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I. GENERAL REMARKS Teacher Name: Adriana Fekete Office: Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, 58 T. Mihali st., Cluj-Napoca, room 016 (ground floor) Telephone: 0264-418655 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Course identification information: Course title: Practical course of business English Course code: EBL 1006, EBL 2006 first year, 2 semesters Course type: compulsory
The course addresses intermediate (Common European Framework of Reference B1) students. To help you decide what level you are, we suggest you use the following descriptors of language ability as given by the Common European Framework of Reference. level description Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help. Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need. Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans. Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options. Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.
Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent C2 presentation. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in more complex situations. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_European_Framework_of_Reference_for_Languages) It is absolutely necessary that students whose level is lower than intermediate should work individually to reach that level. To this purpose, students can use practical grammars which
contain essential theoretical information and practical tasks (see Suggested bibliography) or take English language courses offered by specialised institutions. COURSE DESCRIPTION Objectives The purpose of English for1st Year Business Students is to develop the written and oral communication skills of business students. The course focuses on two vital areas of the learning process: improving reading and writing skills as well as developing learning skills. The subject matter, drawn from various business fields, is not excessively specialised. • Structure
Eight units are devoted to training students in the skills of reading, developing vocabulary, and writing. These units are designed to help students: Become familiar with the various vocabulary items related to business English Become familiar with the various expressions related to specific language functions Improving reading skills by focusing on both content and the use of theses expressions in task-based writing exercises Build up writing skills by practising the contextual use of the vocabulary items and focusing on grammar in controlled practice exercises. Learn and review basic business vocabulary
The structure of the units is systematic, concise and explicit, responsive to the variety of communicative circumstances in business. The content is formative, aiming at developing students’ awareness of the need for communicating correctly in a foreign language. Mainly designed to be used as self-study material, the book intends to encourage students to take individual study more seriously, to offer standardised exercises, to provide concrete examples, to focus on language use (knowledge of language, language skills, awareness of the nature of learning, awareness of the reading process, attitudes to reading: unknown words, strategies, ‘meaning’, opportunities for discussion/ exchanges of opinion). The texts provide opportunities for review and expansion of the skills throughout the year. Furthermore, the units’ organisation allows the student to take advantage of individual study. The abundance of material in the texts makes them easily adaptable to varying learner interests, student specialties, and language levels. The units of the book deal with texts that offer the possibility of learning specific vocabulary, grammar structures and functional language in appropriate contexts. The tasks students will have to carry out will help them develop their language skills in an integrated way, i.e. extracting the main ideas from a text// taking notes etc. The structure of most units is the following: a. Lead-in b. Reading c. Vocabulary development d. Language focus e. Functions The lead-in section is devised to introduce students to the topic of the unit. It consists of questions or exercises that forecast the subject matter to be dealt with in the reading section.
mid-semester written test – 25% . The language focus section starts from examples found in the text.participation in classroom activities (oral) – 50% . The functions section contains a number of expressions that represent certain language functions.participation in classroom activities (oral) – 50% . they should use additional selfstudy materials (practical grammars).end of semester written test – 50% Second semester .The reading section contains texts that offer both information connected with the business environment and the opportunity to improve and enrich students’ vocabulary with new words and expressions. However. It presents both general and specialised vocabulary and the activities initiated here require sustained individual work with the dictionary. • Assessment First semester . The section also contains suggested writing activities in order to focus attention on individual activities that offer the possibility of making use of the knowledge acquired within each unit. This section aims at familiarising students with the structure of the Language in Use section of the language ability examination that they will have to take on graduation. It has two sub-sections: one that deals with the theoretical input of a certain grammar problem (rules. This may help students become familiar with the context in which these expressions are used. students should decide whether they need more practice and if so. examples etc. In some units there is a section entitled English in Use. The vocabulary development section offers explanation of some of the lexical items from the text and expands the learning context to the lexical areas of the words/ expressions studied.end of semester written test – 25% 4 .) and the second – Practice – that contains different types of exercises. as a whole.
U] formal adjective illegible adjective in short in writing indecipherable adjective informal adjective information noun [U] interface noun [C] IT noun [U] legible adjective manners plural noun means of communication noun [C] message verb [T] networking noun [U] nonverbal communication noun [U] pleasantry noun [C] FORMAL polite adjective political correctness noun [U] respect noun [U] 5 .UNIT 1 – INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Students should be able to use the vocabulary under INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS COMMUNICATION to communicate about: • • • • • • • • • • Communication in business settings Importance of communicating effectively Factors that influence effective communication Qualities of a good communicator Forms of communication Forms of written communication Forms of spoken communication Formal versus informal language Prevention of communication breakdowns Verbal and non-verbal communication share verb shoptalk noun [U] shorthand for sth small talk noun [U] speech noun stationery noun [U] talk noun [C. U] telegram noun [C] telex noun [C or U] template noun [C] tete-a-tete noun [C] text verb [T] the Internet noun virtual adjective well-mannered adjective window noun [C] word processing noun [U] GLOSSARY – BUSINESS ENGLISH VOCABULARY be in communication with somebody noun [U] FORMAL biodata noun [U] business card noun [C] by word of mouth communication noun conversation noun [C or U] corporate communication [U] correspondence noun [U] discourse noun FORMAL engage sb in conversation FORMAL etiquette noun [U] exchange noun face-to-face adjective facsimile noun [C] fax noun [C.
U] monologue noun [C] non-verbal adjective noticeboard noun [C] observer noun [C] onlooker noun [C] oration noun [C] FORMAL outline noun [C] out-tray noun [C] overhead transparency noun [C] overhead projector noun [C] pie chart noun presentation noun [ C.UNIT 2 – PRESENTATIONS Students should be able to use the vocabulary under PRESENTATIONS to communicate about: • Types of presentations made in business • Preparing and planning a presentation • Audience analysis • Presentation materials • Delivery techniques • Body language and voice • Signalling words and phrases • Question-and-answer session • Golden rules for presentations address verb [T] FORMAL audience noun [C] board noun [C] body language noun [U] chart noun [ C ] file noun [C] flip chart noun [C] flow chart noun [C] folder noun [C] harangue noun [C] have the floor information overload noun [U] in-tray noun [C] keynote address/speech/speaker noun [C] language barrier noun [C] lecture noun [C] misunderstanding noun [C. U ] printer noun [C] rephrase verb [T] ring binder noun [C] seminar noun [ C ] spectator noun [C] take the floor talk noun [C] visual aid noun [C] whiteboard noun [C] workshop noun [C] .
PLC noun [C] position noun [C] private adjective proprietor noun [C] public company/corporation/enterprise noun [C] public utility noun [C] run a business verb [I] sister company noun [C] small business noun [C] spokesman noun [C] stakeholder society noun [C] status noun [U] strategic alliance noun [C] subordinate adjective subsidiary noun [C] SWOT noun [U] syndicate noun [C] tender noun [C] tertiary adjective trade verb [I. adjective establishment noun [C] expand verb [I. noun [U] commercial adjective consultancy noun Corp.UNIT 3 – COMPANY STRUCTURE Students should be able to use the vocabulary under COMPANY STRUCTURE to communicate about: • Business aims of companies • Business activities of companies (according to the type of work they are involved with) • Types of companies – general characteristics • Types of organisations by size • Internal structure of companies • Corporate culture acquisition noun [C. U] enterprise noun Est. U] offshore adjective parent company noun [C] partnership noun personnel group noun [U] plc.U] affiliate noun [C] agency noun [C] alliance noun [C] annual general meeting noun [C] associate adjective authority noun [C] blue chip company noun [C] branch noun [C] brokerage noun [C] bureau noun [C] buy sb out phrasal verb [M] chamber of commerce noun [C] clearing house noun [C] client noun [C] clientele group noun [S] Co. noun [C] corporate adjective counterpart noun [C] daughter company noun [C] department noun [C] division noun [C] e-business noun [C. T] transact verb [T] FORMAL trust company noun [C] unlimited company noun [C] venture noun [C] .T] family business noun [C] fellow noun [C] firm noun [C] franchise noun [C] head office group noun [C] human resources plural noun Incorporated adjective joint venture noun [C] make a takeover bid for sth manufacturers plural noun merger noun [C] monopoly noun [C or S] multinational noun [C] NGO noun [C] office noun [C.
UNIT 4 – BUSINESS ETHICS Students should be able to use the vocabulary under BUSINESS ETHICS to communicate about: • • • • • • Definition of business ethics Importance of business ethics in today’s business climate Basic ethical considerations that a company needs to address Codes of ethics Unethical behaviour in the workplace Training in business ethics account verb acid rain noun [U] age discrimination biodegradable adjective bioethics noun [U] biological control noun [U] carbon tax noun [C] conservation noun [U] corporate social responsibility noun [C] decontaminate verb [T] deforest verb [T] depopulate verb [T] dumping noun [U] emission noun environment noun [C or U] ethic noun [C] global warming noun [U] globalisation noun [U] green adjective integrity noun [U] just adjective life-support system noun [C] litter verb [T] moral adjective natural resources noun noise pollution noun [U] norm noun [C usually plural] nuclear waste noun [U] oil slick noun [C] overpopulated adjective ozone noun [U] poison verb [T] pollute verb [T] positive discrimination noun precept noun [C] FORMAL preservation noun [U] principle noun [C or U] protected adjective race discrimination noun recycle verb [T] refuse dump noun [C] reusable adjective scrap yard noun [C] smog noun [S or U] social conscience noun [U] the polluter pays principle throwaway adjective unethical adjective .
T] problem-solving noun [U] rationalise verb [I or T] restructure verb [T] silent partner noun [C] sleeping partner noun [C] strategist noun [C] supervisor noun [C] team noun [C] vice president noun [C] vision noun [C] vote of confidence noun [C] .UNIT 5 – MANAGEMENT Students should be able to use the vocabulary under MANAGEMENT to communicate about: • • • • • • • Definition of management Managerial tasks Basic managerial skills Managerial responsibilities Leading versus managing Management styles Women in senior managerial positions action plan noun [C] administer verb [T often passive] assess verb [T] authority noun autocrat noun [C] boss (MANAGER) noun [C] bureaucracy noun [C or U] campaign verb [I] CEO noun [C] chairman. chairperson noun [C] challenge noun [C] chief noun [C] collaborative working noun [U] consensus noun [U] coordinate verb [T] decentralisation noun [U] decision-maker noun [C] delegate verb [T] democratic adjective deputy noun [C] direct verb employer noun [C] empower verb [T] executive adjective facilitate verb [T] feedback noun [U] goal noun [C] governor noun [C] guide noun [C] head noun [C] hierarchy noun [C] implement a policy/plan/decision verb [T] implementation noun [U] laissez-faire approach noun [C] leader noun [C] line manager noun manage verb [T] MD noun [C] mediate verb [I. chair.] plan noun [C] president noun [C] prioritise verb [I. pl. T] mentor noun [C] middle management noun [U] motivation noun [U] office noun [C] operator noun [C] outcome noun [C] oversee verb [T] paperwork noun [U] partner noun [C] people skills noun [C usu.
