS 10500:1991. All the above treatment methods suggested proved to be highly effective in reducing the colonies fro an initial value of around 300 to zero.

Introduction For centuries world has relied upon rainwater harvesting to supply water. Rainwater harvesting promotes self sufficiency and fosters an appreciation for water as a resource. It saves money, saves other resources of water, reduces erosion and storm water runoff and increases water quality. Rainwater can provide clean, safe and reliable water for drinking so long as the collection system is properly constructed and maintained and treated appropriately for its intended use. Rainwater harvesting means capturing rain where it falls or capturing the runoff in a village or town and taking all precautions to keep it unpolluted. One third of world’s population will experience severe water scarcity by the end of this century. In rural areas, the water may not be fit for drinking due to the polluted water bodies, due to contaminated ground water and also due to acute water scarcity. In urban areas, water demand

increases due to increase in the population. Hence, the most effective way to obtain fresh drinking water is to harvest rainwater. Rainwater harvesting system is inherently simple in form, and can often be assembled with readily available materials by owners, builders with a basic understanding of the plumbing and construction skills. The present investigations was proposed with a vision to overcome the scarcity of drinking water during the non – rainy seasons such that it gives easy and economical solution that can be adopted both in urban and rural areas. Sample Collection and Storage Rainwater samples were collected from five different places of Bangalore during October 2005. The samples were stored in good grade plastic cans. The above samples were tested for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Table 1 gives the experimental finding.

* Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, M.S.Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore – 54 16

Table 1 : Experimental Results of Physical, Chemical & Biological Parameters
Sample Date of Expt Turbidity pH NTU Do mg/l of Hardness mg/l Chloride mg/l Alkalinity Acidity mg/l of mg/l of CaCO3 CaCO3

1. Banashankari 2. MSRIT 3. Shivajinagar 4. Vijayanagar 5. Vidyaranyapura

14/08/05 17/01/06 21/11/05 18/01/06 12/12/05

4.6 6.3 8.3 11.9 7.3

7 8.4 8.11 7 8

7.8 7.7 8 7.7 8.1

56 22 58 58 46

13.96 16 13.2 21.3 12

86 30 40 46 18

06 08 06 12 14

A detailed study of Table 1 reveals that both the physical& chemical parameters are very much within the limits for drinking water standards specified by WHO (1984) and IS 10500:1991. However, the colony counts were quite significant in all the five samples. Therefore, it was decided to emphasize more on the microbiological contaminations and suitable treatment methods to make the rainwater fit for drinking. Treatment methods and Results All the five rain water samples were subjected to the following treatments. • Solar disinfection • Chlorination • Using Silver nitrate • Combination of the above method. Solar Disinfection Solar disinfection is a process where in microbes are destroyed through temperature and ultra violet radiation provided by the fun. Water is filled either in a clean transparent or painted (Black) bottle oxygenated by shaking, followed by topping up. It is placed in the horizontal portion on tope exposed to direct sunlight for about
Sample Date of Collection

sis hours. Such an exposure increases the temperature of water and also gives an extended dose of solar radiation killing the microbes. Chlorination Chlorination is one of the most reliable methods of disinfecting drinking water. In this method the calculated amount of chlorine is added to one litre of water sample for a specified tune and thereafter tested for the coliform counts. Silver Nitrate Silver nitrate is very small doses of 0.05 to 0.1 mg/l helps in disinfecting the drinking water. Silver nitrate in smaller doses does not impart any taste, odour or produces any harmful effect on human body. Combination of the above methods In order to investigate the effectiveness of the treatment methods following combinations were tried. a) Chlorine + Solar disinfection b) Silver nitrate + Solar disinfection. Tables 2,3 & 4 presents the details of coliform counts of the above specified treatments.

Table 2: Coliform Count (At room temperature)
Date of experiment Coliform Count/100ml (Average of 3 tests) Chlorination Silver Nitrate

1. Banashankari 2. MSRIT 3. Shivajinagar 4. Vijayanagar 5. Vidyaranyapura

20/10/05 25/10/05 25/10/05 25/10/05 28/10/05

17/05/06 17/05/06 17/05/06 17/05/06 17/05/06
17

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

Table 3 : Coliform Count (Solar disinfection using transparent bottle)
Sample Date of Collection Date of Expt Coliform count / 100ml Transparent Bottle Chlorination Silver nitrate (Average of 3 tests)

1. Banashankari 2. MSRIT 3. Shivajinagar 4. Vijayanagar 5. Vidyaranyapura

20/10/05 25/10/05 25/10/05 25/10/05 25/10/05

17/03/06 24/03/06 02/04/06 15/04/06 21/04/06

40 38 40 35 28

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

Table 4 : Coliform Count (Solar Disinfection using black painted bottle)
Sample Date of Collection Date of Expt. Coliform Count / 100 ml (Average of 3 tests) Black Bottle Chlorination

1. Banashankari 2. MSRIT 3. Shivajinagar 4. Vijayanagar 5. Vidyaranyapura

20/10/05 25/10/05 25/10/05 25/10/05 28/10/05

17/03/06 24/03/06 02/04/06 15/04/06 21/04/06

2 2 3 2 0

0 0 0 0 0

Careful study of Table 2 depicts that chlorination and Silver nitrate in very small dosages are very effective even at room conditions, justifying their selection. Detailed study of Table 3 indicates that solar disinfection using a transparent bottle is not very effective in reducing the coliform counts. However, addition of chlorine and silver nitrate have proved to be highly effective, further strengthening their selection as disinfectants. Finally from Table 4, it can be seen that solar disinfection using a black painted bottle has yielded in a more effective disinfection, the coliform counts have very significant, reduced. The reason being that a black bottle or body absorbs more heat, which enables in destroying the bacteria. In the present investigations is was observed that the water temperature in the bottles recorded a temperature around 500 C. It is also very interesting of disinfection to note that the chlorination method has established its supremacy.
18

Conclusions Rainwater collection is easy and economical both in rural and urban areas. Rainwater harvested during Oct 2005, tested till May 2006 without much changes in physical properties like colour, odour & turbidity, inspite of the fact that they were from various sources and stored in normal food grade plastic containers. All the treatment methods suggested are highly effective in reducing the microbiological contamination and also viable both at rural and urban levels. Rainwater harvesting and its treatment is affordable by individuals and will be highly useful in drought prone areas. Future It is suggested that similar investigations are made on a number of samples collected from different places, stored under different conditions.

gov/safe water/md. Proe.L.K. No. Daniel “Rainwater Harvesting. 8.C. pp129-138.Ramaiah Institute of Technology. IT Publications. Vol 16. April . White G. roles & innovation.S. and Evison L M “Sunlight & the survival of entropic bacteria in natural water Journal of applied Bacteriology 7.K.html. I..Sci and Technology 24(6). D. 768-773. 23rd WEDC Conf.3. Anna University & Tamil Nadu Water supply & Drainage. www.Africa. “Ultraviolet Disinfection of Possible water” Env.A. Wolfe R. J. Jalbottt R “Rural water supply and Sanitation program in India – Goals. An ancient technology – cisterns in reconsidered. Sep 1-5 1997.Acknowledgement The author wishes to thank the management of M. Water lines.Lynch. 3. Landscape Architecture”. Studies on home water treatment systems. References : 1. Drinking water standards. 10500:1991 “Drinking Water Standards”. 6.Smoth. Mr.2000 pp 42-46. 1990. Johns Wiley & Sons. Proceedings of the International Conference on Management of Drinking water resources – central leather Research Institute. 2. 265-2741991. 5. Board.Vinay Final Year B. Winter bottom. 10.C. Wegelin M & Sommer B. F.Sunil Hegde.Anantha Padmanabha & Mr. 1990. Also many thanks are due to Mr. Chennai. 4.M.. Hand Book of chlorination & Alternative Disinfectants.epa. and S.L. Students for their help during the course of the experimental investigations. Durban S.Jerry.S. and Jain S. 7.K.E.Am water works Assoc. New York 1999. Bangalore 560054 for all the encouragements & inspiration provided for the study. London 1998. 1997. Solar water disinfections (SODIS) – Destines for world wide use. 75:104-1071984. Jr. Bell. Inc. Davies C.Jr. 19 . Sharma S. 9.

The number of wells and borewells for irrigation in the country has increased five fold to 175 lacks during past fifty years. B.. an additional 160 BCM shall be available for use.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. 3. Conservation and preservation of water resources is urgently required to be done. baolis. down the ages. • Unreliability of municipal water supplies both in terms of quantity and timings. 54. The available water resources are under pressure due to increasing demands and the time is not far when water. (Hon).Annually replenishable resources are assessed as 432 billion cubic meters (BCM) By adopting water harvesting. More than 80% of rural and 50% of urban. Nagpur 5.4 Effects Of Over Exploitation Of Ground Water Resources • Drastic fall in water levels in some area • Drying up wells/ borewells • Enhanced use of energy *B.Superintending Engineer. which are simple. 1.3 Causes Of Fall In Ground Water Levels • Over exploitation or excessive pumpage either locally or over large areas to meet increasing water demands.1 Water is an essential natural resource for sustaining life and environment.2 Harvesting of rainwater is of utmost important and the ministry of water resources is embarking on such programme. our country faces a serious threat to the management of her water resources as the gap between demand and supply widens. 2006. Therefore. Nagpur 20 . modern technology.1 Ground Water Resources: . percolation tanks and therefore. meters size rooftop and meet drinking and domestic water requirement of family of four for 160 days. conserve our precious water resources. There is a tendency to ignore these traditional water-harvesting systems. A judicious mix of ancient knowledge. Water management has always been practiced in our communities since ancient times. industrial and irrigation water requirement in the country are met from ground water. efficient and cost effective. public and private investment and above all. 3.2 India’s population has recently crossed the one billion mark. 3. domestic and industrial uses. There are 25 to 30 lack wells and borewells for drinking. will become a scarce commodity. higher pressure on ground water development. • Non-availability of other sources of water. Ex. Tatya Tope Nagar. people’s participation will go a long way in reviving and strengthening water harvesting practices through out the country. which we have always thought to be available in abundance and free gift of nature. 2. You can capture and recharge 650000 liters of rainwater from a 100-sq.E. • Disuse of ancient means of water conservation like village ponds. Rain Water Harvesting and Ground Water Recharge *Madhaorao Bajirao Deshmukh 1. with an ever-increasing population. We should draw upon the wisdom of our ancient life sustaining systems and through better management. sole dependence is on ground water. AMICE (USA). 3. 2.Sc. people have developed a wide array of techniques to harvest rainwater.2 Ground water level in some areas are falling at the rate of one meter per year and rising in some other areas at the same rate. driving people to there own sources.1 In our villages and cities. but today this has to be done on priority basis.

• Rehabilitate the existing traditional water harvesting structure like village ponds.0 Success Stories Of MAHARASHTRA • In Yaval taluka.A total of about 546 ha area benefited • In Amravati District. • Recycle urban and industrial wastewater etc. km. Ralegaon Siddhi in Ahmednagar and Naigaon in Pune by Shri Anna Hazare .• • Deterioration in ground water quality Ingress of sea water in coastal areas. percolation tanks. Jalgaon District. • Harnessing run off in the catchment by constructing structures such as gabions. etc • With minor scientific modifications and redesigning.rise in water level up to 10 meters recorded. meters plot in urban areas. • Reduction in flood hazard and soil erosion 21 • Benefiting in the water quality • Arresting sea water ingress • Assuring sustainability of the ground water abstraction sources and consequently the village and town water supply system • Mitigating the effect of droughts and achieving drought proofing • Reviving the dying traditional water harvesting structures and their rehabilitation as recharge structures. • Provide all drinking water wells with a recharge structure • Ban construction of irrigation wells / tubewells within a distance of 200 m or less (depending on scientific criteria) of the drinking water supply well.0 Method And Techniques Of Rain Water Harvesting • Roof – top rain water harvesting and its recharge to underground through existing wells and borewells or by constructing new wells. • Revive/ rehabilitation all village ponds • Subject to technical feasibility. 5. percolation trenches. • Increase hydrostatic pressure to prevent/ stop land subsidence. 4. • Use the existing defunct wells and borewells after cleaning and also the operational wells as recharge structures.surface dyke in each streamlet with catchments of 1 to 3 sq.0 Proposed Policy Measures For Rain Water Harvesting • Provides at least one roof-top rain water harvesting structure for every 200sq. • Store excess water for use at subsequent times. 6. shafts etc. three percolation tanks and ten cement plugs benefiting an area of 280 ha and 100 ha respectively have been constructed. basins or wells etc. tanks. bhandaras. storm water drains. • Capturing and recharging city storm water run off through wells. 7. • Experiments of catchments treatment carried out at Adgaon and Palaswadi in Aurangabad. two recharge shafts and one injection well were constructed. convert the traditional water harvesting structure into ground water recharge facilities. baolis. • Recharging treated and industrial affluent underground by using it for direct irrigation or through ponds. 9. shafts. Six percolation tanks. check dams.0 Objective Of Rain Water Harvesting • Restore supplies from the aquifers depleted due to over exploitation • Improve supplies from aquifers lacking adequate recharge. 8.0 Benefits Of Rain Water Harvesting • Rise in ground water levels in water • Increased availability of water from wells • Prevent decline in water levels • Reduction in the use of energy for pumping water and consequently the costs. • Improve physical and chemical quality of ground water • Reduced storm water run off and soil erosion • Prevent salinity ingress in coastal areas. sub-surface dykes etc.0 Proposed Strategy • Organize Mass Awareness Programmes involving district administration and NGOs to . provides at least one check dam / KT weir / Sub. • Effective use of lack of defunct wells and tubwells as recharge structure • Up gradation of social and environmental status etc.effort have led to revival of streamlets and enhanced availability of ground water in the water shed. borewells.

CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARDMINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES. bus-surface dykes etc. if and when required.000 sub surface dykes. borewells.000 wells • Harvest and recharge city storm water in 100 towns • Revive and rehabilitate 1. • Design and construct 200 percolation tanks. percolation trenches. • Harnessing run off in catchments by constructing structures such as gabions. • Invoke legal provision.cover 1.educate in different sections of users and to make the programme demand oriented. 10. • Rehabilitation all ancient rain water harvesting structures. • Develop plans and implement roof-top rain water harvesting measures using 1. spreading basins etc.00. the industrial houses to be invited to participate in the work and adopt towns and villages and provide financial support.0 Future Action Plans • Prepare national and state level water harvesting perspective plans. 000 dying village ponds. spreading basins. • Identify potential aquifers in drought prone areas and declare these apart as “Ground Water Sanctuaries” Ref: . • For expanding further scope of work. Shafts. • Impounding surface run from village catchments and water shed(s) in village ponds and percolation tanks. check dams.000 wells (existing. • Capturing city storm water run. 5000 check dams/ bhandaras and 1.off and recharging it through wells. • Make roof-top rain water harvesting and recharge mandatory in all urban dwellings. storms and water drains etc. shafts. bhandaras. to regulate indiscriminate boring of wells and to make the installation of recharge facilities mandatory • Constitute water user Association (WUA) or village Beneficiary Groups (VBG) NGOs to organize the constitution of these bodies. The WUA/ VBG and NGOs to be associated with the project right from the concept to completion stages. • Government organizations to act as facilitators and provide technical and financial support for creating the demonstration facilities etc. defunct and or operative wells to be used in the first instance) • Provide rural drinking water wells with recharge facilities. • Recycle secondary treated urban waste water through aquifers at five centers. • Roof-Top rain water harvesting and its recharge underground through more than two lack existing but defunct drinking water and irrigation wells.00. or by constructing new wells. 22 .

surface minor irrigation systems. should be stored for beneficial use during droughts / low rainfall year. The occupation of about 70% of people in India is agriculture. I & C. Egypt had built Oswan Dam to store water about five times the yield available in Nile River. which has led to a situation in which water has become a scarce resource. Rainwater harvesting is usually classified into two types (i) harvesting for agriculture (irrigation) needs and (ii) harvesting for domestic and other needs. For example. Mahboob Hussain Introduction : India’s total land area is 3287263 Sqkm. The cultivated land is 55. Sunken gully pits etc. Rainwater harvesting is the intentional collection of rain water from a surface and its subsequent storage in order to supply water during the time of demand.P. Rain Water Harvesting Tanks for Supplementing Minor Irrigation Tanks during Drought * Mohd. Rain water harvesting is essential in view of the fact that rainfall. The rainfall mainly confined in the months from June to September. Other option are water harvesting structure such as for ground water development. hence some countries have built oversized capacity reservoirs to store surplus water which will other wise be wasted in to sea..L.Department. For irrigation needs the rainwater can be harvested during rainy season by constructing any of the following structures. 1.7% i. Main source of water in this country is rainfall during monsoon season. 183. percolation tanks. 2006. particularly in the Southern States. which is a source of fresh water. Watershed development Structures. Medium storage reservoir 3.09 million hectors. Average annual rainfall is 117 Cm. like Check dams. The population of India is fed on the food production of the country. Hyderabad 23 . Need for Rain Water Harvesting Tanks : Since rivers occasionally swells. Medium Irrigation. Major storage reservoir 2. The requirement of agricultural produce is expected to rise steeply by 2025. In most of the areas of semi-arid region yearly rainfall is below the normal for continuous two to three years followed by a normal rainfall year. Now a days drought and floods are the sever hazards in different parts of our country. Govt. Looking in to the rainfall trends in past forty years it is felt that rain water above 75% P.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. The year wise monsoon rainfall * Deputy Executive Engineer.. Minor storage tanks 4. In this paper it is proposed to construct Rain Water Harvesting Tanks for the beneficial use of water for supplementing minor irrigation tanks during drought years. During droughts they are successfully irrigating lands so that the country is not vulnerable by famine. Nagpur 6. average monsoon rainfall is 55 Cm. But it is not regular and erratic with respect to both time and place. watershed development etc. The demand of water increasing due to several factors such as increase in population growth.e.Hence India must concentrate on increasing area under irrigation and improving the productivity of both land and water to meet the needs of the population.. Main source of irrigation development are dams and canals. Rain Water Harvesting is being promoted extensively in India.D.A. of A. Hence it is very essential to harvest rainwater during rainy season. occurs in very short spells and runs off as a waste unless arrangements are made for its storing.

can be stored in the proposed Rain Water Harvesting Tanks and used in the low rainfall years. Since rainfall is a natural phenomenon.for some of the rain-gauge stations of Ranga Reddy District in Andhra Pradesh are shown in annexureI and graph enclosed showing rainfall variation for last 40 years indicates that lot of water above 75% P. More over sometimes heavy rainfall occurs in one single month followed by a dry spell of 20 to 30 days. Water has to be harvested. From the statement it is observed that for 30 years there is surplus yield available.S.L. From graph of Monsoon rainfall versus year for Medchal R.L.64 Mcft.G. followed by low rainfall year of 1997. we do not know when and in which year rainfall will be above 75% P. Hence all water over and above 75% dependable yield is wasted in to sea. followed by low rainfall year of 1972. followed by low rainfall year of 1979. but where as the 75% dependable yield is 255. as . followed by low rainfall year of 1975.L. For one R.. The average of surplus yield for 30 years is 267.. the following conclusions are drawn.20 MCft.S (i.L followed by a low rainfall year. hence it is the need of the hour to harvest Rain water above 75% P. (i) In the year 1967 there is excess rainfall over 75% P. More over from rainfall graphs it can be seen that there are number of years when there is rainfall more than 75 % P. as it is becoming a scarce 24 natural resource. It is proposed to construct Rain Water Harvesting Tanks without any canal system with a sluice to letdown water in the down stream for existing minor irrigation tanks.G.L.495 Mcft.is wasted. TANDUR) the year wise total yield available for one of the subgroup having 20 Sq. hence it is proposed to utilize at least 50% of the yield available at 75% dependability duly constructing Rain Water Harvesting Tanks. In the year 1974 the rainfall is much higher than 75% P.L. Since every year the surplus yield may not be available so much.L. followed by low rainfall year of 1977. Presently any irrigation project is design to utilize water out of the available 75% dependable yield. also and to utilize during the drought / low rainfall year. The maximum surplus yield is 801.L.Miles for 40 years have been calculated.L.L.L. In the year 1983 there is flood followed by a normal rainfall year of 1984 and a low rainfall year of 1985. In the statement minus values indicates that the yield available is below the 75% PL yield for ten years out of 40 years. Statement showing the above values year wise are presented in annexure. In such case also this excess water due to heavy rainfall can be stored in Rain Water Harvesting Tanks and released for existing minor irrigation tanks during dry spell so that crops can be grown successfully. The yield available @ 75 % PL also has been calculated using strange’s table which works out to 255.e. In the year 1971 the rainfall is much higher than 75% P.L . preserved and utilized for beneficial used. followed by low rainfall year of 1991. Hence there is scope for storing this surplus yield in the proposed Rain Water Harvesting Tanks. In the year 1978 the rainfall is much higher than 75% P. In the year 1976 the rainfall is much higher than 75% P. In this report it is highlighted that India’s storage capacity of 200m3 per person is too little. The World Banks has published a report “India’s Water Economy: Bracing for a turbulent future”. followed by low rainfall year of 2001. In the year 1996 the rainfall is much higher than 75% P. followed by a normal rainfall year 1968 and a low rainfall year in 1969. The average of surplus yield is slightly higher than the yield available at 75% dependability.L. The surplus yield available after deducting the yield @ 75 % PL from the total yield is also calculated year wise. In the year 2000 the rainfall is much higher than 75% P.64 Mcft. In the year 1990 the rainfall is much higher than 75% P.II enclosed. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) From the above it can be stated that the water above 75% P.

cft. The sluice can be used to let down water to the down stream existing minor irrigation tanks. the sluices should be kept open so that when it rains the water will flow down to the existing minor irrigation tanks to fill them up to their full tank level in the monsoon. Whenever there is high rainfall above 75% P. The Rain Water Harvesting Tanks should essentially have a sluice and a surplus weir to dispose off flood water. the water go waste down stream and ultimately joins sea. The Rain Water Harvesting Tanks should be located in the initial reaches of streams. some quantity of water from these Rain Water Harvesting Tank can be released through sluices to the existing minor irrigation tanks so that farmers can take up land preparation and sowing can be done in time. Hence it is proposed to utilize at least 50 % of the water utilization of that of existing tanks designed to utilize 75 % dependable water. Methodology for Proposing Rain Water Harvesting Tanks : In a sub-group of a given sub-basin of a river basin there may be few minor irrigation tanks. We may not be able to know how much surplus water (above 75% P. Then depending up on the number of fillings required ( as per design ) again water can be released to lower existing minor irrigation tanks for their full utilization as per hydrological clearance given .L. of water. Now close the sluices of Rain Water Harvesting Tanks and store water up to full tank level. It is also highlighted that the need for storages in India will be even more in the post climate change scenario.) a sub-group catchment yields. check dams and percolation tanks which together may utilize 75 % dependable yield. through natural stream with minimum conveyance losses. In India the poverty in irrigated districts is one third of that in unirrigated districts. The capacity of each Rain Water Harvesting Tank can be fixed based on the number of tanks to be taken up as Rain Water Harvesting Tanks duly utilizing at least 50 % of the utilization of that of minor irrigation tank designed for 75 % dependable water. Eg: . and 1000 m3 per person in Mexico and China. Plan of operation for Rain Water Harvesting Tanks : Once these Rain Water Harvesting Tanks are constructed.In a given subgroup if the 75% dependable water is 100 M. and the existing utilization is 80 M.cft.A. of water.cft.cft. live capacity in the upper reaches of streams so that this water can be utilized during droughts / low rainfall year. The design procedure of minor irrigation tank can be adopted for design of Rain Water Harvesting Tanks.L. The following sketch shows probable locations of Rain Water Harvesting Tanks in a given sub-group. now propose 4 tanks of each 10 M.compared to over 5000 m3 per person in U. under existing minor irrigation tanks. so that the stored water can be utilized for filling the minor irrigation tanks when there is scanty rainfall and hence crops can be grown successfully. If there are heavy rains again the surplus water will automatically flow down through surplus weir. Next year when monsoon are late. To store 40 M.cft. Hence the proposed Rain Water Harvesting Tanks will increase storage capacity per person in India. so that if there is failure of monsoon next year we can make use of this water for irrigation and avoid drought. Rain Water Harvesting Tanks should be design to hold 40 M. which is 50% of present utilization. in the catchment. When the minor irrigation tanks are filled up the sluices of Rain Water Harvesting Tanks should be closed so that water can be stored in these Rain Water Harvesting Tanks. Even 25 Design of Rain Water Harvesting Tanks : Select the site of Rain Water Harvesting Tanks such that it can feed the minor irrigation tank . and Australia.S.

there will not be any effect on existing minor irrigation system. Hanmanth Rao. September – December 2005. (2) Since Rain Water Harvesting Tanks are designed to store surplus water over and above 75% P. In a year when total rainfall is less than normal. December. November 3-4. (7) Wastage of heavy surplus water in to sea can be minimized. (2) “Hand book for planning water shed management works”. YADUPATHI PUTTY & Sri. References : (1) “Innovative participatory technologies for water shed development in drought prone areas of India” by Sri. by Sri.RAJE URS. (9) There will be soil conservation in the upper reaches of the catchment because of construction of Rain Water Harvesting Tanks. Consultant of united nation. (4) Generally minor irrigation tanks are designed for 150% irrigation intensity. P. Government of India. the intensity of irrigation can be increased to 200% by supplying water for Rabi crops by virtue of which food production can be enhanced. (3) Success rate of existing minor irrigation tanks can be ensured by regulation of water from Rain Water Harvesting Tanks. thus utilizing water optimally. these Rain Water Harvesting Tanks can be kept empty. 26 .L yield. (12) There is a need to formulate a coherent policy or strategy towards strengthening extension and technical support for Rain Water Harvesting Tanks for crop production. Dept.if the monsoon fails the remaining water also can be released to down stream tanks so that the crops can be grown successfully. Nagpur local Center.) and to utilize during drought /scanty rain fall year. (8) Rain Water Harvesting Tanks also will be very much useful for flora and fauna for maintaining ecology of that area. of civil engineering. as there will be some dead storage below sill level of sluice of that tank. T. (4) Irrigation manual by Illys. (10) There is a need to workout surplus yields for every year for each Rain Gage Stations and prepare model for storing water in Rain Water Harvesting Tanks to utilize surplus water optimally. Mysore published in Hydrology Journal of Indian Association of Hydrologist volume 28. Conclusions : (1) The concept of Rain Water Harvesting Tank is to store water during excess rainfall year (above 75% P. (6) Because of construction of Rain Water Harvesting Tanks the loss due to flood damages can be minimized. (5) “Rain water harvesting – a case study in a collage campus in Mysore”. CWC. (3) Paper on “Irrigation development in India” by Sri. R. the cost of construction of Rain Water Harvesting tanks should not come into way. National Institute of Engineering. (5) These Rain Water Harvesting Tank can serve as percolation tank in upper reaches of catchments to improve ground water table.L. Because of proposed Rain Water Harvesting Tanks in upstream by storing surplus water. Uddhao Wankede published in proceedings of National Seminar on “ Irrigation development India” held from 910 October 2004 hosted by the Institution of Engineers (India). 2000. Ministry of water resources. M. (11) As water is becoming scarce natural resource.

5 721.6 221.5 787.6 793.6 784.9 468.2 1102.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A – Not Available.8 751.3 589.2 899.8 568.7 633.8 862.5 711.2 652.8 790.8 796 689.6 822.1 445.1 584.6 493.2 856 751.R.6 550.9 452.6 645 853.2 804.ANNEXURE .6 701.9 604.4 600.9 1036.1 480.1 1063.7 720.8 1858.7 1077 803.9 797.9 N/A N/A Himayat Sagar 551. District in A.6 942.5 741.3 671.8 697.5 540.6 651.6 393.3 684.3 454 1097 850 1116.3 791.8 533.4 865.2 663.8 957.6 660.8 1216.7 563.5 725.8 598.4 992.4 27 Tandur N/A 909.2 479.6 629.5 614.4 566.8 933.8 961.9 665.2 595.6 648.6 906.4 711.3 760.8 645.9 710.P S.9 459.4 795.9 775.4 440.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Year 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Medchal N/A N/A N/A 759.1 670.5 663.7 547.8 767.6 577.4 624.4 1689.3 440. .3 845.5 1009.3 1342.1 564.2 650.6 585.1 864.4 842 497.9 586 795.5 673.7 861.7 564.8 758.9 754.6 988.8 710.7 514.I Monsoon Rainfall ( in mm ) of different Rain guage stations of R.4 1173 767.4 611.4 845.4 983.2 571.1 783.9 479.1 670.

34 129.3 454 1097 850 1116.479 13.37 47.12 17.58 272.64 255.58 1032.64 255.64 255.14 -3.64 255.77 -0.83 -22.33 -57.53 17.2 479.68 142.82 326.62 293.255 41.3 684.417 5.52 728.88 107.73 58.29 -2.68 57.213 27.8 751.64 255.88 472.4 992.9 372.691 30.46 90.64 255.4 795.2 28 255.148 5.72 -58.2 10.3 1342.872 12.89 41.32 -134.26 116.64 255.44 121.64 255.1 670.26 487.64 255.94 856.139 12.64 255.36 515.91 -1.62 -58.64 255.9 27.64 255.745 18.68 55.64 255.64 179.34 248.3 407.7 85.78 251.6 942.64 255.838 13.6 493.31 6.767 12.64 255.7 -6.64 255.6 648.7 83.52 362.317 6.96 398.079 51.618 9.8 697.68 334.48 313.566 29.6 354.64 255.6 651.628 12.64 255.4 1173 767.32 -147.448 6.56 113.698 15.5 663.8 -134.96 120.64 255.76 273.1 864.02 30.44 303.96 468.8 790.64 255.53 45.25 70.64 255.74 473.863 24.62 0.6 645 853.64 255.8 758.437 23.19 201.4 954.64 255.Annexure.64 255.82 617.3 12.44 235.38 6.17 27.01 11.64 289.04 184.miles in MCft Total Yeild from subgroup C.06 16.652 24.06 776.26 548.5 725.64 255.593 52.85 159.64 255.19 -49.7 -126.62 231.9 218.92 0.64 255.742 13.08 255 435.9 459.56 255.89 222.2 652.6 585.8 4.926 18.783 14.36 197.41 .3 601.9 1036. Year Monsoon Rainfall in mm Yield per Sq.32 590.66 273.14 114.66 22.21 545 771.2 -1.44 -0.64 255.86 1056.64 255.64 255.841 16.3 -150.297 33.4 228.64 255.6 822.64 255.1 1063.7 -52.627 20.84 266.81 -0.34 105.03 38.96 312.64 255.72 131.54 569.2 650.75 21.9 665.048 19.96 99.64 255.7 861.1 824.78 801.81 89.A ( 20 Sqm) Yeild Available @ 75% PL Surplus Yeild % of Surplus Yeild beyond 75 % PL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 909.32 213.64 255.64 255.66 285.04 484.8 961.25 38.54 404.8 1216.18 70.96 108.5 711.647 13.18 361.64 255.447 42.76 699.44 253.74 -52.322 6.1 670.64 255.94 268.426 36.94 662.35 141.64 255.41 5.248 23.9 148.404 12.II Statement showing the surplus yield beyond 75% dependability No.1 480.

29 .

30 .

of which India uses barely a third. Parghane *S. Govt.464m3. only 1. more so in a large country like India which is endowed with many large rivers. being a limited resource.in Civil Engg. 1 No.967 1.179 BCM of water drains in to the sea. As water.1 & Fig. Kathiawar. WATER AVAILABILITY : India receives precipitation (including snowfall & rain) of around 4. animal and plant life.in Civil Engg.177 m3 in the year 1951 to present level of 1. However in some regions per capita availability is as low as 411m3.700 m3/ person is called as the water stress region. its quality. These include the availability of water. In view of this. location. the ground water is mainly used for drinking and agricultural purposes. And the region whose yearly availability falls below 1. industrial and urban growth..National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov.122 690 432 *Lect. distribution and variation in its occurrence. In India.000 billion cubic metres (BCM). In the comprehensive strategy needed for the conservation and development of water resources. Rain Water Harvesting and Recharging Ground Water *R. Moreover exploitation of ground water has been taken up by millions of individual farmers mostly in regions where surface water is either scarce or absent to meet their dire water needs. Estimated utilizable water resources i) Surface water resources ii) Ground water resources 4. since no life is possible without water. Krishna basin.1. The per-capital availability of water at national level has reduced from about 5.Kms. Table No. better managed.000 m3 / person is termed as water scarcity region. About 85% of drinking water is available through dug well.000 1.869 m3. The quantum of ground water so far harnessed is one third of the replenishable ground water of 431 km3 a year. Kulkarni **A. recharged and channellised for meeting the ever growing requirement of agriculture. filter point and tube well etc. several factors are to be kept in view. In dealing with each of these. Pennar.) 1. bore well. But on macro level. water management is very critical for the growth and development of any economy. (Kanyakumari. Polytechnic. Average annual potential flow in rivers 3. climatic conditions. Per Capita Water availability (1997) 4.869 1. Kutchh.. lakes and wells that need to be conserved. It shows that the country is not in the water stress range so far. P. Nearly 1. No. ) The run-off which is about 215 MHM needs to be arrested by making proper planning on micro level as well macro level. Item Quantity (Cu. Microlevel means water conservation schemes of the state governments which is to be implemented in every village. nature of the soil. Nanded **Lect. Dhawale INTRODUCTION : Water is the most important resource of the entire society as a whole. Washim 31 . etc. its efficient use is basic to the survival of the ever increasing population of the world. Nagpur 7. Govt.W. K.869 BCM is accessible water. Polytechnic. Although this has lead to local depletion or decline of ground water levels causing serious concern about rainwater harvesting & the need to recharge ground water. a large chunk of water must be arrested by programme like national river – linking. But national figure of annual average per capita water availability is 2. Region. Annual precipitation volume (including snowfall) 2. Availability and utilization of water in India is shown in table No. every effort must be made to make the best use of water for the survival of human life. competing demands & Socio-economic conditions. whose yearly renewable freshwater availability is below 1. 2006.

2. weirs etc. 2 Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Fig. Fig. percolation wells.4. Recharge to ground water is a new concept of rainwater harvesting. tube wells through a filter tank or in to a percolation chamber. There are following three techniques of rainwater harvesting.3. built specifically to serve the purpose.No. bore wells. rainwater that collects on the roofs and the area around buildings is directed into open wells. b) Recharging ground water aquifers. from roof top run off. Fig.No. No. Rainwater Harvesting is a system by which. a) Storing rain water for direct use.off 215 MHM Moist soils 65 MHM Enters into the ground water table 50 MHM Fig. 1 : Details of precipitation water RAINWATER HARVESTING AND ITS TECHNIQUES : Rain is the ultimate source of fresh water with the ground area around houses and buildings being cemented.The average annual precipitation is 400 million Hectare Metre (MHM) Evaporates 70 MHM Percolates 115 MHM Run . No. The techniques of rainwater harvesting 32 have been depicted in the Fig. The storage of rainwater on surface is a traditional technique and the structures used were underground tanks. check dams. c) Recharging ground water aquifers with runoff from ground area. rain water which run–off from terraces and roofs was draining into low-lying areas and percolating into the soil and causing floods else where. Fig. 3 Recharging of Bore well . ponds. No. The rain water can be stored in tanks and can be recharged in to the ground to improve ground water storage.

there is no loss of water from the terrace floor.000 litres Assuming that only 80% water harvested.m.25. It is now alarming to seriously consider about conserving water by harvesting and managing this natural resource by artificially recharging the system. ii) Due to rapid urbanization population growth and industrialization.000 litres. Volume of water harvested = 1. Average annual gainful in the area is say 1000 mm (40 inch) Suppose. Height of rainfall = 1000 mm. iv) Ingress of sea water in coastal area. Artificial recharge of ground water is. living standard. then in one year. Total quantity of rain water available from roof top to be used for harvesting is about 70% to 90%. 33 Following table shows how much roof water can be harvested by considering 80% efficiency and according to roof top surface areas. Consider a building with a flat terrier area = 125 Sq. As a result. due to losses like evaporation. there is a progressive decrease in the ground water level.00. we entirely depend upon rivers. leakages etc. it should be admitted that rain water harvesting is essential because. infiltration of rain water into the sub-soil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished. Volume of rainfall = 125 x 1000= 1. ii) Drying up of wells / bore wells. Ground water recharge may be increased by conservation measures and artificial recharge procedures. iii) Enhance use of energy. The rainfall is highly seasonal and occurs over a short rainy season with a very large dry period. therefore. iii) Over exploitation of ground water results in toi) Ground water depletion. Artificial recharge to ground water is a process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding that obtaining under natural conditions of replenishment. improved sanitation. No. However the rain is the ultimate source that feeds all these sources. A family of four needs 87. (@ 60 litres / person) ARTIFICIAL GROUND WATER RECHARGE : Optimum development and sound management practices are vital to the sustained use of ground water. Roof top Area (Sq. preferred and encouraged in the present .Fig. HOW MUCH RAIN WATER CAN BE HARVESTED FROM ROOF TOP ? The estimation of water available from top of roof (flat terrace) is worked out by multiplying the roof area with normal rainfall data for monsoon period. there will be rainwater on the terrace floor to a height of 1000mm. In general any man-made system or facility that adds water to an aquifer is an artificial recharge system.600 litres of water per year. 4 Recharging of Open well WHY RAINWATER HARVESTING ? To meet our water demand. Hence. i) Surface water is inadequate to meet our demand and we have to mostly depend on ground water. absorption. lakes & ground water.m) Considering hypothetical case following calculations shows as to how much rain water can be harvested.

0 120.Y.0 200.Y.0 12. 2.2 24. so as to augment the natural available underground yield for management of water supply systems. DIVERSION OF RUN OFF IN TO EXISTING SURFACE BODIES Construction activity in and around the city/ town is resulting in the drying up of water bodies and also reclamation of these tanks for conversion in to plots for houses has impacted urban hydrology as under.6 2.0 1000 16. 4.2 57. m3 of recharge.8 7.4 19.2 21.8 51.0 36.8-4. 1.0 28.0 32.0 72. by 2 m = Area x 2m = 4x106x2m3 = 8M.0 80.0 40.0 72.6 11.4 9.0 14.6 12. the W. 3.2 25..0 4.0 400 800 9. More dependence on ground water use..0 60.0 96.0 80 160 200 3.0 16. i.6 24. decline in well yields and fall in water levels.2 8.T.00 192. 1.0 240 480 6. rose by.0 32.0 160.K. Germany etc.0 24.2 M.0 48.6 6. Since 2m lowering of W.0 24.T.60 28.0 20.4 43. Over consumption of water increases water demand.2 m.8 = 2m is 2 M.8 6.m) Rain Fall (mm.4 25.0 1280.8 19.0 320.2 12.0 20. Soln Consider.) 100 1.4 44.m3 Total Volume of aquifer drained in lowering W.0 120.Roof top Area (Sq.0 40. Reduction in infiltration and deterioration of water quality.0 240. Specific yield.0 96.6 14.0 38.6 38.2 48. equals 2M. Water pummeled out in lowering W.80 32.8 33.T.6 32.= Volume of water drained Total volume of aquifer drained = During wet season.0 12.8 5.0 56.T.4 16.0 160.2 4.e.0 192.0 1600. Ex. Israel.0 128. the area of aquifer is 4 km2.8 19.0 19.0 40.4 16 24 32 40 48 64 80 160 320 300 400 500 600 800 Harvested Water from Roof Top (Cum) @ 80% 4.0 96.0 64.0 160.0 9.2 m rise will equal to 1.0 200.0 24.0 256.0 80.m3 Specific yield of aquifer S.0 144.0 60.2 22.0 120.4 8.0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 1000 2000 days. Reduction in open soil surface area.0 80.m3 of water.4 7. U. Increase in run off.8 = 1.0 64.0 72. S.0 48.0 48.6 12.0 128.8 16. Volume of water drained by 6.0 288.0 160.2 9.6 64.0 96.0 100.0 240.0 36.0 32.4 3.0 800.8 14.0 16. x 100 2Mm3 8Mm3 x 100 = 25% 34 .0 640.0 400. 6-4.0 480 960 12.0 28.2 4.0 320 640 8.0 120.Estimation of i) The specific yield of the aquifer and ii) The volume of Recharge during the wet season. Artificial recharging techniques is under intensive research and is being increasingly used in France.

1. from where it directly infiltrates to rather shallow aquifers. Renney type wells are constructed near the river banks. In this method. The stored water. 3. Recharge-well Methods : This method consists in injecting the water in to bore holes called recharge wells. because of the following reasons. the aquifer in which the water is stored shall itself act as a distribution system for carrying the water from one place to another.5 meter . These trenches are back filled with filter materials. the water is fed in to recharge wells by gravity or for increasing the recharge rate. i) Much pure water can be obtained from an underground reservoir source.5 to 1 metre wide. The trenches may be 0. Moreover. the water used for recharging well should be free from suspended impurities. artificial underground reservoirs are now-a-days developed by artificial recharge for storing water underground. 3. percolates downward so as to join the nearby aquifers. v) The raising of the water table by artificial recharge may help in building pressure barriers to prevent sea water intrusion in the coastal areas. Recharge-well Method. The recharging rate depends upon 35 the permeability of the spread area and on the depth of water stored. gravel and coarse sand such types of ponds are constructed for recharging shallow aquifer. iii) The cost of building such a reservoir by recharging the aquifers may be considerably less than the cost of the surface reservoirs. b) Trenches : Trenches are constructed subjected to the availability of permeable stream at shallow depth.RECHARGING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE : In order to store the surplus surface water the artificial surface reservoirs are constructed by building dams. the water is temporarily stored in shallow ditches or is spread over an open area by constructing low earth dykes (called percolation bunds). Spreading Methods : This method consists in spreading the water over the surfaces of permeable open land and pits. and is generally less. This types of well construction is very common in France and is sometimes referred to as French system of tapping underground water.5. iv) The water lost in evaporation from an underground reservoir is much less than the water lost from a surface reservoir. ii) No space is required for building such a reservoir. With this method high recharge rates can be obtained. Induced Infiltration Method : This method is sometimes used for recharge is that of the induced infiltration which is accomplished by increasing the water table gradient from a source of recharge. this method may help in injecting water in to the aquifers and also where it is most needed. in the summer. 2. The percolating water is collected in the well through radial collectors and is then discharged in to a lower level aquifer ‘B’ for storage as Shown in fig. 2. 1. slowly and steadily. The recharge wells used are just like ordinary production wells. say of the order of 1. it may be pumped under pressure. Spreading Method. though rates as high as 22m/day have been possible. No. In addition to the above mentioned methods. Induced Infiltration Method. This method is widely used in Israel. Moreover in an underground reservoir. The development of such a reservoirs may be advantageous as compared to the development of a dam reservoir. In this method.5m/day. and as such. the necessity of constructing pipe lines or canals (as is required in a surface reservoir) is completely eliminated. the recharge to ground water is accomplished by using some of the structures are a) Pits : The pits have been constructed about 3 metres deep & 1 to 2 metres wide filled with boulders. METHODS OF RECHARGING : The below mentioned methods are being generally adopted for ground water recharging. 1 to 1. Depending upon the favorable condition of surface. In fact the ordinary wells are many a times could directly used for recharge during the off season. when the water is not required in use. To avoid clogging of the well screens.

Dr.M. Harayana” Journal of Indian Water Works Association.increasing the available usable water by developing artificial rain technology. 2.M. Y.42-48. 2004. a reliable and sustainable source for supplementing water supply needs. It is also of vital importance to conserve water by practicing economy and avoiding its wastage. Santosh Kumar Garg. However ground water exploitation is inevitable especially urban areas. c) Dug wells : Existing dug wells may be utilized as recharge structure and water should be allowed to pass through filter media before storage. in a major way needs to be launched with concerted efforts by various Non-Governmental and Governmental agencies and the public at large. Dr. along with developing additional storages may considerably reduce the chance of water famines for further generations to come.Katpatal & Dr. Eye Opener. a strategy to implement the groundwater recharge. pp. Dr. Pranab Kumar Ghosh. It is about building our relationship with water and the environment. 219-228. “Rainwater Harvesting & Recharging Ground Water” enROUTE. PP. 2005. May – 2004. PP. Dr. Learn the prestigious value of each rain drop. CONCLUSION The proper conservation. PP. Harvest rain. 38-40. Kaushal Kishore. JULDEC.Dahasahasra.5 Induced infiltration method of recharge deep and 10 to 20 meters long depending on the availability of water. to increase the water table and make the groundwater resource. 3. May 2004. pp. S. maintenance and careful use of water resources. 16-17. To curtail its reduction.26 – 34. No. 4. “Rain Water Harvesting – A Ray of Hope” Orissa Review. “Rainwater Harvesting”. August 2004. 5. CE & CR Journal. Gauhar Mahmood & Sharshikant Chaudhary “A Comprehensive Water Management Plan – A Case Study of Lakewood city. In addition to these measures. Fig.B. “National River – Linking” Journal of CE & CR. “Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering” Khanna Publication. Vol IX.V. it is necessary to find out means and ways for 36 . July – Sept. REFERENCES : 1.Mahajan.

Areas where substantial amount of aquifer has already been de-saturated. Availability and storage of water in reservoirs and lakes depends ultimately on yearly rainfall. Therefore we must guard against the depletion or spoiling of our most valuable ground water storage. Artificial recharge techniques normally address to following issues – (i) To enhance the sustainable yield in areas where over-development has depleted the aquifer (ii) Conservation and storage of excess surface water for future requirements. 1.8 37 . Natural conservation and efficient use of this natural storage and at the same time making arrangements for additional recharge of ground water aquifer by one way or other. number of rainy days and maximum rainfall in a day and its variation in space and time. * Lecturer in Applied Mechanical Dept. Mumbai . The artificial recharge to ground water aims at augmentation of ground water reservoir by modifying the natural movement of surface water utilizing suitable civil construction techniques. M. Areas where ground water levels are declining on regular basis. We should make maximum use of the easily available normally wasted. Nagpur 8. Saboo & Siddik Polytechnic. 2. it is a basic prerequisite to ascertain the availability of source water for the purpose of recharging the ground water reservoir.. we have no alternative than using the ground water. to replenish the used ground water becomes our responsibility. The basic purpose of artificial recharge of ground water is to restore supplies from aquifers depleted due to excessive ground water development. its frequency. The first step in planning the project is to demarcate the area of recharge. Scientific Inputs In order to plan the artificial recharge schemes following studies are needed. we are depending maximum on surface water. Areas where availability of ground water is inadequate in lean months.H. since these requirements often changes within a season or a period. surface water bodies get consumed and in such a case. Artificial Recharge of Aquifers in Urban Setup *Mrs. Basic Requirements for Artificial Recharge Projects The basic requirements for recharging the ground water reservoir are: a) Source Water Availability Before undertaking any artificial recharge project. Grace Selvarani Introduction To meet the growing water supply demand. which is stored in the form of lakes and reservoirs. (iv) To remove bacteriological and other impurities from sewage and waste water so that water is suitable for re-use. 2. (iii) To improve the quality of existing ground water through dilution. The artificial recharge of ground water is normally taken in following areas: 1. If rainfall is inadequate or if there is draughts for successive years. b) Identification of Area The artificial recharge projects are site specific and even the replication of the techniques from similar areas are to be based on the local hydrogeological and hydrological environments. Areas where salinity ingress is taking place. 3. Byculla. The effective way to store rainwater is by allowing it to percolate into ground by enriching ground water storage.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. local renewable source of water that is rainwater. Availability of non-committed surplus monsoon runoff in space and time can be assessed by analysing the monsoon rainfall pattern. 2006. 4.

Hydrological studies are undertaken to work out surplus monsoon run off which can be harnessed as source water for artificial recharge. At many places. help in deciding the capacity and design of the artificial recharge structures. 38 . Mostly it is employed to narrow down the target zone. adequately and unambiguously. While some structures promote the percolation of water through soil strata at shallow depth (e. The data on rainfall intensity. number of rain-days. recharge wells). These can bring out the extent of evaporation losses in post monsoon period which would be helpful in designing the storages of particular capacity with a view to have minimum evaporation losses. (e. A few commonly used artificial recharging methods are explained here.Hydro meteorological Studies Hydro meteorological Studies are undertaken to decipher the rainfall pattern. etc. permeable pavements) others conduct water to greater depths from where it joins the ground water. their ground water potential and general pattern of ground water flow and chemical quality of water in different aquifers are necessary so as to know precisely the promising hydro geological units for recharge and correctly decide on the location and type of structures to be constructed in field. Hydrological Studies For determining the source water availability for artificial recharge. pinpoint the probable site for artificial recharge structure and its proper design. Soil Infiltration Studies In case of artificial recharge through water spreading methods. These two phenomena are closely related since infiltration cannot continue unimpeded unless percolation removes infiltrated water from the surface soil. eliminating the need to construct any structures afresh.g. Concept : Figure (1) Elements of RWH system Figure (2) Components of Rooftop RWH system ‘In situ’ precipitation will be available almost at every location but may or may not be adequate to cause artificial recharge but the runoff going unutilised outside the watershed/ basin can be stored/ transmitted through simple recharge structures at appropriate locations. recharge trenches. Innumerable innovations and combinations of these methods are possible. evaporation losses and climatological features. soil and land use conditions which control the rate of infiltration and downward percolation of the water applied on the surface of the soil assume special importance. and tanks can be modified and be used as recharge structures. hydrological investigations are required to be carried out in the Watershed/Subbasin/basin where the artificial recharge schemes are envisaged. A detailed hydro geological study providing information on regional hydro geological rock units. Geophysical Studies The main purpose of applying geophysical methods for the selection of appropriate site for artificial recharge studies is mostly to help and assess the unknown sub-surface hydro geological conditions economically. Hydro geological Studies. Various kinds of recharge structures are possible which can ensure that rain water percolates into the ground instead of draining away from the surface. existing features like wells. pits.g.

This method is applicable in alluvial area as well as hard rock formation. When total water supply available in a stream / river exceeds the rate of infiltration. 2. The size of basin may depend upon the topography of area. the excess is lost as run off. 4.25 m because lesser or greater depths resulted in reduced rate of infiltration.a. To harness maximum run off. The water is spread as a thin sheet. Stream Augmentation Seepage from natural streams or rivers is one of the most important sources of recharge of the ground water reservoir. Generally three pattern of Ditch & furrow system is adopted (i) lateral (ii) dendritic & (iii) contour. The water stored in these structures is mostly confined to stream course and height is normally less than 2 m. SURFACE SPREADING METHODS 1. 39 . Higher rate of vertical infiltration is obtained on areas with undisturbed vegetation and sandy soil covering. b. (1) Artificial recharging of aquifers through bore well/dug well Figure (4) shows typical systems of recharging wells directly from rooftop runoff. . Recharging Techniques to arrest sea water intrusion I DIRECT METHODS A. This is the most common method for artificial recharge. B. This technique consists of a system of shallow flat bottomed and closely spaced ditches / furrow which are used to carry water from source like stream /canals and provide more percolation opportunity. Ditch & Furrow system In areas with irregular topography ditches or furrow provide maximum water contact area for recharge. The most effective depth of water in basin is 1. The efficiency and feasibility of this method is more in hard rock formation where the rocks are highly fractured and weathered. It requires a system of distribution channel for the supply of water for flooding. d. In this method. a flatter area will have large basin. Basin & Percolation Tanks Figure (3) Generalized cross-section of artificial recharge of groundwater using a surface spreading technique. In area of low-transmissibility the density of ditch & furrow will be high. a series of such check dam may be constructed. The site selected for check dam should have sufficient thickness of permeable bed or weathered formation to facilitate recharge of stored water within short span of time. c. Direct surface techniques Flooding Basins or percolation tanks Stream augmentation Ditch and furrow system Direct sub surface techniques Dug well/Bore well recharge Recharge pits /Recharge well Percolation pit (Soak away) Recharge trenches Modified injection well Aquifer storage and recovery Indirect Techniques Induced recharge from surface water source . SUB-SURFACE METHODS 3. water is impounded in series of basins or percolation tank. This run off can be arrested through check bunds or widening the steam beds thus larger area is available to spread the river water increasing the infiltration. Flooding This method is suitable for relatively flat topography. This technique required less soil preparation and is less sensitive to silting.

Rainwater collected on the rooftop of the building being diverted by drainpipes to a settlement or filtration tank, from which it flows into a recharge well (bore well or dug well). If a bore well is used for recharging, then the casing of the bore well should be preferably be slotted or perforated pipe, so that more surface area will be available for the water to percolate

Settlement tank : Settlement tanks are used to remove silt and other floating impurities from rainwater. A settlement tank is like an ordinary storage container having provisions for inflow (bring water from the catchment), out flow (carrying water to the recharge well) and over flow. A settlement tank can have an unpaved bottom surface to allow standing water to percolate into the soil. Apart from removing silt from the water, the de-silting tank acts like a buffer is the system. In case of excess rainfall, the rate of recharge, especially of bore wells may not match the rate of rainfall. In such situations, the de-silting chamber holds the excess amount of water till it is soaked up the recharge structure. Design Parameters : Providing the following elements in the system can ensure the quality of water entering the recharging wells. 1. Filter mesh at entrance point of roof top drains. 2. Settlement Chamber. 3. Filter bed.

Figure (4) Artificial recharging of aquifers through bore well/dug well

Developing a bore well would increase its recharging capacity. Developing is a process where water or air is forced in to the well under pressure to loosen the soil strata surrounding the bore to make it more permeable. If a dug well is used for recharging the well lining should have openings, (weep holes) at regular intervals to allow seepage of water through the sides. Dug well should be covered to prevent mosquito breeding and entry of leaves and debris. The bottom of recharge-dug wells should be de-silted annually to maintain intake capacity. It is preferred that the dug well or bore well used for recharging shall be shallower than the water table. This ensures that the water recharged through the well has a sufficient thickness of soil medium through which it has to pass before it joins the ground water. Any old well, which has become dysfunctional, can be used for recharging, since the depth of such well is above water level.
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Design parameters for settlement tank: For designing the optimum capacity of the tank following aspects have to be considered. 1. Size of the catchments 2. Intensity of rainfall. 3. Rate of recharge. Since the de-silting tank also acts as a buffer tank, it is designed such that, it can retain certain amount of rainfall, since the rate of recharge may not be comparable with the rate of runoff. The capacity of the tank should be enough to retain the runoff occurring from conditions of peak rainfall intensity. In Mumbai, peak hourly rainfall is 90 mm. (Based on 25 year frequency). The rate of recharge in comparison to runoff is critical factor. However, since accurate recharge rates are not available without detailed hydro geological studies, the rates have been assumed. The capacity of recharge tank is designed to retain runoff from at least 15 minutes rainfall of peak intensity say 25 mm/hr. Suppose the following data is available, Area of rooftop catchment (A) = 100 m2 Peak rainfall is 15 min (r) = 25 mm=0.025 m.

Runoff coefficient, (C ) = 0.85 Then capacity of the de-silting tank =A x r x C =100 x 0.025 X 0.85 = 2.215 m3 (2125 lit).

(2) Recharge pits : (Recharge well)

Figure (7) Percolation pit in section A soak away is a bored hole of up to 30 cm diameter in the ground to a depth of 3 to 10 m. The soak away can be drilled with a manual auger unless hard rock is found at a shallow depth. The borehole can be left unlined if a stable soil formation like clay is present. In such a case, the soak away can be filled up with a filter media like brickbats or pebbles. In unstable formations like sand, the soak away should be lined with PVC or M.S. pipe to prevent collapse of the vertical sides. The pipe may be slotted or perforated to promote percolation through sides. (4) Recharge trenches :

Figure (5) Recharge pit Plan and section A recharge pit is a pit 1.5 m to 3 m wide and 2 m to 3 m deep. The excavated pit is lined with a brick/stone wall with (weep holes) at regular intervals. The top area of the pit can be covered with a perforated cover to allow entry of rain water runoff. (3) Percolation pit (soak away) :

Figure (6) Percolation pit (photograph)

Figure (8) Recharge trench in section

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Recharging through recharge trenches, recharge pits and soak away is simpler compared to recharge through wells. Fewer precautions have to be taken to maintain the quality of the rainfall runoff. For these types of structures, there is no restriction on the type of catchments from which water is to be harvested, (i.e.) both paved and unpaved catchments can be tapped. A recharge trench is simply a continuous trench excavated in the ground and refilled with porous media like pebbles, boulders or brickbats. A recharge trench can be 0.5 m to 1m wide and1m to 1.5m deep. The length of the recharge trench is decided as per the amount of runoff expected. The recharge trench should be periodically cleaned off the accumulated debris to maintain the intake capacity. In terms of recharge rates, recharge trenches are relatively less effective since the soil strata at depth of about 1.5 m is less permeable. To enhance the recharge rate, percolation pits can be provided at the bottom of the trench. Design of a recharge trench : The methodology of design of a recharge trench is similar to that for designing a settlement tank. The difference is that water holding capacity of recharge trench is less than the gross volume because it is filled with porous materials. A factor of loose density (voids ratio) of the media has to be applied to the equation. Using the same method as used for design of settlement tank: Area of rooftop catchment (A) =100 m2 Peak rainfall is 15 min. (r) = 25 mm (0.025 m) Runoff coefficient (C) = 0.85 Voids ratio D = 0.5 (assumed) Required capacity of recharge tank = (A x r x C)/D = (100 x 0.025 x 0.85) / 0.5 = 4.25 m3 (4250 liters) The voids ratio of the filter material varies with the kind of material used, but for the commonly used materials like brickbats, pebbles and gravel, a void ratio of 0.5 may be assumed. In designing the recharge trench, the length of the trench is an important factor. Once the required capacity is calculated as illustrated above, length can be calculated by considering a fixed depth and width.
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(5) Modified injection well Injection techniques use wells to accomplish artificial recharge. Injection wells usually place water directly into a deep, confined aquifer where surface spreading would usually not work. Injection wells also require maintenance to remove particles, microbial growth, and chemical precipitates (solid substances).Hence, modified injection wells are preferred.

Figure (9) Modified injection well In this method water is not pumped into the aquifer but allowed to percolate through a filter bed, which comprises sand and gravel. A modified injection well is generally a borehole, 500 mm diameter, which is drilled to the desired depth depending upon the geological conditions, preferably 2 to 3 m below the water table in the area. Inside this hole a slotted casing pipe of 200 mm diameter is inserted. The annular space between

the borehole and the pipe is filled with gravel and developed with a compressor till it gives clear water. To stop the suspended solids from entering the recharge tube well, a filter mechanism is provided at top. (6) Aquifer Storage and Recovery

its path through the aquifer material before it is discharged from the pumping well. D. RECHARGING TECHNIQUES TO ARREST SEA WATER INTRUSION The situation of over-extraction of ground water in coastal aquifers cause problem of seawater intrusion. The method that is used to control sea water intrusion is to use recharge well barriers through a line of injection tube wells driven parallel to the coast. This mechanism establishes a pressure ridge which pushes the saline front seawards. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS Whether the harvested water is used for direct usage or for recharging ground water, it is of utmost importance to ensure that the rainwater collected is free of any pollutants that might be added to rainwater from the atmosphere or the catchment. While polluted water directly used for consumption would have an immediate impact on health, polluted water recharged into the ground would cause long term problems of aquifer pollution. Damage done to aquifers by recharging polluted water is irreversible. Most of the precautions to ensure rainwater quality have been summarized below. (1) At the catchment level 8 Keeping the catchment clean 8 Using gratings to trap debris at the catchment itself 8 Paving the catchment with ceramic tiles stone tile or other such non erosive materials (2) At the conduit level. 8 Provision for first flush to drain off from initial spell of rain (3) Before recharging. 8 Allowing for sedimentation of water 8 Filtering the water In establishments like industries it is very necessary to ensure that the catchments surfaces are free of chemical wastes, fuels, lubricants etc.While physical and biological impurities in water can be easily removed by de-sedimentation and filtration, it is very difficult to remove chemical impurities.

Figure (10) Generalized cross-section of aquifer Storage and Recovery Aquifer storage and recovery is a special type of artificial recharge of groundwater that uses dualpurpose wells for both injecting water into the aquifer and recovering (withdrawing) it later. Although the intent of artificial recharge generally is to increase groundwater storage for later use, incidental activities such as excess irrigation, storm water disposal, canal leakage, and leaking water pipes may also result in artificial recharge. Artificial recharge and aquifer storage and recovery are valuable water management tools that effectively help to offset increased demands for water. II INDIRECT METHODS C. INDUCED RECHARGE It is an indirect method of artificial recharge involving pumping from aquifer hydraulically connected with surface water such as perennial streams, unlined canal or lakes. The heavy pumping lowers the ground water level and cone of depression is created. Lowering of water levels induces the surface water to replenish the ground water. This method is effective where stream bed is connected to aquifer by sandy formation. The greatest advantage of this method is that under favourable hydro geological situations the quality of surface water generally improves due to
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SCALE OF WATER HARVESTING: Most methods described here are applicable at a singular building or establishment level. However, the same principles can be applied for implementing water harvesting at a larger scale, say, a residential colony or an institutional cluster. To an extent, the nature of structures and design parameters remain the same; the physical scale and number of structures may increase corresponding to the size of catchment.

To control the total amount of runoff received by a large-scale system, the catchment can be subdivided into smaller parts. A locality-level water harvesting system illustrated in figure shows how the runoff from individual houses can be dealt with at the building-level itself, while remaining runoff from the storm water drain (which drains water from roads and open areas) can be harvested by constructing recharge structures in common areas

Figure (11) Tapping storm water drains in a community level system

References: 1. ‘A Water Harvesting Manual’ Published by Centre for Science and Environment 2. ‘Guide on Artificial Recharge to Ground Water’ Published by Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resources 3. web site www.rainwaterharvesting.org 4. www.waterencyclopedia.com 5. http://www.aboutrainwaterharvesting.com/rwh_methods.htm

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National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. 2006, Nagpur

9. The Scope of Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Areas
*Sandip. H. Deshmukh **Prof. R. B. Magar

Abstract : A project is being undertaken for the feasibilty study of RainWater Harvesting for the buildings in the premises of Fr.Agnel Technical Education Complex, Vashi. The research is being carried out as a part of one of the objectives of Agnel Seva Ashram, ‘Save Electricity & WaterAbhiyan’ (SEWA ). In a city like Mumbai, where the ground surface is heavily concretised, the main way to harvest rainwater is to tap the water falling on the terraces of buildings. Thus, in residential or commercial buildings, the pipes on terraces should be connected not to the BMC drains but to a recharge well or recharge pit. This process is termed ‘recharging’ the groundwater. The same bore well or tube well then can be used for pumping out the groundwater. Key words : Aquifer, Recharging, Catchments Area, Average annual rainfall.

1.

INTRODUCTION The rapid development in science and technology in the world has brought the countries closer to each other and the world has become a global village. ‘Vasudeiva Kutumbakam’ (The world the one family) is the need of the day. The integrated world is the new concept which Acharya Vinobaji Bhave had given in his slogan of ‘Jay Jagat’ long back in the same context. However as we see our country progressing in the global market there is increase in the suicides of Indian farmers every year. Today, it is the responsibility of engineers in all the disciplines to come together to provide them with possible alternatives to cope up with the problems of environmental imbalances and scarcity of proper knowledge to adjust with the weather uncertainties. On the other side, there are urban cities which are over-flooded with the population and finding the difficulties like inadequate supply of municipal water. Even though Bombay Municipal Corporation is in denial of a water crisis, since October 2002 it has made it mandatory for all new constructions covering

an area of more than 1,000 square metres to install a rainwater harvesting system that will tap the terrace water and make it flow to a bore well. The BMC will henceforth supply such buildings only 90 liters/person/day for drinking, cooking, where as they are expected to derive another 45 liters/ person/day from rain water for flushing of toilets and other not potable uses.While many builders have only recently and grudgingly started implementing BMC’ s directive, it will come as a surprise to many that the costs of doing it are not that high. 2. THE PRINCIPLE OF RAINWATER HARVESTING Rainwater falling on the ground is absorbed by the earth and it constitutes the groundwater. This water is stored amidst the loose soil and hard rocks beneath the earth’s surface just as sponge stores water. Just as the water can be sucked out of a sponge, so can groundwater be sucked out from beneath the earth through bore wells. All this can happen only if the rainwater is allowed to touch the loose earth. Extreme urbanisation in a city like

*Asst.Professor **Sr.Lecturer Fr. Agnel Technical Education Complex, Sector 9A, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400703. E-mail: sandiphk@rediffmail.com, rbm59@rediffmail.com 45

In this site both the methods of rainwater harvesting i. the main way to harvest rainwater is to tap the rainwater falling on the terraces of buildings. 3.1. 3. Sector 10A of Vashi.e. Navi Mumbai.5 m x 0. This process is also termed as ‘recharging’ the groundwater. Thus.5m x2m in size. But even this flooded water cannot seep in through the hard concrete. which otherwise would not happen naturally.30. In a city like Mumbai. that is.1 Recharging underground aquifers The roof water from the top through the rain water pipes can be collected by series of chambers with interconnected pipes and diverted to the recharge well. The collection chambers are designed to be of 0. The cost for recharge well including collection chambers and interconnecting pipes is Rs. The recharge well is of 2m x 1. Which is primarily why one needs to devise techniques that can make the rainwater seep into the earth. storage and recharge is proposed. THE PROJECTS DONE ON RWH IN MUMBAI Let us have a short survey on the projects on RWH done in the past in Mumbai & near by area. Fig. or else there is a grave risk of contamination of groundwater. It is another matter that nullahs and gutters get choked with garbage and silt and many areas of Mumbai still experience flooding. A slotted casing pipe of 1m length should be provided inside the recharged well. The simple formula to find the water harvesting potential is given below in Fig. The evaluation of rainwater harvesting potential is done by the method shown the Fig. where the ground surface is heavily concretised.1 RWH for Indian Woman Scientists Association The site of the construction is located at Plot.5m in size and the interconnecting pipes are of 6 inches in diameter. The idea is to prevent this water from running off in BMC’s drains and divert it to bore wells or storage tanks.1. This recharge well can be filled with filtering materials consisting of layer of pebbles and sand each of 0. This slotted pipe will be wrapped with coir rope to prevent the entry of fine silt into the recharge bore well. 000.No. covered in hard concrete by way of buildings and roads. The different techniques to make rainwater seep into the ground. The same bore well is then used for pumping out the groundwater for use. 3.20.3m in thickness. The BMC’s extensive drainage system in the form of big nullahs and small arterial gutters is designed to ensure that rainwater does not accumulate on the roads and buildings. In the recharge well a recharge bore well of 6 inch diameter of 50m depth should be drilled using air compressor.5m x 0. It is also necessary to ensure that only reasonably pure rainwater goes into the ground. and the recharge bore of 20m depth.1 : Evaluating Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Potential 46 . is known as ‘rainwater harvesting’. the pipes on terraces should be connected not to the BMC drains but to a bore well. This will consolidate our methodology & validate the procedure. The site falls in a deccan trap terrain with top layer covered with clay.1.Mumbai has meant that at least three-fourths of the city’s surface area has been developed. in residential or commercial buildings.

5m width and 0.Fig.5x 0.5m length.2 Trench cum percolation pit : The surface runoff from the drive way. .5m in size with a recharge bore of 10m depth of 6 inch diameter. 2 : Design & Estimate of Recharge Well 3. The runoff collected will 47 be used for recharge purpose by constructing two percolation chambers of 0.1. The collection chamber can be provided with pebbles for filtering purpose.000. lawn and the part of the roof water normally flows to the road would be harvested by constructing a collection trench measuring 2.5m x 0. This will be covered with a metal grill for easy vehicular movement. Two numbers of trench cum percolation pits will be constructed in two gates and the total cost will be Rs 40.0.75 m depth.

85 =1254. Kharghar : Another case study was observed to be carried out for Anoopam Mission Centre. The initial rooftop rainwater with silt is flushed out to the sew age drain.092L/day Fig.1. 600 Litres/4moths Assuming 50 days of the rainy days per year the Harvestable Water per day =25.The first flush device is a diversion valve of 3 inch size.m.000 litres through a filtration chamber of size 1m x 1m x 1m.000/- 3. the rainwater can be directly routed to existing storage tanks through filtration chamber. 3 : Trench cum Percolation Pit 3.250x0. Quantity of Water available =656sq. and Navi Mumbai. Catchment’s Area & Potential Rainwater Quantity : Consider the Terrace (Roof top) Area as the minimum catchment’s area available: 656 Sq.6m3 =12. This sump can be either in addition to the existing tanks or if the drinking water is stored in separate tank. The options for RWH proposed a) Storage of Rainwater b) Recharging Underground Aquifers The Average Annual Rainfall in the region is 2250 mm with Runoff coefficient 0. 4 : Design of Storage Tank Design 48 . 54. Kharghar. filtering tank & interconnecting pipes is 72.m x 2.As per our observation the association has routed the complete roof water to the existing storage tank of capacity 50.Fig.3 Storage tank system: The rainwater can be stored in a sub surface concrete tank below ground level and will be used for flushing purpose.85 (as per CSE).2 RWH proposal for Anoopam Mission Centre. Then the filtered water from the filtering tank is connected to the storage tank. The cost of constructing the storage tank along with first flush.

Ekta Woods of Ekta Shelters Builder at Borivli (East). ponds etc or as ground water by injecting into the soil aquifers.000 to Rs 1. THE PROJECT ON RWH AT Fr. m.3. No fertilizers or pesticides should be allowed to enter the system. the rainwater harvesting system was in the final stage of construction. Housing Society. If ground water is brackish.85 = 612 (cu. A.720 L /day Total Water Requirements =27.00.1 Factors Influencing RWH potential: There are various factors which are influencing RWH potential. The choice of the system depends on • Geography of area.000 (Average cost per flat = Rs 1350/. 2. Assuming the average yearly rainfall in Bombay of 2 metre high per sq.100 per flat which is just 0.to 1965/-) ============================================== 3. COMPLEX : A project is being undertaken for the feasibility study of Rainwater Harvesting for the buildings in the premises of Fr.000 to Rs 60. Agnel Technical Education Complex. It can be done in two ways. 18. Rainwater harvesting is catching rainwater.000 Settlement tank and filtration tank: Rs 15. Lokhandwala Township. topographical features of the site etc. since rain water that is not harvested both within . when and where it falls for the use. runoff coefficient of site 4.m x 2m x 0.000L Total Flushing Requirements = 11. m. The harvestable rainwater volume: 360 sq. having three wings of eight floors each and four flats on each floor. 4. m.2. T. Thus with the above data a suitable size of the tank can be arrived. 4. Flooding of low lying areas and roads can be avoided to a large extent.000 ============================================== Total cost : Rs 75.2 Benefits Projects on RWH: 1.2 RWH for Ekta Woods : In the month of February 2006 it was observed that a new group of 49 buildings. Vashi.000 to 30.000 litres One-time estimated cost of installing a rainwater harvesting system is evaluated as shown below: For 50-250ft deep bore well : Rs 45. That means the total flats are 56 with the area of terrace equal to 360 sq. Kandivli there are two wings of seven floors each and four flats on each floor. • Ecological and climate conditions • Rainfall available at the site • The rainfall Pattern • Site characteristics like type of catchments. 10.750L 60 Day staff or Personnel @ 45L/h/day =2.Water Requirements /day (Min): 50 Residents @ 135 L/ h /day =6. A casual enquiry with the sitesupervisor revealed that its total cost was about Rs 300.000 adjacent to bore well Piping work: Rs 15. When you average it out across the collective 96 flats in the three wings it worked out to just Rs 3.000. 3. The terrace and filter media needs to be cleaned before letting water into tank and mesh filter should be provides at the rainwater pipe inlet. harvesting will reduce the salinity of water. Rain water harvesting replenishes the ground water table and enables the dug wells and bore wells to yield in a sustained manner.m = 2.000 to Rs 20. E.3 RWH in Urban Housing Societies 3.1 Potential and estimate of installing rainwater harvesting in a 12-year old building in Kandivli : In the Coronet Co-op.17 per cent of the average cost of a flat of Rs.) = 612.100L /day Garden Requirements = 680 Sqm @ 4L/sq.000.700L 1000 Visitors @15L/h/day =15. either by diverting it into tanks. 3. The rain water from the terrace is to be routed to an underground Rainwater Storage Tank though a silt trap & 2 filtering tanks each of 1mx 1mx1m size with a facility for bypass or overflow into Cidco Storm Water Drain or Nallah. The research is being carried out as a part of the one of the objectives of Agnel Seva Ashram (ASA) as to ‘Save Electricity & Water Abhiyan’(SEWA).170 L /day The harvested rainwater can be used for flushing and gardening purposes. It is an attempt to make a standby arrangement or emergency supply services for the water needs of the complex.

50 liters which can be used for drinking purpose. 5 : Routing rainwater to the storage tanks 50 Fig. 5. Plan B : To dig a trench of 3m deep and 1m wide along the inside portion of the compound wall and fill it with HDPE (High Density Poly Ethylene) Film and clay along the length of the wall of the campus as shown in the fig 6. Then using the bore wells of 15m to 18m deep we will pump out the existing saline water from the soil creating the voids which can be recharged with the rainwater.750 liters (considering 85litres consumption per day per capita excluding drinking water requirement). rain ground. economy and equity in the water use through co-operative management of water sheds and command area.020.campus. We are also trying to construct open well instead of bore well if it is feasible. These two buildings have got rain water harvesting potential per year of 16. Rain water harvesting can be used for irrigation purpose. There is one more tank of capacity 1.630 liters.6 Compound Wall of HDPE Film . One of the water pumps would be pumping the water from these three interconnected tanks supplying water to the buildings of Boy’s hostel & BalBhavan for flushing. Fig.3 The various plans of RWH : • Plan A : The first option is to utilize the three existing water tanks of fire fighting system of capacity 1.C. 4. The care should be taken that we pump less quantity of water than what we will recharge. It ensures efficiency. and sea and sewage water.the house as well as out side is responsible for flooding.A. It prevents unsustainable exploitation of the aquifer.25.E.400 liters (50800*3) to fill the rainwater collected from the roof top. Then we can take two additional bore wells to retrieve this stored water during non monsoon season. 7. 6. This will not allow the saline sea water to drip into the soil of Fr. Devas filters and filtration chambers. We can route the rainwater pipes of the BalBhavan & Boy’s hostel Building to these tanks through proper interconnected pipes. There is a provision to divert the BMC water supply to this tank with a flow control valve to fill the other three tanks if these tanks remain empty. 4.T.52. It promotes conjunctive use of river.35. The yearly flushing requirement for the two building per year is 71. Using the recharge well technique we will fill the underground aquifers with the rainwater collected from the roof tops as shown in Fig 7.

Assuming the requirement of 85L /capita/day The total requirement of water for = 230X85x365 = 19. These tanks can be used only to store water for flushing purpose. These tanks can be interconnected in such a way that. The rainwater pipes can be routed to these tanks fitted in the houses. 5.5 L / Day.1 PLAN A: Total Catchments area of = 530 + 320 = 850 m2 Boy’s Hostel and BalBhavan Average annual rainfall = 2.55 m3 /Day =136.5 X 0. With proper filtration system incorporated we can even use rainwater stored in these tanks for drinking purpose. This plan has limitations of high initial investment cost of constructing tanks of Rs.625 L (By considering 50 Rainy days) Quantity of harvestable water = 32. 8 : Rainwater Harvesting for Bal Bhavan Building 51 .• Plan C : The third plan is most assured way of getting the rain water collected from the roof tops.25 m in Navi-Mumbai Total quantity of Harvestable Water = 850 X 2. PILOT STUDY FOR DIFERENT PLANS 5. This includes collecting the water from the rooftops into underground tanks or open wells designed according to rooftop area and the average annual rain fall. However this is the most ensured way of getting the rainwater during the no monsoon season. • Plan D : In this plan we are planning to mount loft tanks wherever necessary in staff quarters.512. Fig.1000/per m 3 and regular maintenance of the filters.85 = 1625.25 = 1912.7 Recharging bore well with Wall of HDPE Film (For four months) Total quantity of water available = 16.625 m3 Fig.5m3 Considering 15% losses = 1912.85m3/Week both the buildings. water starts filling the tank on the adjacent lower floor. 25. once the tank on the upper floor is full.550L/day = 19.

4.25 m in Navi-Mumbai Total quantity of Harvestable = 2500 x 2.152. Average annual rainfall = 2.e.250 L (For four months) (By considering 50 Rainy days) Quantity of Harvestable water = 95.85m3 during rainy season. filters and filtration chambers.5=12 days of non monsoon season saving the equivalent cost of Rs.4 m3.per Year.800L each through proper interconnected pipes. This will be sufficient for 450/37.400L i.625 m3 Water Considering 15% losses = 5625 x 0. Then the total volume of 450m3 rain water can be harvested by the method of under ground storage water tank.781.11 A open tank constructed with HDPE film . Fig. 9 Rainwater Harvesting for Boys Hostel Building Fig. Agnel Degree &Diploma Buildings 5. As per the quotation available per day Assuming the requirement of 15L /capita/day The total requirement of water = 2500 x 15 = 37.4/19.625 L / Day 5.25 = 5.85 = 4.55 = 8 days during summer season.25 m3 Total quantity of water available = 47.500L/day = 37. Also after the monsoon this water will be sufficient for 152. m. The total size of water that can be stored will be 1.52.2 PLAN C: Total catchments area = 2500 sq. 81. we have decided to route the rainwater pipes of the BalBhavan & Boy’s hostel buildings to the existing three tanks of fire fighting system of capacity 50.10 Rainwater Harvesting of Fr.This will be quite sufficient for weekly storage of rainwater 136.3 PLAN B : We are trying to implement this plan by first doing hydro geological investigation and estimating the rough estimate of construction of gravel pack ring well cum bore well. This is necessary to be carried out in order to identify points or locations for ground water development.As mentioned earlier.5m3 /Day If we design and construct two tanks of size 15m length X 5m Width X 3m depth having the total Area = 225m3 52 Fig.950/.

210/-.22 56.4 OBSERVATION TABLES After carrying out the pilot study we have made a observation Table 1.5 1785 10430 55.The cost of the film is around Rs.45 TOTAL RATE : TOTAL COST 4374.19 7.from one of the consultants the assessment cost will be Rs 7. Also Table 2 shows the rough estimate of the particulars of Plan A which very soon we have decided to implement. HDPE film of gauge 500 micron can be used as imperious film in the trench that we are going to excavate . 28.500/After this assessment we will be able to conclude whether we can take open well or not.C.This also facilitate cost benefit analysis of the project. I 1 2 3 4 5 II III IV 1 2 3 PARTICULAR ITEM PVC PIPES DIA. NO.1 9339 5236 2862 34225 4200 700 2683.89 1. For protection against the saline water to enter inside the soil of the complex.160mm DEVAS FILTER ELBOWS 45° ANGLE EXACUVATION P. Also the estimate for one gravel pack ring well cum bore well given including all taxes is 1.469.120mm DIA.50 per m2.5 7 7 17.100mm DIA. 5.53.C. comparing the water harvesting potential of each building with the annual water requirement .6 29.150mm DIA.92 15. The rate of excavation depends on the strata below the ground. We have to calculate the film area required and the quantity of excavation of the trench. BRICK WORK UNIT m m m m m m3 m3 m3 RATE / UNIT 155 165 175 180 185 600 100 150 15000 1400 TOTAL QNTY.9 18.140mm DIA.10/- 53 .

Fig.12 Fr. The crucial factor is soil assessment and determination in what way we can recharge and retrieve the rainwater.13 : Manufacturing of Devas Filters for Water Purification 54 . This will be the area of our further research. FURTHER STUDIES IN PROGRESS We have decided to first implement Plan A which involves designing the interconnecting pipes with DEVAS filters. Vashi 6.each. The following figure shows the DEVAS filters which can be manufactured easily from PVC pipes and sands of various sizes. 600/. Agnel Technical Education Complex. The rain pipes will be connected to main pipeline through these filters that are costing approximately Rs. Fig.

RAINWATER HARVESTING UNITES THEM”. ‘Technical Report for rainwater harvesting’.. complexes since it makes us more self sufficient and less dependent on government for our requirements of fresh water.Without doing farming we can not get grains.rainwaterharvesting. …. pp. Available from: http:// www. Dhanyanm Krishya Vina Na Ch || Tasmad Sarvam Parityajya. Krushim Yatnen Karayet ||1|| || Vrustimula Krushi Sarva.. CONCLUSION and FUTURE SCOPE As per our Vedic scriptures the Great Saint Parashara says || Annam Hi Dhanya Sanjatam. Proceedings of Traditional Wisdom in Water Management. Therefore leaving every thing aside we should do harvesting. New Delhi • M. The Indian Council for Water & Culture. Navi Mumbai • Gopal Chandorkar (2005). 55 . Let us make a sincere attempt to harvest rainwater falling on both rooftop as well as the open area all around our homes to prevent any further deterioration of ground water source. We should feel proud of harvesting rainwater in our own houses and flats. 8. Parjanya Mapan va Purva Anuman. As the root of agriculture is in the rains.Vrushti dhnyanam Samacharet ||2|| “Which means we get food from grains. Therefore we should very meticulously study the rains” Thus in the direction of his guidance we march forward to get more and more knowledge about rain harvesting and water management. October 2005. A National Conference at Nasik. (2005). Vrushti Mulam Ch Jeevanam || Tasmadadau Prayatnen. A Water Harvesting Manual. REFERENCES • Anil Agarwal. Centre For Science And Environment. Jacob. Aurangabad “WATER SCARCITY DIVIDE PEOPLE…. life is dependent on rains.7.org Accessed: 2006-0723 • Sunita Narain & Rahul Ranade (2003). 96-101.

Keywords. improving health and alleviating poverty. Ambawadi. Unless facilities for the treatment of domestic sewage and industrial effluents are manifold increased. Board of Governors. industrial growth and other demands for maintaining ecology. Goel **V. Co-chairman. recycle. Gandhinagar (Gujrat) – 382043 E-mail . It is to be stressed that non-development of water storage projects is not a viable or available option. Availability of water in India is under tremendous stress due to growing population. Former Chairman. The article would help the policy planners. Manekbaug Society. Integrated water management is most vital for poverty reduction. Former Chairman. water management. Central Water Commission. Water Related National Professional Societies. Patel ABSTRACT Safe water supply and environmental sanitation are vital for protecting the environment. INTRODUCTION It is estimated that 80% of all diseases and over 1/3 rd of deaths are caused by consumption of contaminated water and on an average as much as 1/10th of each person’s productive time is sacrificed to water related diseases. improving health and alleviating poverty. Indian Water Resources Society. It is imperative that conservation. due to the large temporal variations in river flows in Indian monsoonic climate.water quality. rapid urbanization. wastewater. Nagpur 10.goelrscwc@yahoo. B. increase in per-capita consumption. Water Management Forum.com **Vice-President. Indian Water Resources Society. reuse. Central Water commission. the quality of surface water as well as ground water is deteriorating in India. Safe water supply and environmental sanitation are vital for protecting the environment. the increasing pollution load due to urbanization will further deteriorate the quality of water bodies. water pollution accounts for about 60% of the major annual environmental costs in India. Narmada Tapi Basin Organisation. Water Management Forum. environmental sustenance and sustainable economic development in India because water has the potential for both disease causation and prevention. recycle. According to the World Bank estimates. 128. Measures for Water Conservation and Improvement in Water Quality *R. Water Related National Professional Societies. This article highlights the challenges in supplying the qualitative water for the bulging requirements of water for various uses in our highly populated country and suggests measures to overcome the serious crisis. India supports 1/6th of the world’s population on 1/50th of world’s land with meager 1/25th of the world’s water resources.Ahmedabad–38 00 52 E-mail . Due to the indiscriminate discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents into natural water bodies. S. municipal agencies and professional societies to properly focus and channelise their energy for integrated water resources development and management. Chief Engineer. reuse of precious water and proper *Former Vice-President. Sector 10 A. Deteriorating water quality has become a serious problem. Coordination Committee. Preserving the quality and the availability of the freshwater resources is the most pressing of the many environmental challenges on the national horizon.vbpatel@multimantech. Convenor. Former Convenor of Programmes. Coordination Committee. 2006.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov.com 56 .

which create spatially distributed resources. and fitting of wastenot taps on public stand-posts to avoid wastage of water should be encouraged. Waste water generated in these areas normally percolates in the soil or evaporates. Already there is acute shortage of drinking water supply in cities like Bangalore. The measure for water conservation should include metering of supplies as a matter of policy and increase in tariff rate on a sliding scale. CONCENTRATED WATER NEEDS DUE TO RAPID URBANIZATION During last 50 years the share of urban population in the country has increased from 14% to 33%. Mumbai. During the last fifty years the population of India has grown two and half times. Hyderabad and Chennai and water is being transmitted long distance to cater to the needs. but Urban India has grown by nearly five times. Use of treated effluents. the quality of surface water as well as ground water is deteriorating. The smaller towns and rural areas do not contribute significant amounts of sewage due to low per capita water supply. WATER CONSERVATION Water Conservation has three broad connotations. thereby increasing the oxygen demand in shrinking water bodies and increasing the bacterial load of water. About 80% of about 20% collected . groundwater exploitations. A result of this is that the principal drinking water supply sources of cities and towns are becoming polluted of which is increasing considerably the cost of water treatment. A large part of the sewage in most of the municipalities is still flowing into the aquatic environment without any treatment. Delhi and Chennai. Between years 2000 and 2050 freshwater withdrawals by urban areas will rise from an estimated minimum of about 15 BCM to a projected maximum of about 60 BCM. They should be aware of the costs involved. Owing to the indiscriminate discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents into natural water bodies. All urban dwellers should be made aware of the source from which water is being brought to the city and from which additional water will have to be brought in the future. there is a scope of economy in use of water.treatment of waste are given serious attention for sustainability of built environment for our highly populated country. industrial. In Industrial sector also. Options like watershed management. rainwater harvesting. Delhi. maximum storage of rainwater. 12 metropolitan cities accounted for about 65 percent. India’s population has already crossed 1 billion mark and it has been assessed that the urban population may reach 50% of the total population by the middle of this century. are unable to meet these concentrated demands. Calcutta. as against about 33% at present. Mumbai and Delhi generated more wastewater than that generated in all the Class II cities together. economical and optimal use including prevention of wastage/ leakage and multiple use – Reuse and Recycling. Even in the mega cities namely Mumbai. Public awareness should be generated through a massive campaign of communication through all available media and by the utility management itself setting an example for conservation. Urban centers contribute more than 25% of the sewage generation in the country. In urban water supply almost 30 to 40% of the water is wasted through the distribution system. the main cause of water borne diseases. not only in financial 57 terms. in place of filtered water for horticulture and large gardens. This will result in massive pollution of fresh surface water resources. cattle and recreational purposes is proving a Herculean task and calls for creating concentrated sources of water to meet the concentrated demands. wherein about two third of the total wastewater of 23 metro cities is generated. WASTEWATER GENERATION Between years 2000 and 2050 freshwater withdrawals by urban areas will rise from an estimated minimum of about 15 BCM to a projected maximum of about 60 BCM. Supply of safe drinking water to such a large urban population besides meeting the commercial. Discharge of untreated domestic waste water is predominant source of pollution of aquatic resources in India. but also the cost that other communities have to incur in terms of opportunity lost by not using the water. About 80 percent will be returned as polluted wastewater to nearby surface water bodies. Of the wastewater generated in Class I cities. the waste management is highly unsatisfactory despite the huge infrastructure and paraphernalia due to many socio-political and managerial problems.