UNIT 6 – RECRUITMENT Students should be able to use the vocabulary under RECRUITMENT to communicate about: • • • • • • The recruitment process Recruitment strategies Role of the Human Resources Department Candidate selection Interviewer/interviewee training Equal opportunity in hiring apply verb [I] applicant noun [C] apply yourself verb [R] appoint verb [T] appraisal noun [C. U] assign verb [T] assign sb to sth phrasal verb assignment noun [C. adjective performance appraisal noun [C] placement noun [C. U] position noun [C] post noun [C] probation noun [U] profession group noun [C] qualification noun recruit verb [T] redundancy noun [C.U] résumé noun [C] retire verb [I] sack verb [T] self-employed adjective shift group noun [C] shortlist noun [C] Situations Vacant noun [S or U] skilled adjective temp noun [C] INFORMAL tenure noun [U] FORMAL testimonial noun [C] under pressure understaffed adjective unemployed adjective unprofessional adjective unqualified adjective unskilled adjective welfare noun [U] white-collar adjective . U] be at work be in work/out of work biodata noun [U] blue-collar adjective bonus noun [C] candidate noun [C] career noun [C] clerk noun [C] deadline noun [C] delegate verb [I. U] referee noun [C] remuneration noun [C. adverb fringe benefit noun [C] go on strike golden handshake noun [C] hard-working adjective headhunt verb [T] hectic adjective hire verb [T] in the line of duty incentive noun [C] in-service adjective intake noun [U] job noun [C] layoff noun livelihood noun [C. T] division of labour noun [U] do a good/bad job employ verb [T] entry-level adjective fire verb [T] flexitime noun [U] freelance adjective. U] load noun [C] motivation noun [U] night shift noun [C] occupation noun [C] off-duty adjective office hours plural noun opportunity noun part-time adverb.
UNIT 7 – BUSINESS TRAVEL Students should be able to use the vocabulary under BUSINESS TRAVEL to communicate about: • • • • • • Definition of business ethics Importance of business ethics in today’s business climate Basic ethical considerations that a company needs to address Codes of ethics Unethical behaviour in the workplace Training in business ethics accommodations plural noun B and B noun [C] bank holiday noun [C] bed and breakfast noun [C or U] bellboy noun [C] book verb [I or T] business class noun [U]. adverb flight noun [C] full board noun [U] gate noun guide noun [C] half board noun [U] holiday noun hotel noun [C] inn noun [C] itinerant adjective jet lag noun [U] journey verb [I usually + adverb or preposition] land verb lobby noun [C] motel noun [C] motor inn noun [C] national holiday noun [C] overseas adverb package tour noun [C] passage noun passport noun [C] public holiday noun [C] public transport noun [U] reception noun [U] reservation noun resort noun [C] return ticket/fare etc noun schedule noun [C] self-catering adjective. T] economy class noun [U]. adverb ecotourism noun [U] embark verb [ intransitive ] fare noun [C] first class adjective. adverb caravan site noun [C] charter verb [ transitive ] check in/check into sth phrasal verb check out phrasal verb clerk noun [C] cruise verb destination noun [C] disembark verb [I] FORMAL doorman noun [C] double room noun [C] double-book verb [I. noun [U] shuttle verb [I or T] sightseeing noun [U] suite noun [C] the sights noun tour verb tourist noun [C] travel verb twin-bedded adjective vacancy noun [C] valet noun [C] visa noun [C] youth hostel noun [C] .
228-233) Infinitive and gerund constructions (pp. Martinet – A Practical English Grammar The present tenses (pp.J. 161-179) The future (pp. A.cambridge. Errors and Consolidation (p. http://www. 152-165) A.macmillandictionaries. http://www. A Practical English Grammar (London: Oxford University Press.com/home. 1994) Vince. http://www. M. Thomson.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/?cc=global. A.ldoceonline.V.htm. Martinet.V.J..J. http://www. 263-268) MODALS Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice Units 11-12 (pp.J. 180-194) GERUND/INFINITIVE Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice Unit 19 (pp.org/elt/dictionaries/cald. 107-113) Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice Units 38 – 39 (pp. Martinet – A Practical English Grammar The passive voice (pp. 152-162) The past and perfect tenses (pp. 2001) A. 64-71) .cambridge. L. 59-70) Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice Units 17 – 18 (pp. Free-access online dictionaries: http://dictionary. Further Language Study THE TENSE SYSTEM Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice Tense consolidation – Units 1 – 4 (pp.. 58-63) A. Harper Collins Publishers. Martinet – A Practical English Grammar The infinitive (p.ch/LanguageTeaching/Dictionaries/DictionariesBritish/1449/9780582306066/New-Edition-Longman-Business-English. 1-24) Progress Test (pp. 234-238) ACTIVE/PASSIVE Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice Units 6-7 (pp. Thomson..pearson.htm. A.aspx. http://www. Gramatica engleză – teorie şi exerciţii (Bucureşti: Teora. A. Thomson.org/. Intermediate Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT. 2003) Budai. Thomson. 37) A.oup. 25-29) Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice Units 2 – 9 (pp. 1996) Vince. 1998) Websites http://www.Suggested Bibliography *** Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary (London: Collins ELT. 3-36) Problems.com/. 212-227) The gerund (pp.oup. M. 30-40) Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice Units 15 – 16 (pp.com/elt/catalogue/isbn/019-431243-7?cc=global.V.V. Advanced Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT.
A. 147-149) OR ANY OTHER PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH . have. 134-136) Ought. Thomson.V. should. need for obligation (pp. A. Martinet – A Practical English Grammar May and can for permission and possibility (pp.J. will and should for deduction and assumption (pp. have to. must. 128-133) Can and be able for ability (pp. 137-146) Must.
.....12 Further Language Study.....................................................12 UNIT ONE – INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS COMMUNICATION..........................75 UNIT SEVEN – BUSINESS TRAVEL....................................................39 UNIT FOUR – BUSINESS ETHICS................................................................................................15 UNIT TWO – PRESENTATIONS......................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Suggested Bibliography...................59 UNIT SIX – RECRUITMENT....................................................................................................................................................................95 .................................................................................................28 UNIT THREE – THE STRUCTURE OF THE FIRM..................................75 Main Recruitment Process Steps...............89 UNIT EIGHT – CULTURE AND CIVILISATION..........75 Read the text below and fill in the gaps with ONE word....................................................................................................................................50 UNIT FIVE – MANAGEMENT..............
organisation or a group of people.1. transactive. However. Common forms of human communication include sign language. . (http://en. Communication can be interactive. Reading Read the following short texts referring to communication and answer the questions that follow. Communication varies considerably in form and style when considering scale. being either synchronous or asynchronous. which begins with the creation of a message and then sending it to another individual. Internal communication. At the largest scales mass communication describes communication to huge numbers of individuals through mass media. or unintentional. speaking. This message is received and then interpreted. which completes the process of communication. various theories relating to human communication have the same core philosophy. Communication also has a time component. Small group communication takes place in settings of between three and 12 individuals creating a different set of interactions than large groups such as organisational communication in settings like companies or communities. gestures. is intrapersonal while communication between two individuals is interpersonal. and broadcasting. it can also be verbal or nonverbal. writing. There are a number of theories of communication that attempt to explain human communication. within oneself.org/wiki/Communication) Answer the following questions: What possible barriers to interpersonal communication can you identify? How can people communicate in international contexts where people speak different languages? What language is mainly used in international communication? Why? 1.wikipedia. Communication 1. Communication follows a five-step process. intentional. At larger scales of communication both the system of communication and media of communication change. Finally this message is responded to.2.UNIT ONE – INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS COMMUNICATION 1. Lead-in COMMUNICATION definition: the process by which people exchange information or express their thoughts and feelings (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) Forms and Components of Human Communication Humans communicate in order to share knowledge and experiences.
'Communication' is a rich tangle of intellectual and cultural strands that encodes our time's confrontations with itself. hearts are open. An apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other. there are no words that belong to no one)." John Durham Peters.3.Text 1. 2) 1. but the listener has his rights. you'll master the proven interpersonal skills you need to deal with every individual. how can the nature of communication be defined? 2. Everything that is said. longings for communication also index a deep sense of dereliction in social relationships. 121 1. Just by listening. It is a sink into which most of our hopes and fears seem to be poured. Vocabulary development . 2001) 1. is located outside the soul of the speaker and does not belong only to him. to seize an opportunity. the notion illustrates our strange lives at this point in history. "If only I had introduced myself"? Or. How can misunderstanding appear? Text 3. "Have you ever said to yourself. p. "A word (or in general any sign) is interindividual. What does the author mean by “inner thought” and “outer word”? 3. Bakhtin Speech Genres and Other Late Essays (Trans. Austin: University of Texas Press. The term evokes a utopia where nothing is misunderstood. private and public. "'Communication' is a registry of modern longings. Desire being most intense when the object is absent. Success will naturally flow your way--and with less effort than you ever imagined possible. How can people develop their communication skills? Text 2. and those whose voices are heard in the word before the author comes upon it also have their rights (after all. 3. March 12. Vern McGee). 1986. The author (speaker) has his own inalienable right to the word.. The word cannot be assigned to a single speaker.." M. and inner thought and outer word. Try to explain how this happens. Speaking into the Air A History of the Idea of Communication (1999. The result? New doors will open to you. "Did I say the wrong thing"? Conversational Confidence is the answer. Why are people sometimes reluctant to speak up their minds? 2. expressed. The same word may mean different things to different persons. What do words refer to? 2. to approach someone important. . and expression is uninhibited. You won't hesitate to accept an invitation. every occasion. every group. "I wish I had spoken up"? Or. p. According to the author. How do new words appear in a language? 1. What is the role of listening in a conversation? 3. To understand communication is to understand much more. You'll never again feel like an outsider." ~verbalAdvantage (advertisement in The New Republic.
at the hands of sb 2. (1) ___ the Prime Minister. on the threshold of sth A. going to their funeral. etc. with (all due) respect to 1. James Mauplin’s groundbreaking research not only (11) ___ his highly esteemed books and (12) ___ a glistering academic career. say or do sth to show your respect and admiration for sb H. because of sb’s actions O.3.2. start disagreeing or arguing with sb about sth P. E. beyond the call of duty 5. to a great extent I. show your respect for sb by visiting them. Terrorists still (7) ___ in many of the rural areas and (8) ___ the problem. have the honour of doing sth 7. have power or influence over a group of people or a region 12. C. therein lies sth 18. feel grateful to sb for their help. lay down you life (for sb/sth) 10. completely destroy a place or area N. F. take issue with sth/sb (over/about sth) 17. Fill in the gaps in the following texts by using the phrases 1-18 given in the vocabulary task 1. pay tribute to sb 14.1. attending a memorial service. Any hopes that this awful situation might (10) ___ look premature. etc. give rise to sth 6. cause something to happen or exist M. it also put us (13) ___ a major breakthrough in the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. Thousands of people gathered to (5) ___ the many local servicemen who (6) ___ their country.3.1. and we could be facing yet another drought. . pay (no) heed to sb/sth 13. D. I now (14) ___ introducing Professor Mauplin. be in sb’s debt 4. D. B. pay your respects (to sb) 15. used to indicate the result or consequence of a situation or action K. be given the opportunity of doing sth that makes you feel proud Q.1. (2) ___. (not) give careful attention to sb/sth C. die in order to protect or save sb/sth G.3. to have finished B. suffered (3) ___ his government. at the beginning of sth E. A. make sth definite or complete J. They have already (9) ___ much valuable farmland. performed with greater courage or effort than is usual or expected L. set the seal on sth 16. hold sway 8. kindness. Match the phrases in column 1 with their meaning in column 2. lay waste to sth 11. it is the people of this country who have. be at an end 3. in large part 9. and I am sure they will want to (4) ___ his last remark. 1. polite formula when disagreeing with sb R.
. went to the help of our daughter and saved her from certain death. Writing Comment on the following quotation: • • • Could you find out. 6. 2. 1. 7. Then match 1-8 with a-h.. .I would like to (15) ___ the young police officer who.. G. rise to something the seal on something waste to something the honour to do something tribute to somebody issue with somebody sway your life for something 1.5.. 3. 1. 8. I'm looking for. B..? • I'd like to know. E.4 Functions Information exchange Asking for information – useful expressions • Could you tell me.. and we will forever (18) ___.. Communication and the media NOTE the media noun [uncountable] The noun should always be accompanied by the definite article and should be followed by a verb in the plural. 1. words.. C.3.1. Three quarters of the time one's never in contact with things. D.. Words.? I'm interested in .? • Do you know. Aldous Huxley 2.. It was an act of considerable bravery. Lead in Answer the following questions: What role do the media play in the society? Are you interested in the news? Do you read newspapers or watch news bulletins on TV? 2. only with the beastly words that stand for them. way (17) ___..2.? • Do you happen to know. (16) ___ his own safety. words! They shut one off from the universe. Use a dictionary. 4. 2.3.. Vocabulary development Group the following words into the three categories given in the table below. 5. F...1.3. Look at the phrases given in 1. have pay take give hold set lay down lay A. H.
Our lives would be incomplete 6 ___ the media. To what extent do you agree with it? Give your pros and cons. Paragraph 2 The media 7 ___ the watchdog of the political democracy. 9 ___ of giving important information and educative programmes. just to inform us of the situation. It is true that the media are playing an outstanding role in strengthening the society. the media have become a commercialised sector eying only for news that is hot and sells. They 4 ___ their lives in danger during attacks or natural disasters. nowadays.journalism investigative newspapers and magazines circulation radio and television broadcast circulation gonzo correspondent columnist editor tabloid pay-per-view channel compact 2. Paragraph 3 Every issue is hyped for a day or two. their only goal being gaining television rating points (TRPs). they will be a great force in building the nation but. they all will be flashing the same story but then when the heat is over there is no following of the case. While reading. They help us to know what is going on 3 ___ the world. the media have become almost as necessary 1 ___ food and clothing. The news then jostles 11 ___ space with other stories that are . news bulletin investigative airtime cable commercial broadsheet network Read the following text. educate and entertain the people. so much so 10 ___ you switch to any channel. Their duty is to inform. all that one gets on television is sensational depiction of all news stories. The growing role of the media in our society Paragraph 1 In the world of today. they are a mirror of 2 ___ society.3. Reading colour supplement satellite article edition feature column chequebook review scoop broadcast transmit frequency editorial station show reporter episode. If they 8 ___ their role honestly. It is partly due to them that awareness is spreading in the society. It is the media 5 ___ shape our lives. fill in the gaps with ONE word.
3. the task and duties of the media are increasing day by day. but 15 ___ through radio and newspapers. entertain (par. (adapted from http://www. a person or group of people whose job is to protect the rights of people who buy things and to make sure companies do not do anything illegal or harmful e.merinews. There is still a lot to be done by the media for the betterment of the society. increase someone’s desire for something b. Even 12 ___ we cannot think of a world without television sets. hyped (par. watchdog (par. 2) 3. The other disadvantage is that sometimes they also publish or broadcast some vulgar news. mouthpiece (par. today news channels and even some newspapers are mouthpiece of some political parties. Yes.com/article/the-growing-role-of-media-in-oursociety/136579. which we have to use by our judgment to provide maximum satisfaction side by side without harming ourselves.3. media has become so much a part of us that to recognise its impact.1. So 21 ___ last. In this globalised world. 1) 2. whet(ting) (par. a matter of concern is their excessive intervention in everything. This does not broaden the reach of the media. 5) a. awareness (par. In this way. we need to step 13 ___ and consciously think about how they shape our lives and what they are saying. insignificant news is given so 20 ___ priority that the real news is not even brought 21 ___ notice. 1. just for making money. the significance of the media cannot be ignored. Their work then limits only to spread the ideology of the party 18 ___ than give correct news. that expresses the opinions of a government or a political organisation c. to amuse or interest people in a way that gives them pleasure f. a person. Paragraph 5 The media are an integral part of our society. Paragraph 4 The media affects people’s perspective not 14 ___ through television. Match the following words or phrases from the text with their appropriate definition. They can even be turned 17 ___ our benefit by whetting our understanding and articulation of what we believe.shtml) 2. it does also entertain but again it’s a debatable issue because by ’entertainment’ we mean healthy entertainment and not those nonsense TV serials. newspaper etc. and sometimes unessential activities are served 22 ___ very important news and broadcast again and again. very excited or nervous and unable to keep still . However. in which globalisation and liberalisation have become the order of the day. People have to judge 19 ___ their own by looking and listening to different channels for the same news and then form a conclusion. Sometimes. unfairly preferring a person or a group over another d. like science they are a tool.carrying the heat then. 3) 4. especially in an age. even many messages 16 ___ which we cannot agree inevitably come to us from diverse constellations of media. 4) 5. Paragraph 6 In spite of being sensational and biased. Vocabulary development 2. 4) 6.
especially in someone’s social and economic position Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the words above. 2. Take the ridiculous and (4) ___ (MEAN) rule of never ending a sentence with a preposition. 6) 8. 8. Allen is an (2) ___ (SPEAK) critic of much of what is taught to native and non-native speakers of English. The lovely – if famous – story goes. Churchill responded by making the simple yet forceful (8) ___ (STATE) in the margin: “This is an impertinence up with which I will not put. that Winston Churchill. I followed your instructions ___ the letter but I still couldn’t get the printer to work properly. 4. but I’ll see if we can find a second-hand copy for you somewhere.7. betterment (par. (formal) improvement. You’ve had some good news.3. knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or situation h. Obviously it goes ___ saying that I don’t want you to tell anyone else about this. Reading ___ lines. (3) ___ (JOURNAL) ask them the most (4) ___ (RIDICULE) questions. make the necessary corrections. 1. 6) g. I’m afraid that book is ___ of print.2. The (1) ___ (SAY) “never judge a book by its cover” could not be more true for Ridiculous Rules by Marjorie Allen. 2. ___ answer to your question. Sadly. Put your ideas down ___ paper and we’ll discuss them at the next meeting. B. Even if you’ve got a great idea for a novel. it seems that the government’s considering tightening media regulations. well known for his numerous (5)___ (WRITE) as well as for being British Prime Minister during the Second World War . it’s incredibly hard putting pen ___ paper for the first time. 9.3. and that Churchill may have actually only written “rubbish!” in the margin. 3. no. and has issued a (3) ___ (DECLARE) of war against textbooks and style books which tell lies. 7. But I don’t. and I love politics. you know how pedantic and opinionated she is! 6. I have never had any business dealings with Mr Partridge. Write one word in each gap. 2. The cover is completely blank. received a manuscript back from an ignorant (6) ___ (EDIT) who had told him rather rudely that he had to (7) ___ (PHRASE) a sentence which ended with a preposition. so you’d think I’d enjoy watching (2) ___ (POLITICS) being interviewed on TV. when they do get an interesting question.” – the (9) ___ (IMPLY) being that not to end a sentence with a preposition often sounds ridiculous in English. Use the words given in brackets to form a word that fits in the space. haven’t you? It’s written all ___ your face. A. and. Allen informs us that the story is probably mere (10) ___ (HEAR). whereas the book is crammed full of wonderful examples and anecdotes. If they don’t. sit there watching in (5) ___ (BELIEVE) as some of the most (6) ___ (POWER) people in the country give totally (7) ___ . biased (par. All too often. I love watching (1) ___ (DISCUSS) programmes. Getting Elaine to edit your article is just asking ___ trouble. Show them to your neighbour and ask them whether they understand the meaning illustrated. 5.3.
I don’t expect them to be particularly (11) ___ (HUMOUR)– they are serious people. without giving it any thought quick/slow off the mark – fast/slow in reacting to a situation stop the rot – stop a bad situation from getting worse talk sth up – describe or discuss sth in a way that makes it sound better than it is The prime minister has (1) ____ during the election campaign for being slow to respond to events. either … or. They also (7) ___ the latest opinion poll-figures. they’re very poor (9) ___ (COMMUNICATE).3. b) or. A number of shareholders were expected to sell their shares. Language Focus: The Noun – Number Agreement Number Agreement the number of is followed generally by singular. Often. and they’re frequently even more (10) ___ (INFORM) about key issues than I am. In a speech in Dover. that the only thing which could (6) ___ was a change of government. or the main cause of the problem capitalise on sth – gain a further advantage for yourself from a situation come/be under fire – be criticised severely for sth you have done in the final analysis – used to state a basic truth after everything has been discussed and considered neck and neck – (of two people or groups) level with each other in a race or competition pluck sth out of the air – say a name. Meanwhile. after all – but at least they could say something interesting occasionally. either … or follow the rule of proximity ( the closest subject dictates the number of the verb) . that thins is the main point in the situation. both … and. or. number. nouns/pronouns can be coordinated with the following simple or correlative conjunctions: and.4. both … and require the plural form of the verb The president and the secretary general are not present. which clearly illustrated. Both the president and the secretary general are on a business trip. It’s as if they don’t care whether their reply is (8) (BELIEVE) or not. It makes me want to stand for election myself. a) and. the Opposition were trying to (5) ___ the latest bad unemployment figures. which now put them (8) ___ with the government. and that they were (4) ___ numbers ___. not only … but also. 2. 2. while a number of by plural The number of investors was huge. but he was (2) ___ this morning. in their view.(CONVINCE) responses.4. (9) ___ it will just (10) ___ who the voters choose to believe. neither … nor. • • • • • • • • • • add up – (informal) seem reasonable or logical (used mainly in a negative sense) boil down to sth – if a situation or problem boils down to one thing. Study the vocabulary given below and then fill in the gaps in the following text by using the appropriate phrases. he claimed that the Opposition’s tax policies didn’t (3) ___. etc.
5.His supporters or he has to take this issue very seriously. but. Mr. I’m…I’m in charge of// I’m responsible for… Hello. Lead-in Consider the following questions: Can the full effect of the current information revolution be predicted? Is meeting face-to-face more valuable than corresponding electronically? In what ways have the PC and the Internet made our lives easier? 3. Pleased to meet you too. Identifying yourself Hello. let me introduce myself. my name is…I work for… Hello. We can bank online.1. Informal How do you do? Nice/ good to meet Nice/ good to meet you too. acquiring everything he needs (including a Valentine's Day date) through the web. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 10 with the corresponding missing parts A to J. except. make friends online. Jones as well as all his colleagues is expected to come. but David. but in everyday use the plural is preferred Neither the guests nor the host is to be blamed. They are given in the box below the text. or Neither the guest nor the host are to be blamed. Hi. are here. I’m… from… Hello. A man with a young child was asking for help. IT and Human Interaction 3. with only the first noun dictates the agreement with the predicate. One man in Dallas. Greetings when you meet someone for the first time First greeting Reply to the greeting Neutral How do you do? I’m (very) pleased/ How do you do? It’s (very) nice delighted to meet you. even attend virtual concerts and art shows online. 3. first name+ surname…I’ve got an appointment with… b. has even gone so far as to confine himself to his home for a full year. Either he or his supporters have to take a decision. 2. c) neither … nor may follow the rule of proximity (as above). I’m pleased to meet you too. Pleased to meet you. It’s (very) nice to meet you. Reading Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. Functions a. you. we can get whatever we want online – 1 ___. Hello. All the members of the board. They are lettered A to J. New video examines impact of computers on human interaction by Barbara McKenna Through the advent of the web.2. With as well as. Nice to have you with us. to meet you too. 2 ___. .