In the 8th five-year plan 24 highly polluted stretches in rivers of 16 states were identified and Ganga Action Plan Phase I & II were launched which were later on integrated into National River Conservation Plan. Further. Waste Water Generation from Different types of Industries and Possible Reuse Industry Average Volume of Wasteland per Unit of Product 155 kl.. sugar.wastewater in these cities was receiving primary or primary and secondary treatment. are Uttar Pradesh. Almost all the wastewater was being disposed in the rivers and agricultural lands. iron and steel.5 kl. The integration of proper water supply. affecting surface and ground water. Gujrat. only 5% was being collected and only 2% was receiving some kind of treatment. The major water polluting industries are leather./tonne 15 lit/lit of alcohol 250 lit/kg cloth 34 lit/kg of raw hides Possible Percent Reuse 98 50 40 40 25 15 12 Thermal Power Plant Pulp & Paper Iron and steel Pharmaceutical Distillery Textile Tannery The main challenge lies in devising instruments. which make it attractive for corporate sector to conserve and recycle water by adopting less water intensive processes and encourage material recovery. but the pollution load in earlier times was within the self-purification capacity of these streams. paper and pulp. deteriorated in quality due to organic. Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Greater abstraction of water./1000 lit/tonne 4. creating highly alarming situation. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION About 75% of domestic water supplies from urban areas come back as return flow. A large part of industrial water pollution is caused by small-scale units. Analysis of water quality data for 1997 reveals that Gujarat tops in chemical pollution. The direct regulation of the “Command and control Type” has not worked due to weaknesses in enforcement coupled with low level of penalty. Tamilnadu and Assam. Focus of the River Action Plans has been on sewage with very little success with regard to the other two forms of water pollution viz. Many of the modern water pollutants are nonbiodegradable. Tamilnadu . 58 especially during lean season for various diverse uses has greatly diminished the dry flows in streams. followed by Maharashtra. GROUND WATER POLLUTION Regulation and conservation of ground water present technical and administrative difficulties . distilleries. Even though. pooling of resources for this common cause has not found favour with small scale & cottage industry. chemical and bacterial pollution. The increasing discharge of domestic and industrial wastes has also led to the contamination of ground water. In some regions. moderation of floods and increasing the dry season flows is imperative. a scheme titled Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) has not been uniformity successful as different units within the same complex release different types of effluents which cannot be treated through a single technology. the pollution load is now manifold and beyond the self-purification capacity of the rivers. perceived benefit from conservation must be more than the cost of compliance. Due to the bulk of discharge of effluents with very heavy doses of impurities of the modern day world which are mostly untreated. The worst affected states in terms of presence of coliform bacteria in water./tonne 150 kl. drains and rivers have been functioning as waste disposal channels from time immemorial. To reverse this situation. chemicals./hr/MW 250 kl. Under regulation of this kind. More important. Andhra Pradesh. recycling and reuse of water. roof water harvesting and adequate sanitation facilities in all cities and bigger towns is absolutely vital for revival and maintaining the integrity and purity of rivers eco-system. out of the wastewater generated in Class II cities. In terms of BOD values Kerala is at the bottom and Maharashtra at the top (most polluted). For small scale sector. over-exploitation of ground water has led to salinity ingress and severe depletion of ground water accentuated by low recharge capabilities. making it unfit for human consumption at many places. industrial pollution and agricultural run off. and metal plating.

Besides. renovation and regeneration (summed up by the term “4-R Concept”) must be practiced with utmost keenness. industrial pollution.because precise delineation of aquifers is difficult and monitoring and control of extraction by large numbers of individually owned wells is not feasible. the grey water and black water from large residential complexes like Cooperative Housing Societies. thereby affecting ground water quality. the pollutants may migrate to the saturated zone along with recharge water. therefore. Strict regulations be made requiring that not more than 5% phosphorus in detergents. municipal pollution. Phosphorus. both aquatic and terrestrial. Possible health risks to agricultural workers should. besides doing so to meet moral or legal liability associated with disposal of wastewater. suitable for schemes for wastewater reuse. Otherwise. sodium tri-polyphosphate (STTP) softens the water thus helping to remove dirt from clothes and to keep the dirt off during the washing cycle. water conservation strategy in industries should include introduction of appropriate technology to ensure efficient use of cooling and process water and necessary pollution control mechanisms and maximum recycling and reuse. depending upon the characteristics of the pollutants and application of water. duckweed ponds are quite effective in treating municipal wastewater and at the same time the harvested duckweed is a good fish and chicken feed. The grey water may be put into . 30 to 40 % of the municipal water is wasted through the distribution system. re-use is done by using effluent for other purposes. evaporation control etc. there is a scope of economy in use of water. Accordingly. As such. However. causing loss in aesthetic and recreational values of water. with periods of return of investments ranging from a few months to less than five years. A common ingredient. for treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater. ECOLOGICAL IMBALANCES DUE TO DETERGENTS The health risk posed by phosphate rich detergents is not yet recognized in India despite a worldwide awareness and ban in several countries in Europe and America. part of STPP is an essential nutrient for the growth of aquatic plants and as such adds to the cultural eutrophication. Thus it makes sense to practice recycling/re-use for economic reasons. There are various options for recycling and reuse of grey water (bathroom and kitchen wash) and black water (sewage). 10 to 30% saving in water consumption in industries is possible by recycling. and regeneration refers to replenishment of a water source in a natural manner. however. there is a need to develop appropriate and cost effective technologies. Similarly. multistoried buildings and industrial effluents from large industries can be recycled and reused for various purposes other than drinking. Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) is monitoring the quality of ground water at 16. kill fish and increase pathogenic organism.000 hydrograph stations in the country. recycling. In Industrial sector too. a process in which the excess nutrients result in algae bloom. As per estimates by Bureau of Industrial Costs and Prices. EFFECTIVE RECYCLE AND REUSE OF WATER In urban water supply. be assessed thoroughly and monitored regularly. The reasons for ground water pollution mainly related to the faulty agricultural practices. Recycling and re-use has been demonstrated to be cost-effective in a large number of cases. suitable to Urban Local Bodies for their adoption. renovation refers to treatment to the (tertiary) level 59 so that it is fit for use like fresh water. Recycling refers to repeating the same use. Treatment of wastewater in stabilization ponds is an effective and low-cost method of pathogen removal. re-use. Treated wastewater should conform to pollution control standards for adopting reuse practice. it may enter the food chain. WASTE WATER TREATMENT Care is necessary that treated wastewater does not contain toxic matter beyond a threshold. Detergents contain many ingredients which could be a threat to the environment and human health. particularly for irrigation of crops. mine pollution and natural pollutants present in the ground water itself. Apart from ensuring leakage control. wastewater can damage fertility of soil and quality of ground water if its constituents are not kept within the prescribed limit For the most economic disposal of wastewater from various sources. and is. modifications in processing.

Fast catching up practice of selling mineral water bottles at rates even more than milk and more than 1000 times than the tap water in India is paradoxical. While half of our population is unable to afford even the absolute minimum needs to quench their thirst. in case the Urban Local Bodies on their own would like to take the initiative and set up waste reuse. MARKETING BOTTLED WATER Considerably more satisfaction and benefit can be obtained from the present water supply system. recycling and resource recovery schemes in their respective areas. Their merits include: effectiveness. Economic instruments may provide incentives to economic actors inducting them to behave in an environmentally responsible manner. The black water may also be put into various types of treatment such as screen. many of the industrial houses are using the recycled industrial effluent for purposes such as air-conditioning. Under the scope of the polluter pays principle we can consider of such subsidies as originating from funds created on the basis of pollution related charges (e. recycling and resource recovery. cooling etc.g. Similarly. Costly systems are constructed. fire-fighting etc. acidification funds). acidification funds). horticulture. Under 60 the scope of the polluter pays principle we can consider of such subsidies such as originating from funds created on the basis of pollution related charges (e. PROTECTION OF NATURAL WATER RESOURCES Responsibility should be fixed on various civic and industrial authorities to treat the wastewater before disposing it in conveyance drains or natural streams. and the treated waste water can be let into wet land for irrigation or for ground water recharge. INCENTIVES AND LEGAL ASPECTS Suitable fiscal concessions and subsidies may be considered by the Central and State Governments to the industries. The pathogenic. flushing of sewers. It may be made mandatory in phases that large industries and commercial establishments must meet a sizeable percentage of their non-potable water requirements from the reclaimed water. the wastewater from housing complexes and community’s toilets are recycled and reused for horticulture purposes and irrigation. RENTING OF WATER Above economic instruments provide incentives to economic actors inducing them to behave in an environmentally responsible manner. and can be reused for gardening and horticulture etc. anaerobic filter etc and the filtered water may be let into wet land. similar fiscal concessions and subsidies may also be made available to them. recycling and resource recovery.g. For example. State wise river basin conservation plan should be formulated for different basins. polishing ponds etc. The municipal wastewater and industrial effluent may be treated up-to tertiary level and used for various purposes other than drinking by various industries and cities. efficiency. Only water supply utilities should be allowed to bottle and market the bottled water to generate much-needed funds for modernization and proper maintenance of existing infrastructure. In Pondicherry Ashram. reclaimed water should only be used. but for want of proper operation and maintenance. State Governments may create Urban Development Fund for Urban Infrastructure development and the same can also be used for setting up of pilot projects for waste reuse. efficiency. grit removal primary. Similarly. Water quality should be monitored regularly at every out-fall drain. Their merits include: effectiveness. flexibility and incentives for eco-innovation. the benefits are not received by the people who have to incur considerable private costs and have to resort to alternate means or supplementary sources. flexibility and incentives for eco-innovation. Farmers and low income industries may not be charged at the rate of charges fixed for high yielding industries. watering public lawns/gardens. commercial establishments and any other agencies which adopt/practice waste reuse. secondary and tertiary treatment etc. Another important thing about pricing of water may be costing it according to its end use. for irrigating crops. in Chennai the Chennai Metro Board is providing 30mld treated municipal wastewater to Ennore Thermal Power Plant for recycle and reuse for cooling & other purposes. Likewise in Mumbai. toxic and biological and physico-chemical effects of various types of water .various types of treatment such as grease trap. if managed efficiently.

Supreme Court Majority Judgement for Narmada Projects has also highlighted that against the utilisable storage 690 cu.pollution in different scenario and regions should be scientifically analysed.529 human lives and 94. Droughts accentuate problems in cities in the form of mushrooming of slums and pressure on the existing civil amenities thereby adversely affecting urban life. Thus. resulting in abnormal lowering of ground water table thus accentuating the distress. Delta region. understood and suitable action plans should be framed. The water shortages would be far more serious in the water short basins like the Cauvery.5 m. ha of which crop area affected is about 3. kitchens and laundries to flush the toilets. crops & precious plants and deaths of aquatic and wildlife. spread of epidemics.. should be targeted for adoption in at least in all new construction of commercial institutions and planned colonies in all class I and II cities. Mahi. Pennar. Return flows from irrigated areas pollute river water with residual fertilizers. which works out to 1/3rd of the total Indian geographical area. The average area affected by floods annually in India is about 7. Ramganga. U. West Bengal. requiring sufficient raising of water storage capacities. Bihar. Haryana. The after effects of floods like the agony of survivors. 61 Large storage projects are essentially required for diverting surplus water from flood prone areas to deficit areas. of surface water resources out of 1869 cu. SOCIO-ECONOMIC & ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FLOODS Over 40 million hectares of the area of the country experiences periodic floods. non availability of essential commodities and medicines and loss of their dwellings make floods most feared natural disaster being faced by human kind. During the drought years there is a marked tendency of intensive exploitation of ground water.000 cattle ever year. pesticides and herbicides. Use of low flushing and dry toilets as well as use of ‘grey water’ drained from showers. Karnataka and Tamilnadu could face heavy water supply shortfalls. thus necessitating completion of new large water storage projects. migratory and native birds in various National Parks. it would be necessary to ensure substantial augmentation of water supplies. have always been the matter of serious concern. and Krishna etc. ha. Arunachal. without using so much water. ACCELERATED WATER STORAGE DEVELOPMENT Water demands forecasts show that Rajasthan. Large-scale damages to forests.. QUESTIONABLE USE OF WATER AS A CARRIER OF WASTES The traditional way of removing wastes from industries. SOCIO-ECONOMIC & ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF DROUGHTS It is estimated that around 263 million people live in drought prone area of about 108 m.ha.. maintenance of river eco-system or other public necessities. There are many better alternatives to treat the waste at its origin.P. sense of insecurity and fear in the minds of people living in the flood plains is enormous. Apart from loss of life and domestic property. km. on a wide spectrum of social concerns. km. Hirakud. To meet the bulging water requirements. river regime. low altitude hilly areas and alluvial flood plains of Assam. more than 26% of total population of the country face the consequences of recurring droughts. MINIMUM FLOW REQUIREMENT Quality of river waters is deteriorating with large number of municipal and industrial effluents being discharged untreated into rivers. Uttrakhand. Pong etc.5 m. Such traditional and highly unscientific method of using water carriers of wastes need to be closely examined. River Valley Projects such as Bhakra. fauna and domestic cattle and the very life itself fights against nature for its survival. Grave adverse impacts are borne by flora. arise out of the need to maintain water quality. Indira Gandhi Nahar Project has been a boon for large tracts of Rajasthan in alleviating droughts. Necessity for maintaining minimum flow therefore. collated. Gujarat. the devastating effects of floods. Floods have claimed on an average 1. so far storage capacity . and homes has been to dilute them in water and then carry this wastewater over long distances to extract most of the waste in the sludge. Sabarmati. leaving polluted water as effluent. Maharashtra. Orissa. have proved highly successful in moderating the magnitudes as well as frequencies of floods.

publication and documentation services. and only 12 cu. professional expertise. which is incidently less than the capacity of Kariba Dam in Zambia/Zimbabwe with capacity of 180. The controversy of the large versus small dams is irrelevant. more than the Aswan High Dam of Egypt. WORKING GROUP ON WATER RELATED ECOLOGICAL MATTERS Considering the seriousness and deteriorating state of affairs concerning quality and quantity of available water particularly for urban use. Association of Hydrologists of India & Indian Buildings Congress having vast network. but also to be integrated to participate in the planning and management of such projects and pollution prevention programmes. depends upon the hydrological. We must realize the basic fact that the medium and small water projects as well as water harvesting schemes cannot substitute the need of large water storages but can at best complement the larger projects. Central Pollution Control Board and Member (River Management). Urban Development & Poverty Alleviation. Indian Association of Hydrologists. The Group consisted of the representatives of the Planning Commission. 2001 under the Chairmanship of Secretary (Water Resources). The first author of this article was inducted as Member Secretary for the Group. otherwise. People have to be made an integral part of the water management system. alarming water pollution levels and challenges in managing water related ecological concerns. M-12018/1/2000-E&F dated 8th January. economic and ethical sustainability blended with technical feasibility requires a holistic and integrated approach involving engineering. The community is to be made not only water conscious. too. Central Ground Water Board. Professional 62 societies can act as multi-disciplinary fora for national and regional debates. library. Participation of people is a must in the management of water. whereas water in insufficient quantity claims large chunks of time spent in augmenting the supply. Agriculture & Cooperation. Indian National Science Academy. Indian Society of Hydraulics. km. The Institution of Engineers (India). good spread and pool of expertise may be channelised in debating. CWC. socio-economic and environmental aspects. These societies can serve as rich sources in generating technically sound options with well-defined limitations & assumptions in Indian peculiar situations for taking informed decisions. dissemination and creating balanced scientific public awareness. Department of Ocean Development as well as Chairman. The services of professional Societies like Indian Water Resources Society. Confederation of Indian Industries and the Ministries of Environment and Forests. No. Chairman. Indian Water Works Association. Water Management Forum.. km. Rural Development. analysis and framing of action plans on water related matters by utilizing their infrastructure. Sustainable management of water resources with due respect to ecological. It is unfortunate that a smear campaign has been launched during last two decades against hydropower and water resources projects by exaggerating the likely or assumed adverse environmental impacts and by suppressing their need and tremendous benefits. a Working Group on Water Related Ecological Matters for X Five Year Plan was formed vide Planning Commission’s O. Chairman. Expansion of storage capacity by completing on-going projects and construction of new projects is imperative to enhance water availability.6 cu. This. Knowledge about the changes required in cropping patterns and agronomic practices also must be communicated to farmers to sensitise them about the constraints of water supply and motivate them to use it carefully and efficiently. Working Group in its Report has suggested that the following measures may yield significant benefits from the overcoming crisis in the field of water related ecological arena : Strict measures to ensure proper treatment of waste water . Water of poor quality leads to ill health. Industrial Development.of all dams in India is only 174 cu. km. topographical and regional limitations.M. the significant time could be spent on more remunerative tasks. geological. Central Water Commission. The impact on environment should be seen in relation to the project as a whole. ROLE OF COMMUNITIES AND PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES It is essential that environmental aspects and the process of planning and operation of water resources projects be fairly understood by the experts of different disciplines.

. Deteriorating water quality has become a serious problem. • Goel R. 2000. REFERENCES • Central Water Commission. power. Further. ‘Environment Impacts Assessment of Water Resources Projects’. • Goel R. by few environmental activists and novelists.S. Encourage ground water recharging with strict monitoring of the water quality To create public awareness on water conservation and economical water usage.(Editor). and the social aspects like bare necessities of life in the areas of water.(Editor). Preserving the quality and the availability of the freshwater resources is the most pressing of the many environmental challenges on the national horizon. Encouraging professional societies for feedback.S. due to stoppage and slowing down the construction of almost all major dams. Encourage rain-water harvesting. Pvt. ignoring the bulging demands of water and power for municipal uses in metro cities. housing and nutrition. Conservation. CONCLUSION India supports 1/6th of the world’s population on 1/50th of world’s land with meager 1/25th of the world’s water resources. M/S Oxford & IBH Publishing Ltd. which are said to improve the quality of life. ISBN-81-204-1422-5. M/s Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. (Editor). ‘Environmental Management in Hydropower and River Valley Projects’. political instability and street fights are already on the horizon. without professional analysis. Publication No. reuse of precious water and proper treatment of waste water must be given serious attention for sustainability of built environment for our highly populated country. 2000. documentation and proper dissemination Research and development activities in the area of water quality management Impose restriction in water abstraction and ensuring discharge of only treated sewage/ trade effluent on land. education. Social tensions. • Goel R. New Delhi. roof top harvesting for indigenous consumption To utilize self assimilation capacities to minimize cost of effluent treatment. In such peculiar conditions.The views in the article may not belong to the Authors’ Organisations. health. recycle. ‘Environmental Impacts of Water Resources Development’. We would have to maintain a balance between the thrust areas of development (infrastructure and consumer goods). Ltd. food. rivers and other water bodies with a view to mitigating crisis of water quality. 1993. 80% of all diseases and over 1/3rd of deaths are caused by consumption of contaminated water and on an average as much 63 as 1/10 th of each person’s productive time is sacrificed to water related diseases. and Srivastava R. 2000 ‘River Valley Projects and Environment-Concerns and Management’. • Goel R. New Delhi. New Delhi.(Editors).N. the initiative for interlinking of rivers in India so as to meet the bulging demands of water for various uses even for water starved states is highly commendable and timely. ISBN-81-204-1423-3. fiber.Strict enforcing of responsibility on users for waste treatment before discharging into water bodies Local bodies should be responsibile for maintaining CETPs Economic Instruments as incentives and subsidies to induce users accountability to curb increasing water demands and to encourage recycling and reuse of water Suitable cess collected on marketing of water bottles be exclusively reserved for modernization of public water supply systems. S. 61/2000.. .S. due to the large temporal variations in river flows in Indian monsoonic climate. It is to be stressed that non-development of water storage projects is not a viable or available option. Water sensitive urban planning Wide spread use of water saving fixtures Strategy based on agro-climatic regional planning Integrated planning and management of river basins Declaration of water resources projects as green projects in respect of environmental clearance Equitable distribution of water Use of appropriate technology in water supply and sanitation sectors Scientific public awareness and curbing environmental pseudoism. To maintain minimum discharge for sustenance of aquatic life forms in riverine system. 2000. Note . M/S Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company. New Delhi.

• Goel R. The Economic Times. New Delhi. New Delhi. July 2005. 2002.T. 2002. ‘Narmada Bahao Andolan Vs. ‘Report of the National Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development’.(Editors). 2001. XI Annual Convention and Seminar on Water Management in Urban Centres. M/s Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Dams are Beneficial’. Union of India’. • Goel R. • Ministry of Water Resources.an Overview in Indian Context’. 2005. Ltd. 2001. 2000. ‘Management of Water Supply and Wastewater for Sustenance of Indian Urban Infrastructure’.. M/s Concept Publishing Company. New Delhi. ‘Environmental Management in Hydro Electric Projects’. 64 . 2000. ‘Water Quality Management in Urban Centres. New Delhi. 14-16.S. New Delhi. • Water Management Forum.‘Hydropower and River Valley Development’. New Delhi. • Goel R. ‘Theme Paper on Inter-Basin Transfers of Water – Challenges and Opportunities’. 31st December 2000. 1999. International Conference on Water & Wastewater: Perspectives of Developing Countries.S. 2000. 11-13th Dec. ‘Theme Paper on Integrated Water Resources Development and Management’. 2000. VIII Annual Convention and Seminar on Urban Infrastructure Development.. ‘The Unquiet Narmada . ‘Report of the Working Group on Water Related Ecological Matters for Xth Five Year Plan’.S.S.. 1999. New Delhi. New Delhi. and Shete D. • Supreme Court Judgement. Vigyan Bhavan... . ‘River Valley Projects. • Ministry of Water Resources.S. 11th May 2001. ISBN-81-7022-870-0.. New Delhi • Indian Water Resources Society. New Delhi. 21-23. • Indian Water Resources Society. AIR. • Goel R. ‘Theme Paper on Water Vision 2050’. • Prasad Kamta and Goel R. 2002. • Goel R. SCC. June 2002.The Antagonism Against River Valley Projects Is Unjustified’. The Times of India. 2002. Vigyan Bhavan. ‘Integrated Water Management for Sustenance of Indian Urban Environment’. 2002. New Delhi. New Delhi.S.

Thanks to the environmentally aware masses for sowing the seeds of rainwater harvesting in the society. heavy groundwater exploitation leading to lowering of groundwater tables. The ecological balance has been collapsed owing to irregular rains. There has been growing reliance on the use of surface and groundwater. The state subsidises water. S. Mumbai 50 65 . Nagpur 11. while the earlier reliance on rain water and flood water has been declined. hardly any river or groundwater aquifer near a city escapes the perils of pollution today. Kirloskar Abstract The water crisis has taken considerable space in our lives. actually implemented elsewhere are discussed. Professor of Environmental Engineering and Principal of Rizvi College of Engg. land degradation leading to heavy runoff. neglect of traditional water harvesting system and growing pollution are all added to the problem. The exclusive reliance on river and groundwater is already leading to a number of problems. The water crisis has become alarming to such an extent that unless every citizen starts acting towards saving and preserving the rainwater. The dispute over tap waters heard in the history in olden days and in the villages in present times has been transferred to urban areas too. While agricultural lands go thirsty. In this paper. The state becomes responsible for water supply. Heavy extraction of water from rivers : The rivers are so heavily exploited that there is no water left during the summer season. and uncontrolled pollution. increased urbanization. People squander it. some of the methods of rainwater harvesting. Demand will grow in future because of population growth. lack of people’s interests in maintaining government schemes.. many thousands of villages find it difficult to get clean drinking water. the survival of present and future generations would be in jeopardy. Construction of large dams and neglect of small water harvesting structure : Because of this. environmental deterioration. Dependence on the state : There are financial and human problems with state sponsored water supply. The state soon runs out of money for new projects to meet the burgeoning demand and for maintaining projects already built. even though rain water and flood water are available in much greater abundance than river water or groundwater. while forests will submerge and availability of land for resettlement will go down continuously. It is reported that the money pumped in for rural drinking water supply and methods used were unsustainable. The issue of water-crisis is more acute than the petrol for which largely the human beings are responsible. Bandra (W). Even as clean water sources are being viciously attacked by pollution and over exploitation. Agencies involved in water resource development are not bothered to implement the legislation for the minimum river flows. Introduction India is facing a huge water crisis today. There is an enormous unmet demand for water. Corruption. particularly feasible in urban areas.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. G. the numbers of displaced populations will steadily increase. Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management Dr. The problem of water shortage has become a national and universal theme of discussion. 2006.

(2) A soak-pit can also be created at the outlet point of the house premises As shown in fig. boulders etc. The bricks have to be laid on the boundary of the trench to avoid falling of earth in the trench. Many houses will not have bore wells or wells. of people in the houses with average consumption of 7 l per capita per day.industrialization. (1) Permeating the water from the roofs into premises of the house Construction of underground structures of 20. Fig. One can utilize the open space available at any corner of the plot for the permeation of water. to use runoff water as recharge in shallow wells. The water crisis has become alarming to such an extent that everyone has to be educated to start saving and preserving the rainwater. 1000/. The concept of storing the rainwater and elevating the level of water table. by digging small trenches around the wells. The methods of water harvesting are described below. people started boring the tube wells only to lower the depth of water table from 50 feet to 100-200 feet. Considering the life span of the structure of 20 years and the relief it brings. It is estimated that a small soak-pit gives 25000 liters of water in the monsoon season.1 Bleaching powder is applied to prevent contamination and maintain the quality of stored water. the boulders of 2-3’ dia. 1. this method is the most reliable. Some of the methods are listed (1) water from roof or terrace can be allowed to permeate near the bore or well or in the house premises if bore or well is not available (2) water from roof or terrace can be taken (i) to well or bore through pipe or (ii) to an underground tank of sufficient capacity can be built to receive the water through pipe. Operating cost consists of cleaning expenses once in a year and periodic expenses of bleaching powder which would cost around only Rs. The capacity depends upon the no.1. a soak-pit of 8’ depth and 5’ length can be prepared containing brickbats. Trench is covered with a grilled 66 lid to avoid contamination. Airtight covers on storage tank protect the water from sunlight and contamination.5-1.75 m is placed over the boulders. are placed up to 300 mm at the bottom of the trench. However in urban areas specific methods have to be applied for rainwater harvesting. Increased water pollution has further reduced the availability of clean water which means greater stress on remaining sources of ground and surface water. The water starts filling up the trench of the soak-pit.2 . Initial investment cost of the structure is little high. Fig. 1. popularly known as ‘water harvesting’ has already taken its roots. To get the reliever.per year. In the villages. The water from the roof and terrace should be diverted into the trench.2. The sand layer of 1.000 l capacity to harvest water from rooftops for domestic consumption . manual withdrawal of water. stones. 1. A trench of 9-10’ depth and 6-8’ length can be prepared depending up on the availability of the space. the rainwater harvesting is being practiced by building small bunds. 1. As shown in fig.

2 in number and T cap (v) 4. The other end of the pipe filter through a casing is directed towards the bore. The system can be started operating from the second monsoon. and 4’ length (ii) two reducers (iii) 4 mesh screen (iv) T pipe. following material is required.3.5" dia.4 . This method is costly and faces rusting problem.5’ length The assembly of pipe filter can be fabricated.Fig. The sheet is tied from the two corners in the shape of a boat.stage filtration.4. This technique is an ad-hoc one. This method is expensive and weak for wind resistance. This step involves only minor modification of the already existing civil work as the drains toilet and non-toilet wastewaters are already separated in buildings as part of the normal building construction practice. (4) The earthen bunds are placed at certain places in the farms and thus water is temporarily stored Water is seeped through the soil. The polythene sheet is mounted on 4 poles and a hole is made centrally for collection of water. 1. which is installed prior to rain. (5) Open air rainwater harvesting In this a number of materials are used to capture rainfall directly from the skies. as shown in Fig. The first rain water is allowed to drain. 1. Water is raised with this technique. Collection rate is 85-100 l/hr on an average rainfall day. (ii) Galvanised sheet : A galvanized sheet of 2 m X 1 m is spread in the open air. In monsoon. (i) pipe of 6" dia. The trench is filled up with the earth for rest of the year. Water collected from the roof is taken to the bore through pipe of 4. and 4. (i) Polythene sheets (3m x 3m size) spread across in open air devoid of trees to collect direct rainfall. the trench is filled up with water before it starts spreading around. Water thus collected is cleaner than the roof runoff. A trench of 2’x 8’ (depth) is prepared at a corner with pitching of stones on one side and a lining of PVC sheet. Thus there is three. The earthen bund is constructed about 2-3 feet above the ground with pitching done from inner side. 1. As shown in Fig. The sheet is mounted on 4 or 6 poles in the open air. The water collected is limited sufficient for about 2 days for a family of 7-8 members on average rainy day.5" dia. The bund is constructed necessarily on the sloping ground. (iii) Akshaydhara System: (a) First stage involves segregating the small volume of sanitary toilet waste and subjecting it to anaerobic bio-digestion and then discharging the liquid effluent into the city sewer system. Lot of water goes waste in heavy rains. The graded sand beds incorporated in the pipe act as filter.. One end of this pipe is connected to the outlet end of the pipe from the roof. 1. (b) The second stage involves construction of percolation wells in the housing societies for soilaquifer treatment of the segregated non-sanitary 67 Fig.3 (3) Diverting water from roof and terrace to bore or well through a pipe The roof would be cleaned initially.

(c) The third stage consists of providing separate plumbing and pumping / recycling system for nonpotable water. the sewer system will help reduce expenditure on collection / disposal of wet biodegradable waste as recyclable waste is more hygienic and environmentally sustainable. This would result in reduction of wastewater to be discharged into the city sewer system. to rejuvenate the shallow ground water system. (d) In the fourth stage. • A central rainwater harvesting fund can be set Fig. This would gradually ease the load of high quality public drinking water supply system. the output of which being liquid can be let out either into the city sewer system or utilized locally for horticulture. 1. With the commissioning of bioreactors for kitchen waste. the existing wastewater treatment system can be augmented through construction of infiltration basins and soil-aquifer treatment of the organic rich liquid waste collected at the centralized sewage collection point. • There should be a ban on permitting rainwater to be mixed with sewer or septic tanks. This system is useful in urban environment because of reduction of the cost of centralized sewage collection. Fig. wherein segregated recyclable waste is collected by the dry waste collection network and the wet biodegradable kitchen waste is disposed off in the community bioreactor. Facilitating urban water harvesting Following pints need to be undertaken: • All water bodies in urban areas should be controlled by one single water authority. The biogas generated can be used for street lighting. (e) In the last stage. • All building plans must provide for rainwater harvesting structures before applications are accepted. 1. reduction in high quality water supply thus ensuring resource sustainability and involvement of the residents in maintaining hygienic conditions in city.wastewater and storm runoff water.5 shows “Akshaydhara” concept for total water management.5 68 . the domestic sewerage system can be linked to city garbage collection system.

Conclusion The scarcity of water has gained global attention. • Annual national and state awards should be announced on recognition of outstanding work in water conservation. national policies.up by the union water resources ministry offering funds on loan-cum-grant basis for the promotion of rainwater harvesting. • Rainwater harvesting should be viewed by the society as a means of provision of water and prevention of flooding of low-lying urban areas. public awareness can not do much about this complicated problem. 69 . • Water conservation may be included in the curriculum of the school • The Central Govt. Practice and Policy of water harvesting” Edited by Anil Agarwal. That is a useful step! References (1) NGOs from Sangli (Maharashtra) . The efforts are being taken by the NGOs and other organizations from the micro level. The developing countries due to lack of expertise. • One of the most effective means of encouraging household and community participation is through financial instruments such as water tariffs and property tax assessments. should take up and declare the rain water harvesting as the national program. The municipal offices. No. Ref. town planners of the urban sectors are changing their outlook positively towards meeting water scarcity of the future generations. funds. 02332322412 (2) “Making water everybody’s business. Sunita Narain and Indira Khurana CSE publication.

Water Harvesting : Limitations in Implementation *Y. water harvesting will probably never be economically feasible. whereas others.” Several modifications of the definition have broadened the term to mean “the process of collecting natural precipitation from prepared watersheds for beneficial use”. Another problem is the variability in the quality of some materials. Swami Ramananda Tirtha Institute of Science & Technology. for irrigation use. Design of water harvesting system has received less attention than methods or treatments for increasing runoff from the soil surface. Nalgonda. Contamination of the water must be constantly considered. This area was intensively cultivated by an irrigation system which collected the meager rainfall by clearing large hillside areas of rocks. cleaning trash from screens. have failed in a short time. This has been particularly true for artificial rubber sheeting. the practice is ancient. with the same specification.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. and local flooding. either runoff or creek flow.000 yrs ago for several centuries in what is now the Negev Desert of Israel. Discolored or contaminated water will require treatment before it can be used for human consumption. Lack of rainfall data in many areas makes it very difficult to properly design a water harvesting system. Nagpur 12. even though they may meet existing manufacturing specifications. or complete reshaping. Andhra Pradesh. This paper reviews all the above constraints in implementation of water harvesting system with examples. Evenari. smoothing the soil. Most design procedures are limited in application because of constraints mentioned in the above paragraphs. In locations with less average annual rainfall. Introduction The origin of the term “water harvesting” is not known. and concentrating the runoff by a system of contour *Associate Professor in Civil Engineering. it is no more reliable than the weather. E-mail:arunakar_reddy2001@yahoo. Shanan. seal coats. Without adequate storage facilities the system will fail in draught years. soil instability. and climatic conditions. soils. Arunakar Reddy Abstract Since water harvesting depends on natural rainfall.com 70 . since some batches have proven very effective and durable. Some may require fences. He defined water harvesting as “the collection and storage of any farm waters. All catchments require a certain amount of maintenance to keep them performing properly which may include occasional patches. 2006. Poorly designed and managed water harvesting systems can cause soil erosion. and Tadmor excavated runoff farms that were used over 3. but it was probably first used by Geddes of the University of Sidney. To day no one water harvesting method or material has proven suitable for all areas. A water harvesting system must withstand weathering and some foot traffic. Ancient History Although the term “water harvesting” is relatively new. weed control.

This is true for both arid and humid areas. These ditches carried the collected water to a storage reservoir by way of a collection ditch which ran perpendicular to the roadways. Although both Israeli and Australian researchers are investigating the use of fuel oils and asphalt on a small scale. their major emphasis is runoff farming and roaded catchments.000 acres) of the Negev Highlands. its potential for providing economical water is still tremendous. but the metal sections were placed directly on the soil surface and anchored with spikes. and New Mexico. Several thousand acres of these catchments have been installed in the relatively uniform topography of Western Australia where soils often contain significant clay layers which are exposed and compacted and provide a rather low infiltrating surface. plastic and metal films bonded to the soil. There is evidence that less complicated systems were used about 700 to 900 yrs ago by the Indians of the southwestern United States. researchers. although over 3.000 1/day of water during a year of average . provides more than 245. available water supplies can be based on precipitation rather than stream flow or ground water. This work 71 served as the basis for installing numerous butyl rubber catchments and storage bags.000 ha (740. but worked primarily on soil smoothing and crusting. In 1958 and 1959 two ancient farm systems in Israel were restored to study the hydrology of the desert catchments and the water harvesting techniques of the ancient farmers. and fieldfabricated asphalt fiberglass membranes.000 water harvesting systems have been installed around the world. In the United States water harvesting began during the 1940’s and early 1950’s when several small sheet steel and concrete catchments were built to provide drinking water for livestock and wildlife. catchments have been built almost exclusively on public lands by government agencies or research organizations. Colorado. The runoff water was used to irrigate a much smaller lower-lying area. Despite the rather slow acceptance of water harvesting to provide water supplies. respectively. Hillel investigated several soil treatments. Utah. The development of the most widely used type of catchment was reported by the Public Works Department of Western Australia in 1956. particularly in the four corners of Arizona.6-ha catchment in Manchester. Hawaii and Jamaica are two areas using water harvesting techniques developed by researchers in arid parts of the world. like crude oil and water repellants. As yet water harvesting is not accepted as a competitive method of providing water supplies. Myer’s group developed methods using sprayable asphalt compounds. In the U. In the 1960’s Myers and Cluff in the United States and Hillel in Israel initiated research programs to devise methods of waterproofing the soil surface and using soil as the supporting structure. Jamaica. For example. Some of the first catchments build specifically to collect water were roof – like structures built in Australia in the early 1930’s using galvanized sheet iron on a wooden frame. By the time of the Roman occupation these runoff farms had evolved into relatively sophisticated systems covering about 300. When water harvesting techniques are used. Most catchments are the roaded catchments type and are used in Western Australia where private farms have supplied the capital for installation. Present Status and Potential Research on ways to increase runoff by soil treatments is presently confined to a few U.ditches. a 0. Cluff concentrated on using sodium salts to seal the soil and on gravel-covered plastic membranes. After the Arab conquest.S. including over 300 installations in Hawaii and other pacific islands. Recent Development Collection and storage of runoff from roofs of houses is a more recent practice that is still used in some regions of the world.S. the ancient desert agriculture in this area slowly disintegrated. soil compaction and dispersion. Of considerably more impact was the pioneering work of Lauritzen in the 1950’s in which plastic and artificial rubber membranes were evaluated for constructing catchments and reservoirs. These catchments were called “roaded catchments” because the soil was graded into a series of parallel roadways or gently sloping ridges that drained into the ditches separating them. Most of these catchments have been used to provide farm water supplies. although some are used for municipal water supplies. Sheet metal was also used for other catchments built in Australia at about the same time.

the interstate highway system in Wyoming would provide 2 ha/km of catchment. Assuming a 90% catchment efficiency. sometimes a water supply can be developed by simple land alteration treatments which increase the runoff from the soil surface. like soil type and depth. the conversion efficiency for producing extra water increases as rainfall increases. and Myers in Arizona. and the varieties of vegetation with their associated evapotranspiration rates. thus each site must be field evaluated. therefore. the water supply from a 250-mm rainfall zone would be almost 4. the type. However. Some materials. and availability of treatment products. labour and material costs. Another simple treatment is constructing contour ditches to collect runoff from hillsides before it reaches natural channels or infiltrates into the soil. and soil covers. Runoff from bare soil can often be increased by dispersing its aggregated particles with sodium salts to reduce permeability. Hollick suggests that maximum nonerosive slopes should be used to increase runoff. forage production. and Rauzi. vegetation.rainfall. For land where rock outcrops or highways are not available. the most economical system for a particular site can be determined by evaluating several factors. and recreation activity.500 of this type of catchment have been built in Western Australia. in Israel. vegetation management on watersheds can improve wildlife habitat. but the increase in runoff is often negligible.000 1/km. chemical treatments. conversions at lower rainfall values may not be economical. Land Alteration : Often the simplest and least expensive method of water harvesting is to construct walls or ditches to collect runoff from existing natural or manmade catchments like large rock outcrops. like concrete and sheet metal. airports. Whatever treatment or method is used. Because small precipitation events do not usually produce sufficient runoff. rather large catchment and storage facilities must be constructed to insure an adequate water supply to carry over between the large runoff events. Chemical and Physical Soil Treatments : Treating soil surfaces with materials to prevent water from soaking into the soil is an intriguing approach to building efficient and low-cost catchments. and parking lots. Land clearing is probably the least expensive treatment.700. which can be managed considering all other constraints. land alteration. unless storms are of high intensity of long duration. the methods used to increase runoff can be divided into four general categories: vegetation management. were able to increase runoff by treating cleared and smoothed sandy-loam and clay-loam . he indicated that no universal method exists for predicting the maximum nonerosive slope. some maintenance will be required to insure optimum performance. accessibility to equipment. Soil erosion is a potential problem with all of the land elaborate methods. It has been estimated that over 2. thus making its economic aspects of minor importance. Potential water yield increases depend upon the percent of total precipitation occurring as snowfall. Water harvesting will never be used in some areas because other water sources are more economical. or because the annual precipitation is very low. Methods of Harvesting A wide variety of methods and materials have been used to increase precipitation runoff into storage facilities. According to Evans. at least up to 860 mm/yr. highways. and slope of the watershed soil. Woolhiser. Chiarella and beck described a highway catchment system in Arizona. Besides increasing water yield. water harvesting can often mean the difference between life and death. used for livestock drinking water that has been used for over 16 yrs with no observed detrimental effect to livestock. highways catchments like large rock 72 outcrops. For discussion. However. The “roaded catchments” discussed previously are a more elaborate method of land alteration. However. However. Hillel et al. can be used in almost any situation. depth. Vegetation Management : A summary of studies conducted throughout the world indicates that runoff can be increased by vegetation management from areas with precipitation in excess of 280 mm annually. This was practiced by ancient people who once lived in what is now Mesa Verde National Monument in southwestern Colorado. climatic variables.

and the asphalt as a water-proofing agent. The gravel protects the plastic against both wind and weathering damage. more effectively treated with wax.5 mm. the gravel also reduces the runoff efficiency by retaining part of the water which is then lost to evaporation. Asphalt pavements for water harvesting were constructed by spraying asphalt compounds on nonswelling soils. but completely deteriorated within to 3 yrs. and stabilizing effects of salt treatments have been limited to certain sandy loam soils. but runoff gradually decreased to 60% after 4 yrs. Silicone treatments provide no apparent stability. These catchments are useful where gravel is available and a large portion of the annual rainfall occurs as storms larger than 2.000 kg/ha of granulated salt was mixed into the upper 5 cm of soil. These tests also indicated that wax treatments were not effective on certain soils under any climatic conditions. however. This catchment can be applied to a wide range of soil types and yields about 95% of the rainfall runoff. Another. High-rate applications of sodium chloride have proven considerably more successful on a Whitehouse loam soil in the Tucson area. more durable type of asphalt catchment was made by placing a layer of fiberglass or polypropylene matting on the surface and spraying it with asphalt. A silicone water repellant treatment on loamy sand in Arizona produced 90% runoff during the first year. The same treatment has been very successful for sealing earthen stock tanks on some soils where erosion is no problem. followed immediately by a 4-mail layer of polyethylene plastic. Laboratory tests indicated that hot summer temperatures may regenerate the wax treatments after freeze-thaw damage on some soils. has remained in good condition after 6 yrs and yields about 80% runoff. Cluff developed a unique method of utilizing plastic’s relatively low cost and high waterproofing characteristics. with no deterioration or salt movement noted. All of the studies indicated that initially the oil did reduce infiltration. A seal coat of asphalt and a protective cover of special paint produced a very durable and efficient catchment. The soil was later compacted after a couple of small rains. Although laboratory tests in a freeze-thaw chamber confirmed the loss of effectiveness for this soil. – Soil covers are treatments that can generally be applied to a wide range of soil types. A more recent catchment treatment developed by Cluff is constructed by spraying soil with a tack of asphalt. However. Several researchers have reported using fuel oil to reduce infiltration. Over 50% runoff has been obtained during the 3 yrs of records. After the plastic is coated with an additional asphalt layer. two other operational catchments on sandy soils in Arizona have survived a winter of freezing and thawing with no apparent damage. The lower end of one catchment did erode somewhat when the fine soil was disturbed during construction. rock chips are added as a top cover. He developed equipment to install plastic film and cover it with a layer of small gravel. Both found that treatment effectiveness was lost in about 1 yr and erosion was excessive. Soil Covers. and reduces runoff water discoloration. The paint extends the period between maintenance retreatments by protecting the asphalt from sunlight. A similar catchment using standard roofing paper and procedures.2-ha field catchment treated with paraffin was no longer water repellant or stable after freezing and thawing with a light snow cover. Here the soil was cleared and smoothed and 11. depending 73 on the soil and the oil used. Care must be used in designing silicone . Artificial rubber sheeting has probably been . but they were easily destroyed by wind and deteriorated rapidly under exposure to solar radiation.and salt – treated catchments since increased runoff can cause excessive erosion. therefore. This type of catchment can be installed over almost any soil and requires only minimum surface preparation. but applied to the soil surface. Rawitz and Hillel found that retreatment each 2 years improved runoff yield above initial treatment values. A paraffin wax treatment on a sandy loam soil has produced 90% runoff on test plots for over 2 years with no visual signs of deterioration. since they only use the soil as a supporting structure and do not depend on its properties to provide water repellency. The molten paraffin penetrates the soil up to 25 mm and tends to stabilize the soil particles as it solidifies. Thin plastic films have been used as ground covers. The matting serves as a reinforcing fabric.soils with sodium carbonate. a 0.