For Gannon. Lord also shows footage of two groups of San Franciscans – bicyclists and rollerbladers.Observing the increasing "realness" of virtual reality. e-commerce – have had an effect 4 ___. Through his interviews Lord also explores the impending fate of such things as the automobile.com. he could be anywhere. called Critical Mass. Awakening from the Twentieth Century. aired recently on public television and is the winner of the Dallas Video Festival's Latham Award for 1999. via the Internet. a web site designer. Wanderlust: A History of Walking (Viking Press). Lord combines montages of life in San Francisco with interviews. web sites. As Lord trails along with the rollerbladers. distance learning. because his business is virtual. John Sanborn. community." he comes to this conclusion: "Maybe because of the utopian images we hear about the new technologies. hundreds of whom come out each Friday for the "Friday Night Skate. and Rebecca Solnit. netcasting. in stark white. The video." Lord says. "Gannon recognizes that 8 ___. Among those he interviews are Homer Flynn. To flesh out this perspective. where 9 ___. affirming the importance of real-life interaction at such places as the Farmer's Market. multimedia band named The Residents. Gannon Hall. But the question that most concerns Lord is whether the physical space of the city itself 7 ___. the city is like fashion. is anything but virtual. One of my central goals was to find out whether the Internet and virtual networking – telecommuting. The juxtaposition continues 6 ___ the bank's dramatic picture of racing horses pulling a stagecoach and.wellsfargo. commentator. To him. film." To explore this. drawing some 3. 'you wear the city. the URL www. UCSC (University of California.000 bicyclists each month who hit the streets during a Friday rush hour. a social commentator and author of the justpublished book. in which a Wells Fargo "minibank" is built into the wall. cellphones. "I started working on this during a sabbatical in early 1998. You choose it the same way you would choose clothes. Web designer and computing specialist Gannon Hall conducts most of his business virtually – through e-mail. I thought that broadcasting. but once he starts working on a project he does everything virtually. The bicycling event. He doesn't need the city. and author of Close to the Machine. wireless networks. Santa Cruz) film professor Chip Lord has produced a video that explores the question of how 3 ___.' " But social commentator Rebecca Solnit feels very differently. over that image. Ellen Ullman. and pagers. . director of the online rock and roll murder mystery "Paul Is Dead". and the phone. "Is the physical space of the bank becoming obsolete?" Lord asks. spokesperson for a San Francisco underground. Lord is out to 5 ___. One montage opens with a view of the old-fashioned marble-floored interior of a Wells Fargo Bank branch bank in San Francisco and fades to a nearby Safeway. Rather than aim to prove a point. "I wanted to look at how the computer is changing the ways in which we conduct daily life. He says. a software engineer. Lord gets very different opinions from his subjects.
is becoming obsolete H.and beepers all 10 ___– for celebration and the ritual rubbing of shoulders in streets. cinema film showing a particular event g.1.html) A. even pets D. which is going to happen very soon c. to keep someone or something within the limits of a particular activity or subject h. in the character of San Francisco detective Sam Spade. who calls himself DotComGuy I. the act of putting things together.ucsc.. sabbatical (n) 11. stark (adj) 6. Match the following words or phrases from the text with their appropriate definition. referring to an event or situation. a period when someone. because something newer and better has been invented b. the time when something first begins to be widely used i. juxtaposition (n) 8. But I was wrong. groceries. vendors and customers interact directly and chance encounters with friends can take place E. the computer is affecting the ways we interact with each other and our environment C. more interesting etc k. Vocabulary development 3. working at home using a computer connected to a company's main office e. finish his sentence: "The stuff that dreams are made of. impending (adj) 7. person who uses special boots with a single row of wheels fixed under it to skate on hard surfaces l. with a shot of a billboard advertising Make a list of the advantages and disadvantages that you can identify. stops doing their usual work in order to study or travel f.." (http://www. to gradually disappear 4. with little or no colour or decoration j. and squares. 1. very plain in appearance. to confine (v) 12. rollerblader (n) 2. especially things that are not normally together. to fade (v) 9. especially someone in a university job. explore the implications of our emerging computer-generated culture F. an initial face-to-face meeting with clients is necessary B. in order to compare them or to make something new d.3. letting Humphrey Bogart. telecommuting (n) 10. especially an unpleasant one." Lord trails off. to flesh sth out (v) a. plazas. Because we still need fashion. footage (n) 3. no longer useful. prescriptions.3. to add more details to something in order to make it clear. were conspiring to end the need for public gathering G.edu/currents/99-00/06-19/lord. We still need to wear the city because the city is. advent (n) . obsolete (adj) 5. on how we use our physical space J. 3.
10. We tend to believe that we are unique in history in dealing with a constantly 2 ___ (EVOLVE) world of gadgets.? What are your feelings about…? What do you think of …. the end of the nineteenth century and the start of the twentieth was also a time that saw many 3 ___ (REVOLT) changes.3. There’s a network in computing called ‘beta testing’. 8. 2. faster internet access for all. The Internet is a really vast console of computers.3. These ancient tools have been crafted with an enormous amount of skill. Over the next 30 years. Functions Presenting and supporting opinions Asking for opinions What are your feelings on this? To one person What are your views on…. However. It seems to me that primitive power is far cleaner than oil. Writing: One of the most negative aspects of the impact of the Internet in our daily life is the fact that it alters social behaviour. People had needed to show 4 ___ (FLEXIBLE) throughout the nineteenth century. as the effects of the Industrial Revolution meant constantly making 5 ___ (ADJUST) to deal with changing working conditions. replace it with one of the words in bold from the other sentences. Towards the end of the century. If the word in bold is correct. The computer has finished analysing all the broadband. 3.3. though. 9. the phonograph.3. 4. we’ve been watching music videos online.? What’s your opinion about that? To a group of people Any reaction to that? Has anybody any strong feeling about / views on that? What’s the general view on/ feeling about that? Has anybody any comments to make? 4. 6. The next generation of games technique will have better graphics.4. 7. 3. 1. put a tick. Write an . The typewriter (1873). Early computer games seem quite nuclear compared with today’s games. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space. the plane and radio all had an 10 ___ (ELECTRIC) effect on people and society. habits and abilities of people. which means you test something to see if it works properly before it becomes official. This latest breakthrough will mean cheaper. the cinema. We often think of ourselves as living in a time of 1___ (CONTINUE) technological change and development. all connected together. 5. devices and innovations. little remained 9 ___ (ALTER) as the camera.2. The sea is a great natural data but we need the right technology to use it. Since we got resource. people had to become more 6 ___ (ADAPT) than ever before. 3. If it is incorrect. the telephone (1876) and other 7 ___ (INFLUENCE) developments gave people the 8 ___ (CAPABLE) to live and work in ways their grandparents could not have imagined.
.argumentative essay in response to the following statement: The Internet makes people lonelier.
2____ Many of the other interns were graduate students who were much more comfortable in front of a group. I had to present a summary of my internship to a group of department managers and vice-presidents. The butterflies in my stomach were uncontrollable. public speaking is an easy way to set yourself apart from your competition. When I spoke. "If I were the decision-maker in that room. 4____ Below are some of the great public speaking tips that I have found that really work. 5____ Focus on them and two things will happen: 1) they will like you more. so give them some energy. or shaky hands. Effective Public Speaking in Business Presentations By Doug Staneart Right or wrong. The Book of Lists places the fear of death in fifth place while public speaking ranks first.UNIT TWO – PRESENTATIONS Speaking in public is often cited as the number one fear of adults. 1____ In fact. would I choose me?" 3____ Over the next few years. and they will give it . 1. Jerry Seinfeld said. whereas a person who fumbles might leave a negative impression. people are five times more likely to want to be in the casket than giving the eulogy. the way that you want to say it. "That would mean at a funeral. I could feel the sweat beads on my forehead. The problem occurs when we start thinking about these symptoms rather than focusing on the audience and our topic. Some sentences have been removed from the text. you are doing what 95% of the people in the audience wish they could do. When I was in college. A person who is confident in front of a group gives off an air of competence. I had an internship with a major oil company. people form a perception about how competent you are by how you present yourself when you stand and speak. because when you stand up and say what you want to say." 1.K the one which fits each gap (1-10). or sweaty palms. and I only had one permanent position to offer. There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Your audience will never be more excited about your talk than you are. and at the end of the summer. The audience usually can't see the butterflies. I asked myself. Choose from sentences A. I trained with some of the most successful public speaking coaches in the country. After the presentation. and I could see my hands shaking. and 2) much of the nervousness that you feel will go away. Reading comprehension Read the following article about business presentations. Add some enthusiasm to your talk. Realize 90% of nervousness doesn't even show. Business presentations Lead-in Answer the following questions: Have you ever given a presentation? How can one prepare before a presentation? Why do you think some people are afraid of public speaking? How can they overcome this fear? Do you agree with the quotation given above? Explain.1.
Once you have your key points. and coached hundreds of managers. then create your PowerPoint slides. That will keep you from having hundreds of PowerPoint slides. Again. I thought they would. but Les found out that this man's house had caught on fire. Don't tell little white lies. "If my audience only remembered one thing from my talk. but the heat was too great. just 20. Since then. H. you probably see a picture in your mind.html) A. J. Ever since then. D. and I frequently think about how I should get all the facts before passing judgment on people. I have spoken before thousands of people. Don't over do it. and I can't remember the specific point Les Brown was making on stage. and you will have a great speaking performance. I heard Les Brown.instead he just clucks like a chicken." 1. but give more energy than what you normally would. English in use . 10____ I heard this story years ago. Let your audience see the real you.) Ask yourself.back to you. and your stories will have that type of impact as well. and other leaders on how to present more effectively to groups. or three key points for a longer talk (a talk longer than 30minutes. a famous motivational speaker. each previous point will become diluted. By human nature. I had to answer "no. The reason this is so important is that the human mind likes to think of only one thing at a time. executives. K. the less focus the audience will have on each individual point. The man attempted to go in and save them many times. but do tell anecdotes and personal experiences. speak from the heart. G. Walk about a half step faster. but the important question is…where did the statue go? Your mind can only truly focus on one thing at a time. I. most people are focused on themselves not on you. When his brother-in-law showed up." though.2.com/articles/effective_ public_ speaking_in_ business_presentations. 9____ Kids in town made fun of him. Your audience will remember your stories a lot longer than they will remember your talking points. years ago. Stories build rapport with your audience. and he told a story about how a man in his hometown went around the town square holding two baby dolls and squawking like a chicken. I was the youngest person in the room. what would be most important thing for them to remember?" 7____ For instance. and his two baby girls died in the blaze. B. F. E. They also form perceptions about the company you represent based on your performance. What do you see? You probably see a picture in your mind of the statue. 6____ Limit your talk to a few key points. (adapted and abridged from http://www. Narrow down your topic to either one key point for a short talk. When in doubt. the man has not spoken a word -. Tell stories. As you add additional points. Now think of a pink elephant. he verbally assaulted the man calling him a chicken for not going in to save his girls. Let your gestures and voice emphasis come naturally. Smile. and they give you more credibility.leadersinstitute. Les Brown's stories have longevity. think of the Statue of Liberty. C. I do remember the "chicken-man. 8____ The more points your presentation has.
Many presentations need only two or three main points. Be sure to make mental notes if you went on 17 ___ long or got nervous or stuck. Some schools have required courses in speech. And even in colleges 5 ___ speech isn’t a subject. 2. 4-Star Tip. don’t read. But. Some people find it useful to have a friend pretend to be the audience: He or she can build up your confidence and maybe even ask a question or two. the thing people fear most is speaking 2 ___ public. Do your homework. 6. college students are not immune 3 ___ this terror. there’s 6 ___ need to lose your breakfast (or lunch or dinner) 7 ___ your upcoming presentation.2. Still. Play the parts. Organizing your points 12 ___ a few main parts and telling your audience 13 ___ these parts are – both before and as you go through your presentation – can be the difference 14 ___ a winning presentation and a loser. try to look down 20 ___ it only occasionally. Nobody enjoys seeing a speaker burying his or her face in a script. if you use a written-out text. No need to wear a suit. It’s less important that you capture the text word for word than that you present the main ideas in a natural and relaxed way. Unfortunately. . Look presentable. The single biggest mistake inexperienced speakers make is going too fast. in truth. Good presentations are structured in sections. 5. Extra Pointer. Hyman More 1 ___ death and taxes. 15 Strategies for Giving Oral Presentations Lynn F. it’s not always so easy to avoid public speaking. or. Remember that your audience hears the material for the first time and isn’t nearly as familiar 21 ___ the topic as you are. Jeremy S. It’s always good to do a run-through (or even a couple of runthroughs) the night 15 ___ the presentation. 4. Read the article below and fill in the gaps with ONE word. It’s always a good idea to try out your presentation on your professor 11 ___ giving it in class. Try to talk from notes. Take it slow. even has a 4 ___: glossophobia. too. reading stiffly 19 ___ a piece of paper. for you psychology hounds. If you find yourself running 22 ___ of time.1. in college. Office hours work well for this. they’ve spent considerable time figuring out what they’re going to say. Talk. but it’s hard for people to take a presentation seriously when you look like someone 18 ___ just rolled out of bed.1. either drop or briefly summarize any leftover material. Jacobs. If your presentation includes a discussion period. which. Nobody 8 ___ give a good presentation 9 ___ putting in some serious time preparing remarks. Needless to say. saying 10 ___ comes to mind. This can help 16 ___ both your timing and your manner of presentation. there often is a broad variety of courses that incorporate presentations or reports–and sometimes fulllength seminars–into the regular class activities. Do a dry run. You should. Our 15 tips for improving your public speaking will make even a garden-variety speaker into a real Cicero: 1. 3. Many gifted speakers look as if they’re just talking off the cuff.
so don’t try to be someone you’re not. Bring along some water or a drink. it can actually lead to genuine progress on the point you were making. 15. and be sure to answer exactly the question asked. Finish strong. if you have the time to offer a brief response. 14. Some speakers are terrified that someone will interrupt them 36 ___ a question or comment. never lecture (only discuss). this is one of the 37 ___ things that can happen. something you surely want to do. 13. Certain presentations – especially in advanced or upper-division classes or seminars – can require you to present some material. Be sure to attentively listen 39 ___ any comments or questions your classmates might raise 40 ___ starting on your answer. handouts. because it shows that someone in the audience has engaged 38 ___ what you’re saying. Actually. how you discuss is as important as how you present. take short 32 ___ from time to time. Appear relaxed. Circle the crowd. For certain sorts of presentations. and. even things written on the board – can help your audience locate and grasp the main points. That shows people that you’re interested 29 ___ communicating with them – not just getting 30 ___ this experience as quickly as possible. Know when to stop lecturing. You don’t have to actually be relaxed–few speakers are – but at least try to appear as relaxed as possible. 7. Don’t bury the crowd. Welcome interruptions. You’ll never succeed. A very important part of public speaking is to make 28 ___ contact with people seated in all parts of the room – even those nodding off in the back. clowns will get C’s. Just be sure to explain these materials fully in your presentation: No one is happy to see an outline that can’t be made heads or 24 ___ of. especially if you can carry it off well. Including massive numbers of quotations or unfathomable amounts of data can overwhelm even the 25 ___ attentive audience. Be yourself. There’s 27 ___ harm in including a little humor in your presentations. No one enjoys speakers 33 ___ are trembling and sweating bullets. And two-way conversation (assuming you’re minimally good at it) is always a tension-reducer. But in most college presentations. 9. As important 26 ___ the content you present is your authenticity in presenting it. visual 23 ___– such as PowerPoints. In many classes. It creates a warm feeling in the minds of your listeners and shows them that they’ve really learned something from your talk — which they probably have. Sharing space with the audience can also communicate your interest in sharing your results 31 ___ them. And in a discussion period. 8. 10. 12. Play it straight.gesture at the points you haven’t fully covered and suggest them as things that could be discussed later. then lead a discussion. . Always be sure to have a satisfying conclusion 34 ___ your presentation in 35 ___ you make clear to the listeners what they now know. 11. and think pleasant thoughts. Use aids. And it wouldn’t hurt to go out from in back of the podium or desk and walk around the room a little.
3. What to Say When Meeting Someone for the First Time . he should 3 ___ it ___.(adapted from http://www. but nothing could have been 4 ___. They are lettered A to L. There are two letters that you do not need. even if it is long and boring • set in – if something sets in. 2. He was hoping it would be the presentation 9 ___. especially something unpleasant. it begins and seems likely to continue for a long time • (talk) at cross purposes – if two people are at cross purposes they do not understand each other because they are talking about different things but fail to realize this Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text: We had to 1 ___ Rob’s disastrous presentation to the group today.1. When Elaine asked about projected sales he 7 ___ before she’d finished. First meetings Lead-in Are you a sociable person? What kind of persons do you find it difficult to relate to? What factors can influence the success of a first meeting? 2. but instead he ended up a 10 ___.usnews. performance etc.com/education/blogs/professorsguide/2010/02/24/15-strategies-for-giving-oral-presentations) 1. Reading comprehension Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. He thought a good powerpoint would compensate for poor presentation skills. especially by making a lot of small reductions • sit through sth – to attend a meeting. Most of the time he spoke too slowly (one or two people were 5 ___). We were overloaded with information. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 10 with the corresponding missing parts A to L. and he completely 2 ___ the main points. • • • • • a nervous wreck (informal) – very upset and worried jump in – interrupt somebody while they are talking lose sight of sth – forget an important fact about a situation nod off (informal) – to fall asleep nothing could be further from the truth – used to emphasize that something is definitely not true • pare sth down – to reduce something. and stay until the end. Vocabulary development Study the following phrases. Then Dr Jones asked him a tricky question and you could see the panic 6 ___. They are given in the box below the text. and they ended up 8 ___.
Use the situation You have met together for a purpose. Even though you have to be a little careful not to offend people. all you have to do is say that you need to go talk to a friend you have just spotted across the room. It is the real you 6 ___ if you are to have a lasting and positive relationship so that is what you should present to them. both in the same position in that respect. you can find yourself stuck for what to say when meeting someone for the first time. you can rescue the situation so there is no need to panic about it. It doesn't matter that they may well forget your name later. Keep controversial conversation topics for a later meeting. this relaxes you and the other person because it makes you appear open and 3 ___. Relax You have reason to be confident when meeting someone for the first time because in this situation they have never met you either. you could use your physical surroundings to find something to talk about. However. Beyond that. The greeting The first thing to do when meeting someone is to smile and greet them. Ask their opinion about something and show that you are interested in what they think. Or at a party you might ask how they know the host. you made yourself appear open to them. You should say your name (probably just your first name unless it is a business situation). or at least work out some kind of exit strategy if the meeting is not going well. telling them your name. You can find some connection between you to talk about in that. Don't voice 5 ___ until you know the person better as it is possible you could offend them. a new work colleague. It doesn't matter if it is a date. Don't outstay your welcome If you are meeting someone for the first time. Use your manners Even if you have offended someone on a first meeting. Again. So you may ask about the other person's journey or remark upon the decor etc. Be sure to thank them for their time in speaking with you and 9 ___ and the door is open for you to go back to talk with them again. Simply apologize and let it be known that 7 ___. or whatever. don't feel you need to put on an act. so the other person also relaxes and 2 ___. . 1 ____ and begin a relationship on good terms. You are equals. a party. whether that is a meeting. Often. the vast majority of people will be fine with your apology and not hold a grudge against you. Keep it light Keep your comments light and positive and you should get a response that is also in the same manner. If people can see that your apology is sincere and that you meant no offence.It can be quite a nervous time when you are meeting someone new and often people can wonder what they should say. this is simple. If you are at a company meeting you 4 ___. a business meeting or someone you meet in a social situation. 8 ___. A smile will relax you as well as making you appear friendly and open.
(adapted from http://ezinearticles. 9 ___. It should 10 ___. it wasn’t exactly 1 ___. Study the following phrases. though.1. But we’re OK now. . • • • • • • • • • • a meeting of minds – a situation in which people have similar ideas and opinions be on the same wavelength (informal) – think in a similar way about sth be struck by sb/sth (informal) – be impressed by or interested in sth (feel) at home – (feel) comfortable and relaxed make sth of sb/sth – understand or regard sb or sth on a particular way my heart was in my mouth – used to say you felt very nervous or frightened about sth play it by ear – deal with a situation by reacting as things happen rather than having a plan (right) from the word go – (right) from the beginning to start/begin with – at the beginning with open arms – welcome sb in a very affectionate and enthusiastic way Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text: When I met my new boss. He was lovely. I didn’t know what 2 ___ him really. My first host family are fantastic! We got on really well 5 ___ .So. open and friendly. But as I was driving to meet him in person. and 3 ___. It is enough to smile and be open and interested in the other person and make light conversation about the situation that brings you together. and I 7 ___ almost immediately. I just had to 4 ___.com/?What-to-Say-When-Meeting-Someone-Forthe-First-Time&id=4343369) A B C D E F G H I J K L that you need the other person to connect with and to like feels more happily disposed toward you could ask how long the other person has worked for the company it is out of your reach you may well want to keep the meeting quite short not probe too deeply into personal issues nor disclose too much of yourself any particularly strong opinions all of these situations offer you opportunities to strike up a conversation leave on good terms so they are left with a good impression of you nothing bad can happen it connects the two of you it was not your intention to cause offence 2. I met my boyfriend on the Internet and I reckoned we’d 8 ___.2. what to say when meeting someone for the first time should be light. and I 10 ___ his quirky sense of fun immediately. They welcomed me 6 ___.2 Vocabulary development 2.
7.1. 3. If there is only one piece of advice that you could follow from this site . to consider considering if you need to be speaking or if you can start to change the topic of the presentation.2. If you haven't got that much space in the diary then you will simply have to move something out. They were very unwilling to leave. or you 9. Replace the underlined word/phrases with another word/phrase that has the same meaning. And that is a major competitive advantage. Why are you presenting? This is the first thing that 1. This is how much time it will take to do a good job . The one common factor that we see a lot is bullet points. planning and most importantly in rehearsing. a spelling mistake. These are 11. Some of the underlined parts are correct.and many can be quite boring affairs. This is one of 6. an unnecessary word. Business research shows 12. There is widespread admiration for what he has achieved. 10. I like the situation as it is. sat in through thousands of business presentations . will must have to work in evenings or weekends. Business meetings 2. some have a mistake in them (a grammar mistake. it there an important message to give or are you simply making up numbers? Are you looking 3. Read the following text about meetings.in research. This is what most of us end up doing.it would be to use pictures rather than bullet points. Why are you presenting? Is 2. 4.2. we suggest 7. For an important business presentation. a very uneffective ineffective way of communicating. 9. He is prepared to take responsibility for what happened. Because of the special connection parents have with their children. Identify the mistakes and correct them. 8. to rise raise your personal profile or are you standing in for someone who has dropped out? Are you comfortable 4. 1. the most commonly common mistakes that we see a lot of. that you block out around 20 hours of your time. 6. that the chances of achieving your objectives increase from around 33% up to around 66%. Your competitive advantage We have 10. I had a tough time last year but things are improving now. a vocabulary mistake. you will need asking to ask yourself. 8. about with your subject matter or have you been given the topic of the presentation? If you have serious doubts now is the time to start 5.2. Block out some time in your diary. Rehearsing . We’ve had good times and bad times in our relationship. In the beginning it was a difficult relationship. How’s life? 2. a missing word. and inappropriateness in the context). 3. She recognizes and is grateful for everything you’ve done. 5. they often give up many important things for them.
and 4. Rarely. ___ of the pervasiveness of meetings comes from a recent issue of Fast Company magazine. and for a good reason. That's what it's all about. where organizational psychologist Jon Ryburg says he advises corporate clients to provide twice as much meeting space as they did 20 years ago. we need to have more meetings. And meetings can now be face-toface. no doubt. Survey results published by the Annenberg School of Communications at UCLA and the University of Minnesota's Training & Development Research Center show that executives 7. they complain that meetings are too long. Modern workplaces are built on teams. Further 8. are scheduled without adequate time to prepare and end without 10. The place where we communicate our ideas. 2. board meetings. people meeting with people. or online via the Internet.This is an absolute must. ___ of any organization. ___ meetings to go around these days. ___ (JUVENILE). Most of us have been to seminars or conferences where we've left feeling inspired and 1. . your speech word with for word and you will be able to ad lib better! Remember the comedian Frankie Howard with his bumbling delivery "ooh now where was I?" Every one of those remarks 15. irrelevant issues all the way up to evidence fall apart lifeblood shapes and sizes on average effective project coordination more than enough any clear result Business Meetings that Matter . ___. ___. ___ major conferences. It's where deals can happen or 6. How to Plan a Meeting Studies also point out a discouraging trend: Surveyed professionals agree that as much as 50% of that meeting time is unproductive and that up to 25% of meeting time is spent discussing 9. share our passion for better or worse. ___ spend 40%-50% of their working hours in business meetings. where strategies are articulated and debated -in short -."? There are 3. Typically. If communication is the 5. You may be 13. then meetings are the heart and mind. Sadly. The reason is that good seminars and conferences are organized precisely to engage us. teleconference. videoconference.3. Fill in the gaps in the following text with a word derived from the word given in brackets.it's Possible! Meetings come in all 1. ___. quick-witted and like to ad lib. 2. hash them out. Learn 14. And when is the last time you heard someone say. Fill in the gaps in the text below with the most appropriate words or phrases in the following box. seminars – 2. But how many of us have ever left everyday meetings feeling the same way. develop new understandings and new directions.where we engage with others. Meetings are more important than ever. ___. ___. sharing of ideas. but I'll tell you one thing. "Gee. most office meetings are not. was carefully scripted and practised for hours in front of a mirror. There are the everyday office meetings.2.