wind. tanks. Storage requirements can be readily estimated by considering the purpose for which the water will be used and the use period. Sodium bentonite. (f) transportability to use site. One exception to this type of storage is direct storage in the soil profile associated with runoff farming. Laboratory analysis. Problems encountered with its use have been attributed to improper installation. chemical additives. and over 300 additional rubber catchments or storage units have been installed in Hawaii and other Pacific islands during the past 15 yrs. Corrugated sheet metal. and sub grade movement: (c) resistance to mechanical puncture and vermin attack. has been used to reduce seepage in coarse-textured soils. (e) installation ease. mainly because of its high cost. soil-cement. brick. Application rates generally range from 5 to 15 kg/m. a means of storing harvested water becomes an essential part of the water harvesting systems. However. and they have often produced runoff from dew. Even with runoff farming. Some early sheet metal catchments were built above ground on a roof-like framework. Lining materials that have been used. one of the first catchment materials used for collecting precipitation. Use of concrete as a catchment material has been limited. Excavated pits or small ponds are easily constructed in relatively flat areas. Storage requirements should be balanced against the quantity of precipitation for the area and the reliability of receiving this precipitation. although high costs have restricted its use. and bags – and various methods of controlling seepage losses. plastic film. Dedrick presented a list of characteristics that should be considered when selecting a barrier for seepage control: (a) degree of seepage control expected. and chemical sealants.most widely used as a ground cover treatment. lack of maintenance. The precipitation quantity and dependability generally are often more’ difficult to determine due to inadequate precipitation records. Seepage Control. like that of Dirmeyer is recommended as a guide in classifying the bentonite to be used and in determining application rate. fine-textured colloidal clay. poor quality material. Concrete catchments require more maintenance and have lower runoff efficiency (60 to 80%) then several other catchment materials. conventionally storing water for later controlled 74 release to the crop may be necessary if precipitation uniformity and/or variability do not meet the crop requirements. with varying degrees of success. or tanks. (c) hard surface linings – Portland cement concrete. can be categorized as (a) earth linings and chemical treatments – compacted earth. and stones. A good sealing bentonite must have a sufficient amount of exchangeable sodium to disperse the soil particles. (b) resistance to deterioration by soil microorganisms. and (h) economics. Artificial rubber catchments have the advantage of being rather easily transportable and simply installed once the site has been prepared. Storage of Harvested Water Where water supplies are limited and water use rates exceed the supply rate. . reinforced asphaltic membrane. and synthetic rubber. Dedrick reviewed the three means of storing harvested water – excavated pits or ponds. good rubber sheeting is an efficient catchment material that provides high quality water. The underlined materials have been the most successfully used in the field and are discussed further. (d) toxicity. hot applied asphaltic membrane. The type of material used may depend on the pit site. concrete catchments are very durable and will provide years of service. bentonite. If protected from corrosion. Many catchments failed when the framework deteriorated or collapsed under heavy snow loads. but usually a water barrier must be used to minimize seepage losses. atmospheric elements. has been used continually through the years. (g) maintenance requirements. When correctly installed and maintained. when properly constructed and maintained. sheet metal can be used on almost any soil type and can provide an economical source of high quality water under present economic conditions. (b) membrane and film – prefabricated asphaltic plank. Their runoff efficiency is perhaps the highest of any catchment material. Several rubber catchments have been used for over 20 yrs in the United States. Sheet metal catchments built on the ground have proven very durable and essentially maintenance free. The storage generally means confinement in either excavated pits or ponds. or animal and damage. shotcrete.

and chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) have been successful only when buried.02 cm . floating covers have been most widely researched and certain materials seem most promising for use in water harvesting storage facilities. bentonite.2 X 1. The sub grade should be cleared of all sharp objects. Retreatment may be required every 2 to 3 yrs. Reinforced asphaltic membrane liners consist of a substrate matting of fiberglass or polypropylene generally made watertight by using asphalt – either emulsion or cutback. presented an equation for calculating the amount of use. For most excavated pits. vandalism.03cm depending on the sub grade soil. excavated pits can be used and are a variation of the standard. and vermin attack. The wax can either be placed on the surface as blocks which will later be melted by the sun to form a wax layer or melted with a heater and sprayed or poured on the water. and formed rubber. Storage bags constructed of butyl-coated nylon have been placed in excavated pits or basins. Side slope should not exceed 1:3. a fine-textured cushion should be laid in the pit before installing the film. and flexible membranes. and (d) floating reflective covers. metal. These storage systems are completely closed and both seepage and evaporation losses are controlled.5 to 1. The bottom of the tanks has been made watertight by using puddle clay. Evaporation Control.0 kg/m while Reginato et al. evaporative control devices. like floating covers. Materials successfully used in constructing tank walls include Portland cement concrete. Plastic-lined.08 cm. can be used more effectively and efficiently. Rubber membranes are fabricated in numerous 75 thicknesses and can be either fabric-supported or nonsupport. These include covers of continuous paraffin wax. rock-filled. Recommended cover thickness varies from 15 to 30 cm with the layer next to the film not coarser than silty sand. The Soil Conservation Service recommends sodium carbonate application rates of 0. however. plastered concrete and metal. on an amortized basis the yearly cost may be lower than some low-initial-cost storage systems. All synthetic rubber membranes can be used as exposed linings. and physical property requirements are discussed in several publications. melts at 128 to 130 F and forms a continuous cover during summer months. Freedom from vandalism and reduction of evaporation losses (as much as 90%) are advantages of rock-filled pits over open storage systems. (b) using wind barriers. Sodium carbonate has been most effective considering treatment costs and ability to reduce seepage. and if too coarse. buried.Sodium salts have been the most successful chemical additives used to control seepage. and maintenance requirements are generally low and repair is easy. sodium salts. Their main disadvantages are susceptibility to mechanical damage. like that used for canning. Plastic films of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Pit side slopes should not be steeper than 1:2 (vertical: horizontal). Linings are fabricated in the field and shaped like the excavated pit. but they must be adequately protected against mechanical damage and damage due to vandalism and burrowing animals. nylonsupported liners are adequate. Polystyrene rafts are constructed of 1. The paraffin wax. Synthetic rubber membranes are resistant to weathering processes that cause failure in other membrane and film materials. They can be used as an exposed liner if properly protected from mechanical damage. Butyl rubber and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) are synthetic rubber membranes used as water barriers for harvesting water. polystyrene rafts. Information regarding field installations. — Cooley has discussed evaporation suppression method. concrete. One main disadvantage of vertical-walled tanks is initial cost. Thickness of buried plastic film should be 0. Of the four energy-reducing categories. (c) shading the water surface.02 to 0. Plant growth under the liners should be eliminated by using soil sterilants. 0. plastic-lined pond. Vertical-walled tanks have advantages unattainable with excavated pits including: the ratio of water volume stored to water surface area is maximum when the walls are vertical. recommendations for use. Reservoir side slopes should be not steeper than 1:2. The earthen pit should be over-excavated to accommodate the cover material. The main difference is that the pond is completely filled with rock rather than just covered with to protect the plastic. Many methods have been investigated and can be categorized by energy-reducing treatments (energy involved in the evaporative process) like (a) changing the water color. Polyethylene (PE).

bags. Joining the polystyrene rafts together helps to minimize the wind problem. Although it is very useful in many areas. ASAE Recommendation: ASAE R340. Although revival of water harvesting techniques began in the early 1930’s. “Polypropylene Fiber Mat .. 1974. and material costs. • Baker. labour.. and only collection and storage facilities are required. This practice was then essentially abandoned until the early 1930’s. water harvesting depends on natural precipitation and is. 25mm thick. closed-cell synthetic rubber sheeting. economical water source in many others. James W. Chemical and physical soil treatments. All three covers – continuous paraffin wax. water use rate and distribution. vegetative cover. however. polystyrene rafts. An outer frame of 32 – mm diameter PVC pipes is used as a bumper for the rafts. Water harvesting systems may provide the only source of water in some areas and can provide a low energy input. Land alteration techniques are also economically feasible in areas where labor costs are low and soil conditions are suitable. water quality desired. Land alteration methods are especially attractive where impervious areas already exist (highways. Water collected from the catchments can be stored in the soil itself (as in runoff farming) or in excavated pits or ponds. Continuous covers of low-density. therefore. The particular water harvesting method used to collect precipitation depends on several factors. Soil covers are not generally restricted by soil and climatic conditions. Joseph. Covers have been fabricated from 5and 6-mm thick material. have been fabricated for use on water storage tanks. Regardless of the material or method used. and potential for increasing runoff yield increases as annual precipitation increases. limited to areas where precipitation is sufficient and variability is not excessive. routine maintenance. Summary Water harvesting is an ancient art used by farmers in the Negev Desert of Israel over 3. and protection of the catchment and storage should be considered. The water obtained from water harvesting system can be used to increase the productivity of rangelands of proper management practices are followed. All of the commonly used methods fall into one of four categories — vegetation management. surface roughness and slope. The cost of water saved in high evaporation areas compares favorably with alternate water sources.000 yrs ago where they cleared hillsides to increase rainfallrunoff and directed the water to cultivated fields in the valleys. climatic factors. including soil type and depth. “Agricultural Engineers Yearbook.). available as 1. and foamed rubber – reduce evaporation by 85% to 95%. coated with emulsified asphalt and covered with a layer of chips. The wax covers have withstood winds up to 22 m/sec on a small tank with only 25 mm freeboard. Annual precipitation in excess of 280 mm is generally required to assure successful vegetation management results. most activity in both construction and research did not begin until the late 1950’s. have been applied successfully to certain soils. 76 Vegetation management methods have been applied to larger areas than the other water harvesting techniques. etc. St.sheets of expanded polystyrene. References • American Society of Agricultural Engineers. or soil covers. or tanks. rock outcrops. as does maintaining an adequate freeboard with the foamed rubber. land alteration. Wind damage to floating covers can be a disadvantage.2-m wide roll stock. like salts. erosion protection. even this research effort and the development of new materials have not yet produced widespread use of water harvesting methods to provide water supplies. silicones. but more research is required to delineate the conditions under which each can be used. and waxes. initial cost of the system will generally be higher than for the other methods discussed. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. chemical or physical soil treatments. airports. and availability of materials. Mich. although there is still a potential for economically collecting water in many areas of the world. They are then coupled together using a clamp made of PVC pipe. except for collecting rainfall from rooftops in some areas. land. “Installation of Flexible Membrane Linings. Sophisticated computer models and practical experience have been used to provide design standards for constructing and optimum sizing of catchment areas and storage facilities.

• Cluff. C...” Proceedings of the Water Harvesting Symposium. “ Rain trap Performance on the Fishlake National Forest. 1975.” Progressive Agriculture in Arizona. U.. R.. Z. Western Region. 3. B. U. • Cluff. No.. Myers. “ Journal Range Management. “WCL Report 8. W. A.J. Water Resources Center Advisory Council Meeting. Agricultural Research Service.. 1975. 1971. Western Region. 1968.. “presented at the January 25. • Frasier. Agricultural Research Service.” Soil Conservation Service..G. No. J. REev. “Proceedings of the Water Harvesting Symposium. R. C. U. “Effects of Vegetation Management on Slope Stability.H. “Concluding Remarks. 701-WY. 1966. ARS W-22. 1973. Vol. “Using Salt to Increase Irrigation Water.. F-1721. John R. 3. G. 18. No. C. Vol. “Plastic Reinforced Asphalt Membranes for Precipitation Harvesting and Seepage Control. • Chiarella. 7. Gary W. “Water Harvesting for Livestock in Western Australia. 1967. 77 . B. “Water Harvesting Plan for Livestock of Home. Feb.S Department of Agricultural. Jan. • Frasier. • Cluff. Western Region. G. 1. • Burdass. Lloyd E. R. Wyoming Engineering Standard. No. Water Conservation Laboratory. “Progressive Agricultural in Arizona. Department of Agricultural.. Department of Agriculture. Calif. San Antonio.S. and Griggs.. U.. Vol.S. July 1972. W.. “Proceedings of the 11th National Agricultural Plastics Conference. 11. and Dutt. • “Catchment Areas for Livestock Water. and Beck. W. • Cluff. Vol. Vol.7 No. Department of Agriculture..B. 19. Feb. 1975. C..S. • Dedrick. “Water and Wastes Engineering. 1973.S. • Burgy.and Asphalt Used for Oxidation Pond Linear. “Water Harvesting Catchments on Indian Lands in the Southwest.. 1970. “Arizona Farmer – Ranchman. “Installation of Asphalt – Fiberglass Linings for Reservoirs and Catchments. U.. ARS W-22.. and Papazifiriou. Agricultural Research Service. “Low-Cost Evaporation Control to Save Precious Stock Water. Tex. Feb. 26.H. 51. “Proceedings of the Water Harvesting Symposium.. 1970. B. held at Los Angeles. ARS W-22. ed..V.

Moreover. roof top rainwater harvesting can become popular technique to improve the recharge regionally and globally. Barwa Road. Geo-environment Division. Environmental Management Group Central Mining Research Institute. as well as unpredictable monsoon rainfall. a greater emphasis is being laid now-a-days for re-use of waste water. types of recharge structures and the benefits of the system. embankments and wells. tanks. Dhanbad. Technically speaking. in Urban * Scientists **Research Intern. so the roof top rain water harvesting is ideal solution to solve the water supply problems.0 Introduction : Rapid industrial development. Over the last few centuries. the knowledge on the several traditional water harvesting processes. storage facilities.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. Buddhist and Jain texts contain several references to canals. Thus. Mahabharata. Nagpur 13. local traditions and archaeological remains. In view of increasing demand of water for various purposes like agricultural.826001 (Jharkhand) 78 . Evidence of this tradition can be found in ancient texts. Moreover. conserve and use critical water resources judiciously. or capturing the run-off in one’s own village or town. the need of roof top rain water harvesting has become an urgent demand of the present century. Overexploitation of groundwater resources is increasingly being recognized as a major problem. in urban areas. India’s growing water shortage has reached alarming proportions. 1. there is a rapid decrease in groundwater level in several parts of the world. domestic and industrial etc. catchments characteristics. inscriptions. The present paper focuses in brief about the components of the roof top rain water harvesting structure. Advancement in pumping technology is extensively used in extracting ground water from the deepest portions of the earth. This effort requires utilization of all water resources intelligently. water harvesting means capturing the rain where it falls. 2006. As the recharging of the groundwater is not adequate. Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water : An Urgent Need of Present Century * P. Despite being one of the wettest countries of the world. a range of techniques to harvest every possible form of water has been developed. K. It is estimated1 that 8 billion people (globally) are to be fed by the end of the first quarter of the 21st century. Ramayana and various Vedic.. So. water demands and how much runoff occurs & how quickly or how easy it is for the water to infiltrate through the subsoil and percolate down to recharge the aquifers. Dhanbad. For this. K. urbanization and increase in agricultural production have led to freshwater abstraction in many parts of the country as well as of the world. The Puranas. adequate space for surface storage is not available and water levels are deep enough to accommodate additional rain water to recharge the aquifers. The amount of water harvested depends on the frequency and intensity of rainfall. Tewary Abstract : The water has been harvested in India since antiquity. It has become an urgent need of this century. Singh **Bhaskar Singh **B. In this context. there is a need to collect. practices and their significance to the present day situations has become necessary in the present century.

5 m. Decline of 8-20 m. the size of filter material is generally taken as below: coarse sand : 1. the number of auger holes may be constructed & back filled with fine gravels. This precarious situation needs to be rectified by immediately recharging the depleted aquifers. deep which are back filled with boulders. the storage tanks may be used. the size of tank depends upon availability of runoff & water demand. Thus. in case of clay layer encountered at shallow depth. trench.5 to 1 m. these tanks may be constructed on the surface as well as under ground by utilizing local material.20 cm the filter material should be filled in graded form. after proper chlorination. in Delhi. wide. ground water reserves are being tapped and over-exploited resulting into decline in ground water levels and deterioration of ground water quality. long depending upon availability of water. 3. adequate space for surface storage is not available and water levels are deep enough to accommodate additional rain water to recharge the aquifers. wide and 2 to 3 m. if clay layer encountered at shallow depth. gravels & coarse sand. As surface water sources fail to meet the rising demands of water supply in urban areas. Areas registering significant decline fall mainly in south and south-west districts and have been identified as priority areas for taking up artificial recharge to ground water by roof top rain water harvesting. the stored water may be used for drinking purpose.2 mm gravels : 5 . these are constructed 1 to 2 m. During 1960.Areas. these are back filled with filter materials. deep and 10 to 20 m. has been recorded in south-west district and in south district the decline has been 8-30 m.5 . though the concept of roof top rainwater harvesting is an age old one. 2. but systematic collection and recharging to ground water is of recent times. b) Recharge Pits recharge pits are constructed for recharging the shallow aquifers. it should be punctured with auger hole and that auger hole should be refilled with fine gravel of 3 to 6 mm size. 4.10 mm boulders : 5 .6 m. boulders at the bottom. in most part of the alluvial areas. the ground water level was by and large within 4 to 5 meters and even in some parts water logged conditions existed. so roof top rain water harvesting is ideal solution to solve the water supply problems. During 19602001. water levels have declined by 2. trench may be 0. tube well or combination of above structures.0 Methods of Groundwater Recharge: For Rainwater Harvesting System following structures are required: a) Recharge Pits b) Recharge Trenches 79 c) d) e) f) g) Abandoned Dugwells Hand Pumps Recharge Wells Recharge Shafts Lateral Shafts With Borewells a) Storage Tanks : for harvesting the roof top rain water. 1 to 1. gravels in between & coarse sand at the top so that the silt content that will come with runoff will be deposited on the top of the coarse sand layer and can easily be removed.0 Urgency of the Process: A comparison of water levels from 1960 to 2001 shows that water levels in major part of country are steadily declining because of over-exploitation.0 Typical Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Structure: A typical roof top rainwater harvesting system comprises of: a) roof catchments b) gutters c) down pipes d) rain water/storm water drains e) filter chamber f) ground water recharge structures like pit. . c) Trenches these are constructed when the permeable strata is available at shallow depths.

Runoff = Catchment area * Runoff Coefficient * Rainfall Runoff Coefficients Runoff coefficient plays an important role in assessing the runoff availability and it depends upon catchment characteristics. long depending upon availability of water with one or more bore wells may be constructed. the reverse / direct rotary rigs are used and larger diameter shafts may be dug manually. these are back filled with boulders. f) Quality of water improves. availability of runoff. gravels & coarse sand.05 . h) Shaft with Recharge well If the aquifer is available at greater depth say 20 or 30 m. a recharge well of 100 to 300 mm diameter is constructed for recharging the available water to deeper aquifer.0 Design Criteria of Recharge Structures Recharge structures should be designed based on availability of space. lateral trench of 1. for removing the silt contents. f) recharge wells recharge wells of 100 to 300 mm. if the availability of water is limited. diameter are generally constructed for recharging the deeper aquifers and roof top rain water is diverted to recharge well for recharge to ground water.0.5 to 3 m. 6.85 0. In upper portion of 1 or 2 m depth. e) Reduces flooding of roads.10 . c) Mitigates the effects of drought.50 . water should pass through filter media before diverting it into hand pumps.10 Design Considerations Three most important components. recharge shafts of 0. d) Reduces the runoff which chokes the storm water drains. 5. which need to be evaluated for designing the rainwater harvesting structure. wide & 10 to 80 30 m. Assessment Of Runoff The runoff should be assessed accurately for designing the recharge structure and may be assessed by following formula.d) Abandoned Dug wells existing abandoned dug wells may be utilised as recharge structure after cleaning and desilting the same. in that case a shallow shaft of 2 to 5 m diameter and 5 to 6 m deep may be constructed depending upon availability of runoff.0 Benefits of Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting Structure a) An ideal solution of water problem in areas having inadequate water resources. gravels & coarse sand. g) Vertical Recharge shafts For recharging the shallow aquifers which are located below clayey surface at a depth of about 10 to 15 m.5 to 3 m. Hydrogeology of the area including nature and . For lesser diameter shafts. are: 1.0.0. e) Abandoned Hand pumps the existing abandoned hand pumps may be used for recharging the shallow / deep aquifers.95 0. the lateral trench is back filled with boulders.20 0. g) Soil erosion will be reduced.0. . the runoff water should pass either through a desilting chamber or filter chamber.75 . at the bottom of the shaft a filter media is provided to avoid choking of the recharge well. b) The ground water level will rise. diameter and 10 to 15 m. General values are tabulated below which may be utilised for assessing the runoff availability. deep are constructed depending upon availability of runoff. The runoff water may be passed through filter media to avoid choking of recharge wells. the brick masonry work is carried out for the stability of the structure. i) Lateral trench with bore wells For recharging the upper as well as deeper aquifers. depth to water table & lithology of the area. Type of catchment Roof top Paved area Bare ground Green area Runoff coefficient 0. inside the shaft.

extent of aquifer. Schematic sketch of Rain Water Harvesting in Rural Areas 81 .e. residential or green belts and general built up pattern of the area. Hydrometeorological characters viz. how much area and land use pattern. 3. Area contributing for runoff i. soil cover. whether industrial. general pattern and intensity of rainfall. rainfall duration. topography. depth to water levels and chemical quality of ground water 2.

tanks. water has been harvested in India since antiquity. 82 References : a) Nagrajan R.rainwaterharvesting. Technically speaking. New York. Rain Water Harvesting New Approaches For Sustainable Water Resources Development. water harvesting means capturing the rain where it falls. Use and Management for Semi-arid Region: Capital Publishing Company.N. Evidence of this tradition can be found in ancient texts. inscriptions.M. 2003 c) Natarajan. c o m / RW H / WaterHarvesting.html Todd. b) Athavale. Over the last few centuries. or capturing the run-off in one’s own village or town.htm e) h t t p : / / a k a s h . . local traditions and archaeological remains. Thus. Second edition.0 Conclusions : Thus. (1980).html f) http://www. Centre for Environmental Education and Rawat Publications... embankments and wells.org/uem/water/rainwater/ introduction. Sarma Sanitorium Press. Nagpur Local Centre is worthy in this direction.Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting Structure 8. a range of techniques to harvest every possible form of water has been developed. 2004 d) http://www. India’s growing water shortage has reached alarming proportions. D.2006.K.g a n g a . Buddhist and Jain texts contain several references to canals. & Kallolikar S. Overexploitation of groundwater resources is increasingly being recognized as a major problem. Ramayana and various Vedic. : Water . the role of Institution of Engineers (India). Despite being one of the wettest countries of the world. P. Conservation. The Puranas. John Wiley & Sons. R. Water harvesting and sustainable supply in India. Groundwater Hydrology.org/urban/ Howtoharvest. Mahabharata.r w h .gdrc.

As soon as the rains are over. Roof top rainwater is the best solution to solve all the problems discussed above.A Long Lasting Solution to Drive away the Need of Water Tankers *Mrs. Numerous documentary and filed evidences about the water harvesting techniques used by the ancestors exist in India. rediscover their concepts and adapt them into our lives. The water supplied by the Tankers may not be either pure or sufficient. This could be seen from the rainwater harvesting structures in the low rainfall areas of Rajasthan. **A. methods and type of storages in practice. In such cases drinking water cannot be supplied to the thirsty people by tankers or by any other means. care to be taken to maintain the purity of the rain water harvested. They periodically clean the waterways so as to get clean water throughout the year. Water Resources Department. 83 . Nagpur 14. They have developed varies techniques to harvest the water because they knew that without harvesting the water life is difficult to survive. Maharashtra receives a good amount of annual rainfall. The technological interventions. Government of Maharashtra. They also formed percolation tanks or ponds. This paper will illustrate the drinking water needs.E. there was very good system of water management as could be seen in the latest excavation at Dholavira in Kachch. In most part of the country the annual rainy days varies from 10 to 45. Unfortunately under the British governance system the wisdom of the raindrop was lost. But the rainfall is highly erratic in nature. But the Government has to supply drinking water by the water tankers to numerous villages and wadies. and the merits and demerits. India have distinct rainy season. Aurangabad. which got water into our taps. computation of the quantity of the annual rain water from the roof top. In Tamil Nadu.II. the ancient people stored rainwater in public placed separately one for drinking purposes and another for bathing and other domestic purposes. Introduction India receives good amount of rainfall. There is a need to think. relied on large-scale water impoundments in the upper reaches of rivers and pushed the wisdom of the raindrop into the background. 2006. The ancestors realize that. It is not evenly distributed over the entire area and over the period. Roof Top Rain Water Harvest. Today the need of the hour is to go back to the wisdom of ancestors. during Harappan period.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. The people use to manage water resources considering it as part of the nature. water scarcity starts. for the purpose of recharging irrigation or domestic wells. Roof top water harvesting techniques are not new for Indians. harvesting the water in rainy season will be use full in rest period of the year. There are evidences that. harvesting springs in hilly areas and mountainous region and percolation ponds and tanks in southern India. which is essential for their survival. Many of the wadies or tandas are situated in remote places. *Indian Council for water and culture. ‘Is it necessary to supply the drinking water by Tankers?’ The answer is ‘not in all the cases’. These are instances in the history that people constructed crude rubble bunds across river courses either for diversion of water or for augmenting the ground water. For general. Charu Bhavsar **Pradeep Bhalge Abstract Water has been harvested in India since antiquity.

The kund consists of a saucer-shaped catchments area with a gentle slope towards the centre where a tank is situated. Bamboo pipes are used to divert perennial springs on the hilltops to the lower reaches by gravity. and in areas where the limited groundwater available is moderate to highly saline. Bamboo Method : In Meghalaya. The tribal farmers of Khasi and Jaintia hills use the 200-year-old system.5 m. usually guard the openings or inlets for water to go into the tank. KUND OF RAJASTHAN Kunds of Thar Desert : In the sandier tracts. The bamboo drip irrigation system is normally used to irrigate the betel leaf or black pepper crops. irrigation tanks. an ingenious system of tapping of stream and spring water by using bamboo pipes to irrigate plantations is widely prevalent. Hence harvesting in such places will depend very much on the nature of the soil viz. A wire mesh to prevent the entry of floating debris.Traditional rainwater harvesting Traditional rainwater harvesting. the local name given to a covered underground tank. Under such conditions. sandy etc. temple tanks etc. although cement ensures a longer life span. Manipulating the intake 84 BAMBU DRIP IN MEGHALAYA . kund provides convenient. clayey. Lime plaster or cement is typically used for the construction of the tank. In urban areas. An adequately large catchments area has to be selected or artificially prepared to produce adequate runoff to meet the storage requirements of the kund. due to shrinking of open spaces. was done in surface storage bodies like lakes. again made and laid out with different forms of bamboo pipes. Kund. made of bamboo. The below listed are the various kinds of traditional rainwater harvesting methods. particularly its catchments characteristics. birds and reptiles. which is still prevalent in rural areas.. ponds. was developed primarily for tackling drinking water problems. rainwater will have to necessarily be harvested as ground water. the villagers of the Thar Desert had evolved an ingenious system of rainwater harvesting known as kund or kundis. About 18-20 liters of water entering the bamboo pipe system per minute gets transported over several hundred meters. The top is usually covered with a lid from where water can be drawn out with a bucket. The success of a kund depends on the selection of the site. clean and Sweetwater for drinking. Either of these materials can be used to plaster the horizontal and vertical soil surfaces. with little variation between the depth and diameter which ranges from 3-4. divert and convey water to the plot site where it is distributed without leakage into branches. Kund are by and large circular in shape. Usually constructed with local materials or cement. kund were more prevalent in the western arid regions of Rajasthan. since stone as a building material is not always available and is relatively more expensive. The channel sections.

The wells and bore wells runs dry as soon as the rainy season is over. Daily water need Latrine and washing mouth Bath Washing cloths Food preparation and drinking Other purpose Total Maximum in liters 25 25 25 10 10 95 Minimum in liters 05 10 10 05 05 35 . By adoption of the Roof top rainwater harvesting techniques. if an adult get ill. survival of his family comes in danger. As our State is in a situation where efficient management of water resources has become a necessity. This is not so. Roof top rainwater harvesting and rainwater harvesting techniques is not new The concept of roof top rainwater harvesting and rainwater harvesting techniques is not new. If seen carefully it is seen that beautiful arrangement of collection of roof top rainwater scheme is made here. The local leaders put lot of pressure on the government officials to supply water tankers. rainwater harvesting has come to limelight again. no of places in India. The harvested water is stored in a tank. rainwater harvesting has lost its importance. All the problems as said above can be minimized if every family gets sufficient amount of pure water for drinking. It is observed that nobody worries about the purity of the water supplied by the tankers. It is hence emphasized that rainwater harvesting should become an integral part of every home. In such situations tankers are supplying water. It is said that 80% of the human disease are due to impure water. city and country. 85 But taking the mouthwash under a running tap will require more than 15 to 20 liters of water. Especially incase of a family whose livelihoods is depend upon the labor work. peoples do not get water even for drinking in summer days. At large. A bucket of 15 to 20 liters was sufficient to take bath before the advent of tap water. there will not be any need to supply water by tankers. We have to resort to long-term measures in harvesting the rainwater due to the growing demand. The last channel section enables the water to be dropped at the rate of 20-80 drops per minute near the roots of the plant. The methods of domestic utilization were developed to support the minimum use of water. A moat around the hill top fort is another wonder. The capacity of such pot was around one liter. Thus there was a limitation of drawing the water and indirectly there was restriction on the water use. habits of wasteful use of water are increased in these days. Our ancestors had been doing it according to the means available then. The noteworthy example is of Minakshi temple in Madurai. Let us see that how where and when this technique is useful. resulting in to depletion of ground water level. With the advent of the electric pumps the rate of withdrawal of water from the well is increased tremendously. Human water needs : Let us understand our daily per head water requirement. The whole family has to suffer when any member of their family becomes ill. A time is now came to think that is it necessary to use heavy cost water supply schemes everywhere? Is it necessary to supply water by tankers? This can be achieved by adopting roof top rain water system. The water was drawing from the well with the help of rope and bucket. Many of us feel that this tool is devised by the modern society as a tool to drought proofing. But due to exploitation of more water than the replenish one. Every year the rains replenish the ground water. The most beautiful rainwater-harvesting scheme could be witnessed at Deogiri fort. Water from the adjacent hillock was transported through an inverted siphon of twin pipes and the mot around the hilltop fort was filled. With the advent of tap water. Back to the tradition In the previous days peoples were bringing water from the community well. this art and science has been practiced. For example water for mouthwash was taken in a pot. Reduced channel sections and diversion units are used at the last stage of water application. Drinking the impure water leads to water born disease. Transportation of water though inverted siphon was a unique feature. but now a day’s taking bath under the water tap consumes 50 to 100 liters of water.pipe positions also controls the flow of water into the lateral pipes. In this way. The temples were used as roof top rainwater harvesting devices. village. society.

Construction of Kund and such type of under ground storage tanks are practiced in Rajasthan and Gujarat.5m is constructed. where Mahatma Gandhi was born. This much water will be sufficient to them for 128 days. The storage capacity of the tank will be 22500 liters. The storage capacity is ranging from 20000 to 40000 liters. The annual cost of the tank will be around Rs. They built a water storage tank under the main Hall of the house. In summer days when the wells become dry they use the stored water. The rainwater harvesting system is found in the house of general publics as well as in the minister’s house also. With these techniques they have solved the water problems. and the average annual rainfall is 700 mm. With nominal maintenance the tank will serve for more than 40 to 50 years. If a under ground tank of size 3m x 3m x 2. That is more than 4 months of the dry summer days.2000/- Thus it is seen that the cost of the under ground storage tank i. 20000/-will be recovered within five years.20000/-. Suppose the roof top area of the house is 30 sqm.The minimum water need is 35 liters per day per person. The construction cost of the tank will be around Rs. Comparison of tankers expenditure with the construction cost of water storage tank Harvesting Water at Home 86 . Thus 175 liters water per day will be sufficient for a family of five persons. Then the roof top rainwater potential is 21000 liters. It will be interested to note that an under ground tank was in use in the house at Porabandar. Thus this is a long lasting solution.e.

.The rainwater that is harvested is pure with virtually no impurities and is suitable for all purposes. This can be archived with following simple methods.. The area on which the rainwater falls is the catchments area.. • A PVC bucket with gravel.. it is also advised that the run-off of the first few minutes of the rain Water yield available in liters from the annual rainfall. At times. the roof top harvested rainwater can be stored or used for recharge of ground water.. After filtration the harvested rainwater can be put to all uses including drinking and cooking purposes. into the filtration system. this depends upon the roof area to be drained. The rainwater dissolves the impurities that are present on the surface as it flows over the roof area into the collection system. 3 to 4 down water pipes seem sufficient for 30 to 40 square meter roof areas. maintain. The annual rainwater harvesting potential of rooftop can be calculated by multiplying the area and the amount of rainfall that is received annually. In rural areas. Of course... Filtration Before the water enters the down water pipes Filtration arrangements is must.. Size of down water pipe The collection system directs the rainwater falling over the rooftop. 75 to 90 mm diameter PVC pipes resistant to UV rays appear to be the best bet as down water pipes. (m²) Harvested Roof Top Water in liters 87 . sand & charcoal is a good filter before rainwater is stored • A PVC drum with sponge at the inlet & outlet is also a filter • A small two chamber inspection/ filter tank can also be devised • A Devas type filter is found to be useful.. Following table shows the availability of rainwater through Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting. Therefore it is advisable to keep the catchments area free of any chemical or other harmful impurities..... and have low cost. It is easy to construct. roof top area Annual Rainfall in mm .. This approach requires connecting the outlets pipe from rooftop to divert the water in to a storage tank or divert it to either existing well/tube wells/bore wells or specially designed wells/ structures. • Put a piece of sponge placed at the inlet of the down water pipe....

Let the house is lies in the average annual rainfall of 700 mm (0. above ground or partially above ground as shown in the following figures. The simple thumb rule for that is “build a storage tank of bottom area equal to the one third area of the roof top and the depth of the tank equal to three times the average annual rainfall in meter or three meter whichever is less. 27 square meter. The storage tank can be constructed underground. And if used very precisely for drinking and cooking purpose then this much water will be sufficient for more than six 88 .e. Use the water stored in the tanks in dry months. Storage The harvested rain shall be stored in a storage tank. The tank can be built with locally available materials and traditional construction techniques.e. And this much water will be sufficient for three most dry summer month to a family of five members. 27/3=9 square meter. an appropriate storage or recharge system is designed.7m x 3=2. Use the ground water till it is available. 0.1 meter.be allowed to flow out. 18900 liters.1 =18. This washes away most of the impurities that may be possibly present on the surfaces. Thus the storage capacity of the tank will be 3 x3 x 2.9 cubic meter i.e.” For example there are three rooms in a house of size 3m x 3m. Depending on the amount of rainwater that needs to be harvested and the proposed end use of the harvested rainwaters. Then for storing the harvested roof top water construct a under ground tank having the bottom area equal to one third the roof area i. The total roof area will be 3no x3m x 3m i.7meter). Keep the depth of the tank equal to 3 times the average annual rainfall i.e.

months. • The ground level near the gate should be raised to retain as much water as possible inside the compound. it is better to direct this water to a recharge well. stadiums. Water kept in tanks should be covered to minimize algae growth and eliminate the potential for any mosquito breeding. it is recommended to construct a sloping gutter across the gates and direct the rushing water towards percolation pit. Rainwater also can be collected and stored in large sumps to consume directly after necessary chlorination. The gray water can also be treated by some water treatment methods like Soil Aquifer Treatment System (SAT) and further the pretreated water. Debris and leaves should be filtered before storing the water by placing screens over gutters. A valve system can be incorporated to flush the initial part of the rainwater to get rid of impurities collected on the roof. airports. when there is a paved pathway and are covered with perforated concrete slabs wherever necessary. but this can be easily accomplished. temple tanks. stations. It is interesting to note that in Bikaner area of Rajasthan the people prefer to give harvested rain water to an ill person than the tap water. • The run-off water generated in monsoons within an area can be well utilized for ground water recharging by diverting it into suitably designed recharge structures in public parks. Whenever the depth of clay soil is more. The design and the location of these recharge systems is site specific and needs to be evolved as per the requirements. it is recommended to construct a dwarf wall to a height if 1 ft. Debris screens over gutters should be cleaned periodically and storage tanks should be drained and cleaned regularly. • to make more water to percolate down the soil. Since 1986. depending on the soil condition. The recharging will certainly help to increase the ground water storage. For multistoried building. splay grounds. Maintenance Water harvesting systems require occasional maintenance. The total storage capacity of these tanks is about 27 million liters. The top soil however. • Bathing and washing water can be routed to the open ground nearby to percolate down to retain the soil moisture. The roof is connected to the well through a filtering arrangement by PVC pipe. • The storm drains inside the premises should have boundary wall to ensure that the rain water instead of rushing into the drains and going as waste. The students and the staff have drunk the water since its inception and there have been no complain from their teacher or parents that they have fallen ill from drinking the water. • Due to severe depletion of ground water table. If properly diverted and used for artificial recharge it will augment the ground water table to a sufficient extent. Thus they have very much faith on the purity of the harvested and stored rainwater. at regular intervals.. Ground water recharge-Simple Methods The water in the premises can be harvested to recharge the ground water. recharge through percolation pits with bore is preferable. • Wherever there is a slope. to avoid run-off as well as to retain the rain water and allow for slow percolation. etc. in 450 school of Rajasthan under ground storage tank are constructed. stagnates over the ground for sometime and seeps into the soil. The segments on the sides of the roads should be covered with perforated slabs and should have percolation pits of depth 20 to 50 ft. Techniques of Rain water Harvesting. When the rainwater falls on the ground. • Storm water drains should be designed in such a way that two separate segments are made so as to accommodate water coming from houses and from roads. they can be converted into useful recharge wells. some of it seeps into the soil but the surplus adversely flows out as a stream or as run-off. Instead of discarding these wells. Roof . bore wells and hand pumps are getting dried. many open wells. Alternatively. depending on the type of the soil and joins the aquifers that are groundwater-bearing formation Artificial recharge is a process of augmenting the underground water table by artificial infiltration of rain water and surface run-off. 89 • Rooftops of houses serve as excellent and economical form of collection centers for rainwater. can hold only a fraction of water that falls on it and the rest gradually percolates down. percolation pits are made.

Morawanchikar 4. Param vaibhavacha tappa ala. Anupam Misra 3. Dr. Dr. Glimpses of Water History of India. • It is advisable to have numerous percolation pits in agriculture lands for gradual percolation and recharging of aquifer. This on other wise can be spent on the development works. • Combination of roof top rainwater harvesting and rain water harvesting is a long lasting sustainable solution for the drinking water crises. This will also save the diesel indirectly foreign currency. • If it is made compulsory to adopt the roof top rain water harvesting then there will be no need to supply water by tankers. and to keep the tankers away. Sankalan Pauspanyache. Merits • It is a low cost long lasting solution supplying pure water. Pradeep Bhalge 2. • The rainwater harvesting system is very useful in the remote places and in arid zone. S. R. In such conditions harvested rainwater will be the only source of pure water.S. and other reasons. As the river sand is loosely packed. Pani Sarvansathi. the topsoil is removed and filled with river sand. There should be an effective arrangement for desalting before diverting the water into these wells.Pandav Papers and Articles 1. This will save huge amount of money. Run-off water can be diverted into a large well through a Baby well and filtering tank to avoid silt depositing in the well. More 2. it allows water to percolate down quickly. Few Glimpses of Indian water Culture. • This can be a best solution in the areas having saline ground water or water containing fluorides. Construction of small bunds on slope areas slows down the run-off water and helps easy percolation. D. Dr. Demerits Roof top rain water harvesting system can not supply water if there is no rain fall over the catchments or the water is not stored in the storage tank. • It is also useful in case of flood situations as the water sources get polluted due to entry of floodwater in to them. R. in the preceding rainy season.M. Prof. Morawancikar 3. Pradeep Bhalge 90 . R. • In open grounds. References Books 1. • It is also useful in high rainfall and well as low rainfall zones. Bharatiya Jal Sanskriti Sawarup Ani Vyapti.water and run-off water can be diverted into these wells after filling the wells with pebbles and river sand. Aaj bhee khare hai talab.M.

On the other hand overexploitation of ground water leads to depletions of water resources and scarcity in future. Vaidharbha and Nirguda. As per the 2001 census the district has got a population of 24. This study has been done for Yavatmal district on scientific lines as follows. 1. Arunavati. 2006. climate. Bembla. 1974) and covers an area of 13584 km2. Depth to water level Yavatmal. Nagpur –440001 For correspondence (email: Pandith_m@rediffmail. Wardha and their tributaries namely Pus. Additional Ground Water Storage Potential for Artificial Recharge in Phreatic Aquifers of Yavatmal District. Post monsoon depth to water level and lithological logs of exploratory wells in shallow aquifers down to 20 m depth have been studied and analysed in detailed. The ground water development has to be optimised considering the demand and supply factors. The undue withdrawal of ground water from the deeper aquifers containing excessive fluoride causing fluorosis can be checked in the area.271 with a density of 181/ km2 (Census of India.com or sunilkumar_jain@ rediffmail. KEY WORDS: Shallow aquifer. HYDRO-GEOLOGICAL SETUP 3. Storage potential. Central Region. INTRODUCTION Ground water is basically a renewable resource. 2. Available ground water resources and potential for its augmentation needs to be assessed scientifically and understood holistically for planning the water resources management. Under utilization of available resources is not desirable as it deprives the economic development of the human beings.41% of the Maharashtra state (Socio Economic Review. Nagpur 15. Gondwana Group.500 hectors of land can be brought under assured irrigation from this augmented ground water resources. Maharashtra. Location of the area is given in Fig 1. Deccan Traps and Quaternary sediments. which is 4. 2001). **Scientist “D” 2Central Ground Water Board. Aran. It is one of the economically backward district of Vidarbha regions of the state. but the volume of water actually stored may vary greatly from place to place depending on physiography. India *Pandith Madhnure **Sunil Kumar Jain ABSTRACT Yavatmal district is mainly underlained by varied geological formations consisting of Penganga Group. Khuni. 2003-04). Civil lines. hydrogeology and rate of ground water withdrawal used for various purposes.6 MCM. The potential of ground water storage by recharging the phreatic unsaturated zone is estimated to be 951.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. Artificial recharges potential.com) 91 . which is plain.1 Physiography and Climate Physiographically the area is mostly undulatory dissected plateau with isolated hills excluding the eastern part of the district.44. LOCATION The Yavatmal district lies between 19026’ N to 20042’ N Latitude and between 77018’ E to 79009’ E Longitude (Maharashtra State Gazetteer.200 people during the 4 months of summer season can be met or additional 1.4 to 6 m.29. Waghadi. 3.58. The district is well drained by the rivers Penganga. The climate of the district is characterized by hot summer and general dryness except during * Scientist “B”. The drinking needs of 1. The average tahsil wise depth to water level varies from 6 to 9 m m bgl and the available porous space for artificial recharge in unsaturated zone in phreatic aquifers varies from 0.