___ (BOOK). And if you've ever been to a great conference or seminar. ___ (LOOK) aspect of everyday meetings.Believe it or not. Vocabulary development Study the following phrases. • • • • • • • • • • forge ahead (with sth) – make strong and steady progress with sth hold the floor – speak during a discussion. The chairperson may be responsible when a meeting goes badly. a/v equipment. All the attention to detail and process can push the opportunity for 9. Preparation also means attention to details including: room 6. ___ (COME). principles.4. Results means that every meeting should be directed toward one or more 10. Participants are chosen carefully. stated purpose. Achievements at one meeting should be recapped in the next. etc. ___ (PRODUCE) part of your day. Facilitation means that someone or a team is responsible for guiding the meeting. meetings can and should be the most 2. especially for a long time so that nobody else can speak in dribs and drabs – gradually and in small amounts or numbers lay sth down – officially state rules. that people must obey or follow leave sth hanging – fail to make a definite decision or statement about sth ramble on (informal) – speak about sth for a long time in a boring or confusing way run over – continue for longer than planned rush into sth – do something without thinking carefully about it first throw sth together – make or produce sth in a hurry to the detriment of sth/sb – resulting in harm or damage to sth/sb Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text. ___ (INTEREST) and 3. Here’s why: . you already have seen some of the basic principles at work.Participants are allowed to arrive 1 ___. and an agenda. use strategies to generate discussion. Inspiration is probably the most 8. and they must see all of their meetings as part of the bigger strategy to involve them in the future of the organization. ___ (SPONTANEOUS) and enthusiasm aside. Participants must feel that something has been accomplished. . These can be 4. invited in 5. or visual aids to grab attention. a plan for the meeting is reflected in the agenda and the facilitator (or chair) keeps things on time and on track. catering. and so on. Build in activites that engage participants. ____ (MIND). ___ (SUMMARY) as: 1) preparation 2) facilitation 3) inspiration 4) results Preparation means making sure your meeting has a clear. 7. ___ (PROFESSION) way and given sufficient prior information. 2.
Poor time management may mean people 7 ___ decisions. Writing Comment on the following statement: Meetings are a waste of time. One person at the meeting (often the chairperson) 9 ___ their own agenda. .- They don’t know what’s happening because the chairperson has 2 ___ the agenda at the last minute and hasn’t 3 ___ clear rules for the conduct of the meeting. the meeting 6 ___ with nothing achieved. 10 ___ the meeting and the other participants. or that decisions are 8 ___. 3. one or two people may 4 ___ and 5 ___ for ages. and as a result. Without firm guidance from the chair.
the required documents must be filed and certain conditions imposed by the Registrar of Companies satisfied. its objects. Reading Read the following text and fill in the gaps with ONE word.1. The memorandum lists the company name. A private limited company requires only one member. Types of Companies under the Companies Act UK Legislation governing Companies The internal governance procedures and management. The articles list the company regulations and rules 4 ___ the internal administration. Classification of Companies The Companies Act broadly categorises companies as either public 6 ___ private companies. in your opinion. Incorporation Documents The documents which must be filed include. importantly. rights of shareholders and duties and responsibilities of company officers are governed 1 ___ the Companies Act 2 ___ 1985. Lead-in Consider the following questions: How much do you know about the private business activity? Would you plan to set up your own small business after graduation? What sort of business would it be? What makes.UNIT THREE – THE STRUCTURE OF THE FIRM 1. After the certificate of incorporation is issued. the country of its registered office. whereas a public limited company requires a minimum of two. . the liability of its shareholders and the share capital. Types of Businesses 1. Registering a Company To register a company. which refer to their liability for the company’s debts if or when it enters liquidation: Shareholders' liability for companies limited by shares is limited to any amount still owing to the company for their shares. as the directors and shareholders do not become personally liable for the debts and conduct of the company. There are three categories of liability of the company shareholders. A company’s first shareholders are ‘subscribers’ and can be natural persons or other companies.2. the company is considered as registered and can commence trading. a successful businessman/woman in your country? 1. A certificate of incorporation will then be issued and the company brought 3 ___ existence. A public limited company must 5 ___ specific capital requirements before it can commence business. This is referred to as 'limited liability' and is the 7 ___ popular form of company. the memorandum of association and the articles of association. except in special circumstances.
though has an established business in Great Britain. Overseas Companies This is where the company has been incorporated 16 ___ than in Great Britain. The Stock Exchange may deal with the shares of a public company. Unlimited Companies A member of such a company has no limit on their liability for a company’s debts and obligations if it becomes insolvent. Public Companies A public company must be limited by shares. The name must end with “public limited company” or the abbreviation "PLC". All companies that are not public companies are private companies. Due 9 ___ the capitalisation requirements. and the registration of charges over property. Such companies are described as ‘publicly quoted’. ‘publicly traded’ or ‘listed companies’. At least one-quarter of each share’s nominal value and the whole of any premium on it must be paid before it can be allotted. The nominal value of the shares. The provision contained in the Act includes those concerning their constitution and officers and an address for service within the jurisdiction. thus limited liability protection 14 ___ be lost. shareholders will be liable to contribute to the assets of the company the amount required for payment of the company’s debts and costs of winding up. Where a private company is limited 11 ___ guarantee. Where a private company is limited by its shares. public companies limited by shares. . the preparation and delivery of accounts. the Companies Act permits incorporation of private companies limited by shares. who must petition for the winding up of the company. members’ liability is limited to their undertaking to pay certain sums on its winding 8 ___. shareholders are liable to contribute to the assets any unpaid amount on shares issued to that shareholder. A private company is not permitted to offer its shares to the public. the single member will be jointly and severally liable with the company for its debts. the memorandum must explicitly state that 12 ___ is a public company. or the Alternative Investment Market. Moving on from these basic models for shareholders' liability. up to the maximum set out in the memorandum.000. as the company does not satisfy the requirements of the Act. the vehicle tends to be used for smaller businesses. This is usually £1. Shareholders may not 15 ___ sued by creditors. The memorandum of association has to be generally in the ‘form’ prescribed by the Secretary of State. Any share capital must be stated in the articles of association. and unlimited companies offer no protection to shareholders for company debts. determines the amount 10 ___ is payable. Private Companies Private companies are defined by reference to public limited companies. including premiums payable on subscription. The share capital must not be less 13 ___ £50.For companies limited by guarantee. If there are less than two shareholders of the company for more than six months. private companies limited by guarantee and private unlimited companies.
belongings: verb + ing(s) Unlimited: un + adj 1.1.3. person that owns shares/ stocks 1. shareholder 10. Match the following words from the text with the correct definitions: 1. hold Owe: be indebted. How dare they ___ blame without knowing all the facts first? PORTION 2. who is 107 today. plan etc f. At the ___ of summer. two or more owners who have agreed to divide. partnership. to make a formal request to someone in authority. jurisdiction 2. to incorporate 9. or the area where this right exists c. to ask the government or an organization to do something by sending them a petition. in some proportion. ownership: ~ + ship Liability. to use a particular amount of time for something. to a court of law. severally 11.3. not having enough money to pay what you owe e.The formation of a company for most trading enterprises means forming a company limited by shares.3.3. especially when it is used to start a business or to produce more wealth: i. differently and separately j. the temperature can reach 500C.3. A ___ of residents now support the proposal to build a new roundabout in the town centre. be obliged. the right to use an official power to make legal decisions. to petition 7. be in debt. have a loan from 1. memorandum 8. be in possession of. space etc to someone or something d. please. to allot a. or to God h. or give a particular share of money. Complete the sentences by changing the form of the word in capitals. a short legal document that contains the important details of an agreement k. be the owner of. have possession of. Notice how the following words are formed: Proprietorship. partnership 3. LONG 5. puts her ___ down to having a loving family. Doris Carter. insolvent 6. HIGH 3. I’d like to make a ___ from my bank account. (legal) responsibility b. What strength ___ do those binoculars have? MAGNIFY . and seven cups of tea a day.4. money or property.2. DRAW 4. the risks taken and the profits earned by the firm g. responsible ~ + ty Savings. Vocabulary development 1. capital 4.gillhams. Notice the difference: Own/ owe Own: possess. system. http://www. liability 5. 1. to include something as part of a group. responsibility < liable.cfm 1. MAJOR 6.3.com/articles/135.
. The Natural Productivity Cycle In your personal life. What are the factors that contribute to job satisfaction? 2. but the time is always divided into multiple sessions. I don’t want to ___ the agony for you. Everyone goes through alternating periods of high and low mental acuity. BENEFIT 10. Lead-in Consider the following questions: Can you imagine what jobs will be the most frequent in the future? What jobs will disappear? Why? What will the workplace be like? Describe it. so we’re going to have to make monthly ___ for the next five years. when attending to business or working on side projects. Reading Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. The school’s football pitch has been ___ over the summer to conform to new national standards. Writing Present the advantages and disadvantages of having one’s own business in Romania. so it’ll take about the same time to get to either of them. First of all. LONG 12. Their help was hugely ___. After that……. but I’m afraid you’ll have to wait another two days to know how much money you’ve won. DISTANT 9. They are lettered A to I. to conclude……. and a few hours reading feeds. Now. let’s look at………. if we turn to………. moderating comments. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 8 with the corresponding missing parts A to I.2. Liskeard and Callington are basically ___ from here. Finally . Please keep e-mails short.1. turning to……. 2. PAY 8. As you can see from the bar graph………… Now. how often do you spend 8 consecutive hours in front of a computer? It doesn’t make sense because 1 ___.7. BRIEF 11. a few hours writing. let’s look at………...4. The place of work 2. We took out a loan from the bank. There is one letter that you do not need. They are given in the box below the text. So. There are days when I work on personal projects for well over 8 hours. Functions Presenting information I’m going to talk about…. In conclusion………. ___ makes everyone’s lives easier. and responding to email. LONG 1. I might spend a few hours coding a design.
I work this way because 2 ___. Any more than 3 hours in front of a computer and my eyes start hurting and I become restless. I lose the ability to do my best work. Instead of forcing myself to continue, 3 ___. These breaks maximize productivity by eliminating down periods. It’s counter productive to force work when the mental energy isn’t there. The Problem with an 8 Hour Work Day A continuous 8 hour work day is a relic of the past. It makes sense for physical labour and manufacturing work, but with information workers it 4 ___. The ability of a factory worker to think analytically is irrelevant, he’s either cranking widgets or he isn’t. In the case of the modern information worker, nearly all tasks involve creative or strategic thinking. The way someone answers an email or interprets a piece of information can differ drastically depending on his or her energy level. Nobody does their best work 5:30 in the afternoon after 5 ___ I can’t speak for all workers, but I’ve observed that productivity levels generally peak twice a day — first thing in the morning and shortly after lunch. The most productive period is the beginning of the day. People are capable of creative tasks like writing and solving complex technical problems. After a couple hours of intense work, 6 ___ like responding to email and tinkering with existing creations. Towards the end of the cycle, the mind is so cluttered and drained that workers resort to “work related activities” that appear productive but don’t contribute to the bottom line. The afternoon cycle is similar but the productivity peak isn’t as high. For different people the peaks and valleys will vary, but 7 ___ This number isn’t caused by slacking. You can’t force an information worker to be highly productive when the energy isn’t there. Workers can try their hardest, but the work just won’t have that creative edge. The low ratio of highly productive hours to total hours worked is the result 8 ____. When workers reach the low energy part of the cycle, they can’t recharge with a non-work activity. The only option is office purgatory. You can’t be highly productive because you’re mentally fatigued, but you can’t recharge because the 8 hour work day requires the appearance of constant productivity. The result is millions of unproductive workers trapped at their desks when they’d rather be doing something else. A B C D E F G H I energy levels drop and workers downgrade to less demanding tasks we lose the ability to concentrate effectively within a few hours. doesn’t account for the mental energy cycle. overall I’d estimate only 3-4 hours a day could be classified as highly productive. I switch to an activity that allows my mind to recharge. of the continuous 8 hour work day. the environment has become more accommodating. it aligns with my mental energy cycle they’ve been sucking down coffee all day to stay awake.
2.3. Language in use Fill in the gaps in the following text with ONE word.
Alternative Work Arrangements The obvious solution 1 ___ this problem is planning around the mental energy cycle 2 ___ breaking the work day into multiple segments. The traditional office setting doesn’t accommodate this because there are few available recharge activities. People can’t 3 ___ household chores, run errands, or engage in recreational activities without leaving the workplace. Some companies have tried to make the work environment 4___ accommodating by offering meals, fitness centres, and special areas 5 ___ relaxation. Although these amenities are certainly an improvement, they’re expensive for employers and only partially satisfy employees. The solution that 6 ___ the most sense is a remote work arrangement because it reduces employer costs and allows employees to adjust their work schedule 7 ___ their mental energy cycle. When a worker becomes mentally fatigued, they can go off the clock and engage 8 ___ recharge activities that are personally productive like exercise or relaxation. When energy returns, the worker can start working again 9 ___ a high level, effectively cutting 10 ___ the low productivity period of the cycle. Employers don’t pay for unproductive time and employees get to work in a more natural pattern that adjusts to their personal lives. Why isn’t everyone doing this already? Many workers already are, and 11 ___ commutes get worse and communications improve, the number will continue to increase. Of course there will always be a need 12 ___ office workers in businesses (like doctor’s offices and law firms) that require daily customer interaction, but for most companies it really isn’t necessary. There is also the argument that people need to collaborate 13 ___ person. This is steadily becoming less essential. Most office communications are already done through email 14 ___ instant messenger. Face to face meetings are certainly necessary, but for the vast majority of lower and mid level employees meetings are the exception and could be conducted via phone/video conference or condensed into one or two days 15 ___ week. Another common objection is that employees will abuse remote work arrangements by slacking off. I’m inclined to believe that most adults value their employment enough that this isn’t a problem. In cases where supervision is required, web cams and other technology can 16 ___ used to monitor a worker. I suspect the real reason remote work arrangements are still the exception is inertia. Companies are used to doing business in the office and are reluctant to change. There is also the presence of office politics. If one person is given a remote arrangement, jealous employees will complain. Doesn’t it make sense to give everyone what they want and save a boat load of cash on office space? I may only be a kid in his 20′s, but I can tell when something just makes sense. I perceive an increasing number of people are noticing the same phenomena. Forty years from now we’ll be telling our grandchildren about the olden days when everyone’s mommy and daddy went to work in an office. (http://www.pickthebrain.com/blog/why-the-9-to-5-office-worker-will-become-a-thingof-the-past/)
2.4. Vocabulary development 2.4.1. Match to make sentences. 1. I put a lot of effort … 2. They’ve made their decision … 3. It’s not in your interest to … 4. The secretary’s kept me … 5. I don’t know why you didn’t apply… 6. I think we’re all in agreement … 7. Dean’s been out … 8. The shop hasn’t been in … 9. I’m glad you’re finally taking an interest … 10. Jason lives fairly near his place of… A on hold for ages. B about who’s going to get promoted. C of work for over two months now. D into writing this report. E business along. F in your work. G for that position. H accept a pay cut. I work, doesn’t he? J on this, aren’t we?
2.4.2. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space. Although a certain percentage of graduates will still be 1 ___ (EMPLOY) six months after leaving university, the majority will have found 2 ___ (EMPLOY) by then. Many of these will even have been offered a job while at university, as a result of visiting a job fair. Job fairs are held at many universities each year. Companies come along to advertise jobs, which are usually in 3 ___ (MANAGE), and the career structures and benefit packages that go with them. Job fairs are an 4 ___ (EFFECT) way for undergraduates to find out what kind of job they might be interested in. If you go to a job fair, dress 5 ___ (PROFESSION). Don’t wear jeans and a T-shirt. Wear a suit! You don’t want to look 6 ___ (RESPONSIBLE) when you have your first 7 ___ (MEET) with your potential 8 ___ (EMPLOY). If you’re interested in a job on offer, you may have to fill out an 9 ___ (APPLY) form, so it’s 10 ___ (HELP) to take along relevant information with you. You’ll also need proof of all your 11 ___ (QUALIFY), so don’t forget to take photocopies of all your certificates with you. 2.5. Functions Forecasting Certainty Will definitely+ vb. I am sure that…. To be bound to… It certainly + vb. Probability Will probably… X should + vb. X is likely to…. The likelihood is that… Possibility X could + vb. It’s possible we… X may + vb…. There might be… There’s just a chance that…. Improbability X is unlikely to… I doubt if….
Discussion topics A. Describe the ‘office of your dreams’ to your partner, using the expressions given above, and then listen to their ‘story’. B. Imagine that you are speaking to a group of consultants who are evaluating the efficiency of your department/ faculty/ organisation etc. Give a detailed description of the duties and responsibilities of your present job.
Corporations – How Corporations Raise Funds For Investment 1. using the process described earlier. from other financial institutions. That means that stocks are riskier investments than bonds. which are specialised markets for buying and selling stocks. New issues are often approved because if the expansion proves to be profitable. Instead.2. which are legal obligations to repay the amount of money borrowed. Dividends are corporate profits that some companies periodically pay out to shareholders. If a corporation goes out of business. profits are 7 ___ paid out to stockholders as dividends or held as retained earnings to use in running and expanding the business. so a majority of the current stockholders have to approve the issue of new shares of stock. 3. In those transactions. After paying taxes. Lead-in Consider the following questions: Is it necessary for a company to have its own fund-raising policy? Does a well-defined policy contribute to the success of the company in the business world? 3. Stockholders can enjoy much larger returns. To do this the corporation often issues bonds. so reinvesting some of those profits increases the value of what . However. or from individuals. On the other hand.1. all a bondholder will ever receive is the amount of money specified in the bond. that stock is typically traded on one of the national 2 ___ exchanges. By investing in new issues of a company’s stock. it is legally required to pay 6 ___ any bonds it has issued before any money is returned to stockholders. That option will reduce the share of the business that current stockholders 3 ___. shareholders provide the funds for a company to begin new or expanded operations. plus interest. Reading Read the following text and fill in the gaps with ONE word. if the corporation is profitable. 2. the person who sells the stock – not the corporation whose stock is traded – receives the funds from the sale. Those retained earnings come 8 ___ the profits that belong to the stockholders. The final way for a corporation to pay for new investments is by reinvesting some of the profits it has earned. An existing corporation that wants to secure funds to expand its operations has three options: It can issue new shares of stock. 3. Fund Raising 3. the current stockholders are likely to benefit 4 ___ higher stock prices and increased dividends. 5 ___ a designated time. when someone 1 ___ owns stock decides to sell some or all of their shares. 4. most stock sales do not involve new issues of stock. The second way for a corporation to secure funds is by borrowing money from banks.Writing: Use the expressions given under “forecasting” to refer to the university you would build.
a profit on money that you have invested i.the stockholders own and have risked in the business. or have to pay money as a result of doing something 3. for example shares in a company. to secure (par. On the other hand.the-unitedstatesofamerica.4. Vocabulary development 3.3. to get money from a bank or from a person by promising to give them goods or property if you cannot return the money h. equity (par. at a designated time c. transaction 1) (par. to incur (par. money that you make by selling something or from your business. issues (par. ( http://www. or activity grow by including more people. dividends (par. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space. .3. 4) 3. legal obligations to repay the amount of money borrowed. the action or process of buying and selling something e. owe money. to lose money. 2) 6. that are made available to people at a particular time f. selling more products etc. returns (par. which is known as stockholders’ equity. 4. profits (par. corporate profits that some companies periodically pay out to shareholders b. if the corporation incurs losses. 3) 9. plus interest. 1) 2. j. bonds (par. the process of making a business.1.com/admin/rechterframes/2704.htm) 3. a set of things. especially the money that remains after you have paid all your business costs g. 4) 10. 2) 5. 2) 7. organisation.1. expansion (par. 4) a. so stockholders’ equity decreases. Match the words with the correct definition: 1. 3) 8. moving into new areas. Vocabulary development 3. the value of what the stockholders own in the business goes down.4. the value of a property after you have taken away the amount left to pay on the mortgage // the value of a company’s shares d.
to go up to climb to jump to fall to drop to decline to decrease downward movement: use of prepositions: The percentage rose from…. I just wish the unions would work with me on this. “If Shepparton Carpets wants to survive. we have to make changes to improve efficiency. however. Neither ……nor……. 9 ___ (ANTIQUE) and totally 10 ___ (APPLY) to the modern world. despite.. Functions Trends upward movement: a rise an increase a climb a jump a fall a drop a decline a decrease to rise to increase.and…….1 ___ (WORK) at Shepparton Carpets Ltd voted today to continue with their industrial action.. everyone at the plant will continue to refuse to work 2 ___ (TIME) until this dispute is settled.while………. The amount stood / stayed at…… The figure rose by ……..to…….. contrast contrast words or phrases: but. Managing Director of Shepparton Carpets. like………X………..” 3.” he said. We urge (3) ___ (MANAGE) to reconsider their proposals. refused to bow to union demands. ………against……….. in spite of the fact that. has. 8 ___ (PERIOD). Union leader Elaine Watkins issued a statement saying: “Although we do not envisage an all-out strike at this stage. On the other hand….5. nevertheless in contrast (to)……. it has to become more 5 ___ (COMPETE). frankly. X is similar to………. There was a rise of……. On the contrary …… similarity both…. Writing: ……. has affected 4 ___ (PRODUCE) at the factory. In comparison (to)…… . whereas. Some of the working practices at the factory are. “It is my responsibility as an 6 ___ (EMPLOY) of over 500 7 ___ (EMPLOY) to ensure this company continues to make a profit. which began three weeks ago.. rather than fighting me every step of the way. but it is essential. Similarly…………. ………compared to………. we’ll be all out of a job. the same…………. It may not be pleasant. Joe Turner. If we don’t.” The industrial action. however. although.
Imagine that you are the CEO of a car manufacturing company. How would you choose to raise funds in the present context? .