Digras. 1994).80 mbgl to 16. 5. The temperature varies from minimum of 15. Kelapur. 4. The contact between Gondwana and Deccan trap is mostly undulatory. The Penganga and Quaternary alluvium aquifers are spread in limited areas but have significant role wherever they are found. exposing the other older formations at surface. Ground water development scenario varies in the district. The thickness of these formations therefore varies from place to place and thus hydrogeology of the area is influenced accordingly (Deshmukh. Pusad and Umarkhed tashils where the stage of ground water development is 25 to 40%.3 Hydrogeology The Deccan traps are the predominant water bearing formations with variations in hydro geological properties over horizontal and vertical space.30 m bgl to 15. 2005). Deep water levels are observed in Wani. the depletion of water table will accelerate resulting into drying or deepening of existing wells. 2005) is given in Fig 1. 3. The net annual available ground water resources are 1278.35 MCM.96 m bgl.1 Phreatic Aquifers: Phreatic aquifers are most productive and occur at shallow depth. Kalamb and Arni are the next developed tahsils with the stage of development between 15 to 25%. 3. The normal annual rainfall varies from about 850 to 1150 mm and it increases from NW to SE direction in the district. 3. There are . Overall the stage of ground water development is 24.80C in summer. Archaean aquifers are limited and have less significance in the area. Ground water occurs in the weathered zone. Kelapur and Ghatanji tahsils. therefore rocks of different groups are met at different altitude in the area owing to differential subsidence or upheaval events. Deccan trap is spread all over the area. Penganga formations.the SW monsoon. Babulgaon. A comprehensive depiction of depth to water level is made by using the data of the 317 92 dug wells for the year 2005 (CGWB.6 % in the district (GSDA & CGWB.3. However. 2006). The Gondwana group of rocks overlays these rocks. The tahsil wise average depth to water level in the area during post monsoon season of the year 2005 varies from 6 m bgl to 9 mbgl with an average of 6. The tahsil wise ground water resources of the district are given in Table 2. Hydrogeological map of the district along with depth to water level (November. The lithological geometry of the phreatic aquifers is generated exclusively based on the exploratory drilling at 51 wells is given in Table 1 and plotted in Fig 2. while eastern part consisting of Wani. fractures and vesicular part in the basaltic formations. GROUND WATER RESOURCES The CGWB and GSDA estimated the ground water resources of the district based on Ground Water Estimation (GEC) Methodology 1997.34 MCM and the ground water draft is 314. Ner. which are developed by dug wells up to 20 m depth. The depth to water level in the phreatic aquifers varies between to 1.1 0C in winter and maximum of 41. Finally the action of atmosphere eroded the Deccan traps in parts.2 Geology Archaean rocks from the basement and are covered by Penganga and Vindhyan group of rocks. There is better ground water development in Darwah. The eastern part of the district is traversed by numerous faults. Vindhyan formation and Gondwana formations and weathered zone. as the development of ground water resources proceeds with increasing ground water withdrawal. Yavatmal. Maregaon. SCOPE OF GROUND WATER AUGMENTATION THROUGH ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE The ground water development scenario of the district is favorable for further ground water development in years to come. As per the GEC norms all the tahsils and 64 watersheds falls in safe category.80 mbgl during the pre monsoon season and between 0. Ghatanji and Jhari Jamni tahsils are the least developed tashils from ground water resources point of view having less than 15% of the development. The Ralegaon.15 mbgl during the post monsoon season in the district. It is followed by Gondwana formations having sandstone and shales sequence. Maximum development of ground water is 45% and is observed in Mahagaon tahsil. The contact between Penganga Group of rocks and Deccan traps is marked by unconformity. fractures in Archaean rocks.

STORAGE POTENTIAL OF UNSATURATED PHREATIC AQUIFERS The volume of water for recharging the unsaturated (dry) zone of phreatic aquifers is estimated by multiplying the tahsilwise area with the available unsaturated thickness and the average specific yield of the particular strata. There is a need for assessing the scope and extent of artificial recharge potential available at present in the area so as to make a comprehensive management plans for the district. The artificial recharge potential has been assessed accordingly on the scientific pattern and methodology in this study. GROUND WATER AVAILABILITY VIS A VIS AUGMENTATION POTENTIAL The ground water resources of the district are 1278. as the area is developed by dug wells up to 20 m depth.The unsaturated thickness of porous zone availability varies from 0.61 MCM or the actual non-commuted surplus runoff. The column 7 of Table 3 is worked out by subtracting column 5 from column 4 of Table 3 or the actual top impervious layer or 3 m whichever is more.4 m (Digras and Arni 93 tahsil) to 6 m (Kelapur tahsil) with an average of 3. Therefore. Thus. 7.many pockets in the district where water levels have deepened and also certain areas lack adequate natural replenishment. Thus. The depth to water level data of post monsoon season for the year 2005 is used to assess the unsaturated space availability in phreatic zone. These are superimposed and transferred on the base map to generate a comprehensive map (Fig. The total potential of ground water resources augmented through artificial recharge is estimated in the district is 951. The tahsilwise details of estimated sub surface storage potential of phreatic aquifers through artificial recharge to ground water are given Table 4.34 MCM and possibility of further ground water augmentation is 951. the tahsilwise potential for artificial recharge to ground water is worked out. The area having maximum thickness of porous strata in unsaturated zone is most potential for ground water recharge through artificial measures. The summarized results of lithology. A perusal of the Table 3 indicates that the depth of impervious formation varies from 0. depths to water levels are given in Table 3. IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL AREAS FOR ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE (PHREATIC AQUIFER) The base map of Yavatmal district on 1: 250. 2). The aquifer geometry is also reflected from this data source. the overall ground water resources can be made available is 2230 MCM (Table 4) depending up on the available surplus water.56 MCM in Wani tahsil.000 scale is prepared by demarcating district.04 MCM in Digras & Arni tahsils to 142. 75 m bgl (Darwah tahsil) to 5. The percentage varies from 7% (Digras & Arni tahsil) to 67% (Kelapur tahsil) with an average of 48%.16 m. This is superimposed on the base map so as to account for storage potential of different strata more precisely. tahsils boundary and major drainage. However. Based on the above-mentioned information. 6. the total storage potential of phreatic unsaturated aquifer varies from 9. artificial recharge measures would be required simultaneously so as to augment the ground water resources of the area. The artificial recharge is targeted to raise the depth to water level up to 3 m bgl so as to avoid the danger of water logging. 2). The lithological logs of the phreatic aquifers down to the depth of 20 meters below ground level (m bgl) are compiled and plotted on the base map (Fig. RECOMMENDATIONS The additional storage potential of the phreatic aquifers may be harnessed appropriately . 8.61 MCM. there are variations in the tahsilwise scenario of ground water availability and augmentation potential. Data of 51 exploratory wells drilled by CGWB is specifically analyzed in detail for the phreatic part although their depth ranges from 17 m bgl to 470 m bgl. It is found that only some percentage of total thickness of the unsaturated zone is porous and the remaining is non porous for ground water storage.6 m bgl (Digras & Arni tahsil). The disposition of impervious layers below the ground water surface has decisive role to facilitate or to retard the recharge from rainfall or storage tanks.

N. 94 . Regional Director CGWB. Geological Survey of India. which will cater the drinking needs of rural people even during the 4 summer months.Mandal. p.332. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank Shri Dinesh Prakash. Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency. the additional irrigation potential can be generated from 951. Central Ground Water Board. S.K.R. Ministry of Water Resources. B. Maharashtra state. scientists. Census of India (2001): District census.500 hectors considering the crop requirement of 0.K. Un published Central Ground Water Board. (1998): Ground water exploration in Maharashtra State and Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Government of India.A. Both these requirement may also be managed by suitable appropriation of the augmented resources.B. CR. D. CR who have collected the valuable data from the district. Bhushan Lamsoge.P. Maharashtra.N. 7. GSDA and CGWB (2005): Dynamic ground water resources of Maharashtra as on March 2004. Central Ground Water Board. 2.61 MCM to the extent of 1. Alternately. 872. Sc “D” for his constructive comments valuable suggestions and encouragement while preparing the paper.Warke. 5..Parchure. Govt of Maharashtra and Central Ground Water Board. The recommendations follow. 4. 1. Ministry of Water Resources. Government of India.65 m prevailing in the area. 6. 294. Appropriate recharge schemes best suited in the area may be identified on the basis of local and site-specific surveys and terrain conditions. 2005-06. Yavatmal (Un published). CGWB (2006): Report on Groundwater management studies in parts of Yavatmal district. 6. REFERENCES 1.Bhatnagar. Ministry of Water Resources. Maharashtra. Binoy Ranjan.6 MCM or the actual non-commuted surplus runoff. Government of India report for A. Stress on ground water withdrawals from deeper aquifers will be reduced which shall be used in exigency and emergency for the future water needs. 62. Maharashtra State Gazetteers (1974): Gazetteers of India. Maharashtra. Government of India. Subramanian P. 3. Socio Economic Review and District Statistical Abstract (2003-04): Yavatmal District. Deshmukh A. Sincere thanks are due to S/Sh. 5. Parts of the district is affected by high fluoride concentration in ground water resources and therefore the utilization of water from phreatic aquifers will minimize the fluorosis in the endemic areas as deeper aquifers are discharging fluoride rich ground waters. Ministry of Water Resources. It will generate many fold benefits to ameliorate the suffering of underprivileged regions and economic upliftment of the local populations.considering the drinking water scarcity and irrigation needs of the area. p. Maharashtra.29. 2. The existing rural ground water supply schemes will be strengthened by ground water augmentation measures. GSI (2001): District resource map of Yavatmal district. (1994): Ground water resources and development potential of Yavatmal district. 4. Nagpur for providing necessary guidelines and valuable suggestions in carrying out the studies. report no 629/DIS. Auther expresses their sincere thanks to Shri P. Efforts may be made to utilise the maximum volume of water from the available potential of 951. Yeotmal district. p. p. CGWB. Second Edition (Revised).

1 Fig.Fig. 2 95 .

Table 1: Lithology of shallow aquifers based on the results of exploratory drilling in Yavatmal district contd. 96 ....

SHS= Shale & Sandstone . WFVB= Weathered Fractured Vesicular Basalt.Table 1: Lithology of shallow aquifers based on the results of exploratory drilling in Yavatmal district 97 TS=Tope Soil. FMB=Fractured Massive Basalt. WFMB= Weathered Fractured Massive Basalt. WVB= Weathered Vesicular Basalt. SS=Sandstone. WMB= Weathered Massive Basalt. C=Clay. VB=Vesicular Basalt. FVB= Fractured Vesicular Basalt. MB= Massive Basalt.

Table 2: Ground water resources of the district as on March 2005 (After GEC-97) 98 .

Table 3: Summarized results of the lithology. depth to water level of the phreatic aquifers in the area 99 .

Maharashtra (Post monsoon season 2005). 100 .Table 4: Estimated sub surface storage potential of phreatic aquifer through Artificial Recharge to ground water in Yavatmal district.

Khadi *N. though an age old practice but use of harvested rain water for supplementary irrigation in the stress period as increase productivity of rainfed agro ecoregions (Venkateswarlu. Rainfed cotton production per unit ha is very low as compared to irrigated cotton. INTRODUCTION Bt cotton is available in India only in the form of hirsutum hybrids and now occupying an area of 33% to the total area of cotton while in Maharashtra it is about 80% area in Bt cotton.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. Higher yield was observed in medium spacing (90x45cm) as compared to recommended spacing (90x60cm) adopted in medium deep soils. farm. Sowing of Bt and non Bt cotton hybrids was done on flat system. Two different land configuration systems viz. M. Inspite of water harvesting on watershed. Significant higher yield of seed cotton was received by adopting ridges and furrow method over flat bed system. Higher production can be achieved if soil moisture conservation technique is to be adopted during growing season of Bt cotton. Blaise *M. An additional yield of 550 to 600 Kg/ha was obtained by utilizing run-off rain water in cotton field. Appropriate Technique of Rainwater Management to Enhance Soil Moisture and Higher Productivity of Rainfed Bt Cotton *Jagvir Singh *D. Production in the rainfed land is a very difficult task due to uncertainty and uneven distribution of rainfall. 70 % of arable land is rainfed without assured irrigation and cotton occupy major area of 60 lakh ha under rainfed in 2005. Higher production of cotton can be achieved at assured rainfall of 650 to 700 mm with proper distribution of rainfall during growing season. Nagpur. Higher dose of fertilizer was found non significant.R.R. Hybrid cotton is a long duration crop requires more water and nutrients as compared to soybean or sorghum. to achieve higher production through runoff water management by making a ridges and *Central Institute for Cotton Research. The efforts have been made for maximization of transgenic Bt cotton production through run-off water management during scanty rainfall under rainfed conditions. Tandulkar ABSTRACT In Central part of India. The technique of soil moisture conservation through ridges and furrow was found superior over flat bed system in terms of increasing in moisture content by 4-5% and NUE during peak boll development stage when rainfall is scanty. Rain water harvesting through tanks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Field trials on Bt cotton was laid out at Central Institute for Cotton Research. It also has capacity to tolerant excess water conditions for 4-5 days or dry conditions for 20 to 25 days. ridges and furrow and flat bed system were compared in rainfed Bt hybrids at different fertilizer levels in Vertisols. Rao *B. Biomass accumulation and number of bolls in Bt hybrids by moisture conservation technique was higher compared to flat bed system in medium deep soil.K. Nagpur – 440 010 101 . 2006. Foliar application of Zn and B (@ 0. Nagpur 16. ponds and reservoirs. Nagpur during 2001-06. an appropriate technique to conserve soil moisture through management of run-off water during scanty rainfall and active growth period of cotton has been successfully developed for conventional hybrids at CICR.5%) improved fibre quality of Bt hybrids marginally. 1981).

Total rainfall during the crop season was 1018. NCS 913 and NCS 138 with non Bt bunny was conducted in medium deep soil with different fertilizers levels coupled with flat bed and ridges & furrows systems. data indicated that higher seed cotton yield of 25q/ha in Bt cotton was obtained at medium spacing (90cm x 45cm) as compared to 21q/ha in lower spacing (90cm x 30cm) and 22. 100 & 125% RDF and different spacing (90x60cm. respectively.e. Sowing of cotton was done in the last week of June on flat bed system. 2002 which has saved run-off rain-water of first week of September. from 25 June to 15 August was 673 mm and for the period from 16 August to 30 September. Fibre quality of Bt cotton was also improved when Bt was grown in medium deep soils. 162 & 12 with different fertilizers levels 75.furrows when rainfall recedes during September month. it might be due to protection of soil erosion and run-off rain water. If ridges and furrows made before the rainfall of September it could have been better to save run102 off water and enhance soil moisture. there was heavy rainfall of 280 mm resulting in large proportion of run-off water.5q/ha in recommended spacing (90cm x 60cm). RESULTS AND DISSCUTION Effect of rainfall distribution on growth of cotton : Rainfall data for the year 2002 and 2005 was interpreted in the paper where soil moisture content of surface soil was measured at 80. sowing of cotton rows across the slope was also a good to protect soil erosion and run-off rainwater. At maturity stage there was higher soil moisture by 3-4% in lower spacing as compared to higher spacing in shallow soils resulted in higher nutrient utilization by cotton and higher seed cotton yield. 90x60 cm or 90x75 cm. MECH 184. Additional yield in medium spacing system may also be attributed by more plant population per unit area. 100:60:80(F2) and 150: 80:100 (F3) to all hybrids were given as per recommended practices. precipitation during the active growth period of cotton i. Fertilizer dose of NPK 90:45:45(F1). Spacing effect on yield and conservation of soil moisture : In shallow soils medium spacing (90x45 cm or 60x60 cm) for hybrid cotton was found superior over higher spacing viz. No yield difference was observed in shallow soil by applying higher dose of fertilizer (125% RDF) while in medium deep soil. Soil conditions effect on yield and yield attributing characters : Biomass accumulation at maturity stage (110 DAS) in Bt cotton was significantly lower than conventional hybrids. 90x45cm in medium deep soil and 90x60cm & 60x60cm in shallow soil) were evaluated for two years during 2001-03. Rainfall distribution and temperature data during the crop season from 25 June to 31 December is presented in table 1. NCS 138 and NCS 913. Cotton was picked thrice in Bt and twice in non-Bt. In spacing trial with Bt hybrids viz. Rainfall of 80 mm received in the middle of October had beneficial effects in conservation of soil moisture through ridges and furrows system. Only one spray of sucking pests was given to all hybrids and 2 sprays of insecticides for controlling bollworms were given in non Bt only. In 2002. . 651 and 1012 mm in 2003. Two field trials on Mahyco Bt cotton viz. there was a good distribution (32 rainy days) of rainfall of 661 mm during active growth period upto first fortnight of September and there after very few amount of rainfall was received. Hence. higher dose of fertilizer gave higher yield as compared to RDF but no significant increase in yield was recorded due to higher dose of fertilizer. Higher seed cotton yield and number of bolls in Bt was recorded in medium deep soil as compared to shallow soil. It enhanced the soil moisture and nutrient utilization in cotton. 2004 and 2005. In the first fortnight of September. it was 370 mm. Ridges and furrows ware made on third September. In 2005. Second field experiment on bunny Bts viz. Ridges and furrows were made across the slope on 22 August. Higher Harvest index (%) was observed in Bt cotton because Bt cotton had higher bolls as compared to leaves. the recommended dose of fertilizer to hybrid cotton Bt or conventional hybrid was sufficient for getting optimum seed cotton yield. Thus run-off water was saved by above mentioned technique. 2005 when rainfall recedes. After second week of September there was a scanty rainfall of 30 mm. Rainfall distribution was uneven at initial growth period of cotton. 95 and 110 days after sowing (DAS).

Sept-31) 320C 320C 330 C (June. 9: 124-40.88 12 103 . However. Higher seed cotton was recorded in both the Bt hybrids as compared to non-Bt Bunny. The maximum conservation of run-off of scanty rainwater and its prudent utilization practice is worth for maximization of cotton production under rainfed condition. Maximization of crop production in dry lands.06 21.32) 320 C 340C Max Temp. the increase in yield by 20-25% at ridges and furrows system was noticed at higher dose of fertilizer.28 15. No significant difference in yield was observed due to higher dose of fertilizers. Aug. Both the Bt hybrids gave an additional yield of about 600 kg by utilizing run-off water through land configuration as ridges & furrows system over flat bed system. to make this technique a viable and successful one in rainfed Agro-ecoregions.72 12. CONCLUSION Therefore. of rainy days Year-2002 25 Jun to 15 Sept 16 Sept to 30 Sept 1 Oct to 15 Oct 661 7 13 32 (Jun-3. Table 1 : Rainfall (mm) distribution pattern during crop season Period Rainfall No.Effect of soil moisture conservation technique: Significant higher yield of seed cotton was obtained at ridges & furrows system over flat bed system. Jul -34.08 Ridge & furrows 23. (Mean) Table-2 : Effect of fertilizer levels at different run-off water management on Seed cotton yield (q/ha) Hybrids Seed cotton yield Flat Bed Bt NCS 138 Bt NCS 913 Non Bt (Bunny) 17.99 9.55 12. REFERENCE : Venkateshwarlu J. ridges and furrows are to be made across the slope and when rainfall recedes and demand of water is more for development of bolls in cotton.91 9. Sept. Jul-30.06 9.6 16. (1981). Jul-3. J. Aug-31.62 20.30.06 Ridge & furrows 21.31 20. Sept-7) 2 1 Year-2005 25 Jun to 15 Sept 16 Sept to 30 Sept 1 Oct to 15 Oct 437 315 33 16 340C (Jun-38. Aug-19.03 F2-100:60:80 Flat Bed 16.36. Soil Cons.65 Ridge & furrows 22.95 15.34 F1:90:45:45 Flat Bed 15.

5 10.3 22.5 Ridg.5 20 12.42 2 1.Table -3 Surface soil moisture content of different DAS in 2002 Growth period At 100% RDF treatment 80 DAS 95 DAS 110 DAS At 125% RDF 80 DAS 95 DAS 110 DAS Ridg.-Ridges & Furrows Shallow soil Flat bed 20 16 10.5 Ridg.69 24. 0 8 10 5 0 90x30 90x45 90x60 Spacing x Fertilizer 100:60:80 150:80:100 Fig 2: Effect of Spacing and Fertilizers on Bt cotton yield 104 .88 2 1.5 NCS 138 30 26. 4 3 14 .52 NCS 913 Bunny non-Bt 25 2 1. 7 1 15 12 .& furr.94 24 . 8 6 24. 27 24. 9 6 Seed cotton yield (q/ha) 20. 24.5 24 18.5 12 Medium soil Flat bed 22 20 11 22 19.5 26 24 11.8 20 14 .5 20 15 9. 9 5 13 .& Furr.5 13. 9 6 13 .& Furr. 5 2 24.

Intensity of rain fall. ME (PH) (Committee Member. 2% water is in the form of ice and glaciers and is also not of any immediate use to us. Catchments area – Whether barren land. desert. Jayadev Vihar. The total water resources. Soil Characteristics. it can be utilized immediately or after storage. Forest area.Whether the soil is permeable or impermeable to facilitate recharge of aquifers. readily available to whole world to satisfy their needs. Collection and storages of rainwater in earthen tanks for domestic and agricultural uses is very common in India since historical times. rural and urban area. Engg. and at community level through ground catchments. Depending on the quantity. Rain fall pattern – Whether rain fall is distributed uniformly through out the year or intermittent. The collection system. only 4% is available in India. Ice caps and desert area. Now lets narrow down our focus to our country. Factors : The following factors are to be taken into consideration for RWH practices Location and topography of the area – Whether plane or hilly area. The concept of RWH has a long history. Components of RWH System : A RWH system has three components The catchments. location and the intended use. This is represented in Fig-1. flood prone. 1% water is in the form of rivers. L. rain fed. harvesting can be done through roof catchments. RWH can be practiced with the objectives of flood control and soil erosion control. in the sense. The traditional knowledge and practice of RWH has largely been abandoned in many parts of India after the implementation of dam and irrigation projects However. Evidences indicate domestic RWH having been used in the Middle East for about 3000 years and in other parts of Asia for at least 2000 years.It varies from 100mm in western Rajsthan to 11. roughly 67 percent of the resources are reported to be available in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial basins covering 33 percent of the geographical area of the country as against 33 percent of the potential in the hard rock regions occupying 67 per cent of the geographical area. Out of 1% available potable water source globally. Rain Water Harvesting – An ultimate need in 21st Century Er. K. At household level.Bisoyi Introduction : Rainwater harvesting (RWH) refers to collection of rain falling on earth surfaces for beneficial uses before it drains away as run-off. Orisssa state centre Bhubaneswar) Address : Plot no-759. Other than as a water supply. Env. ground water etc. comprising surface water (1953 bcm) and ground water (423 bcm) are not uniformly distributed. and The utilization system. Agricultural land. Water Resources at a Glance (India) : Out of 100% water what we have.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. 97% as sea water.E (India). Because of this situation there *FIE (India). steep slope. Which is the only source.000 mm in Cherapunji (Meghalaya). As compared to the world population. 17% population live in India. Bhubaneswar (Orissa) 105 . drought prone. since the early 90s. Rainwater harvesting can be done at individual household level and at community level in both urban as well as rural areas. there has been a renewed interest in RWH projects in India and elsewhere. divisionI. such a huge water source is of no use to us unless we treat it with highly expensive methods like Reverse osmosis or evaporation etc… However water which we get by such techniques is not affordable by every individual. harvested rainwater. lakes. Nagpur 17. 2006.

00 million hectares 1. capita Projected water consumption :In BCM Irrigation 1997-98 2020 BAU 2020 BCS 560 640 602 Domestic 30 56 51 Manufacturing 30 57 57 Power 9 28 27 Total 629 781 737 1950 0.100mm 304 million hectares 100 litres/day/person Land requirement % of India’s land 38. biological) and assessing its impact on health 106 .2 2050 (prob.07 2005 1.5 (Source – Water resources division.30% Issues : A number of issues may affect the widespread adoption of RWH systems in India. like: Economically optimizing the size of system components Minimizing the quantity or quality of materials needed to create any given volume of water storage.1 1998 2. Such as: Economics and Technology – Research and design needs to improve the cost-effectiveness of RWH. Water resources Available water in BCM Losses in BCM Unutilized water that can be harnessed in BCM From all natural – Sources — 4000 Evaporation – 700 Flow on ground – 700 Flow to sea – 1500 Remaining available water ………………1100 Out of which Ground water recharge – 430 Present utilizable surface water – 370 Unutilized water that can be harness – 300 Per .is a tremendous crisis on our Water demand and supply arrangements.28 1947 6 2000 0. Water Quality and Health : the impact of RWH on health such as : The likely causes of low RW quality (physical. chemical. of India) Harvesting potential(India) : Potential of Water Harvesting to meet India’s Drinking Water Needs Assumptions Population: Average annual rainfall: Land area for which land-use records are available: Average household water requirement nationwide: Annual water requirements Water collection efficiency (% of rainfall collected) 1050 million 1.15% 2.6 — 2025 (prob. planning commission Govt. Developing new designs for tanks. guttering and catchments Developing measuring instruments to assist RWH system management Establishing the environmental and economic benefits of reducing extraction of domestic water from distant point sources.) — 0.325 billion litres 38.325 billion litres 100% 50% 3.capita availability of land/water in India : Year Availability of land – ha/capita Year Availability water in Cum/yr.) 0.50 million hectares 7.

2. Challenges Ground water depletion Water quality deterioration Low water use efficiency Expensive new water sources Resource degradation Water and health Massive subsidies and distorted incentives Development of new water sources Strategies Rainwater harvesting Comprehensive water policy reform and demand management Secure water rights User management of irrigation systems. 3 & 4) The decision whether to store or recharge water depends on the rainfall pattern of a particular region. including: Current policies. The optimal role of RWH alongside other water supplies in different regions of the country. In Delhi. For example. In such places. which means that huge volumes of storage containers would have to be provided.Actual RW quality as a function of user behaviors. On the other hand. Regulations and Attitudes that affect taking-up of RWH projects on wider scales. the total annual rainfall occurs only during 3 to 4 months of monsoon. and improving the taste Understanding the links between RWH and the prevalence of disease vectors like mosquitoes and identifying cost-effective and sustainable vector control measures. system design and environmental conditions Devising new techniques for reducing turbidity and pathogens. in places like Kerala and Mizoram. priorities. since the period between two spells of rain is short. barring a few dry periods. Rajasthan and Gujarat. Water Policies. Challenges / Strategies in 21st Century – Challenges and Strategies for water in 21st century are as given below. rules and concerns of key stakeholders RWH popularization and dissemination techniques. it is 107 . in dry areas like Delhi. Reformed price incentives Appropriate technology Environment protection Tradable water rights International co-operation Need and Advantages of RWH : The need and advantages of RWH are as enumerated below Choice between Storage and Artificial Recharge of Rain Water (Fig. rain falls throughout the year. The water collected during the monsoon has to be stored throughout the year. one can depend on a small domesticsized water tank for storing rainwater.

Trenches – These are constructed when the permeable strata is available at shallow depths. Recharges of ground water: is a new concepts of rain water harvesting and the structures generally used are: Pits – recharge pits are constructed for recharging the shallow aquifers. weirs etc. Water is spread in streams/nalas by making check dams. Recharge shafts – for recharging the shallow aquifers.for recharging the upper as well as lengths.5-10) : There are two main practices of rainwater harvesting: Storage rainwater on surface for future use. divert rainwater that is collected on the rooftop of the building Hand pumps – The existing hand pump may be used for recharging the shallow / deep aquifers.when permeable strata start from top then this technique is used. gabion structures or a percolation pond may be constructed. Deeper aquifers lateral shafts of 1. 108 . check dams.more feasible to use rainwater to recharge ground water aquifers than for storage.5 to 2-mt width and 10 to 30mt. Lateral shafts with bore wells. Rainwater Harvesting Practices(Fig. which are. Recharge wells – recharges wells are generally constructed for recharging the deeper aquifer and water is passed through filter media to avoid choking of recharge wells. cement plugs. Dug wells – drainpipes to a filtration tank. It is a traditional practice and structures used are under ground tanks. located below clayey surface. ponds. Spreading techniques. if the availability of water is limited. from which it flows in to the dug well.

S. Source : India Meterological Department for normal rainfall data and based on Census of India data for 1981. RWH practice in individual and small groups of Texas University through 3 cascade ponds to support aquatic life for biology laboratory fed by harvested rain water.Is there Water Shortage ? Every village in India can meet its own water needs: Land area needed per village in different states of India to capture enough rainwater to meet drinking and cooking water needs Note : Calculation based on the assumption that average village population in different meteorological sub-divisions is the same as that of the state. 1991 & 2001 International Initiatives : In U. In Mexico due to artificial recharge of aquifer 50% reduction cost of pumping of ground water achieved. In South Africa in 25 million hector one non-native weed consumed almost 7% more of country’s run 109 .

Unless some crucial measures are not taken in time then by 2025 India will be highly water stressed. water recycling is essential for large consumers such as hotels.do • Bisoyi L. except for drinking. – Rain water harvesting – Definite tool to win over water scarcity – Integrated water and waste water management for sustainable urban development – Modern trends I.. Conclusion : Rain harvesting is emerging as a viable long term strategy to tackle the increase pressure on fresh water resources of our country. public Institutions 110 and industries. Selected Reading • Agarawal.(India).E. A etall – Making water every body business – Practice and policy or water harvesting . a special type of grass planted in Denmark in slopes which reduced 70% rainwater run off and even strong roots of these grass penetrated hard rock and improved infiltration. Financial incentives also can be devised to over come the constraints.P. Community managed in situ water harvesting interventions on watershed basis can better the quality of life of people be ensuring access to safe drinking water and increased productivity of natural resources. • Nimbal F. – Rain water harvesting – Yojana – 6/05 New Delhi • Rain water harvesting – Need of the MillenniumI.K. Jointly with HUDCO and Anna University. quarterly – IAH – ISSN-0971-569X-vol-28. New Delhi.12/2000.K.Integrated water mission .off and it was replaced by indigenous plants to save water remarkably. – Rain water harvesting and Artificial recharge – An innovative approach for crisis management and sustainable development – An experiences of New Delhi. In addition to water harvesting. Since sustainability of the drinking water source is of paramount importance for smooth functioning of rural water supply.E(India). 11-12 Nov. Appropriate legal provisions for making recycling of water mandatory in all buildings particularly larger hotels and industries where large amount of water is consumed are to be taken out. – Water harvesting in water sheds. This will reduce the per capital requirement of water to nearly 25% of the present consumption and enable larger number of population to get adequate potable water and for sanitation. Engineers. In view of this Rain water-harvesting system is the only alternative. World Bank and Denmark Govt. 2005. 25 percent out of the allocation under Prime Minister’s Gramodaya Yojana has also been earmarked for funding schemes under submission on sustainability. It has become very necessary to form certain regulations and laws for the effective utilization of available water source as well rain water harvesting systems implementations so that our coming future will be secured at least on Water front. Water harvesting must be made mandatory for the buildings. etall. Further. 2001 edition • Agarawal. MP’s are to be requested to utilize Local Area Development Fund in their respective constituencies to take up water harvesting scheme. preparation of user friendly atlas type of document on traditional water harvesting structures in various parts of the country has been initiated for popularizing the concept of water harvesting amongst all concerned including the community.do – • Kulkarni M. • Concepts and practices for rain water harvesting – CPCB-MOEF-10/2001. Necessary legal provisions may be made in this regard. • Kalam A. Pune Local Centre – 10-11 March-06. The recycled water must be used for all usages including agricultural needs. Orissa. Bhubaneswar. A etall – State Indias environment – Centre for science and Environment New Delhi. which can provide good quality of water.no3-4 Sept.2005. Major initiatives(India) : Recommending schemes which will ensure availability of minimum 25 kiloliters of water per year for each citizen in the country. .Rain water harvesting – A case study of in a College campus at Myosore – Hydrology journal. Similarly. Harvested rainwater if recharged in to the ground then problem of depletion of under ground water can be sorted out very easily. Besides feasibility studies alone with consultancy services for preparation of pilot projects on rainwater harvestings in select states have already been taken. 25 per cent out of 20 per cent of the allocation under Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) has been earmarked exclusively for water harvesting schemes to make implementation of such schemes mandatory. N.21st National convention of Env. • Yadupatty M. Tamil Nadu State Center.J. – Vigyan Diganta – 12/05.R. • Sahoo. With active participation of NGO’s. Bhubaneswar.

S. The source of supply for all these storages is the rainfall which is highly variable. 2006. Ooranis (drinking water ponds). formulation of a massive programme of tank renovation & its implementation with some priority criteria. During the past few decades they are getting degraded and even extinct due to various reasons. dryland agriculture. and only through the user groups is recommended. part of it gets lost by interception by tree canopy. farm ponds. Storage cisterns. duck rearing and for multifarious other similar purposes. to capture the monsoon rains and store them for later use when required. percolation ponds. approach and efforts made to renovate these small scale water bodies with community participation are described. Nagpur 18. sumps. ponds and Ooranis (drinking water ponds). sub surface dams constructed in deep sandy beds across rivers and streams. check dams. 18. which has resulted in alarming water scarcity. horticulture. livestock and nature. in rural areas it is undertaken more extensively for irrigation. Madurai – 625010. over exploitation of ground water and environmental hazards.Colony. Rain water stored in the soil profile upto its field capacity. DHAN Foundation’s study. although from the efficiency point of view. gardening. they have been constructed by our ancestors over the past centuries. and ground water recharge purposes. Each form of storage has its specific merits and uses. ground water recharge. Tamilnadu 111 . Traditional Rainwater Harvesting Systems – Our Field Experiences DHAN Foundation SYNOPSIS Traditional rainwater harvesting systems comprise mainly tanks. filter point wells.S. The achievements and experiences of these efforts are explained. mostly runs off the land surface and gets wasted without proper use. domestic. depending upon the topography of the land. While in the urban areas rainwater harvesting is practiced for drinking. inland fisheries. evaporation and run off leaving very little of it for storage and future use. it is a finite commodity. dug wells. the run off turns into flood inundating vast tracts of land and damages life and property. In conclusion.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. the types of surface and sub surface soils and the underground geological formations. Where the rains are intense and continuous over some days. Considering the erratic rainfall obtaining in our country. increasing crop production and most importantly improving the groundwater potential through recharge. tube wells and aquifers constitute the underground storage systems. underground storage is the best as evaporation and other losses are eliminated. for effective use by people. Although water is renewable. When the rainfall is scanty. livestock. stabilizing tankfed & rainfed agriculture. with particular reference to the role of these renovated water bodies in augmenting storage capacity. Therefore rainwater harvesting and storage becomes imperative in either case. irrigation tanks and reservoirs comprise the surface storage systems. INTRODUCTION Rainwater harvesting is undertaken mainly to capture the run off from the seasonal rains and store it for use in times of need. domestic. Pillaiyar Koil Street. The rainwater which is not harvested and stored. The storage is made on the ground surface or underground.

The organisation comprises highly motivated.Table 1 : Merits. . well qualified and/or experienced professionals. and build people to become self reliant. More specifically. demerits & uses of different forms of rainwater harvesting and storage DHAN FOUNDATION’S APPROACH TO RAINWATER HARVESTING IN RURAL AREAS DHAN Foundation is a grassroots development organisation working mainly in rural areas with a focus on water resources development and their local management. These rainwater harvesting structures of one form or the other. with a deep concern for poverty alleviation through developmental activities. small and marginal farmers and the rural folk who have no access to large and medium reservoirs. and the revival of local initiatives like the maintenance and management of the water 112 resources as a means to increase productivity of tank fed and rainfed agriculture. it has been concentrating on the restoration of small scale water resources like minor irrigation tanks and watershed development. who live in and work from the villages. benefit predominantly the large number of livestock.

the people began looking upto the government to undertake the works. Further there are no more hydrologically appropriate sites available for forming new tank systems. After the detailed study and analysis of the reasons for the decline of the small scale water resources. terming them as the new temples of modern India.STUDY In order to gain a good understanding of the traditional rainwater harvesting systems like tanks and ponds DHAN Foundation first took up detailed study of the location. enlisting their active participation. to undertake the programme by organising the concerned people. Instead of repairing or restoring the water resources through community action. which would have once again made the rural communities self reliant with regard to irrigation and drinking water. DHAN Foundation has ventured to restore these tanks to their original design standard and performance efficiency. in excess or inadequate. However due to various reasons. mounting debts and uprooted human lives. this was considered to be the way out. to initiate any activity for their restoration. so that the future generations would continue to enjoy the benefits derived. design and construction features. Where the rainfall is unseasonal. In a country where many regions are arid. the foremost among them being the decline of community management. is by rehabilitating the thousands of traditional irrigation tanks which are centuries old and which are still functioning well where the local community is cohesive and enlightened. Inspite of the large number of large and small dams constructed across many rivers in the country. These processes would ensure proper timely maintenance and management of the water resources and make them sustainable over the years. The government’s attention was focussed more on construction of massive dams and large scale irrigation facilities across the country. Massive groundwater programmes like the construction of dug wells and tube wells. in the five districts of Madurai. the price paid is heavy in terms of destroyed crops. all of which have further compounded the degradation process of the water bodies. these rainwater harvesting structures have been steadily getting dilapidated and in some cases even extinct. The most cost effective way by which the water resources can hence forth be developed. aggressively promoted by government organisations and banking institutions with inducements in the form of liberal loans and subsidies. It perhaps felt that these small scale water bodies are too small to provide any spectacular benefit and too scattered to have an effective impact on the people. It found that those rain water harvesting structures were ideally located. in two districts of Chittoor and Nalgonda in Andhra Pradesh and in . the water management practices and the maintenance of the systems. irrigation facilities are still woefully inadequate and people continue to depend upon erratic rainfall conditions. other intrusions like encroachments. leaky sluices and damaged surplus weirs. But 113 successive governments failed or did not care enough to study and revive the old methods of water harvesting. Tiruvallur and Kancheepuram in Tamil Nadu. History confirms that a community is the best protector of its own resources. Ramanathapuram. this dependence has proved costly. For a country which at the time of independence was in a hurry to catch up with the rest of the world and where millions of people had to be literally hauled up above the poverty line. building their capacity and making them contribute a part of the cost of restoration and thus become stakeholders and then facilitating them to implement the rehabilitation works. technological innovations like electrical pumpsets. constructed with locally available materials and maintained by the local communities. at least in Tamilnadu and the adjacent peninsular states. The government taking control of the water bodies during the colonial rule has triggered the decline of community management of them. instead of investing in new structures and systems. and more importantly.all these had contributed to the neglect of the tanks. semi arid or prone to monsoon floods. provision of subsidised and in many cases free supply of electricity to agriculturists for lifting water from the wells . ingenious but simple in design. Theni. This neglect has set in motion. erosion of earthen embankments of tanks. ACHIEVEMENTS During the past thirteen years DHAN Foundation has undertaken rehabilitation works of more than 750 minor irrigation tanks and Ooranis with people’s participation. weed infestation and sedimentation of feeder channels and tank beds. loss of sluice shutters.

in order to upscale the programme in a big way in the future. While the funding agencies came forward with 100 percent of the cost of works as grant. to build their capacity. This effort resulted in communities’ participation with active involvement. it took about six to nine months to form one association. Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP). During the initial years. Ramanathapuram and Tiruvallur districts. in the selection of office bearers of the Executive Councils of these associations DHAN Foundation focussed their attention and assisted the members to make the right choice with great care. ensure the quality of work. We are happy to find that since 1997. This effort has resulted in greater acquisition and increased storage of rain water over longer periods. It also organised tank farmers’ federations at the Panchayat Union and district levels to guide and assist the WUAs in their work. It is this effort that makes people committed to their roles and responsibilities which we believe would result in sustained community management of the water resources. assisted them in drafting byelaws and registering the associations 114 and federations to provide credibility to them. DHAN Foundation availed only 75 percent of the works cost. with DHAN workers living in the villages and the nearest small towns. EXPERIENCES DHAN Foundation itself gained considerable experience in these thirteen years of its involvement in small scale water resources development. DHAN also held several discussions at the tank and village levels to motivate the people and organise them. reduced wastage and equitable distribution of water among the users. the government also has changed their financing policy from 100 percent grant to 75 percent and insists on 25 percent people’s contribution and full participation in many of their development programmes. All these efforts paid dividends to DHAN workers who could build a good rapport with the villagers and instill confidence in them. motivation and confidence. The funds to carry out these works came mainly from the District Rural Development Agencies (DRDA). and surplus weirs to their original design standard. In its pilot (first) phase of three years. met the overhead charges of DHAN Foundation. Twenty five community wells were also constructed in Madurai. and successfully mobilised the remaining 25 percent from the beneficiaries. wherein the emphasis was on restoring the tank structures like tank storage capacity. on leadership.Tumkur district of Karnataka. It was these people’s organisation which did the planning. Besides. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and Sir Ratan Tata Trust (SRTT) while the International funding agencies like the Ford Foundation and NOVIB. the emphasis was on regeneration of farmers’ management in addition to rehabilitation. quality control and systematic accounting of the works. mobilise funds towards people’s contribution and liaise with funding agencies for speedy disbursement of funds. This was made possible by the users regulating the water use through their local management. organising people.000 members in order to enable them to carry out the development works mentioned above and to manage them thereafter. Presentily with the experience gained over the years it takes only a month or two to do this. DHAN organised several exposure visits to the people to other areas where the tank rehabilitation works were undertaken. sluice outlets. Virudhunagar. Tuticorin and Chittoor districts. construction technology. During the third . for them to see and share the experience of their counterparts in those areas. The process adopted to form WUAs has also been refined and improved so that the farmers’ federations themselves organize new WUAs and undertake the activities that DHAN has been carrying out. accounting procedures and the like. right from the initiation of this programme in early 1992. Executive Councils and Federations. Several training programmes were conducted to the members of the Associations. bunds. In the second phase of three years. it has also undertaken sixty tankbased watershed development works with people’s participation and contribution in Madurai. improved water management and crop production techniques. the focus of work was on rehabilitation of tank irrigation systems. implementation. Additional storage capacity ranged from 100 to 200 percent. DHAN Foundation organised about 950 water users (WUAs) and watershed development associations with 60. DHAN Foundation providing only the required technical and managerial support to them. Ramanathapuram. While the members of the general bodies of the various associations were the actual water users.

Tree planting on the foreshore of tank bed in the belt of land bound by the FTL contour of the tank upto the government boundary has been introduced. The community wells sunk in the tank complex get much of their recharge from the tank itself and from the water applied for the crops raised in the tank command and provide supplemental or life irrigation to the crops after the tank gets emptied. Irrigated fields also contribute to augmentation of groundwater resources. improved water management and increased crop production ranging from 30 to 100%. Paddy fields can be used as ground water recharge basins by harvesting the rainfall effectively. And in the fourth phase sustainability of the rehabilitated tank systems in given importance by organising Micro Finance Groups & facilitating them to periodically maintain and manage those traditional small scale water resources. the ratio between the water infiltrated underground to water applied) varied between 55 and 88 percent.phase. Hyderabad. next to provision of plug and rod shutters to sluice outlets for preventing leakage and conserving the harvested rain water. 115 This has been a boon to the small and marginal land holders who could not have their own individual wells to practice conjunctive use. TANKS AS RECHARGE STRUCTURES Although the primary use of tanks is irrigation. Incidentally tree planting also serves to identify the encroachments if any and to remove them promptly. The feeder channel cleaning and restructuring (removal of wild growth of vegetation and desilting) and removal of encroachments formed an important component of tank rehabilitation. and distribute it equitably among themselves. tankfed agriculture was the focus beside rehabilitation and farmers’ management. decision making and implementation. they take good care to prevent wastage. This work was found to be the most cost effective component for augmenting tank storage. The average infiltration rate from paddy fields is reported to be generally higher than that from tanks. When the people get involved intensely in every activity of tank rehabilitation planning. about 15 to 20 percent of the rainfall contributes to groundwater. they contribute as much as 40 percent of their storage to augment groundwater resources through recharge. measurements carried out in about 20 river basins well distributed over the various climatic and geomorphic zones in India. 5 to 10 percent of the seasonal rainfall is contributed as annual recharge in the peninsular hard rock regions. According to a study report by the National Geophysical Research Institute (ICAR). In times of disaster like a tank bund getting breached due to unprecedented rains. All these water conservation measures are introduced either on the initiative or with the consent of the users of the water resource and in accordance with their priorities. Similarly. to serve the drinking water needs of livestock and/ or to provide life irrigation to withering crops in times of water scarcity. when every able bodied villager joins in the team work. Water spreading as a recharge method . This has resulted in greater cohesion among the user groups and their concern to maintain and manage the tank systems with their own initiative and ensure the sustainability and thus become self reliant. to provide additional income to the people through usufructs and to minimise silt accretion into the tank waterspread. The Central Ground Water Board in its manual on “Groundwater resources of India (1995)” accounted nearly 30 to 40 percent of applied irrigation water as seepage return from irrigated fields and field channels. Another component of work added to tank renovation was the provision of silt traps on the front side of sluice opening to prevent the choking up the vent way (pipe or barrel). the planning and implementation was made taking a cascade of tanks as a unit. preserve the stored water. whereas in alluvial areas. This is the most important and gratifying experience that has happened. from taking up isolated tanks for renovation. This attitudinal change occurs mainly through each member of the WUA finding strength and confidence in unity. Yet another innovation made is provision of dead storage within the tank bed to hold water in a selected pocket to facilitate aquaculture. the people themselves undertake breach closing and bund strengthening work collectively. The paddy field infiltration ratio (that is. The philosophy has been “a drop saved is equal to a drop added to storage”. This effort resulted in provision of appropriate inputs at the right time. They maintain the structures themselves with their own funds mobilised for the purpose. so as to capture and store the entire run off flowing down the micro watershed.

the excavated tank silt was applied to their agricultural lands. Similarly in Ramanathapuram district after the reclamation of Ooranis. which they were doing earlier. We therefore suggest that the tanks situated in such favourable tracts may be taken up for rehabilitation on a priority basis. Before restoration of the tanks. with many dried wells getting rejuvenated and providing adequate water supply for irrigated crops. A new well 22 m deep excavated downstream of a renovated tank has 9 m depth of storage & provides drinking water for the entire village of Silamalai. After the desilting of the feeder channel & tank bed. people no more resort to deepening of the wells. In the wells situated in the zone of influence of Kurinjiappagoundan tank in Theni district. as the storage capacity is increased three to four times by deepening the Ooranis. We believe that this effort will strengthen people’s participation and provide lasting benefits to the rural communities through tankfed agriculture and groundwater recharge.over a six year period to the water user group. the water table in twenty out of fifty wells rose by five metres from 40 to 35 m below ground level. the water stored in them is available for drinking purposes almost round the year as against hardly 3 to 4 months’ availability earlier. OTHER BENEFITS In quite a few tanks renovated in the rural areas of Madurai district. Since the Oorani reclamation works also have been carried out with people’s contribution of 25 to 30 percent and their participation. CONCLUSIONS The Institute of Remote Sensing (IRS) Anna University has prepared micro watershed maps Panchayat Union wise. In the next year. as they have adequate supply. drainage line treatment and tree planting on a massive scale. Besides. Our experience of the effectiveness of rehabilitated irrigation tanks & Ooranis as groundwater recharge structures in Theni and Ramanathapuram districts is that there is a perceptible rise in the water table ranging from 4 to 6 metres (m). the water table rose still further. In most of the wells under the renovated tanks. the water table in the wells was between 30 to 45 m below ground level. while in the remaining thirty wells the rise ranged from 2 to 4 metres. and identifying favourable areas for ground water recharge using remote sensing and GIS. The area under well irrigation in this region has expanded by 50 to 100 percent and ground water became a dependable source of supply. the beneficiaries take good care to preserve them from pollution and use the Oorani water without wastage.is practiced on an increasing scale all over the world in areas where the aquifer is shallow. Above all. “The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way people treat the environment”. so that the people of those regions will get the benefits of tankfed agriculture and groundwater recharge as well and also augment the storage of the existing wells in the concerned tank commands. the womenfolk are saved from the drudgery of fetching water from distant places and the time spent for the purpose. 116 . depending upon the period of tank storage and the efforts taken by the local people to raise fish. Here it will be appropriate to conclude this paper with a quotation from Gandhiji. Usufructs from trees planted on the tank bunds and in tank beds have generated additional income upto Rs 75000/. thereby improving the texture and fertility status of the soils. We also strongly recommend that a ten year plan for the period from 2006 to 2016 be prepared to rehabilitate all the existing tanks and ooranis. All existing encroachments in the water bodies may be summarily evicted and future encroachments be strictly prohibited in order to preserve these gifts of our forefathers and can be passed on to our future generations to go along Nature’s path. delineating therein the revenue village boundaries. initiate tankbased watershed programme in all the districts of Tamilnadu to include farm ponds. inland fish culture has been introduced in tank water which fetches the water users a sizable income ranging from ten to fifty thousand rupees a year per tank. the quality of water in the surrounding wells has also improved as confirmed by tests carried out in water testing laboratory as well as by the local villagers. the tanks filled up in the next rains and within a few weeks the water table in 169 dug wells situated close to Silamalai tank in Theni district rose by 5 to 6 m. In some tanks and Ooranis desilted under the tank rehabilitation programme.

Each and every belt now faces the problem of depletion of ground water. especially the ground water resources has arisen the severe ground water problems mainly due to its large dependence on ground water by the rapid growth in urban. Gondia.km of fresh water in the form of rain and snowfall out of which only1869 cu.km can be exploited due to topographic constraints and distribution effects. This has resulted in decrease in ground water levels without much focus on its recharge and has thus necessitated the development of water harvesting systems. rapid growth in urbanization and industrialization trends.S) 117 . The following discusses some of the major characteristics of water in India: where it comes from. Reliance on groundwater resources is particularly strong where dry season surface water levels are low or where wet season flows are too disruptive to be easily tapped. critical ground water deficit problems in India and the various water harvesting techniques suitable for the Indian conditions. 2006. groundwater quality is generally excellent in most areas and presents a relatively safe *Lecturer-Selection Grade **Lecturer Deptt. The current paper focuses on the per capita water availability.km of the annual utilizable resource in the country. India receives a total precipitation of 4000 cu. economically. Importance of Rain Water Harvesting in Current Senario *S. qualitatively so as to fulfill the minimum demand for the long time. traditionally.. Government policies and economic incentives have also determined how and how much of India’s water can be used. A much smaller percentage is stored in inland water bodies both natural (lakes and ponds) and man-made (tanks and reservoirs). Rainwater harvesting is the traditional technique has been in use in hilly areas such as Forts and desert areas such as Rajasthan to conserve the water in the dry periods.km is available as annual surface runoff and only an estimated 1122 cu. Ground water is the main source and being exploited since the days of Mahabharata. In this context rainwater harvesting has been the crucial factor for sustaining the fast depleting surface and sub surface water resources. where it goes and how it is currently being managed. A portion of the total precipitation of the total water is absorbed by the soil and is stored in underground aquifers. Asati **Abhijit Deshpande Abstract In the last few decades. and dependence on ground water for domestic and agricultural purposes by rural community altogether have resulted in to exploitation of ground water without much focus on its recharge. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate. Introduction The unequal distribution of water resources over the time and geographic area and its constant exploitation. Groundwater represents one of the most important water sources in India and accounts for over 400 cu. This is the time to collect the people so as to solve the problem collectively. rural and industrial establishments.441 614 (M.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. Nagpur 19. Thus there is urgent need to search suitable methods to replenish the cause. of Civil Engg. R. Government policies and economic incentives have also determined how and how much of India’s water can be used. MIET. groundwater has become a popular alternative for irrigation and domestic water use across India. In addition to being accessible.

water harvesting systems do have a strong impact in terms of drinking water and irrigation provision on a local scale. social and environmental costs have reduced their overall benefit. mainly due to the potential of these systems to supply freshwater adequate to all areas and sectors and therefore highly adapted to the prevailing climatic and hydrologic conditions of the area. since colonial times. 2000). 1999). Domestic water use will increase as the population continues to grow and access to water is improved. As awareness and public opinion continue to grow. yet high economic.km/ year) in India is depicted in following Table . Although they do not make a significant contribution to the total freshwater water resource in India. The state wise ground water deficit (cu. The original goal of providing water to 100% of all citizens of India by 1991 had to be revised and now stands at 90% access to urban and 85% access to rural areas. development and civil society organizations have been advocating the return to local water harvesting systems for domestic and irrigation purposes. Water consumption for this sector has consequently risen and will continue growing at a rate of 4. water-harvesting systems will become increasingly more important source of water in India. According to the World Bank. 2000). Many of the water harvesting structures used in India are based on ancient models. Out of 650 BCM around 231 BCM water is pumped from ground water. In India.2% 118 per year (World Bank. industrial production has increased in India owing to an increasingly open economy and greater emphasis on industrial development and international trade. The presence and availability of groundwater varies greatly with changes in topography. Water Harvesting Systems Water harvesting structures have been designed to help capture and store rainwater during the monsoon season and serve as a source of drinking and irrigation water during the rest of the year. Only 85% of the urban and 79% of the rural population has access to safe drinking water and fewer still have access to adequate sanitation facilities (World Resources Institute. these systems have been increasingly abandoned and neglected in favor of large dam and canal irrigation projects. the majority of which lies in the southern portion of the country (MOWR. Recent data from the World Bank indicates that demand over the next twenty years will double from 25 billion m3 to 52 billion m3. ponds and reservoirs cover a total of 5 million hectares. Around 575 liters of ground water per capita per day is in demand. The central government made a commitment to improve access to water in rural and urban areas in the National Water Policy adopted in 1987. However. As a result. subsurface geology and the prevailing climate in the region. these ‘modern’ structures have been successful in providing water to portions of rural and urban India. of which only 46 liters is used for domestic and industrial purposes while the rest is consumed for irrigation. The ground water is depleting at the rate of 2 to 3 mts. Finally Meherana in Gujarat and Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu have lost their entire ground water resources. respectively. groundwater exists in deep aquifers while in others the water is stored near the surface. So far. tanks.per year. In some areas. In the past several decades. The location of the aquifer also affects its recharge rate and its susceptibility to pollution and overuse. demand for industrial. energy production and other uses will rise from 67 billion m3 to 228 billion Demand from the domestic sector has remained low and accounts for only 5% of the annual freshwater withdrawals in India (World Resources Institute.source of drinking water for Indians in rural and urban centers. 2001). Drinking water and sanitation nevertheless remain high priorities on the government agenda. Groundwater Depletion : facts and figures Following findings focuses on the critical scenario of ground water depletion : As per the findings in 1955 the availability of fresh water in India was 5277 cum while in 2001 it has depleted to 1820 cum.

km of this was from storage. • India’s potential utilizable ground-water resource = 350 cu. However. 90. which has caused the water table to drop close to 30 meters in a decade. while the future projected availability is expected to be 1140 cu. from 3.km / year. • Water Constraints on Irrigation : The eventual lack of water for irrigation could cut India’s grain production by 25%. and 6 million in 1990. The limited water supply encourages inadequate leaching of land and a resultant increase in soil salinity. Storage capacity (mid-1970s) = 160 cu. By 1985 that figure had risen to 70. and 9500 deep wells have been installed in the past 15 years.km / year. Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.500. in Madhya-Pradesh.000 villages in the northern Indian state of Uttar. water tables are dropping by under one to several meters per year in much of northern India’s Punjab.km / year (1974).000 km2 are irrigated. • India is one of the leading countries in total irrigated area and the third-largest grain producer. • India’s rainfall = 110 cm / year. Similarly.840 to 12.3 Forth-coming Problems • In the Indus basin as a whole. In Ludhiana district of Punjab.km / year of this utilization. the water table is dropping nearly 1 m annually. Indian per-capita water supplies fell by roughly half during 1955-90. Ave.2 12. • In southern India. 25% of India’s grain harvest could be in jeopardy.000 dug wells.km / year. in 1985 the number totaled more than 64.km were used in 1951) Estimated surface water utilization in 2000 = 500 cu. the number of villages short of water tripled between 1979 and 1986. (95 cu.8 104. ground-water levels have 119 dropped 25-30 m. Inflow from neighboring countries accounts for 200-cu. groundwater pumping is estimated to exceed recharge by 50%.km. surface flow = 1800 cu. groundwater levels are falling 2. In the western state of Gujarat.33 million km2 of land being cropped. more than 36. even though they occupy only 10% of cropped land. • Water shortages plagued 17. the water table in parts of Karnataka dropped 40 m while in the state of Tamil Nadu. • India’s potential surface water resource = 700800 cu. 240. Presented below are the ground water deficit problems observed in the various states of India: • India’s use of ground water in 1973-74 was 120-130 cu. • Pumped underground water is double the rate of aquifer recharge from rainfall. including 420 cu. 100 cu. • Of 1.km / year of this 1800. but only 50% of this has an assured supply of water.6 22. 150 from rivers and streams.km / year (80% for irrigation). Following are the critical ground water deficit problems observed in various states of India The ground water availability and the projected deficit in India are shown in Fig.400 villages lacked sufficient water in 1980.250 and .5-3 m/ years and between 1946-86.0 14.m which is almost twice less than observed in 2001. this would much depend on increase/ decrease in pumping and our earnestness to implement the water harvesting methods.State Rajasthan Maharashtra Gujarat Haryana Karnataka Punjab Other Total Deficit (cu.km / year. • While it is estimated that Delhi will run out of groundwater by 2015 at current rates.0 2.7 4.-1. the number of shallow tube wells used to draw groundwater was 3000 in 1960. The major utilization is for agriculture in Tamil Nadu.0 16. Irrigation accounted for 240-cu. in a decade. • Sugarcane growers in the state of Maharashtra take 50% of available irrigation water supplies. • The position of most of the villages in India is more pathetic where the major dependence of water supply for the domestic and irrigation purposes is the dependence on ground water • India’s irrigation water came from less than 30 % groundwater in 1951 but over 40 % in 1980. It can be seen from the figure that since 1951 the per capita water availability has rapidly decreased almost three times in fifty years in the year 2001.km/ year) 32.Pradesh in the 1960s.km / year for irrigation.000. • 65% of Haryana in India sits over salty groundwater. 30.000 shallow tube wells. India’s water utilization = 250 cu.

conservation and augmentation of the ground water aquifers. Over-exploitation of ground water resource has resulted in decline in water levels. Due to rapid urbanization and concrete covering over the land the infiltration of rainwater into the sub-soil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished. Following are the structures generally used for the rainwater harvesting 1. Why Rain Water Harvesting Unavailability and inadequacy of surface water and to meet our demands. Trench may be 0. which are located below clayey surface.-3 m. 2. deep are constructed and back filled with boulders. Recharge Shafts: For recharging the shallow aquifers. 4. 7. diameter and 10 to 15 m.5 m. wide.5 to 3 m. b) Recharge to ground water. if the availability of water is limited. Diameter are generally constructed for recharging the deeper aquifers and water is passed through filter media to avoid choking of recharge wells.over-pumping by irrigators caused saltwater to invade the aquifer. gravels and coarse sand. Open wells: Existing open wells may be utilized as recharge structures and water should pass through filter media before putting it into open well. Hand Pumps: The existing hand pumps may be used for recharging the shallow / deep aquifers. Water should pass through filter before diverting it into hand pumps. we have to depend on ground water. deep and 10 to 20 m long depending upon the availability of water. wide and 2 . Improvement of the water quality.5 to 1 m. wide and 10 to 30 m. To avoid the situation of temporary floods or stagnation of water in urban areas even for a short duration of rainfall. These are backfilled with filter materials. These are constructed 1 – 2 m.5 to 2 m. long depending Rain Water Harvesting Techniques Different methods of Roof Top Rain water Harvesting Bore wells Deserted wells Open Wells Hand Pumps Recharge wells Recharge shafts Recharge pits Recharge trenches 120 . There are two main techniques of rainwater harvesting a) Storage of rainwater on surface for future use. Different methods of Roof Top Rain water Harvesting. Recharge Wells: Recharge wells of 100 to 300 mm. Recharge Pits: Recharge pits are constructed for recharging the shallow aquifers. 3. 6. 1 to 1. Lateral shafts with bore wells: For recharging the upper as well as deeper aquifers lateral shafts of 1. Sustaining the moisture content in the subsoil so as to minimize the cracks during dry periods. recharge shafts of 0. Recharge Trench: These are constructed when the permeable strata are available at shallow depths. To raise the water levels in dug wells and bore wells that are drying up. To improve the vegetation cover. 5. deep which are backfilled with boulders. gravels and coarse sand. To arrest saline water intrusion. To enhance availability of ground water at a specific place and time.

.R.” proceedings in 38th Annual Convention of I. • The structures required for rainwater harvesting are simple and economical.2005. • Permeable strata is available at shallow / moderate depth.College for women. Conclusion and suggestions The current paper discusses the ground water availability. Deserted wells: Recharge water is guided through a canvas pipe of 100 mm diameter to the bottom of well or below the water level to avoid scouring. • Saving of energy per well for lifting of ground water – a one-meter rise in water level saves about 0.W.W.” Proceedings in National Conference and sustainable Development. • Where there is possibility of intrusion of saline water especially in coastal areas. • IWWA proceeding of 33rd Annual Convention Theme. • Rainwater harvesting provides a water supply buffer for use in times of emergency or breakdown of the public water supply system. “Ground Water Recharge”. 06-08 Jan2006. . • Where the evaporation rate is very high from surface water bodies..D.R.W. “Artificial Groundwater Recharge”. Thus in the current scenario of severe water crises implementation of rain water harvesting technique can be helpful in solving following problems : • An ideal solution to water problems in areas having inadequate water resources. • Ashtankar T. 28th June 2004. • National Drinking Water Mission. The ground water level will rise..W. “Water Harvesting. “A case study on Rooftop rainwater Harvesting.B.. • Development of Monomolecular Film to Act as Evaporation Retardant and Prevent Water from Evaporating from large Water Bodies Economically”. “Artificial Ground Water Recharge through Roof top Rainwater Harvesting: A case study. Hyderabad. Nagpur dated 16-17 Dec..R.R. • Pingle S.N.W. hold at Jaipur (Rajasthan)..A.” proceedings in 38th Annual Convention of I.A Review . hold at Jaipur (Rajasthan). hold at Jaipur (Rajasthan). Pitman Advanced Publishing Program. • Asati S. Ideal Conditions for Rain Water Harvesting and Artificial Recharge to Ground Water • Most suitable for the urban areas where adequate space for surface storage is not available.upon availability of water with one or two bore wells are constructed.D.College for women. Also.W. • Rainwater harvesting can reduce storm drainage load and flooding in city streets.4 kwh of electricity. Kelkar P and Nanoti M. Also suit in any environment. Project No. A Publication of national Institute of Hydrology.G. 8. deficit and its future prediction for India. • Where adequate quantity of surface water is available for recharge to ground water. Roorkee • Todd D.2005.A. so can be utilized for drinking purposes. Technical Series M.S. The lateral shaft is back filled with boulders. ID/17/95 sponsored by Ministry of Water Resources. K. • Asati S.” Proceedings in National Conference and sustainable Development. “Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Areas.No-3. March 1994. 0608 Jan2006. • Husiman L.A. and Smt. References • Artificial Recharge in India.The Need of the Hour. of India.P.. “Water for New Millennium”.) an adequate surface storage is available.”Roof top Rainwater Harvesting: A case study.H and Bhavnani H.P. • Rainwater is bacteriologically pure. A Publication of National Geophysical Research Institute. • C. L. Govt. Manual on Artificial Recharge of Ground water.A. Nagpur dated 16-17 Dec. V. “Ground Water Hydrology”. Ashish Publishing House. “Water Harvesting System Reference manual”. • Water level is deep enough (greater than 8m. • Dainik Bhaskar-News Paper. • Flooding of roads is reduced. • Rainwater Harvesting. 06-08 Jan2006. free from organic matter and soft in nature. • Soil erosion will be reduced. • Mahajan G. and Smt.A.”proceedings in 38th Annual Convention of I. importance and various harvesting techniques have been discussed. gravels and coarse sand. and Sharma N. • Mitigates the effects of drought and achieves drought proofing. New Delhi. 121 . L. • Where the ground water quality is bad.S. John Wiley & sons • Trivedi S. & Olsthoorn T..W.

122 .

The classical sources of irrigation water are often at the break of overuse and therefore untapped sources of (irrigation) water have to be sought for increasing agricultural productivity and providing sustained economic base. and for livestock consumption. 2006. the risk of crop failure is very high.1 General concept Water harvesting is applied in arid and semiarid regions where rainfall is either not sufficient to sustain good crop and pasture growth or where. allowing the establishment of cities in the desert . cisterns or reservoirs or soil itself serves as a reservoir for a certain period of time. As the appropriate choice of technique depends on the amount of rainfall and its distribution. The various forms of water harvesting have been elucidated. especially the technological development since 1850. therefore it requires runoff producing and runoff receiving areas. land topography. Water harvesting can significantly increase plant production in drought prone areas by concentrating the rainfall/runoff in parts of the total area. Rain water harvesting for dry-land agriculture is a traditional water management technology to ease future water scarcity in many arid and semi-arid regions of world. As long as mankind has inhabited semi-arid areas and cultivated agricultural crops. Rain Water Harvesting : A Viable Solution To Conserve Water *Rishab Mahajan **Prof. pastures and trees. with the exception of floodwater harvesting from far away catchments. Basic Concept 1. Water harvesting is based on the utilization of surface runoff. of Civil Engineering. micro catchments water harvesting. There might be some kind of interim storage in tanks. soil type and soil depth and local socio-economic factors. The intermittent character of rainfall and runoff and the ephemerality of floodwater flow requires some kind of storage. of the waters of ephemeral streams was already the basis of livelihood in the arid and semi-arid areas many thousands of years ago. which makes rain fed agriculture a risky enterprise. Water harvesting for dry-land agriculture is a traditional water management technology to ease future water scarcity in many arid and semi-arid regions of world. lead to a steady increase in area under “classical” irrigation techniques with preference to large schemes. Chandigarh – 160 012 123 . Water *Pre-final Year **Professor ***Professor & Head. 1. KhitoIiya Abstract : The problem of water shortage in arid and semi-arid regions is one due to low rainfall and uneven distribution through out the season. Shakti Kumar ***Dr. Post Graduate Environmental Engineering Department Deptt. It do not include its conveyance over long distances or its use after enriching the groundwater reservoir. Nagpur 20. R. In most cases. pitting. these systems tend to be very site specific. Based on “natural water harvesting” the use. pastures. it has practiced some kind of water harvesting. The common goal of all forms is to secure water supply for annual crops. water harvesting utilizes the rainfall from the same location or region. Punjab Engineering College. K. The paper discusses the use of water harvesting as an effective tool for water management. trees and animals in dry areas without tapping groundwater or river-water sources. flood water and ground water harvesting. due to the erratic nature of precipitation.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. The water harvesting methods applied strongly depend on local conditions and include such widely differing practices as bunding.The European expansion. Introduction Rain water harvesting is defined as the collection of runoff and its use for the irrigation of crops.

Fig. Combating desertification by tree cultivation 5. latexes. Supplying drinking water for animals. Medium-sized catchment water harvesting 6. plastic sheeting.g.1 Component System This system enables custom building from separate components giving great flexibility enabling the system to be adapted for many situations regardless of location of storage tank realative to building.2 Water harvesting for animal consumption Ancient dwellers harvested rain water for human and animal consumption by redirecting the water running down hill slopes into cisterns. 1. Restoring the productivity of land which suffers from inadequate rainfall.1. in many locations. this tradition is still practiced in many regions. asphalt. 2 Techniques of Rain Water Harvesting The various rain water harvesting techniques can be broadly classified into following six categories. surfaces used for rainwater collection are usually either physically compacted. chemically treated or covered to increase runoff volume: (i) Clay soils are well suited for compaction. by tractor and rubber-tired rollers.2 Module System This type of system differs in that they do not replenish the storage tank with main water. 2. (iii) Concrete.1. The surfaces are shaped. 2. Large catchment water harvesting. Water harvesting for animal consumption 3. 1 : Annual precipitation ranges for different forms of water harvesting in summer rainfall areas Fig. smoothened and then compacted e. 2. Presently. 2 shows a typical roof top harvesting system.harvesting projects are generally local and small scale projects.2 Necessities The main goals of water harvesting are: 1. Rooftop water harvesting 2. 2. 2 : Roof top rain water harvesting . The various types of roof top rain water harvesting are as follows : 2. Minimizing the risk in drought prone areas 4. a very valuable resource being used mainly for drinking and domestic purposes. Instead there is an integral main water cistern which the pump draws from when there is insufficient water in storage tank. but where the means are available. compared to 30 percent from untreated plots. butyl rubber and metal foil can also be used to cover the soil for 124 Fig. (ii) Sodium salts. 2. Microcatchment water harvesting 5. Inter-row water harvesting 4. fiberglass and silicones can be used as sealants on soils which do not swell with moisture (Frasier 1994). Plots treated with sun-melted granulated paraffin-wax yielded about 90 percent of the rainfall as runoff. bitumen.1. Increasing yields of rain fed farming 3. wax.3 Hybrid System Hybrid system comprises a module unit with an additional submersible pump located in underground storage tank. 1.1 Roof top water harvesting Rain “harvested” from the roofs of buildings including greenhouses is.

20% . which varies from 1:1 to 5:1 (Fig. Cropping Area= 1 . Tobby 1994). The water collected from different parts of the catchment area in stored as shown in the figure.40 m height are built 2 to 20 m apart. beans. along the upper side of the bund or on top of the bund. The aridity of the location determines the catchment to cropping ratio (CCR).600 mm/a 5. Catchment Area = 3 .10 sq.20% inclination) these systems are called “contour ridges” (USA) or Fig 5 : Negarin type Microcathment system Fig.250 sq. Fig 4. 2. Fig 3. The annual rainfall should not be less than 200 mm/year. Rainwater harvesting system for animal consumption 2. m 3. Crops cultivated in row water harvesting systems are maize. This infiltration basin may be planted with a single tree. Gravel may protect the underlying membrane against radiation and wind damage. the crops are either grown in the furrow. treated with chemicals to increase runoff. soil surface treatment. “Matuta” (East Africa). depending on slope. 2). millet. 125 The system shown in the Fig was given by BenAshler [1] and has the following parameters. Precipitation =150. The ridges of about 0.3 Inter-row water harvesting Inter-row water harvesting is applied either on flat land or on gentle slopes of up to 5 % having soil at least 1 m deep.rainwater harvesting.4 Microcatchment systems Microcatchment water harvesting (MC-WH) is a method of collecting surface runoff from a small catchment area and storing it in the root zone of an adjacent infiltration basin. general CCR and type of crop to be grown. Catchment: Cropping Ratio = 3: 1 -25:1 4. 3). Illustrates a microcatchment system. very high rainfall intensities may cause breakages of the bunds. 1. rice or (in the USA) grapes and olives (Pacey and Cullis 1986. compacted and. under higher-input conditions. bush or with annual crop. Slope = 1 . Various forms of flat-land inter-row water harvesting increasing CCR/aridity of location. The catchment area should be weeded and compacted. The runoff water is collected in lined or unlined pits down the slope of the catchment area (Fig. 4. On sloping land (1 . Finkel and Finkel 1986. On flat terrain (0-1 % inclination) bunds are constructed. On sloping land. The preparation of the land for inter-row water harvesting can be fully mechanized. m 2. this system is recommended only for areas with a known regular rainfall pattern.

Hill Type Conduit System The most important parameters to be considered in identifying areas suitable for rain and floodwater harvesting are as follows: 3. 126 2. 2. 2.000 m2 . The intensity of rainfall is a good indicator of which rainfall is likely to produce runoff. The catchment area may have an inclination of 5 to 50 %.5 Medium-sized catchment water harvesting Water harvesting from medium-sized catchments (1.5 Large catchment water harvesting Large catchment water harvesting comprises systems with catchments being many square kilometers in size.200 ha) is also known as “water harvesting from long slopes”. Fig.5. the cropping area is either terraced or located in flat terrain. A CCR of 10:1 to 100:1. .5. from which runoff water flows through a major wadi (bed of an ephemeral stream).2. PARAMETERS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SUITABLE RAIN AREAS. The availability of rainfall data series in space and time and rainfall distribution are important for rainfall-runoff process and also for determination of available soil moisture. necessitating more complex structures of dams and distribution networks. 7 : Flood Diversion Technique 3. A threshold rainfall events (e.or floodwater harvesting system include: (1) Number of days in which the rain exceeds the threshold rainfall of the catchment. The selection of suitable areas and techniques for rain water harvesting is of utmost importance to derive the maximum benefits from the scheme. Fig. Floodwater diversion. 2. Floodwater harvesting within the stream bed.1 Floodwater harvesting within the stream bed Floodwater harvesting within the stream bed” means blocking the water flow to inundate the valley bottom of the entire flood plain. The predominance of turbulent runoff and channel flow of the catchment water in comparison with sheet or rill flow of micro catchments. as “macrocatchment water harvesting” or as “harvesting from external catchment systems”. The various characteristics of this type of system are 1. Two types are mainly distinguished: 1. The partial area contribution phenomenon which is not relevant for micro catchments.1 Rainfall The knowledge of rainfall characteristics (intensity and distribution) for a given area is one of the pre-requisites for designing a water harvesting system. on a weekly or monthly basis. 6 shows a hillside conduit type system which is adopted in areas having a precipitation of 100-600 m. 3. 4. 2. to force the water to infiltrate and use the wetted area for crop production or pasture improvement. of 5 mm/event) is used in many rainfall runoff models as a start value for runoff to occur.2 Floodwater diversion Floodwater diversion means forcing the wadi water to leave its natural course and conveying it to nearby areas suitable for arable cropping. Floodwater diversion techniques were already applied several thousand years ago. Useful rainfall factors for the design of a rain.g. Fig 6. the catchment being located outside the arable areas.

which influence the rainfallrunoff process (2) The infiltration and percolation rate. a parameter regarded of very high importance for the suitability of an area for macro-catchments water harvesting.2 Land use or vegetation cover Vegetation is an infiltration rates which consequently decrease the volume of runoff. soil texture. The quantity of rainfall which produces runoff is a good indicator of the suitability of the area for water harvesting. Water harvesting technology should be seen as one component of a regional water management improvement project. both in terms of water quality and quantity.3 Topography and terrain profile The land form along with slope gradient and relief intensity is other parameters to determine the type of water harvesting. the cultural behaviour together with religious belief of the people. retention and of runoff from 127 rainfall within a particular project area. If the use of natural resources (land and water). land tenure and property rights and the role of women and minorities in the communities are crucial issues. 3. including the use of good plant material. and (3) The soil depth incl. 3. 3. e) Hydrology and water resources The hydrological processes relevant to water harvesting practices are those involved in the production. The terrain analysis can be used for determination of the length of slope. 4.4 Soil type & soil depth The suitability of a certain area either as catchments or as cropping area in water harvesting depend strongly on its soils characteristics viz. is suddenly changed by water harvesting. 3.6 Environmental and ecological impacts Dry area ecosystems are generally fragile and have a limited capacity to adjust to change [3]. deep percolation). the farmers knowledge about irrigated agriculture.5 Socio-economic & infrastructure conditions The socio-economic conditions of a region being considered for any water harvesting scheme are very important for planning. With a given inclination. thus depriving potential down stream users of their share of the resources. flow and storage other important parameter that affects the surface runoff. which determine water movement into the soil and within the soil matrix. There is a high degree of congruence between density of vegetation and suitability of the soil to be used for cropping. Various studies have shown that an increase in the vegetation density results in a corresponding increase in interception losses. The slope length can be used to determine the suitability for macro or micro.g. the runoff volume increases with the length of slope. The rain falling on a particular catchment area can be effective (as direct runoff) or ineffective (as evaporation.or mixed water harvesting systems decision making. the financial capabilities of the average farmer. attitude of farmers towards the introduction of new farming methods. the environmental consequences are often far greater than foreseen. (1) Surface structure. (3) Probability and reoccurrence for the minimum and maximum monthly rainfall. The chances for success are much greater if resource users and community groups are involved from early planning stage onwards.(2) Probability and occurrence (in years) for the mean monthly rainfall. Consideration should be given to the possible effect on natural wetlands as on other water users. designing and implementation. Components of such integrated plans should be the improvement of agronomic practices. Vegetation density can be characterized by the size of the area covered under vegetation. The farming systems of the community. (4) Frequency distribution of storms of different specific intensities. 3. which could be utilized for agricultural production. Conclusions Substantial amounts of rainfall in semi-arid areas are lost (e. plant protection measures and soil fertility management. This could be achieved through water . New water harvesting systems may intercept runoff at the upstream part of the catchment. by evaporation from soil surfaces). which determines the quantity of water which can be stored in the soil.

Prinz. Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems can help in the determination of areas suitable for water harvesting. J. S. J. 1999. Water Management. and Ben-Asher. WorldBank Sub-Saharan Water Harvesting Study. 4.or afforestation. (1988). They also facilitate re. Hachum. 3. fruit tree planting or agroforestry. With regard to tree establishment. (1982). 128 . Using harvested rainwater helps in decreasing the use of other valuable water sources like groundwater. Oweis. Rainwater Harvesting have the potential to increase the productivity of arable and grazing land by increasing the yields and by reducing the risk of crop failure. The decision making process concerning the best method applicable in particular environmental and geophysical conditions depends on kind of crop to be grown and prevalent socio-economic and cultural factors. Most of these techniques are relatively cheap and can therefore be a viable alternative where irrigation water from other sources is not readily available or too costly. water harvesting saves energy and maintenance costs. M. T. References 1. rainwater and floodwater harvesting can contribute to the fight against desertification.harvesting. Boers. Ben-Asher. and J. Agric. Water harvesting and supplementary irrigation for improved water use efficiency in dry areas. 47-69. D.1999. Wolfer. T.. A review of rainwater harvesting. p. World Bank Working Paper 2. A. A Review of Water Harvesting in Israel. 2.. Traditional techniques of Water Management. Unlike pumping water. Kijne.

Technology to Effectively Utilize Rain and River Water through Advanced Ground Water Recharging Technique without Interlinking of Rivers *Chetan Hari Sharma Abstract The technology to effectively utilize rain and river water through advanced ground water recharging technique is a system which club together nearly every engineering aspect related to it and utilizes them in the best possible way to serve the humanity. It channelizes the floodwater and the water. which would otherwise get wasted. 2006. etc. mainly of the Ganga and Brahmaputra Basin. floods. through rechargement of large amount of pure water. can be saved.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. But. Nagpur . As the pure water free from all impurities is stored under-ground therefore a very huge percentage of water. Sadar. if not properly harnessed or planned. etc bringing disasters. Properly planned use of water may nourish our farms and forests. [b] Solve the ground water related problems. which would have been evaporated if it had been stored on the surface. Besides. which would otherwise mix with the sea. to the whole country during non-monsoon months. and any other possible alternative will not be better then the proposed one. therefore. Nagpur 21. 1. Cement Road. The purpose of the plan to effectively utilize rain and river water through advanced ground water recharging technique is to : [a] Reduce the extent of annual flooding at the flood prone areas. Hence. as a ground water reserve. as many benefits as possible. fulfilling the basic necessities of life. with minimum expenditure. such as ground water depletion. In addition to all these capabilities the technology proves to be the gods blessing by generating electricity. Gandhi Chowk. the same useful servant may become wild or an enemy in the form of severe storms.com 129 . absolutely necessary so as to obtain from this servant. [c] Boost agricultural productivity. may help in beautifying our surroundings and environments. It is in fact. the proposed proposal in this paper had been invented by me considering all the aspects of the behavior of water resource and present engineering capabilities which ensures that the proposal is the best one. an amazing fluid and can lead to an overall prosperity of a nation and that of the entire community as a whole. and it can be made to serve various functions. extracting all the additional energy which the water initially possess due to its potential head. Proper planning is. so that it can be made available. through pollution free hydroelectric power plant in between the journey of this harnessed water from the surface location to under-ground aquifers. properly harnessed and developed water can enable us to lead an effluent and a luxurious life. may run our turbines for generation of hydroelectric power.440 001 India Email: chetan hari Sharma@indiatimes. as ground Krishna Mandir. devastations and catastrophes. INTRODUCTION Water is an excellent resource of nature. pollution and quality deterioration. hurricanes. may help in preparing modern medicines for cure of various ailments and diseases.

In total. By 2020. [g] Harness maximum possible amount of 1500 BCM of floodwater. 700 BCM of water which presently gets evaporated and 300 BCM of balance water.000mm while Ajmer just outside the western boundary of the GBM basin may receive only 200 mm of annual rainfall. Much concern about the problems of groundwater depletion. the reality of India is that the bulk of its agrarian growth in recent decades has been energized by a rapid rise in groundwater irrigation through small pumps and wells financed mostly through private farmer investments. groundwater irrigation may contribute more to Indian agricultural growth than even surface irrigation development. Because of this rapid growing population the world may see more then six fold increase in the number of people living in the condition of water stress from 470 million today to 3 billion in 2025. INDIA’S GROUND WATER SOCIOECOLOGY The groundwater socio-ecology of India has been at the heart of their agrarian boom. Indeed. A large part of the precipitation on the country is received in the Himalayan Catchments of the Ganga. 2. however. equally serious are their consequences for the sustenance of agrarian economies and millions of rural livelihoods that are precariously dependent upon groundwater irrigation. which is 50 percent longer than that in 1990. India. approximately 50% more then the present country’s hydroelectric power capacity. while much public investment has been devoted to the creation of surface irrigation. the ratio between the number of the people and the available water resource is worsening day by day. country receives about 4000 BCM of water as precipitation annually out of which 700 BCM are lost in evaporation and another 700 BCM are lost during the flow on the ground.water irrigation’s contribution to agricultural productivity is some 45% higher then that made by the surface irrigation in India.000 ha increase in the area under groundwater . the large part of the water namely 1500 BCM flows into 130 the sea due to the floods. [f] Generate additional hydroelectric power. thus. Also.Meghna (GBM) basis. Pakistan.Brahmaputra. Unlike the precipitation patterns in the temperate regions of the world. pollution and quality deterioration is fueled by worries about their environmental consequences. the global population is projected to touch 7. western and southern parts for example. In the global picture. India is identified as a country where water scarcity is expected to grow considerably in the coming decades further drought conditions resulting from climatic variability cause considerable human suffering in many parts of the country in the form of scarcity of water for both satisfaction of domestic needs and for crop protection. The distribution of precipitation over the India is predominately governed by the monsoon as a result of which the north eastern water of the country receives substantially large precipitation in comparison with the north western. Bangladesh and China account for the bulk of the world’s groundwater use in agriculture. As a result. for a 1. These are indeed serious. and the regions where ground water level is depleting due to over exploitation.9 billion. PRESENT HYDROLOGICAL SCENARIO The rapid growth in the demand of fresh water driven by growth in the global population and of the economies has lead to this natural resources becoming scarce in many parts of the world. 3. the remaining available water is only 1100 BCM out of this ground water recharge accounts for 430 BCM per year and the present utilized surface water is 370 BCM the balance unutilized water which can be harnessed is 300 BCM. the eastern part of GBM basin Cherrapunji receives an annual precipitation of about 11. In our country 80 percent of the annual run off is limited to brief monsoon period generally less than 100 days. which presently remains unutilized. and this socio-ecology is under siege. The model results support the hypothesis that groundwater irrigation contributes nearly 50 % more to rural wealth creation than surface irrigation. which is mostly caused because of ground water over exploitation. A new analysis of Indian agriculture suggests that based on an Indian data set offering the tentative macro-level test. precipitation in India is characterized by acute variation in both space and time. [d] Prevent seawater intrusion in the costal area aquifers. [e] Provide water for drought prone areas.

000 ha to surface water irrigated area increases it only by Rs 16/ha. 131 . Throughout India. exclusively for the poorer segments. It also shows that groundwater development has tended to be more ‘democratic’. it has responded more to people’s needs and demand rather than to hydrological opportunity. groundwater has proven more amenable to poverty targeting than have large surface irrigation systems. it is linked more to population density than to the occurrence of the resource.such as very high fluoride and arsenic contents have similarly immiserizing social impacts in India. like North Gujarat. of the agricultural productivity of a ‘representative’ (or typical) hectare. industrial and other human activity. Declining water tables raise the energy and capital costs of accessing groundwater to prohibitive levels. governments can design pump subsidies or build public tube wells. entire agrarian economies face serious threat of extinction from the decline of groundwater socio-ecologies. of Rs 10. the analysis of Indian data explores that in the recent decades. Water quality and health problems . Table below provides an alternative mode of comparing Agricultural Productivity and Ground Water Irrigation in India. Table -1 : Comparison of Agricultural Productivity and Ground Water Irrigation in India All in all. whereas adding 1. the portion contributed by groundwater irrigation is very nearly twice that contributed by surface irrigation. Three problems dominate groundwater use: depletion due to overdraft. and pollution due to agricultural. while only Rs 1.363/ha of the average productivity. Groundwater depletion has major environmental consequences. but not large canal systems. In the ‘average’ district with 102. water logging and salinization due mostly to inadequate drainage and insufficient conjunctive use. That’s why groundwater economy of India is the backbone of its increasingly productive agriculture and rural livelihood systems. in such regions.230 ha under surface irrigation.460 is contributed by groundwater irrigation. however. Rs 2.irrigation increases a district’s average agricultural productivity by Rs 23/ha. but it has important economic consequences too.730 ha under groundwater and 79. Finally. regions that have sustainable groundwater balances are shrinking day by day.258 is explained by surface irrigation.

This flood comes from the 1500 BCM of water every year flowing during the monsoon season. with its high population density and multitude of tiny users. It is necessary to construct such river intakes because when water is withdrawn through a conduit. 8 major rivers valleys spread over 40 million hectare of area in the entire country affecting nearly 260 million people. Banner. 4. As per record after independence 70 droughts occurred in country. Since. 3. which emanates to bring a permanent solution to the negative impacts or drought and floods. Land over 80% of our country goes under drought if there is a short fall of 5% rain in monsoon. a stringent groundwater law that is enforced in Australia would come unstuck in India because of prohibitive enforcement costs. If we succeed in doing this.Unlike India countries like the US and Australia. The quality of water can be defined and estimated by studying its 1. 2. which has abundant surface water. taste. trash. it is obligatory that like surface water. Moreover. faultative . odour and specific conductivity of water. the presence of a small number of large users and low population density creates uniquely favorable conditions for some institutional approaches to work. the groundwater resource too needs to be planned and managed for maximum basin-level efficiency. Such a desire must be considered without question. from a river independently. the dry intake towers are useful and beneficial in the sense that water can be withdrawn from any selected level of the river by opening the port at that level. hardness of water. For instance. FLOOD AND DROUGHT SITUATION The vast variation both in space and time in the availability of water in different region of the country has created what is normally referred to as food drought flood syndrome with some area suffering from flood damages and other facing acute water shortage. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Total solids and suspended solids PH value of water. debris. The most suitable intake structures for this technology are: [a] Wet intake tower [b] Dry intake tower However. these river intakes can be installed at such spacing that the withdrawal of water through these intake maintains the desired level of flow throughout the river. ABOUT MY TECHNOLOGY My proposal envisages the withdrawal of flowing water through the river with the help of river intake structure. the rain is uniformly distributed over the entire basin therefore the run off goes on increasing while making its way towards sea. Floods normally affects. sodium content of water. colour. through the project for technology 132 to effectively utilized rain and river water through advanced ground water recharging technique. Charu district of Rajasthan is drought hited for 31 out of 38 years. ground water is a little Importance in south East Asia. Europe has a high population density. similarly the drought affect 86 million people who are spread in 14 states covering a total 116 districts. worthy of applause because satisfaction of domestic water needs should be considered as a human right and be given the top priority. and as such the entrance of the conduit is not an integral part of the dam or any other related structure than an intake structure is used for safe withdrawal of water from the river over a predetermined range of pool levels and thus to protect the conduit from being damaged. waves. 150 billion per annum which is spend on drought relief and Rs. Hence. The water coming out from the conduit is send to the water purification plant to improve the quality of the water. we have to harness this 1500 BCM of water and distribute it to the drought-affected areas. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Turbidity. but it is much more comfortable than India in its overall water balance. flood and drought affects vast area of country transcending state boundaries. etc. Jodhpur.300 billion per annum which is spend on flood relief by our country. we will save Rs. If we have to prevent the damage due to the flood and reduce the severity of drought. The question that arises is how to harness the floodwater? And how to regulate the out flow of floodwater so that it does not go into sea and it is converted as useful water for the mankind. but these break down in India. The answer is. 4. BACTERIAL AND MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS : Aerobic bacteria. in such plants water is passed through number of treatments so that the water coming out of the plant when consumed for domestic purposes it would not result in any health hazard. Therefore.

utilizing the power of water.bacteria. we are provided with the ample mass of water with us. It is necessary to purify water because through this technology I had planned to preserve this water in the ground water aquifer’s. in the process of natural ground water recharging. therefore there is no limitation. which acts as a passage through which the water is carried from the storage reservoir to the powerhouse where electricity is generated. The water has two_forms of energy while flowing through the penstock. [b] To prevent difficulties to carry out the operation. [a] Store a portion of the flood flows in such a way as to play down the flood peaks at the areas to be protected downstream. and join water table. Also. in this artificial recharging technique water is directly passed to the underground location. while the forms of energy while flowing through the penstock. while the potential energy exists as a result of difference in the water level between the two points. Hence it most be purified first. which makes it automatically purified along its passage. Depending upon the capacity of water purification plants water may be supplied to a single plant from the number of river intake structure via. in the amount of water to be used. Since. so that whenever and wherever required this water can be extracted with the help of pumps for domestic and other uses. in this technology our aim is to prevent floods and deliver maximum possible mass of water underground to enhance the ground water level. The hydraulic turbine is thus a prime mover which when coupled to a generator produces electric power. The reservoir is further connected to the waterways. [c] Fulfill the demand of hydroelectric power plant. kinetic and potential. protozoa. kinetic and potential. Hence. The water released from the purification plant is impounded by a reservoir having a dam constructed over it. FIG : MODIFIED HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT 133 . conduit pipe or water may be supplied to the plant from a single river intake structure. which can produce very high kinetic energy. which is known as “head” the hydraulic turbine convent kinetic and potential energies possessed by the water into mechanical power. Also since we have to transmit water under ground therefore high heads can be attained resulting in tremendous amount of power generation. during high flows. The kinetic depends upon the mass of water flowing and its velocity. etc. But. The construction of such reservoir may hand out in many ways. [d] Direct water supply to the city. etc. The kinetic depends upon the mass of water flowing and its velocity. plankton (algae). the water while percolating below the ground surface passes through the voids of the rocks.

000 ha. it is more difficult for the water to go any deeper it tends to pool in the porous layers and flow in more horizontal direction across the aquifer towards regions having there aquifer with low water level. hydroelectric generation by 35. and limestone. [d] The water lost in evaporation from an underground reservoir of this technology is much less than the water lost from a surface reservoir. creating spaces that can be fill with water. [b] Since. in India some 60% of total agricultural water comes from the ground water. Such reservoirs are created because of varying amount of valid spaces in the bedrocks where ground water accumulates. this problem can be rectified only through my technique.000 MW. through this technology such problems can be solved by keeping the concentration of fluoride. by a 40-45% contribution in national power grids through. such as sand stones. Some layers have rocks that are more porous than others. The water coming out from the draft tube of the hydroelectric power plant is discharged to the artificial underground reservoirs. such as limestone. [f] The ground water development as tented to be more democratic.As such. arsenic and other chemicals get diluted and much purer water can be made available. excess fluoride in drinking water also causes bone related problems and ground water of West Bengal has high arsenic content. this has become a major water quality and health issue effecting huge areas of population. Since. which accounts of over half of total irrigated area. considering vertical crosssection of the earth the rock is laid down in layers especially in areas of sedimentary rocks. has not only destroyed many wells but also resulted increased cost from water pumping. [g] More than 65% of India’s total ground water is affected by excessive fluoride content. is dissolved by water. resulting in fluorine related diseases. In many places. Thus it is not uncommon for those areas to have 10-15 hours of black outs every day. in the bedrock there are rock layers made of dense material such as granite or materials that water has a hard time penetration. Therefore through my technology of artificial ground water storage the following benefits can be obtained. These layers may be underneath the porous rock layers and thus. act as a confining layer to retard the vertical movement of water. since government can design pump subsidies or build public tube wells but not large canal system exclusively for the poorer segments. it is linked more to population density than to occurrence of the resource. [a] The present ground water decline rate is as high as 1. including Mangrove forests of over 1. specially Gujarat’s Savrashtra region. there is a tremendous shortage of power supply. it will be helpful to meet out energy demands.000 MW of electricity in the country and we require about 1. [h] The sea water intrusion on India’s coasts. Tamil Nadu’s Minjur aquifer.40. . more than fifty percent of all rural house hold in India do not have electricity and use kerosene for lighting. This project will give a major contribution to overcome such energy crisis. coastal areas of Indus basin is threatening the ecology of important wet lands. therefore cost due 134 to huge distribution network and the large area of land which would be utilized in constructing such canals is saved.000 MW of additional capacity by 2010. The rocks below the earth’s surface is the bedrock consisting of many types of rocks. which results in large cavities that fill with water. Even for those rural areas. [c] This type of ground water management requires no or sometimes very minor modification in the aquifer to distribute the water to the drought affected regions such as Rajasthan and Gujarat which are under havoc and misery. Bed rocks can also become broken and fractured. which are electrified.5 meters per year in some parts.30. increase in the water table can give new boost to agricultural growth. There is a short fall of about 20. such as clay. granite. [e] My technology will prove to be more amenable to poverty targeting than have large surface irrigation system.000-40. and here water moves more freely in the horizontal manner through the earth deep. And some bedrock. it can respond more to people’s needs and demand rather than hydrological opportunity. it is a matter of concern that 59 years after independence. In this way the aquifer in which the water is stored shall itself be act as the distribution system for carrying water from one place to another with or without any minor modification in its flow pattern and so such necessity of constructing pipelines or canals (as required in the project of interlinking of rivers) is completely eliminated.

5.1 mha). Irrawadi. Brahmaputra. As. Any situation of availability of less than 1. Tsangpo. The Himalayas is the source of many large rivers like Yangtse. all these problems can be avoided by building a reservoir fitted with dam over it.208 cubic meters. of we engineers and scientists to 135 explore the ways through which the available resources can be utilized in the best possible manner to fulfill our needs. Amu Darya. Sabarmati. my project can be implemented and instead of supplying such water to other rivers. About 40 percent of utilizable surface water resources are presently in Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna system. The raising of water table by this artificial recharging method may help in building pressure barriers to prevent seawater intrusion in the coastal areas.589 cubic metres while it is low as 360 cubic meters in Sabarmati Basin. Godavari (31. MOST SUITABLE LOCATIONS India is blessed with the wonderful gift by the nature in the form of Himalayan Mountain in the north.000 cubic meters per capita is considered by international agencies as scarcity condition Cauvery. in the previous method we where sending the water at the water purification plant with the help of conduit and then transmitting this purified plant would do not be able to manage their operation due to devastating floods.9mha). Krishna (25. The water from the reservoir is extracted according to the capacity of water purification plant and the requirement of hydel power plant and then after purification is send to a closed large tank from where it can be supplied to the power plant and so on. [i] No space is required to build such reservoir.2mha). now it is the duty. At all the 30 locations where surplus river water is planned to be supplied to the rivers with low flow rate. In another form of such type of project. In such types of construction there is no need to build river intake structure and are suitable for implementation in the region where there is high probability of sudden rise in the run off due to very heavy precipitation. The technology to effectively utilize rain and river water through advanced ground water recharging technique can be implemented at the locations where. East flowing rivers and West flowing rivers are some of the basins which fall into this category.8 million hectare (mha) of the major rivers. the complete water can be stored in the ground water aquifer. In this project 36 main dams had been planned to be constructed and hydropower of 34000 MW is estimated to be generated. The other major rivers with catchment area more then 10 mha are Indus (32. Indeed.3 percent of geographical area 4. the GangaBrahmaputra-Meghna system is the biggest with the catchments area of about 110 mha which is more than 43 percent of the catchment area of all the major rivers in the country. Brahmaputra and Barak basin with 7. At present. In total India has as many as 12 major rivers whose total catchment area is 252. it is true that nature had given us the solution of each and every problem. directly over the river. the reservoir can be constructed directly across the river. and Mahanadi (14.9mha catchment area is the largest river among the medium rivers in the country.ground water over-exploitation is the main cause of these sea-water intrusion. Indeed the Himalayas can be called the water tower of Asia the amount of water that India receives because of such geographical conditions is capable to satisfy its presents and future water needs comfortably if harassed effectively. The water from the reservoir is extracted and send to water purification plant and this water after the purification is send to another reservoir which is further connected to the same system of hydroelectric power plant and ground water aquifer as discussed above. This could result in little higher flood peaks. Indus. The distribution of water resources potential in the country shows that as against the national per capita annual availability of water as 2. Yarlung.2 % of population of the country has 31% of the annual water resources per capita annual availability for rest of the country excluding Brahmaputra and Barak basin works out to about 1. etc. most of these locations are selected for the project of interlinking of Indian rivers. per capita annual availability of water is much greater than national per capita annual availability of water. the average availability in Brahmaputra and Barak is as high as 16. . Ganga. Pennar.583 cubic meters. The catchment area of medium rivers is about 25 mha and Subernarekha with 1. as they could not work above their capacity. which plays a very significant role in providing the supplies of water the human societies needs.3mha).

It is proposed to divert the water from Brahmaputra. any time with the help of tube wells and can be consumed for domestic purposes. while such cost is not involve in my project. [b] For the construction of canals nearly 4. India can get additional irrigation of 22 mha after fully meeting the needs of water in the other three countries. and Subernarekha to River Mahanadi by five river links and then to the southern rivers. since after flowing over a large distances. Yamuna.42 million KM 2 of the geographical area. About 600KM3 of storage is required to fully harness the water resources of the GBM basin. [d] Whenever it will become necessary to use the water through flow channel of the linked rivers. but in my technology water can be extracted from any where. where as my project’s cost would be negligible in front of it since cost of construction of large canals are eliminated. The second segment consists of interlinking tributaries of Ganga. but it would be of no use. for the domestic needs it must be purified first.2 HIMALAYAN RIVER DEVELOPMENT Out of the total water resource of the GBM basin of about l000 maft. while through my project sufficient water can be supplied to the ground water aquifer of each and every regions where ground water level is depleting. to prove itself beneficial to mankind. Ganga.000 crores. The proposal of peninsular river development provides additional surface water in irrigation benefits of 13 mha and generation of 4000 MW of power. The fourth part envisages interlinking of the Ken and the Chambal. Another part of this proposal is to divert a part of the surplus water of West flowing rivers of Kerala to the East and generate hydropower. [f] India manages to loose more quantity of water then.60. 5. The addition.880 KM occupying about 3. this hydropower generation of about 30000MW is possible. where there is extreme need to supply water as soon as possible.6. as another part of the proposal is to Interlink Sharda. If the regional view is taken. because with the addition of sewage water and the water from the industrial waste the new water system will not remain fit for drinking and other domestic purposes for much time. through this project water would be supplied to the rivers having low run off. BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGY TO EFFECTIVELY UTILISE RAIN AND RIVER WATER THROUGH ADVANCED GROUND 136 WATER RECHARGING TECHNIQUE OVER INTERLINKING PROJECT : [a] The project of interlinking of rivers sounds good but involves a massive expenditure of about Rs. and Sabarmati River by canals. what it needs to satisfy its annual domestic needs through evaporation. the purification cost of this water would be comparatively higher then what would be required in my project. for a developing country like India if such a large amount is saved then it can be used for development in other areas. The third segment envisages construction. storage to interlink small rivers flowing along the West coast north of Mumbai and South of Tapi.5 lakh people will be displayed from there homes. Besides. Nepal and Bhutan on the GBM system. since it is completely purified. the interlinking project must have been planned to transmit most of the surplus flow to those regions. but no major steps are to be taken considering this aspects. but through interlinking process only 215KM3 of storage could be provided in India.1 PENINSULAR RIVERS DEVELOPMENT It is planned by national water development agency to direct about 19 KM3 of surplus flow of Mahanadi River to the Godavari system and to further transfer 38 KM 3 from Godavari and its tributaries to the Krishna river downwards South. through this project such a large amount of additional water surface area would be . [c] Though. 6. less than 10% there of is being consumptively used at present. VARIOUS PROPOSALS INTERLINKING OF RIVERS FOR 6. farmlands and offices and a large cost will be involved in there rehabilitation for the interlinking project. The interlinking involves construction of 30 links extending up to 10. a huge percentage of impurities will mix with this water. 7. about the 3mha area could be irrigated with ground water. [e] The major drought affected areas of India are Rajasthan and Gujarat. It is estimated that by providing large storage floods can be moderated providing substantial benefits of flood control in the downstream regions.

of us will be displaced. As the project of interlinking of rivers may not effect most of us directly. Also. I hope that my project of technology effectively utilized rain and river water through advance ground water recharging technique would be appreciated by each and every community in India ad well as abroad with open mind and open heart as it is an essential requirement for the prosperity of the nation. since my project is free from all such complexities. It is very difficulty to give constant power supply in the period of energy crisis. [g] Since. while other parts fears the problems of drought. whole of the water even after interlink will ultimately merge into the sea. which I had. environmental ramification. engineers. The project of interlinking of rivers is like a few lines drawn on the map of country and I am confident that it will remain the same even after implementation. [i] Interlinking project would not be cost effective option for domestic water security in Drought-Prone areas as it tries to supply domestic water through collection at far away points and distribution through long canals or existing river bed. my technology would be much effective. mention in my paper. which is harnessed and send underground can be utilized efficiently. there are no such problems with my project. as per the experience of other countries argumentation of water is a very wasteful and costly option. scientists and citizens of India to please take each and every point. is mere 12 years. it is a very wasteful way of supplying domestic water needs. evaporation looses are completely absent in my project. But experts say that interlinking of rivers is highly complex process with huge backward and forward and inter-sectoral linkages that may be accomplished incrementally over to next 50-100 years. [h] The period of implementation for the gigantic project of interlinking of rivers as given by Supreme Court order. where one part is soaked in water. Where as. So it will be impossible to cover stage pumping. unutilized due to evaporation and mixing into the sea. I request the government. a major part of this precious and scarce water resource will get wasted. with the help of heavy pumping machineries. through my project every single drop of water. While. CONCLUSION The technology to effectively utilize rain and river water through advanced ground water recharging technique is a project that would provide us with uncountable benefits. Our country with world’s second largest population and ever growing demand of food and water. remarkable change in eco-system will affect human and animal life. and a few. It is capable of solving all the water related problems not only through India but also from the whole world and in addition to this it would produce a large capacity of pollution free hydro electricity. At last. it is quite clear that both financial cost and the amount of water lost.exposed to atmosphere making evaporation of water a predominating problem. Indeed. Where as. This type of mega project is required in order to have uniform distribution of water. However. This project will have a large social. I had tried to explain its every aspects briefly in this paper. [j] Ground water gets distributed equally in the regions where water level gets depleted therefore harnessing of water through my technique will not give birth to conflicts isolated to water which could result due to interlinking of rivers. On the other hand the ambitious plan of inter basin transfer. everyone living in the country will be affected by the long-term consequences of the project. 137 . with very less benefits then what can be achieved through my technology of artificial ground water recharging. Heavy pumping machinery required continuous energy supply. my project is required. However. for a country like India. 8. [k] The submergence of forests due to interlinking project may lead to serious implications in terms of bio-diversity loss. it can be implemented at much less time. all the efforts utilized for digging such large holes to form canals and the large money employed in this project of interlinking will get ruined. with little seriousness. As such.

It is observed that the dense forest cover is reducing for last few decades. Corresponding Author: suklageo@yahoo. Here the authors have designed a simple model and the cheapest method of rainwater harvesting keeping in mind the amount of precipitation. Until recent past the valley was considered to be the most vulnerably affected by flood twice a year. storage and distribution system for the poor people of northeast India. X83/14. heavy *Department of Applied Geology. topsoil condition. India 138 . Rain is the only natural source of fresh water in India. 2006. In addition to this. Hence. due to global climatic change and other such factors now this region is also experiencing drought like situation. Assam. cost of construction. Over all the percentage of recharging of ground aquifers is 5-20% of total rain. In this northeastern part. water plays a very vital role in lives of human beings. therefore rainwater harvesting is one of the most promising techniques for collection of excess runoff. soil. it is high time that people should wake up and culture their mind to face any such situation in near future and use the resources judiciously and learn the concept of sustainable development to preserve the natural resource available to them for future generation. Presence and absence of water clearly determines the culture and growth of community and a healthy economy. KEYWORDS : Rainwater harvesting. It also depends on terrain. sustainable development.E (Civil). As rainfall is the main source of surface water and its conservation is essential. sub. Rainwater Harvesting and Northeast India : A Simple and Cheapest Method *Shukla Acharjee **Mangesh G. capacity of the soil to hold water is also reduced. India **B.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. the only alternative is to harvest & conserve this precious gift of the nature by scientifically designed Rain Water Harvesting structure. depth. vegetation. Huge quantity of rainwater finds its way ultimately to sea through streams without much contribution to aquifer system. bamboo. Godrej Colony. bamboo is considered the green gold.com INTRODUCTION Water is a key for sustainable watershed development and of all the natural resources. Topsoil can hold only fraction of water. Vikroli (E). Ground water is the water stored in sub– surface level in soil or rock formation of earth. Nagpur 22. Dibrugarh-786006. Waghmare ABSTRACT The present drought like situation in the lower Assam Brahmaputra Valley compelled the people residing here to change their mindset that Northeast India won’t experience drought. This technique of rainwater harvesting would be very cheap for the farmers in particular and the masses in general living in the hilly regions as well as in the plains of northeast India. Dibrugarh University. From storage to groundwater recharge in the present model bamboo has been used which is easily available here. More than five lakhs farmers were affected by the unusual drought this year. topography. And hence. Mumbai-400079. ground water recharge.surface formation & rainfall pattern etc. Therefore. However.

Fig: 1. The fragile rocks of Arunachal Pradesh are prone to severe erosion. The principle itself is very simple-collecting rainwater during wet season and using it in times of need. is a huge sprawling landmass made up of extensive countless hills and mountainous terrain that rises in the north to snow-capped heights of the Himalaya. The region also encounters the presence of poorly drenched soils. THE STUDY AREA The North Eastern Region of India comprising the states of Assam. The average annual rainfall in the lower Brahmaputra 139 valley is 213 cm while the in the northeastern foothill belt is 414 cm. The principal rocks of Meghalaya plateau are granite and gneisses. In addition. In this backdrop. The basin as a whole has the average annual rainfall of 230 cm with a variability of 1520 percent. The climate of the region may be called Humid Mesothermal Brahmaputra type or ‘Cwb’ type according to Mr. Inceptisol. clay and sometimes a mixture of sand and clay with decomposed vegetable matter. Soil profiles representing major soil orders are Entisol. Though. The climate influences soil types. according to recent studies by Assam State Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) after the current dry spell says that it have not affected much the ground water table but in future chances are there of major depletion of ground water table. Another part of the collected water could be used to recharge the aquifers and restore the water level. and Nagaland. is also equally important. and is the playground of the mighty river Brahmaputra regarded as one of the largest rivers of the world and its tributaries (Fig:1). Manipur. pebbles. which includes sand. the mineralogy of soils. Tripura. However. the lower ranges receiving more than the higher area (Goswami. silt and clay mineralogy. W. The number of rainy days may sometimes equal three weeks in a month (Table:1).extraction of ground water is leading to an imbalance in ground water reserves. which is alluvial in origin and consists of sand. and Alfisol. The soils of the region are alluvium derived and are classified into old alluvial and forest soil. The Himalayan sector receives 500 cm of rainfall per year. Meghalaya. Mizoram. Koppen. Arunachal Pradesh. It is humid sub-tropical. time to time the scientists are giving warnings to the people that ground water table is going down every passing year in the northeastern cities because of high extraction of ground water. 1985). and high rainfall and high humidity are the main features thereof. sandstones. rainwater harvesting appears to be the only solution that could provide some reprieve during the scorching summer. This is leading to depletion of ground water resources resulting in increasing depth of ground water table from surface. North eastern Region :The study area . In between these two ranges lies the narrow Brahmaputra valley. Several urban settlements of the different states of northeastern region are already facing a severe scarcity of potable water. as the withdrawal of water is more than recharging of water. At the foot of hills are found beds of conglomerates.

Conveyance Subsystem : Guttering is used to transport rainwater from the roof to the storage . Bamboo provides raw material for large industries like paper and pulp as well as for cottage and handicrafts industry (Fig. ground water is reducing in quantity. Mizoram & Nagaland Meghalaya Rainfall & rainy days in a year 2262. filtration. Many other surfaces can be used. cementitious and thatch (from a variety of organic materials). Considering all the above conditions and problems of ground water. Most dwellings. Hence. however. Some bamboo species can grow one metre in a day. Already 21 districts of Assam have reported arsenic contamination of ground water. 140 Fig. even to treat these ground water reserves. For potable use of rainwater. conveyance system (guttering. provide a surface adequate for high quality water collection. we do not have system for protecting water from contamination to stop or reduce the contamination.Table 1 : Annual Rainfall and Rainy days State Assam Arunachal Pradesh Manipur. since we only have created the problem. while five of the districts have reported fluoride contamination. economic and feasible solution for water crisis in comparison with other technologies.95 mm with 144 rainy days 3000 mm with 200 rainy days 1927 mm 2050 mm with 200 rainy days WHY RAIN WATER HARVESTING ? PROBLEMS WITH GROUND WATER 1) The current precious reserves of ground water are vanishing rapidly due to heavy extraction of ground water. Rainwater harvesting can be done with any roofing material if it is for non-drinking use only. there must be some solution for it. which are very costly. a fast growing. Rainwater harvesting is the best. first flush and piping). In Northeast India. BAMBOO-THE GREEN GOLD AND RAINWATER HARVESTING Bamboo. locally available grass thatched roof is very popular. 2) The other important factors for degrading the quality of ground water are heavy industrialization and contamination of surface & subsurface water with highly toxic pollutants. have a roof. downspouts. the best roof materials are metal. 3) Unfortunately. storage and distribution. 2). the most common surface for collection of water is the roof of the dwelling. 2 : Bamboo the Green Gold of North East India SUBSYSTEM COMPONENTS OF RAINWATER HARVESTING A rainwater harvesting system consists of the following subsystems: catchment area (roof). clay. It is an economic resource having immense potential for improving the quality of life of rural and urban communities with environment regeneration qualities like carbon sequestering. which is more than recharge. versatile woody grass is found across the country. It is our duty to find out some definite strategy on for solving the same. Catchment Subsystem : For domestic rainwater harvesting.

3. Here we have designed the storage tank with a sand filter fitted on the lid of the tank itself so that when the water is diverted to the tank pipe it would filter the water first then goes inside the tank (Fig: 5). The level of sophistication also varies. Filtration System : Again. this unwanted matter will be washed into the tank. where the inflow is low to moderate. from extremely high-tech to very rudimentary. ranging from the factory made PVC type to home made guttering using bamboo (Fig:6) or folded metal sheet. one suspended below the eaves and one on top of the thatch. It should be designed to capture all the water falling on the thatch and passing through to the plastic sheet. recharging ground water aquifers & another is man made that is storage tanks. Guttering comes in a wide variety of shapes and forms. They can be made of various locally available materials. Some common gutter shapes and fixing methods are shown in fig. in various sizes & shape. Many DRWH (Domestic Rain Water Harvesting) systems therefore incorporate a system for diverting this ‘first flush’ water so that it does not enter the tank. there are wide varieties of systems available for treating water before. First Flush System : Debris. This method has obvious drawbacks in that there has to be a person present who will remember to move the pipe. during and after storage. Storage Subsystem : In larger prospective of storage system we can say.vessel. Again. slightly more complex. This type of filter is only suitable. Settling tanks and partitions can be used to remove silt and other suspended solids from the water. When the first rains arrive. Guttering is usually fixed to the building or bamboo hut just below the roof and it catches the water as it falls from the roof. such that it can be ‘put away’ under the eaves when there is no rain. The sand-charcoal-stone filter is often used for filtering rainwater entering a tank. 3 : Bamboo hut & Plastic sheet guttering and the designs of Gutters & Fixings . DATA BASE AND METHODOLOGY FOR 141 Fig. There are a number of simple systems that are commonly used and also a number of other. and will soon overflow if the inflow exceeds the rate at which the water can percolate through the sand. this helps prevent degradation due to sunlight. Many systems found in the field rely simply on a piece of cloth or fine mosquito mesh to act as the filter (and to prevent mosquitoes entering the tank). however. their cost varies according to that. dust and droppings will collect on the roof of a building or other collection area. It can also be designed to be demountable from the upper surface. This will cause contamination of the water and the quality will be reduced. Guttering could be installed on one grass roof that had been constructed with a plastic membrane beneath it – this helps to prevent UV degradation of the plastic. arrangements. The grass could be loosely thatched and found locally. dirt.e. The simpler ideas are based on a manually operated arrangement whereby the inlet pipe is moved away from the tank inlet and then replaced again once the initial first flush has been diverted. Natural storage system i. It should be fixed using two long poles. In addition. The plastic sheet guttering that was installed is shown in Fig: 3.

. for storing grain. which keeps the water clean and prevents evaporation. For other related data. One can use it to collect run-off water from the roof. it can be used as a water tank. which ensures a daily supply of 60 – 80 litres of clean drinking water throughout the year. The low-cost water tank to store rain water could be made of bamboo and plastic film. To prevent surface runoff percolation ponds. It should be lined with brick / stone with openings (weep holes) at regular intervals. or one can even allow the rain to fall directly into the tank. The cost of such a tank comes to about Rs. Such treated bamboo has an outside life of between 10 and 20 years. Once the tank is full its top must be covered by another film of plastic. check dams. For groundwater recharge abandoned well. recharge pit. sub-surface dyke. one could make a plinth of cement and stones having the desired diameter. open well. The plinth can have a diameter of up to 5 or 6m. standard literature and methods have been followed.2m can store 23. recharge pit. A tank having a diameter and a height of 1.0 meter deep could be constructed. hand pump. 4 : Low Cost Bamboo Tank to Store Rain Water OVER FLOW OUTLET 1200 should be about 50 – 60 cm. recharge trench or recharge well could be used.1000. 300g of copper sulphate and 150g of boric acid dissolved in 10litres of water. the entire structure could be woven like wickerwork.5 – 3. The bamboo should be made non-biodegradable by soaking it in a solution containing 450g of sodium dichromate.0 – 3. The distance between adjacent bamboo poles To prevent algae infestation. 142 OUTLET DRAINOUT VA LVE 5000 BAMBOO WATER TANK OF CAPACITY 23000 lit Fig. like a fencing (Fig:4).recharge pits are with size varying from 1. Methodology for rainwater harvesting are: for potable water .000 litres of water. hand pump etc. Using the bamboo poles as a skeleton. but the height of the bamboo palisade should not exceed 120cm because the pressure exerted by the water column on the side walls is determined by the column height. design for low cost percolation pit for ground water recharge and the design of bamboo tank with a capacity of 23. Therefore. a palisade of bamboo is erected along the periphery of the plinth. If a larger tank is required.000. and by using chemically treated bamboo poles. recharge trench could be constructed. using chemically treated bamboo strips. The cost of a tank having a capacity of 1500 litres is Rs. Villagers in North East use a large bamboo basket shaped like a silo. direct collection of rainwater is not safe for potable use. Both sunlight and nutrients are needed for algae to grow.10.0 meter wide and 2.NORTH EAST Average annual rainfall was calculated from the rainfall data collected from Indian Meteorological Department.simply to collect water from the roof to a storage tank or to collect water from roof to recharge bore well. The recharge point allows percolation and SLOW SAND FILTER FOR FILTERATION OF RAINWATER Fig. For ground water . If this silo is internally lined with a good grade polythene film. abandoned or running bore well.000 lt. the tanks must be kept closed without exposure to sunlight. Top area of pit must be covered with grill. for plain and hilly areas of North-Eastern India. 5 : Simple design for rainwater harvesting.

If there is no permeable zone. the ingress of water through the permeable zone should be checked. (ii) hydrological properties responsible for recharging the aquifers. Below.Fig. drainage conditions and geo- Table . On the other hand.2 : Showing availability of rainwater in Thousand litres 143 . in Table: 3 we have classified domestic tank sizes into three distinct groups – small. medium and large scale. the size of the catchment area (Table:2). Little consideration is usually given to the affordability of the tank. affordability Tank sizing techniques usually only consider the optimum size for a tank based on the rainfall available. as the water reduces the shear and compressive strengths of the material of the foundation. and the demand on the system. the tank size is determined by the tank cost and so. and (iii) Social responsibilities of the people. In many cases. It is assumed that the person will be looking at capturing all the water from the roof or enough to meet all their demand. the person may not be able to afford a tank suitable for catching the optimum amount of water. structural controls. we need to maximize capacity for a given (low) cost. Therefore. the recharge points should be selected only after identifying permeable zone. topographical features. The location of the recharge point especially in the crystalline terrain should have a weathered material with sufficient porosity to hold substantial quantities of water and also fractures for storage of water. in this case. which generates the hydrological properties. landscape indicators. Affordability is a strong function of tank size recharges the groundwater. Recharge points could be of various dimensions. Tank size – ideal tank size vs. It should be always kept in mind that Rainwater harvesting is a social responsibility involving the whole community. must be identified using groundwater exploration techniques (well inventory. the groundwater cannot move from one place to other and the water would come up through the recharge point and reach the surface. 6 : Bamboo pipes to transfer water from the stored rainwater tank for ground water recharge electrical investigations). Important considerations for successful rainwater harvesting are: (i) location of recharge points. geological set-up. Porosity. depending upon physiographic and hydro geological conditions. In such cases.

Sometimes we find examples of water purchase and use them to infer the value of water. • a good fitting. Such a line does not fairly represent harvested roof water. water has a declining value with quantity. By examining the limited data available that relates household consumption per day to the effective unit cost of water (i.000 litres storage capacity and tank design. In addition.000 litres storage Any tank with several months of storage or above 20. Some careful steps to be taken before implementation of rain water harvesting projects • Convenient first flush device must be integrated. Richer house holds. More usually. The first litre per day is worth more than the tenth. Each socio-economic group would have its own curve. animals or humans from entering the tank and prevent light from causing algae growth • water quality can enhanced by putting water into the tank and taking it out of the tank at the correct location – low-level tank entry and floating off-takes are devices designed to aid this approach • good sanitary conditions around a tank will prevent Fig. 7 : Showing value vs quantity and cost vs volume 144 .Table 3 : Tank scale classification Scale of domestic tanks Small-scale Medium Large Description Any tank or jar up to seven days storage or up to 1000 litres A tank up to several weeks storage or between 1000 and 20. may pay for water to be brought to the house. we might construct a curve such as shown in Fig: 7. Such costs. Local manufacture and use of local skills are design issues. where the effective cost general rises with daily consumption despite the economies of scale in tank construction. each successive litre requiring the same input of labour. The cost line on Fig: 7 is horizontal. we know economies of scale show the cost per litre dropping as tank size increases. or those experiencing illness. For increased affordability we are therefore looking at small-scale. like the value of water discussed above. locally produced RWH systems that use local materials like bamboo. Affordability is a function of a number of socio-economic factors and is decided at the household level. The smaller the tank the cheaper it will be and the cheaper the construction materials and labour costs. the cheaper the tank will be. Value of water As with many other goods.e. cost per litre). A typical cost vs volume characteristic for Rain Water Harvesting supply is shown in Fig 7. light-proof cover will prevent debris. Moreover. factory made tanks are generally more expensive than locally manufactured tanks. which reasonably represents the situation where water is fetched. will be lower for poorer households than for richer ones. we have to infer costs indirectly through conversion of fetching distance/height into time and then time into money.

Bacteriological Quality of Rainwater in Roof and Groundwater Catchment Systems in Botswana. E. Rainwater Catchment Systems for Household Water Supply. Sharma. .L. 1992. E. Singh. Vol. N. J. This is resulting in tremendous increase in depth of ground water level. Dibrugarh. Asian Institute of Technology. Thanks to our friend Negul Devan K. May be with every rural and urban household participation in their unique small scale rainwater harvesting projects replenishes the 145 groundwater reserves because it is the only present state-of-art to replenishes the ground water table which would enable our dug wells and bore wells to yield in a sustained manner. such as catchment area and type of catchment surface. It is convenient in the sense that it provides water at the point of consumption. which greatly reduces operation and maintenance problems. J. and present an opportunity for augmentation of water supplies using this technology. McCown 1989. V. Yash Publishing House. No. pp..P 2004. As rainfall is usually unevenly distributed throughout the year. and family members have full control of their own systems. Schiller. water-harvesting catchments require maintenance to keep them in good condition. Water International. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) 1982. 1982. A. REFERENCES C-3 Report by IIT Delhi. Although regional or other local factors can modify the local climatic conditions. Pacey.R. constrain the ability of communities to meet the demand for freshwater from traditional sources. and construction materials are also readily available. Tycooly International Publishing Ltd. July 2000. 22. Domestic Rainwater Harvesting Research Programme “VERYLOW-COST ROOFWATER HARVESTING IN EAST AFRICA” (Based on a Feasibility Study performed in the Great Lakes Region during May – July 2000) by Working Paper No.30. N & Ojha.Sarma. and B. “Important considerations for the success of rainwater harvesting” Hydrogeology Laboratory. Andhra University.H. Rain and Storm water Harvesting in Rural Areas. Dibrugarh University. greater environmental impacts associated with new projects. rainwater can be a continuous source of water supply for both the rural and poor. Local people can be easily trained to implement such technologies. A sustainable human community should use its resources without endangering the survival of future generations. usually can be adjusted according to household needs.P.31. 2003. CONCLUSIONS The forest covers are decreasing. The pressures on rural water supplies. Singh. The feasibility of rainwater harvesting in a particular locality is highly dependent upon the amount and intensity of rainfall. Rainwater harvesting appears to be one of the most promising alternatives for supplying freshwater in the face of increasing water scarcity and escalating demand in the urban as well as in the rural areas. 8. Rainwater Harvesting: The Collection of Rainfall and Runoff in Rural Areas. B. The Brahmaputra Basin Water Resources.H. 55. It is high time to implement rainwaterharvesting projects in northeastern part of India. 3. as well as deteriorating water quality in surface reservoirs already constructed.V.J. Department of Geology. Hence. J. and H. G. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors gratefully acknowledges thanks to Prof.23. C. London.9. McPherson 1987. rainwater collection methods can serve as only supplementary sources of household water. 32. (B. Designing Roof Catchment Water Supply Systems Using Water Budgeting Methods. Bikaner-334003. Cullis 1989. plants are degraded. Rao. S & Thomas. 47. India.J. WBC Print Ltd. Therefore. Latham 1987. Nyakaana..S. Nissen-Petersen. it is affecting hydrological cycle badly. Ltd. Water Resources Development. Kluwer Academic Publishers. London.disease being spread • water extraction should be such that the water is not contaminated while being drawn Poorly managed water harvesting systems may cause soil erosion and soil instability. University of Warwick. Gould. Bangkok. Environmental Sanitation Reviews. 12:135-138. Water Resources Development.School of Engineering.G. Ed. These technologies are simple to install and operate. London.E) for timely help. 2000.S.. Watershed Planning and Management.E. ENSIC.N. A Comparison of Commonly Used Hydrologic Design Methods for Rainwater Collectors. and increased opposition from NGOs to the development of new surface water sources. D. Wall.E. Hodder and Stoughton. Dublin. Assam for his valuable suggestion. R. and R. And. water and soil hold by roots. Development Technology Unit . T. Other variables. Rees. Rain Catchment and Water Supply in Rural Africa: A Manual. 5:11-18. Water quality in domestic roof water harvesting systems (DRWH) & Bamboo reinforced concrete construction Gould. Dept. of Applied Geology. Ed. and A.

Rain water Harvesting is the concept. This sustainability of water resources has been endangered by vagaries of rainfall and unplanned development. shafts and directly run off water into the existing wells. To maintain the ground water resources indefinitely. This has resulted in meager an erratic water supply to cantt thereby encouraging exploitation of ground and surface water available within the cantt by the MES. Rain water Harvesting is the concept. The Rain Water Harvesting are based on the different technique. *SE. With a view to conserve the already depleting reservoirs. This concept is to be envisaged and practice in order to ensure the sustainability of ongoing groundwater development for multiple uses and to provide scope for further development of growing demand/ population. which includes a holistic approach to develop. protect and conserve water resources. which includes a holistic approach to develop. The choice/selection of any particular method is governed by local hydrogeological. PG (PMIR). 2006. This concept is to be envisaged and practice in order to ensure the sustainability of ongoing groundwater development for multiple uses and to provide scope for further development of growing demand/population. augment. An optimum development can be achieved by the conjuctive use of surface and ground waters. Sinha ABSTRACT A precious source of water availability has become scarce. hence the need for conservation. 1. augments. Rain water Harvesting needs to be implemented to avoid the paucity of water resources for present/future demands.e Artificial Recharge of the ground water resources is the most commonly adopted and cost effective method of replenishing the ground water reserves. The development of water resources in the country is at cross roads.e Artificial Recharge of the ground water resources is the most commonly adopted and cost effective method of replenishing the ground water reserves. Since the nature has showered enough potential to recharge our existing water bodies and also to conserve/preserve the waters for future needs/requirements. soil condition etc and ultimate use. And since the entire country is in high water stress situation. Army cantonments to a large scale depend on supply of water from civil bodies. DIRECTOR (LIAISON). trenches.National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. K. To maintain the ground water resources indefinitely. wells.0. The methods suggested for Rain Water Harvesting is water spreading. Nagpur 23. HQ EAC IAF. MIE. An optimum development can be achieved by the conjuctive use of surface and ground waters. The development of water resources in the country is at cross roads. a hydrologic equilibrium must exist between all water entering and leaving the water basin of the earth. recharge through pils. Rain Water Harvesting *Shri S. Rain water Harvesting i. This sustainability of water resources has been endangered by vagaries of rainfall and unplanned development. protect and conserve water resources. INTRODUCTION A precious source of water availability has become scarce. a hydrologic equilibrium must exist between all water entering and leaving the water basin of the earth. hence the need for conservation. C/O 99 APO 146 . Rain Water Harvesting i. the total available water resources for various use sectors have decreased drastically. ME.

4. 3.0 MANAGEMENT It is the technical methods.1. 4. 3. The advantages of direct injection of rooftop run off water in the wells are :5.Injection wells are recharge well.0 ADVANTAGE OF RAIN WATER HARVESTING 4.3 Arrest seawater ingress. 5. These wells can be used both as percolation wells and recharge wells.2 Beneficiate water quality in acquirers. augment and conserve them.4 Conservation of water lost to run off and evaporation. available of source of water. Therefore. which manage the existing surface. and ground water potential of the catchments or water shed areas.3 Utilisation of ground water during non rainy days. 5.3 Improved water quality through dilution especially fluoride. 4.1. The methods/techniques are broadly categorized are as under : 5.1 Harvesting from roof rain water.1 Loading.1 Enhanced sustainability of water supply projects and structures.2 Improved well yields and reduced pumping lifts and cost. 5. 5.4 RECHARGE PITS AND SHAFTS 147 .6 Revival of village pond concept. In this paper the various technological aspect of Rain Water Harvesting has been described with basic theory and with real ground conditions.5 Over irrigation. Therefore.6 Reduce power consumption. The best method among the available methods depends on hydrology. 5. 4.1. 3.2 DIRECT RECHARGE IN SUB SURFACE AQUIFERS This includes the following :. 5.1 RECHARGE ON SURFACE This includes the following :5. provide small budgetary estimates with time frame in which this can be achieved.3 OPEN WELL RECHARGE Direct recharge of the aquifer through open wells will be an easier and in expensive process in the shallow aquifer region.0 SUGGESTED METHODS / TECHNIQUES Methods for local unit / area / body can be implemented in diverse hydro geological and varied climatic set-ups. 3. 5.5 Enhance availability of ground water at the specific place and time. The rooftop run off water can be directed in to the open wells through pipes and settling pit to avoid possible turbidity. 5.2. 2. So as to develop. available of land and physiography of the areas.2 Basins or percolation tanks. the local units/area/body are impressed upon to under take these feasible technique/methods through simple but lucid description.1.4 Conserve surface water run off during monsoons. 3.9 Save environment from degradation. 4. 4.7 Recharge of secondary treated urban liquid effluents in identified aquifers.1.2. 3.2 Relatively high rate of recharge.judicious management of water in each cantt shall be undertaken.5 Treated urban effluent can be recharge and quality beneficiated by re-circulation through the aquifers.8 Conserve energy.4 Reduces flood hazard and soil erosion.3 Stream augmentation.7 Consume unused wastewater.2. 5.1. 3. 5.4 Ditch and furrow. Judicious harvesting management is most inevitable to the followings:3.1. This is achieved with filtration and percolation. 5. 3. In this the recharging in watershed is carried out by directing discharge of rainwater through a settling sump to the underground waterbed. 5.0 AIM The aim of the Rain Water Harvesting by virtue of suitable techniques/methods to conserve the already depleting reservoirs. nitrate and salinity. 3. Number of methods are available to achieve the sustainability of water through rain water Harvesting. our aim is to improve the existing ground surface water through efficient rainwater harvesting management. improve ground water levels and availability.1 Arrest ground water decline.

the shafts are dug. 6. The average depth of 10 to 15 meters with width of 1 meter and length of 2 meters at places depending upon amount of water available from catchments. sub surface water is diverted due to troughs and mounds.7 COMBINATION OF SURFACE AND SUB SURFACE 5. These are back filled with pervious soils.7. streets. 5. 5.2 Frequent lowering of submersible pump in order to keep the later submerged. gravel and sand for better percolation and improved water quality through dilution during percolation.1 Recharge pits.2 Recharge shaft. 6. This was ascertain / evident from the observation and are as under. This diverts ground water flow direction and prevent recharge.1 Poor quality of water.7.2 Water treatment : In this technique the affluent/sewage/sullage is collected in a pit. which facilities faster and efficient percolation and mitigates bio and chemical pollutions after filtration through the soil. other Geological. It is accomplished by augmenting the natural infiltration of precipitation or surface water in to underground formations by some method of construction. 7. 5.5 BORE HOLE FLOODING 5.5 Sealing of natural recharge areas in and around bore wells with impervious side well. 6. 6. The pits are preferably located near the precinct and thereafter filled with permeable material like pebbles. The above factors have caused overdraft from the bore wells and must be recharged immediately as the yield from these bore wells have been helping us to reduce dependence on outside agency for the deficient supply of water especially during peak summer when the catchments go dry and reduce available water. The wells which are near surface water bodies (such as ponds. filtered and then supplied to required place through gravity well or deep trenches in slope. Pits are dug depending upon available rooftop water from the buildings and are located inside the premise and away from foundation or concrete structures so as to have its sitting over pervious soil for better and faster absorption.4. by providing or spreading of water or by artificially changing the natural conditions.9 GROUND WATER RECHARGE OF 148 EXISTING WELLS Ground water recharge of existing bore wells is one of the method of modifying the hydrological cycle and thereby providing ground water in excess of that available by natural processes. 5. Where the contour and topology of a large area permit flow in unidirectional and having step slopes.TRENCHES 5. Topological conditions. These are terminated above the aquifer level. 6. parking lots and buildings.3 Water output varying and found in spurts. Bore wells being run continuously for hours without permitting recharge.0 INDICATION OF DEPLETING WATER YIELD It has been observed from the post performances of the bore wells/shallow wells/open wells that the over exploitation has gradually diminished their yields. 5.4. 6. 5. Another practice is to have aquifer modification. 6.8 In this method induce recharge from surface water source is utilised for improving ground water potential. occasionally muddy. Dairy form and play grounds) continuing to give good yields and harvesting is naturally carried out. The shafts are usually cased with PVC casing to prevent contamination and collapse.1 Following are the techniques usually adopted Basin/percolation tanks with pits/shaft or wells are constructed to collect subsurface and surface water.6 NATURAL OPENINGS AND CAVITY FILLINGS Normally the topology of cantt is such that these openings are limited. Golf course.6 In real ground situation.0 COMPUTATION AND TOTAL POTENTIAL OF RECHARGE The potential through bore well harvesting will depend upon how big catchments is diverted for .4 More draw out than natural recharge by rains etc.

an area of approx 5. The area should commence 15 meters away from bore well. through trench/pit/shaft. The exact quantity is difficult to assess. An expensive proposition is not viable for Military stations where water quality can be improved with silt filtering pit alone.000 to 10.1 RECHARGE Exact computation of sub surface inflow and infiltration (Water entering the soil at the surface is called infiltration) need comprehensive geological investigation. 7.91M Say 1.1 TRENCHES Average rainfall = 780 mm Available for harvesting = 390 mm (50% of average) To be harvested in the water = 39 mm 10% available economically harvesting Economic width & Depth of trench = 1. METHOD The water is led from the roof to the storage tank through a series of gutters and pipes. Rigid PVC pipes are considered as they are cheaper easier to maintain and will reduce contamination.039 M 10. The recharge of bore wells can be carried out through water shed approach while dried up dug well can be used directly for storing water of surround catchment.000 Liters This water is available in one year (90 days of rains) per bore well assuming unpaved area around bore well.000 x 0.5 M Width For 1000 M2 roof top available water = 1000 X 0.0 DESIGN OF TRENCHES AND PITS 8.2 SIZE OF PIT Average Rains yield = 3. messes and offices.039 M3 = 39 M3 Assuming 90 days rainfall per = 39M3 per rain fall rainfall average water 90 = 433 litter per day of rain PVC rigid pipe for 40mm can carry water to the required place. Total water collection/recharge per bore well Average rainfall (Say) = 780 mm Available for harvesting = 390 mm (@ 50%) after evaporation To harvest 10% of above = 39 mm (0.000 Sq m around bore well should be made ground water collection. Hence it is being considered only at those locations to augment for potable water. 8.percolation near bore wells.90.9 M depth Such pit can be easily & economically dug 149 = . Size of pit = 6 Cu M Taking 2 M Dia Pit Depth of pit (L) = 6X4 pX 4 = 6 p 1. The shallow wells were rainwater from surrounding catchments can be directed inside through silt filtering unit above as the water is soft and does not get surface impurities. To have economical and viable harvesting of rainwater in the water source. The rainwater harvesting to increase the water table should be graded so as to prevent the accumulation or retention of surface water within a radius of 15 meters from the bore well.039 M) Total water recharge for = 10. 8. 7.000 Sq M = 3. This may be particularly useful for domestic use in the residential.2 ROOFS HARVESTING The collection and storage of rain from rooftop run off has been practiced by man since ancient times. but for economy they can be made with “V” shaped lengths of tin sheet hang under the roof edge from wire or lengths of rigid PVC pipe at along the length and clamped to the edge of the roof. The collection of rain water from paved or GI corrugated roofs and court yards of houses is done either in storage tank or in ground water reservoir.05 M3 per shower Taking 100% extra for proper storage and percolation without contamination by surface water.5 M depth & 0. Conventional gutters are normally used.

Total water available from rains = 2023500 x 0. Depth – 1. the training areas are . The recharged storage constructed under watershed approach should be devoid of losses due to evaporation and quality deterioration due to pollution (which will make it useless for any application).20 X 6 Cum aggregate 50% of 40 mm = 0. 150 Method 5.390 M) Total potential = 0.1 Cantt/Military Stations/Areas can be subdivided into smaller catchments / water shed and maintained under local units.1. Therefore method for smaller catchments area is more suitable and viable.1 for Recharge on surface are most suitable for water harvest. 10. In general.20 Millions KL This indicates that the total potential of water harvest in one rainy season if exploited is sufficient to meet the requirement to the maximum/ full extent.2 Training areas 10.1.39 Cu M = 789165 Cu M To harness 10% of this water check dams of sizes 30m x 1mx1m may be constructed in natural slope directions 3 CHECK DAMS will be economically viable to cover the area.50 X 6 Cum aggregate 9. These watersheds can be.4 Open spaces and parks These above areas are normally situated at different locations in Defence establishment.1 Check Dams : Ranges can be utilised for creating check dams at low laying area and storing water.2.1 METHODS Artificial charge of water source can be managed and developed by planned extractions of ground and surface water during periods of low precipitation while subsequent replenishment can be made during periods of surplus surface supply.2 METHODS FOR SMALLER AREA HARVESTING Assuming the followings Range Area = 500 Acres Training area (10 Pockets) = 1000 Acres (Total) Play fields (5 Pockets) = 50 Acres (Total) Open Spaces (40 Pockets) = 200 Acres (Total) 10. The range area = 500 Acres = 2023500 (1 Acre = 4047 SQM) SQM With 390 MM of rainfall available for harvesting. 9.2.2 STAGGERED CONTOUR TRENCHES (SCT) / PERCOLATION TRENCHES (PT) The training areas can be utilised for creating staggered contour trenches (SCT) and percolation trenches (PT). This potential can be tapped from rooftop (most efficient use). 10.1 Ranges.1. Area / land = 9000 acres 1 acres = 4047 SQM Total SQM land = 36423000 SQM Average rainfalls (Say) = 780 mm (0.780M) Available for recharge after evaporation from soil & water surface (evaporation & percolation losses) = 390 mm (0. Such a coordinated operation of surface and ground water supplies is possible if there is sufficient ground water storage to meet the requirements for regulation of local water supplies and if the aquifers possesses sufficient transmissibility to permit the movement of recharged water to the area of extraction. 10.9M) 15% of sand = 0.39 X 36423000 M3 = 14. Size of Pit = 6 Cum (Dia – 2. The methods for smaller catchments area are as under.1.without encountering hard rock with mechanical excavator if required.15 X 6 Cum 20% of 20 mm = 0. 10.0 PREFERABLE LOCATIONS TO DO IT 10. The check dam may be ailed with cheaper option to prevent fall of human being and animals.3 Play fields 10. road top (difficult to tap due to faulty slopes. berms and economics) and from water shed (catchment) through soils other than paved and roof top.0 EXPLOITATION AND HARNESSING TOTAL POTENTIAL OF WATER HARVESTING Considering a defence land / area available for water shed is 9000 acres.0M. 10.

A lot of care has to be taken to create water-harvesting structures since play fields are common places for play activities.0M x 1.3 PLAYFIELDS.5 x 0. The trench size is sufficient to carry per day rains water.5 = 250 CuM For 5 play field site = 250 x 5 CuM = 1250 CuM Manhole cover of 1 m x 0. in each pocket 7 or 8 Nos of SCT may be created.5 x 0. This water . Considering there are 10 Nos of pockets for training in various units.5 = 500 CUM Pond size can be 10 m dia at 40 locations with average 1 m depth properly fenced on all sides. Total water potential in 100 acres = 100 (Acres) x 4047 SqM = 100 x 4047 x 0. 10. Total water potential from rain = 10 x 4047 x 0. Percolation Trenches (PT) may be dug away from the training tools and located at fenced places. Trenches dug should be covered with manhole cover arrangements. Total open spaces at 40 pockets in station =200 Acres Average Area = 05 acres Water potential = 7891 CUM Trenches of size 0. Total excavation Per site = 1000 x 0. Total trench length on four sides 50m (10) location = 500 RM of 1m x 1m.39 M3 = 157833 M3 The staggered contour trenches (SCT) of dimension 3. Note : The capacity of ponds created is of much smaller size than the water potential available for harvesting.5 m with manhole cover. Percolation trench may be located at the down stream. Total trench length = 1000 RM for on average 10 acres field. tanks and shaft storage at deep low lying can be considered. The depth has been kept as 1 M maximum so that if required the same can be achieved through troops labour.5 M to carry water to 40 different storage can be considered. The trench may be size 1m x 1m and all along the low stream at least 50 M and filled with impervious materials locally available and not specified provided for their purpose. leisure walk and other activities. from all sides can be collected and allowed to drain away from sports fields to a location where storage can be made.0M x 1. OPEN SPEACES AND PARKS The play fields. This is kept to keep economic viability of these structures in the available space without hampering training/play activities. The play fields have natural slope duly leveled. These are to be created at the end of slope and properly protected to prevent accidental of human/others. These structures may be properly fenced and treated with bleaching powder periodically approx 50 RM of trench 0. The above proposal is however very expensive but will fetch a great deal of water.2. Which is received in 90 to 100 days of rainfalls.5 x 0.scattered in defence established The training area is 1000 acres (Say) in Military/Cantt Station/Areas.0M (For average 20000 M3 of water potential area) can be created.92 = 79 Nos Therefore.5 m can be dug to carry rainwater to the storage spaces created in the form of tank/ponds. Cu M of trench = 50 x 40 x 0. open space and parks areas can be effectively utilised for rain water harvesting.6 m each = 1000 No x 5 = 50000 Nos for sites OPEN SPACES AND PARKS : At these places creation of ponds. Average play field in Cantt Area = 10 Acres for each pocket. 151 The No of SCT = Nos of Pockets x Water Potential in M3 20000 = 10 x 157833 20000 = 78.5m x 0. Play fields : Considering 5 pockets with total 50 acres of play field in Defence Establishment have a total water potential of 86808 CUM.39 M3 = 15783M3 To harvest 10% of it. trenches may be dug all round of size 0.5 x 0.

Typical Roof Top Harvesting Fig – 3. Fig – 3. design details of Ferro cement storage tank capacity 12000 Ltr.3. design and details of recharging structure. Fig .2 . Type of Percolation Fig – 4 and Details of Recharge Structure Fig – 5 Design of Pit For understanding and execution of works.1.0 DRAWINGS The drawings showing composite plan for recharging structure. roof top rain water harvesting structure and design of pits for rain water harvesting are attached as Fig – 1.4. plan for recharging structure.3.Plan of Recharging. Fig – 3.2. Fig . Design of Storage Tank and ilters. typical drawing details of roof water harvesting structure. Composite Plan. Typical Drawing Details.1 Fig – 1 : Composite Plan 152 .11. COMPOSITE PLAN FOR RECHARGE STRUCTURE NO.

2 : Plan of Recharging 153 .Plan for Recharge Structure No.1 Inlet Pipe 6” dia pipe 3.0 m Plan for Recharge Structure No.0 m Fig .0 m 3.2 Inlet Pipe 6” dia pipe 3.0 m 3.

1 : Typical Drawing Details 154 .TYPICAL DRAWING DETAILS ROOF WATER HARVESTING STRUCTURE Fig – 3.

3 Design of Storage Tank and ilters .TYPICAL ROOF TOP RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM DESIGN DETAILS OF FERRO CEMENT STORAGE TANK 12.2 Typical Roof Top Harvesting 155 Fig – 3.000 Liters capacity FILTERS USED FOR FILTERING RAIN WATER Fig – 3.

3.Fig .4 : Type of Percolation 156 .

Fig – 4 : Details of Recharge Structure 157 .

Fig – 5 : Design of Pit 12.0 CONTAMINATION Medical Authorities of civil area/SHO for Military station may object to open harvesting of water, since the harvesting surfaces being exposed through out the year and are subject to contamination by dust, insects and birds and those at ground level are also liable to be contaminated by animals and humans. The following precautionary measures are recommended:- Location from Contamination source Recommended distance of harvesting structure such as pit, trenches etc. from source of contamination. Building sewer 15 M Septic tanks Disposal filed 15 M Seepage pit 30 M Swimming pool 45 M If any bore well or shallow well is to be charged with water, which is at a distance less than above, should permit deeper trenches with silt-setting chamber following by silt-filtering pit. The bore
158

well water may contain faecal strap-to-coccid and should be used only for conservancy unless otherwise tested. 12.1 The trenches/pit so dug should be properly fenced and kept clean. The first flush of the new rains should be run to waste. 12.2 The storage tanks below ground should be fully enclosed to prevent evaporation. 12.3 All aperatures shall be screened to prevent the access to mosquitoes, rodents, lizards and other life etc. 13.0 CONCLUSION Rain Water Harvesting needs to be implemented in defence area/other places in order that the on going actives are not hampered due to paucity of water resources. Nature has showered enough potential to recharge our existing water bodies and also to store water for years to come and to meet the present/future demands.

National Seminar on Rainwater Harvesting and Water Management 11-12 Nov. 2006, Nagpur

24. Review of Rain Water Harvesting in India
*R. M. Dhoble **Dr. A. G. Bhole

INTRODUCTION We have greatly hampered the natural ground water recharge by drawnif excessive water and covering / paving up all the available open land. Rainwater harvesting is merely “putting back rainwater into the soil or in underground or above ground tank so that we can draw it whenever we need it”. Less than 1% of world‘s water is available in the form of river, pond and lake for human use. Out of total rainfall in India, run off is about 85 %, percolation is about 7%, evaporation is about 5% and human use is about is about 3%. Urbanization and increase in population in the recent decades have contaminated water bodies, thus making them unfit for drinking and use. This is coupled with man’s growing needs and excessive tapping of groundwater through numerous bore wells and tube wells, which has depleted water table to great extent. Rain Water harvesting (RWH) will to some extend help to meet the increased demand. It has been estimated that the amount of rainwater that falls on the terrace of the houses can take care of the water requirement of an average family of four members for one year. RWH is a technology used for collecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, the land surface or rock catchments using simple techniques such as underground check dams. RWH has gained tremendous interest among academicians, institutions and layman in the past few years. Roof top harvesting has a clearer definition as water collected from rooftop chiefly for domestic consumption. Rain Water Harvesting is a low cost solution to solve water crises. Need of RWH : In India there are 600000 villages and almost

70 % of population is rural and agriculture related. The rainfall pattern in India is highly irregular in space and time. Most of it is concentrated during just a few months of year and that too, in a few regions. Rainfall occurs about 70 % in about four months. So, even in a year of normal rainfall, some parts of a country face several droughts. RWH system benefits in many ways in rural and urban areas such as it develop improvements in infiltration and reduction in runoff, improvement in groundwater quality, reduces strain on specially village Panchayat / Municipal/Municipal corporation water supply, improvement in groundwater level and Yields etc. Advantages and Disadvantages : Advantages: 1) It gives high agriculture returns. 2) It is a potential solution to problems of rural poverty and unemployments, resulting in an overall improvement in the nation’s economy. 3) Local people can be easily trained to implement such technology and construction methods. RWH is a convenient in the sense that it provides water at the point of consumption, which greatly reduces the operation and maintenance problem. 4) It is sustainable due to decentralization and community participation. Disadvantages : This system mainly depends upon the limited supply and uncertainty of rainfall. Adoption of this technology requires a bottom up approach rather than top to bottom. This makes this system less attractive to some government agencies. If old roof is used as the catchment area, if it is under tree

*Sr. Lecturer,Civil Engg.Dept., G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur. **Retired Prof.Civil Engg.Dept., V.N.I.T. Nagpur 159

branches, if the building relies on wood heat, or if the air is too polluted, then there may be possibility of contamination of rain water. COMPONENTS OF RWH SYSTEM It consists of various stages, transporting rainwater through pipes or drains, filtration and storage in tanks for reuse or recharge. The common components of RWH system consists of three stages A) CATCHMENTS : The catchments of RWH system, the surfaces which directly receive the rainfall and provide water for system. It can be paved area like a terrace or courtyard of building or an unpaved area like a lawn or open ground. R.C.C., galvanized iron or corrugated sheets can also be used for R.W.H. Following Fig. shows elements of rain water system. As the rooftop is the main catchment area, the amount and quality of rainwater collected depends upon the area of catchment, intensity of rainfall and type of roofing materials. Galvanized corrugated iron, asbestos cement sheets and slate and tiles can collect reasonably pure water from the rooftops. Although thatched roof tiled with bamboo gutter, laid in proper slopes can produced almost the same amount of runoff less expensively (Gould, 1992). Because of possible health hazards, bamboo roofs are least suitable and roofs with metallic paints or other coating are not recommended as they may impart taste or colour to the collected water. To avoid entry of dust, leaves and bird dropping, the roof catchment should be cleaned regularly.

and on the mouth of inlet of drained pipe, mesh of 850 micron screen or coarse mesh 10mm x10mm should be provided to prevent the entry of derbies as shown in Fig No 2. The inlet of drained pipe should be provided on the sloping side of the roof.

Source: A water Harvesting manual for urban area

Course mesh on roof top (Fig 2.0) Gutter : Channels are provided all around the edge of sloping roof to collect and transport rainwater to the storage tank. It semicircular or rectangular and could be made using • Locally available materials such as plain galvanized iron sheet (20 to 22 gauge), folded to the required shapes. • Semicircular gutter of PVC material can be readily prepared by cutting those pipes into two equal semi- circular channels. • Bamboo or betel trunks cut vertically in half. The size of gutter should be accurate to flow water during highest intensity of rainfall and it is advisable to make them 10 to 15 % over size. Gutter need to be supported so they do not sag or fall off when loaded with water. The way, in which the gutters are fixed depending upon the construction of houses having wider eaves, some method of attachment to the rafter is necessary. Conduit : Theses are the pipelines or drains that carry rainwater from the catchments or rooftop area to the harvesting system called as down conduct can be of any materials that are commonly available. The following Table No 1.0 gives ideas about the diameter of pipe required for draining out rainfall based on rainfall intensity and roof area. The downpipe should be atleast 100 mm diameter with 850micron wire screen at the inlet to prevent dry leaves and derbies from entering into pipe.
160

Source – A water-harvesting manual for Urban area

Fig. 1 Course mesh – It should be provided at the roof to prevent the passage of derbies. It should be provided at the bottom of parapet wall as shown in figure

2 21. The most common is the down. and a small gap exist between the down-pipe walls and the funnel.0 - 100 6. around the funnel and discharged directly to the recharged structure if available or over the ground. directing water to the down-pipe.3 34.First flushing device is the valve that insures that runoff from the first spell of the rain is flushed out and does not enter the system. Because the upper edge of the funnel is not direct contact with the sides of downpipe. Source: A water harvesting manual for urban areas manual for urban areas First flushing arrangement Fig.4 - Size of rainwater pipe for roof drainage Average rate of rainfall in mm/hour 75 8.0 20. 4) Source: A water harvesting manual for urban areas Sand filter Fig.6 200 3.4 8. (Refer fig.0 62. With this flap it is possible to direct the first flush of water flow through the down pipe. No 3).3 9. When it starts to rain.4 24.6 12.0 16. No 4 .2 64.1 40.8 85. There are several possible choices to collect clean water for the storage tanks. A funnel shaped insert is integrated in to the down-pipe system. No. the flap is left in closed position. First flushing .5 - 125 5. and later.Table No 1. When the rain starts.3 40.5 53.7 80. while later rainfall is diverted to the storage tank.3 6.0 10.6 28. When the rainfall continues the volume of water increases and the clean and fresh water carried to the storage tank. to remove the debris and dirt from water from before it enters the storage tank or recharge structure. A filter unit is a chamber filled with filtering media such as fiber. the volume of water passing down the pipe is very small and the contaminated water runs down the pipe.3 - 150 4.0 13.7 mm/ h – milliliter per hour Source – National Building Code. This needs to be done since the first spell of rain carries a relatively large amount of pollutants from air and the catchments surface. The pipe used for collection of 161 rainwater. A great disadvantage of using this type conveyance control system is necessarily to observe the runoff quality and manually operate the flap. An alternative approach would be to automate the opening of the flap. opened when relatively clean water can be collected (Refer Fig.0 27. is generally made up of PVC or other inert substance to avoid corrosion of pipe due to the pH of rainwater can be low.0 57. No 3 B)FILTER : The filter is used to remove suspended pollutants from rainwater collected over the roof.9 16.5 83.4 42.pipe flap.0 Diameter of pipe (mm) 50 50 65 75 100 125 150 13. course sand and gravel layer. Charcoal can be added for additional filtration.

In this way the area of filtration is increased for sand.the first purification chamber has pebbles varying between 2-6 mm and second chamber has slightly larger pebbles between 6-12 mm and third chamber has largest 12-20mm pebbles. the middle one with course sand and inner most layer with pebbles. 6) Source – Jayakumar Rain Water Harvest Manual P. Viswanath developed a filter named ‘Varun’ for purifying rainwater. According to him. District collector of Dewas. long there are three chambers . (Refer fig. No. have wells in their houses. This means the product is relatively standardized. 6 . In simple sand filter that can be constructed domestically.21 Jayakumar Filter Fig. 5) c) Filter for large roof top: This system was designed by R. the top layer comprises course sand followed by 5-10 mm layer of gravel followed by another 5-25 cm layer of gravel and boulder. Sand filters are easy and inexpensive to construct.a) Sand Filter: Sand filter s have commonly available sand as a filter media. 5 b) Dewas Filter : Most residents in Dewas in Madhya Pradesh. In this system the rainwater reaches to the center core and is collected in the sump where it is treated with few tablets of chlorine for consumption. twinges etc. (Refer fig. There is mesh at the outflow side through which clean water flow out after passing through three chambers. colour and microorganisms. 7 d) Varun: S. These filters can be employed for treatment of water to effectively remove turbidity. Varun is made from 90-liter high density Poly Ethylene (HDPE) drum. A system is designed with three concentric circular chambers in which the outer chamber is filled with sand. The water thus filtered is put into the small service tube well. No. of a roof area. No. the filtering should be accumulating the excess flow. The lid is tumbuer and holes are punched in it. Jaykumar.2 m. When the rainwater is harvested in a large rooftop area. from a decently clean roof ‘Varun’ can handled 50mm/hour intensity of rainfall from 50 sq. Formerly all that wells would do was exact groundwater but then. The rooftop water was collected and allowed to pass through fitter system called Dewas filter designedby Mohan Rao. This is the first sieve. in relation to the course aggregate and pebbles. which keeps out larger leaves. No. The filter consist of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 140 mm diameter and 1. No. rainwater coming out sieve then passes through the 162 Dewas Filter Fig No. 7) Source: A water harvesting manual for urban areas Sand Filter Fig. m. Jayakumar (A builder by profession) (Refer fig. the district administrative of Dewas initiated the ground water recharge scheme.

permeable pavement) where other conduct water to greater depths from where it joins the groundwater e. Remove the first layer of sponge and soak/ clean it in bucket of water. The HRF acts as a physical filter and is applied to retain the solid matter. existing structures like wells. first pocket with broken bricks. used to kill microbes in the water. Slow sand filter is a primary biological filter. pits and tanks can be modified as recharged structures. The horizontal roughing filter usually consist of filter material like gravel and course sand that successively decreases in size from 25 mm to 4mm.0m to 3. The length of channel varies accordingly to the nature of the site selected for sump.in length laid across the tank embankment. fine graded mesh is implanted to prevent the entry of finer materials into the sump. bore well. making full use of the natural purification process of harvested surface water and do not require chemicals. No 10) Horizontal Roughing filter Fig No. The major components are as follows. Filter channel: 1. 8 C) RECHARGED STRUCTURES : Rainwater may be charged into ground water aquifer through any structure like dug well.0m2 in cross section and 8m. (Refer Fig. recharge well. At every outlet and inlet of channel. The sand needs no cleaning at all.0 m deep. 163 Filter material in a soakaway . eliminating the need to construct any structure a fresh. recharge trenches and recharge pit. second with course sand followed by fine sand in third compartment. Both filter types area generally stable.three layers of sponge and 150 mm of thick layer of course sand. Various recharge structures are possible. Presence of sponge makes the cleaning process very easy. No 8). The excavated pit is lined with a brick/stone walls with weep holes at regular intervals. e) Horizontal Roughing filter : The introduction of horizontal filter and slow sand filter to treat surface water has made safe drinking water available in coastal pocket of Orrisa.5to 3. No 9) Source.g.Centre of Science for Villages Recharge pit Fig.0 m wide and 2. 9 b) Percolation Pit : Percolation pit is a easiest and most effective means of harvesting rainwater are generally not more than 60cm x 60cm x 60 cm pits filled with pebbles or bricks jelly and river sand covered with perforated concrete slab whenever necessary. The bulk of solids in the incoming water is separated by this course sand. The top area of the pit can be covered with perforated cover. No. Methods and Techniques : Rooftop rain water Through : a) Recharge Pit : The recharge pit is generally 1.(Refer Fig. the filter channel consist of three uniform compartments. (Refer Fig. At many locations. Some of which promote the percolation of water through soil strata at shallow depth (recharge trenches.

Constructed in the open space at required intervals. Size “ 1m x 1m x 1. or 15ft. No.300 mm dia. from its bottom. 11 Note : 1. and more. which helps for good percolation.Centre of Science for Village Soak pit (Fig No10) Source – TWAD Board Percolation pit with bore hole Fig. A PVC pipe of 6in. A recharge trench can be 0.5 m to 1.11) c) PERCOLATION PIT WITH BORE METHOD A borehole to be drilled at the bottom of the percolation pit. with 10 -15 ft depth (approx. pebbles or bricks. No 12) Source – TWAD Board Percolation Pit Fig No. RCC slab cover is optional.No. it is advisable to go in for a percolation well upto 10ft. 3. 2. 12 In areas where the soil is likely to be clayey upto say 15ft. The diameter of these pits will be 25 cm (10 inches). diameter is inserted into the bore for the entire length.)filled with broken bricks and suitable for clay area. A percolation / absorption pit is a hand bore made in the soil with the help of an augur and filled up with pebbles and river sand on top. Top (1') portion may be filled with sand. The length of recharge trench is decided as per the amount of runoff expected.) (Refer Fig. A square / circular collection chamber with silt arrester is provided at the top. 164 d) Recharged Trenches : A recharge trench is a continuous trench excavated in the ground and refilled with porous material like boulder. to 15ft. Above structures are meant for area with small catchment like individual houses.5 m deep and length should in the range of 13-16 meter.0 m wide and 1. recharge trenches are relatively less effective since soil strata at a depth of about 1. The recharge trench should be periodically cleaned of accumulated derbies to maintain the intake capacity in term of recharge rate.5m (depth) Filled with broken bricks / pebbles Suitable for sandy sub . If the soil is clayey. the pit has to be dug to a depth till a reasonably sandy stratum is reached.soil area One unit for 30 m2 area (approx. e) Recharging of service tube well: In this case the rooftop runoff is not directly fed into the service . For recharging through the recharging trenches fewer precautions have to be taken to maintain the quality of runoff. Runoff from both paved and unpaved can be tapped. Bore hole size should150 . The depth of these pits will be anywhere between 4 and 8 meters depending on the nature of the soil.0m to 1.Source. (Refer Fig. and a hand bore pit within this well upto a depth of 10ft.5 m is less permeable.

Instead. a filter mechanism is provided at top. The modified injection well is generally a borehole 500 mm diameter. In design part there is no need of incorporating the influence of filler materials. No 13) Source: A water harvesting manual for urban areas Recharged Trough Fig. 1) Filter mesh at entrance point of roof catchments 2) Settlement chamber 3) Filter bed. g) Recharged Trough: To collect the runoff from the paved and unpaved areas draining out of a compound. then the causing outer pipe) should be preferably slotted or performed pipe so that more area is available for the to percolate.0 m below water table. f) Recharge of dug well and abandoned dug well: in alluvial and hard rock areas. These can be recharged directly from roof top runoff. Developing a bore well would increases its recharge capacity (developing is the process where water or air is forced into well under pressure to loosen the soil strata surrounding the bore to make it more permeable) 1) If dug well used as a recharge then the well lining should have opening (weep holes) at regular interval to allow seepage of water through the sides. which comprises sand and gravel. A filter chamber comparing of sand. gravel and boulder is provided to arrest impurities. Dug well should be covered to prevent mosquitoes breeding and entry of leaves and derbies. In order to facilate speedy recharged. rainwater is collected in a recharged well. The bottom of recharged well should be desilted annually to maintain the intake capacity. (Refer Fig. No 14) Modified injection well Fig. (Refer Fig. recharged troughs are commonly placed at the entrance of residential / industrial complex. which is a temporary storage tank (located near the service tub well) with a borehole. Inside this hole a slotted pipe of 200 mm diameter is inserted. which is shallower than water table depth. permeably 2-3.tube well. which is drilled to the desired depth depending upon the geological condition. to avoid the chances of contamination of groundwater. if strata are loose. This borehole has to be provided with a casing pipe to prevent the caving in of soil. there are thousands of wells which have either gone dry or whose water level has declined considerably. boreholes are drilled at regular intervals in a trench. No 14 . Rainwater that is collected on the roof top of the building is diverted by drainpipe to a settlement or filtration tank from which it flows into the recharge well (bore well or dug well) if the tube well is used as for recharging. These structures are similar to the recharged trench except for the fact that the excavated portion is not 165 filled with layer materials. Providing the following elements in the system can ensure the quality of water entering the recharge wells. No 13 h) Modified Injection Well: In this method water is not pumped into the aquifer but allowed to percolate through filter bed. To stop the suspended solid from entering the recharge tube well. The annular space between the borehole and pipe is filled with gravel and developed with a compressor till it gives clear water.

i) For Rural Area : (Rooftop Rain water harvesting) In rural areas most of the houses are having Mangalore tiles roof. Dist.M. No 15 In this fig. lined with geotextile and filled with rock or placed in the form of erosion resisting structures. These are also called as contour trench or contour furrows. In 1992. In 2002 the villagers have constructed a pipeline system to bring drinking water on tap from the wells near check dam. with the help of N. k) RWH through Percolation Tank: This method percolation tanks are constructed to store the rain water which helps in various purpose such as improvement in ground water table. a Dahod based NGO. the roof is covered with plastic which is used to collect maximum amount of rainwater from roof j) RWH through Continuous Contour Trenching: construction of trench on slope contour to detain water and sediments transported by water gravity down slope generally constructed by light equipments. today formers irrigated about 100 acres of land during the drought season.Sadguru water and Development Foundation ( NMSWDF). the agriculture yield also increased. Population of this village was 600. the villagers constructed the first check dam on the seasonal river Machhan. No 15. The small dam retains excess water flow during monsoon rains in small catchment area behind structure which helps in various ways.Dahod in Gujrat . (Refer Fig. l) RWH Through Check Dam: In this small barrier built across the direction of water flow on shallow river or stream for the rain water harvesting purpose. Example : In Mahudi village. increasing crop production.Dahod in Gujarat. Due to the construction of check dam. RWH through Continuous Contour Trenching Fig No 16 166 Check Dam at Mahudi village. No 16) . Dist. No 17) Rooftop Rain water harvesting (on Mangalore Percolation Tank Fig No 17 Rooftop Rain water harvesting Fig. (Refer Fig. In this gutters are provided along the periphery of the roof and get collected in a small tank as shown in fig. Refer Fig 18. Villagers also control the use of water through the local village institutions called lift irrigation committee. increasing the prosperity of the country etc.

depth of water table and chemical quality of ground water. topography.95 0.1 Runoff coefficients for various catchment surfaces 167 . general values are tabulated below ( Refer Table No 2 & 3) which are generally used for assessing the potential. whether residential or garden belt and general built up pattern area. DESIGN CONSIDERATION: The most important components which needs to be evaluated for designing rain water structures are Source _Centre Of Science For Village Open well Recharging by Soak Pit Method s Fig No. 3) Hydro metrological characteristics viz rainfall duration.0 feet on both sides of well as shown in figure.2 0.05-0. because of evaporation. No 19. how much area and land use pattern. 18 m) Open well Recharging by Soak Pit Method (Centre Of Science For Villages) :In this. Quantity of water harvested: The amount of water harvested depend up on 1) The frequency and intensity of rainfall 2) Catchments characteristics 3) Water demand Water Harvesting Potential = (Catchments area in Sq. While filling care is taken that the gap should remain in between the stones so that rainwater should pass through it.75-0. Type of catchments Collection efficiency 1 2 3 4 Roof Top Paved area Bare land Green area 0. Place the course-graded sand above the top layer of stone.5-0. Refer Fig. which is excavated from the pit. spillage etc. it is mentioned that construct the slope for surrounded ground of well in such a way that total runoff should reached toward the well.0 feet deep to the both sides of well by leaving 5. After completing. During this. intensity of rainfall and general pattern. which increases the level of water in the well.1-0. The slope of the bottom of pit should be provided in opposite direction of well. Construct pits of size 5feet wide and 6. Table No 2 No.Check Dam Fig No. soil cover. 19 1) Hydrogeology of the area including nature and extent of aquifer. 2) Area contributing for runoff i. m) X (collection efficiency) X (rainfall in mm) The collection efficiency accounts for the facts that all the rainwater falling over the area can not be effectively harvested.85 0. Fill the pits with stones of size 12inch to 18 inches. provide PVC pipe of 4 inches diameter from which water directly flow in to the well through the pits.e. Runoff water after passing through the filtration pits reaches to the well. The bigger size of stones should be placed at bottom of pit and reduces the size gradually towards the top of pits. cover the pit with polyethylene (plastic) and cover the soil. The length of the pit should be slightly less than the half the perimeter of the well. By leaving the space of 6 inches above the bottom of pit. provide space in to polyethylene for entering the runoff water into the infiltration pits.

Brick pavement Untreated ground catchments .Table No 3 Type of Catchment Roof Catchments -Tiles .3 0.2 . By fixing the height of the tank. drycleaning plant. diaries food processing unit and any other occupancies noticed by the government from time to time). London.5 0.8-0. laboratories. This tank meets the basic water requirement for a family of six members for dry period.5m) Volume of rainfall = 150 x 0. Adrian 1989. For a year = 365 x 60 = 21900 liters. workable roof top rainwater harvesting arrangements shall be provided as in integral part of all new building constructs for the following occupancies.0.7. 109.Corrugated metal sheets Ground surface coverings -Concrete . Example : Area of terrace = 150 sq. the period between the two consecutive rainy seasons.e. Legislation of RWH. A Rooftop rainwater harvesting agreements. Rainwater Harvesting: The collection of rainfall and runoff in rural areas.7 = 52500 liters.5 m3 = 75000 Lit.2 .6 0. We know that quantity of water required for . Design of Storage tank Tank capacity : Tank capacity is based on dry period i. Kerala: The Kerala Municipality Building Rules. assembly plant. Generally water required for drinking. The water required for family for drinking and cooking purpose is less than the rain water harvested i. Arnold and Cullis.0.e. Suppose monsoon is for four months i. Assuming that 70 – 80 % of the total rainfall is effectively harvested Volume of water harvested = 75000 X 0. Height of Rainfall = 500 mm (0.rule (2) (v) of the roof top 168 Source : Pacey.5 = 7. For 245 days = 245 X 60 = 14700 liters.Provided that the floor area to be constructed shall be the total floor area in all floors: provided further that. vii) Group G1 and Group G2 industrial (Only for workshop. the rainwater harvesting arrangement is not mandatory for thatched roofed building. v) Group D – Assembly vi) Group E – Office / Business.6-0. 2004 issued by the Government of Kerala to include rainwater harvesting structures in new construction. iv) Group C — Medical / Hospital.0-0. then the dry days are 245.Rocky natural catchments 1.3 0. Intermediate Technology Publications.m. 2) The components of workable rooftop rain water harvesting arrangements as stipulated in subrule (1) above.5. 17640 liters.Soil on slopes less than 10 per cent . 120 days .e. shall include i) Roof catchments area ii) Roof gutters iii) Down pipe and first flush pipe arrangement iv) Filter unit v) Storage tank with provision of drawing water and spillover 3) The minimum capacity of storage tank as stipulated in sub.Rocky natural catchments Untreated ground catchments . As per the factor of safety the tank should be built 20 % larger than the requirement i. cooking is 10 liter / capita/day Suppose the family of six people Total quantity of water required / family = 10 x 6 = 60 liters.0.8 0.Soil on slopes less than 10 per cent . 1999 was amended by a notification dated January 12.e.9 Coefficients cooking and drinking purpose is 10 liter/ cap/ day For family of six person = 60 liters. harvested water is double than the water required for main purpose.0-0. the diameter can be calculated.5 0. namely i) Group A1 — Residential (with floor area of 100 m2 or more and plot area 200 m2 or more) ii) Group A2 — Special Residential.0.9 0.1) Unless otherwise stipulated specifically in a town planning scheme. iii) Group B — Educational.

“Where the rain water harvesting structure is not provided as required. The deadline set for this was October 2002. 2002. The CGWA has also banned drilling of tubewells in notified areas. Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh): Rainwater harvesting has been made mandatory in all new buildings with an area of 300 sq m or more. 2002. Gurgaon and Ghaziabad). 2003. Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh): Rainwater harvesting has been made mandatory in all new buildings with an area of 1000 sq m or more. that are being developed. Tamil Nadu: Through an ordinance titled Thailand Muncipal Laws ordinance. 2003.csvtech. Status of RWH in Nagpur District for the year of 2005-2006 (Mahatma Jotiba Fule Jal Bhomi Sandharan Abhiyan)(Refer Table No. In the notified areas in Gurgaon town and the adjoining industrial areas all the institutions and residential colonies have been asked to adopt water harvesting by the CGWA. The deadline 169 . 4) S. Haryana: Haryana Urban Development Authority (HUDA) has made rainwater-harvesting mandatory in all new buildings irrespective of roof area. deadline was for March 31. Indore (Madhya Pradesh): Rainwater harvesting has been made mandatory in all new buildings with an area of 250 sq m or more. the Commissioner or any person authorized by him in this behalf may. after giving notice to the owner or occupier of the building. both public and private. This is also applicable to all the buildings in notified areas that have tubewells. Vishwanath.org) New Delhi :Since June 2001. dated July 19. Mumbai:The state government has made rainwaterharvesting mandatory for all buildings that are being constructed on plots that are more than 1. the Ministry of Urban affairs and Poverty Alleviation has made rainwaterharvesting mandatory in all new buildings with a roof area of more than 100 sq m and in all plots with an area of more than 1000 sq m.harvesting arrangement shall be at the rate given below Group A1 Group A2 Group B Group C Group D Group E Group F Group G1 and G2 Group H Group I 25 liters/ m2 25 liters/ m2 50 liters/ m2 50 liters/ m2 50 liters/ m2 50 liters/ m2 Nil 50 liters/ m2 25 liters/ m2 Nil to construct rainwater harvesting structures is August 31. 4) References : 1) Centre for Science and Environment ( CSE) 2) National building code. This is also applicable to all the buildings in notified areas having a tubewell. Some application in Banglore. Tentative for enforcing this deadline was June 2001. Domestic Rainwater harvesting. It also warns the citizens on disconnection of water supply connection provided rainwater-harvesting structures are not provided. The Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) has made rainwater harvesting mandatory in all institutions and residential colonies in notified areas (South and southwest Delhi and adjoining areas like Faridabad.000 sq m in size. Rajasthan: The state government has made rainwater harvesting mandatory for all public and establishments and all properties in plot covering more than 500 sq m in urban areas. India 5) Centre of science for villages ( www. Gujarat: The state roads and buildings department has made rainwater harvesting mandatory for all government buildings. The deadline for this was for March 31. A rebate of 6 per cent on property tax has been offered as an incentive for implementing rainwater-harvesting systems. in the state. 2003. The ordinance cautions. the government of Tamil Nadu has made rainwater harvesting mandatory for all the buildings. cause rain water harvesting structure to be provided in such building and recover the cost of such provision along with the incidental expense thereof in the same manner as property tax”. 3) A water-harvesting manual for urban area.

Table No 4 No. Well recharging (Target) Nagpur Kamthi Hingna Kalmeshwar Katol Narkhed Sawaner Parshivni Ramtek Mouda Kuhi Umared Bhivapur TOTAL 150 125 150 150 150 150 150 125 150 125 125 125 125 1800 Well recharging (Achieved) 32 58 39 176 70 48 20 0 14 457 Roof top rain water harvesting (Target) 150 125 150 150 150 150 150 125 150 125 125 125 125 1800 Roof top rain water harvesting (Achieved) 117 128 200 310 58 59 27 06 44 949 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Target of RWH in Nagpur District for the year of 2006-2007 ( Mahatma Jotiba Fule Jal Bhomi Sandharan Abhiyan) (Refer Table No5) No. Well recharging (Target) Roof top rain water harvesting (Target) 150 125 150 150 150 150 150 125 150 125 125 125 125 1800 Roof top rain water harvesting (Target) Government buildings 100 100 150 100 150 100 100 100 150 100 100 100 150 1500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nagpur Kamthi Hingna Kalmeshwar Katol Narkhed Sawaner Parshivni Ramtek Mouda Kuhi Umared Bhivapur TOTAL 150 125 150 150 150 150 150 125 150 125 125 125 125 1800 170 .

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