Most ethical dilemmas in the workplace are not simply a 2 ___ of "Should Bob steal from Jack?" or "Should Jack lie to his boss?" (Many ethicists assert there's always a right thing to 3 ___ based on moral principle. ethics involves learning 0 ___ is right or wrong. in fact. Categorise the following commercial practices using a scale from 1 to 5: 1 = acceptable in some circumstances 2 = usually acceptable 3 = depends on situation 4 = usually unacceptable 5 = always unacceptable Do not forget to give reasons for your choices.UNIT FOUR – BUSINESS ETHICS 1. You are going to read a text about business ethics.) Many philosophers 5 ___ ethics to be the "science of conduct. * manufacturing and selling cosmetics tested on animals * making employees redundant without any warning * headhunting key people from rival companies * hacking into other companies’ computer systems to get important market information * making false claims of selling environmentally-friendly products when. quality.ultimately it's 4 ___ to the individual. and others believe the right thing to do depends on the situation -. e. what is business ethics? Have you ever been in a difficult situation which involved taking a decision that you were not sure was ethical? Discussion topic Business ethics is concerned with issues of morality in commercial decision making. For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context.g.but "the right thing" is not nearly 1 ___ straightforward as conveyed in a great deal of business ethics literature." Twin Cities consultants Doug Wallace and John Pekel explain that ethics . between companies and their employees. Ethical questions include the relationship between business and the environment. English in use 2. pricing and many other aspects of business. Lead-in In your opinion. product types. they are harmful for the environment * employing illegal immigrants as cheap labour and depriving them of their legal rights * doing business with companies which exploit children * exaggerating your company’s achievements in negotiations * dropping your prices to force competitors out of the market.1. 2. and then doing the right thing -. 0 – what Let's Start With "What is ethics?" Simply put.
3. Note that many people react that business ethics. attention to business ethics provides numerous other benefits. 1990) further explain that "managerial mischief" includes "illegal.. Wallace and Pekel explain that attention to business ethics is critical during times of fundamental change -. values that were previously 12 ___ for granted are now strongly questioned. responsibility. 11 ___ nonprofit and for-profit. regulation or rule 8 ___ Values which guide how we ought to behave are considered moral values. as well as the causes of such behaviors and 2 ___ to eradicate them. but generally it's coming to know what is right or wrong in the workplace and doing what's right -.e.times much 10 ___ those faced now by businesses. mismanagement. Many ethicists consider emerging ethical beliefs to be "state of the art" legal matters." There has been a great deal written about managerial mischief. etc.com/Business_Ethics/) 2. i. these principles of the obvious can go right out the door during times of stress. since the time of Socrates and Plato.articles911.)." only asserts the obvious ("be good.. 5 ___ of contracts and agreements. (adapted and abridged from http://www. Managerial mischief. unethical. honesty. So What is "Business Ethics"? The concept has come to mean various things to various people. business ethics can be strong preventative medicine. misunderstanding. such as potential conflicts of interest. Consequently. business ethics is a matter of dealing with dilemmas that have no clear indication of what is right or wrong.includes the fundamental ground 6 ___ by which we live our lives.2. what becomes an ethical guideline today is often translated to a law. There is one word that you do not need: daily. Read the second part of the article about business ethics and fill in the gaps with the words in the box. or questionable 1 ___ of individual managers or organizations. The other broad area of business ethics is "moral mazes of management" and includes the numerous ethical problems that managers must deal with on a 4 ___ basis. Statements around how these values are applied are sometimes called moral or ethical principles. Moral mazes.com/Business_Ethics/) 2. fairness. . though. remedies. etc.g. with its continuing attention to "doing the right thing. Read the last part of the text and use the following words to form a word that fits in the same numbered space in the text. Madsen and Shafritz." etc. there is no clear moral compass to guide leaders through complex dilemmas about what is right or wrong. wrongful use of resources. Philosophers have been discussing ethics for at 7 ___ 2500 years. More often. (adapted and abridged from http://www. leading many to believe that business ethics is merely a matter of 3 ___ the basics of what is right and wrong. Consequently. and so these people don't take business ethics 15 ___. Many of these values are no longer followed." "don't lie. However. preaching Two Broad Areas of Business Ethics 1. e.this is in regard 9 ___ effects of products/services and in relationships with stakeholders. Attention to ethics in the workplace sensitizes leaders and staff to how they 13 ___ act. For many of us. Perhaps most important. practices. 2. in their book "Essentials of Business Ethics" (Penguin Books.articles911. 14 ___ retain a strong moral compass. attention to ethics in the workplaces helps ensure that when leaders and managers are struggling in times of crises and confusion. In times of fundamental change. as well. values such as respect.
roles of ethicists and ethics committees.and so business ethics was born. special expect poor research 5. Today. For example. 3. ethics in the workplace can be managed through use of codes of ethics. environmental protection. guide Business ethics is now a management discipline. social awareness movements raised 2 ___ of businesses to use their massive financial and social influence to address social problems such as 3 ___. business schools and managers have recognized this broader constituency. 2. • . crime. (adapted and abridged from http://www. In that decade. • • • • Does anything go in business? Modern business cannot afford to ignore the ethics.articles911. Start by giving some answers to the first question. organizations realized that they needed to manage a more positive image to the public and so the recent discipline of public relations was born. 7 ___ realized they needed to better manage their human resources and so the recent discipline of human resources was born. customers. policies and procedures. codes of conduct. 5 ___ and the wider community The 6 ___ of business ethics is similar to other management disciplines. Discussion topics Consider the following questions and discuss possible answers: 1. Ethics are all hypocrisy. emerge 7. Why do companies have to take an ethical position? 3. etc. 4. and in their planning and operations have replaced the word "stockholder" with "stakeholder. Many 4 ___. What issues are involved in ethical considerations? 2.com/Business_Ethics/) 3. As commerce became more complicated and dynamic.1. equal rights. organise 8. procedures to resolve ethical dilemmas. supply 6. public health and improving education. ethics training. Business ethics exists in a utopian society but could never be part of today’s hectic business world. An increasing number of people asserted that because businesses were making a profit from using our country's resources. 1 ___ since the birth of the social responsibility movement in the 1960s. consumers become more critical and more likely to adopt ethical standpoints? Extended discussion Defend or attack the following statements. Do you think that as societies become richer. Business ethics has come to be considered a management discipline." meaning to include employees. Note that 90% of business schools now provide some form of training in business ethics. Companies have a responsibility to give a good example. organizations realized they needed more 8 ___ to ensure their dealings supported the common good and did not harm others -. these businesses owed it to our country to work to improve society.
managing values and conflict among them is . Diane Kirrane. are rather superfluous because they represent values to which everyone should naturally aspire. a missing word. (5) But when presented with complex ethical dilemmas. the value of a code of ethics to an organization is its priority and focus regarding certain ethical values in that workplace. write the correct version in its corresponding numbered space: 9 Myths About Business Ethics (1) Business ethics in the workplace is about prioritising moral values for the workplace and ensuring behaviours are aligned with those values -. some have a mistake in them (a grammar mistake. or lists of ethical values to which the organization aspires. Other myths (2) arise from narrow or simplistic views of ethical dilemmas. b) real alternatives that are equality justifiable and c) significant consequences on "stakeholders" in the situation. Lack of involvement of leaders and managers in business ethics literature and discussions has led many to believe that business ethics is a fad or movement. . business ethics is a management discipline with a programmatic approach that includes several practical tools.. They believe (6) business ethics is primary a complex philosophical debate or a religion. (3) asserts that "altering peoples’ values or souls isn't the aim of an organizational ethics program -. November 1990). an unnecessary word. a vocabulary mistake. most people realize there's a wide "gray area" when trying to apply ethical principles. Note that a code of ethics is an organic instrument that changes with the needs of society and the organization.and honesty should be listed in that organization’s code of ethics. However. 4. For example.4. as well.. English in use In the following article some of the underlined parts are correct. if the part is incorrect. a priority on honesty is very timely -. 3. 1. having little to do with the day-to-day realities of running an organization. academics and theologians. However.it only asserts the obvious: "do good!" (7) Many people react that codes of ethics. Myth: Business ethics is superfluous -. write CORRECT in its corresponding numbered space. people are quick to speak of the Golden Rule." 2. Myth: Our employees are ethical so we don't need attention to business ethics. honesty and courtesy. If the part is correct.it's values management. Ethics management programs have practical applications in other areas of management areas. Myth: Business ethics is more a matter of religion than management. Yet. in "Managing Values: A Systematic Approach to Business Ethics. Most of the ethical dilemmas faced by managers in the workplace are highly complex. myths abound about business ethics." (Training and Development Journal. it’s obvious that all people should be honest. Myth: Business ethics is a discipline best led by philosophers. Kirrane mentions that when the topic of business ethics comes up. a spelling mistake. if an organization (8) is struggling around continuing occasions of deceit in the workplace. Wallace explains that one knows when they have a significant ethical conflict when there is presence of a) significant value conflicts among differing (4) interests. and inappropriateness in the context). Some of these myths arise from general confusion about the notion of ethics. However.
) can be very strong influences on morality. breaking the law often starts with unethical behaviour that has gone unnoticed. The "boil the frog" phenomena is a useful parable here: If you put a frog in hot water. If you put a frog in cool water and slowly heat up the water.but. usually in a manner that improves the general good and/or minimizes harm to the community. updating polices and procedures. there needs to be more written about items 1 and 2.S. constantly complain about others. The frog doesn't seem to notice the adverse change in its environment. is a value system. 3) the identification of important business and social issues. 8. Laws.g. on behaviour or employees in the workplace.) Managing ethics in the workplace includes all of us working together to help each other remain ethical and to work through confusing and stressful ethical dilemmas. Managing ethics in the workplace involves identifying and prioritizing values to guide behaviours in the organization. particularly when stressed or confused. 6. Myth: Business ethics and social responsibility are the same thing.articles911. (14) One can often be unethical. Strategic priorities (profit maximization.com/Business_Ethics/) .. (13) Items 3 and 4 are often matters of social responsability. ethics is always "managed" -. One might call this "values management. (10) the behaviour of the organisations’ founder or current leader is a strong moral influence. Madsen and Shafritz (12) refine the definition of business ethics to be: 1) an application of ethics to the corporate community. For example. Total Quality Management and strategic planning. those people well versed in managing organizations realize that good people can take bad actions. Some writers do seem to claim a moral high ground (9) while lamenting about the poor condition of business and its leaders. it immediately jumps out. Myth: Managing ethics in the workplace has little practical relevance. e.. or directive if you will. e. (There has been a great deal of public discussion and writing about items 3 and 4. Constitution. managing diversity. etc. However.) Writings about social responsibility often do not address practical matters of managing ethics in the workplace.. etc.5. too often. Actually. The social responsibility movement is one aspect of the overall discipline of business ethics. believing you can't manage values in an organization. Donaldson and Davis (Management Decision. developing codes. e. (Stress or confusion are not excuses for unethical actions -. you can eventually boil the frog. However." such as the "10 Commandments" in Christian religions or the U. Codes can be very powerful in smaller "organizations" as well. etc. (adapted and abridged from http://www.g. However. after everything. Myth: Our organization is not in trouble with the law. withhold information from superiors. Sceptics might consider the tremendous influence of several "codes of ethics. Myth: Business ethics is a matter of the good guys preaching to the bad guys. 2) a way to determine responsibility in business dealings.they are reasons. Myth: Ethics can't be managed. (15) and establishing associated policies and procedures to ensure those behaviours are conducted. and 4) a critique of business. so we're ethical. Some are still sceptical about business ethics. indirectly. approaches to resolving ethical dilemmas. fudge on budgets. regulations and rules directly influence behaviours to be more ethical. cutting costs." Values management is also highly important in other management practices. yet operate within the limits of the law. N6) (11) note that management.g. expanding market share. 9. V28. about how business ethics can be managed. 7.
a leading business membership organization. Meanwhile. The Conference 4…Board. If a line is correct. What should I do?" 4. write CORRECT against the corresponding number." In the latter of 1980s. What should I do?" (adapted and abridged from http://www. One Asian candidate fully fits the job requirements for our open position.articles911. It's the `thou shalt not's. After telling him our price. A code of ethics specifies the 3…ethical rules of operation. Meanwhile. 1. I heard from my employee that he plans to buy braces for his daughter and a new carpet for his house. English in use Read the following article about codes of ethics. we're concerned that our customers won't understand his limited command of the English language. Discussion point Take a look at the following real-to-life examples of complex ethical dilemmas and decide what you would do in each situation. "A credo generally describes the highest values to which the same 2…company aspires to operate. Should I tell him about the competitor -. . While we had no specific policies then against personal use of company facilities. I approached the letter writer to discuss the situation. my boss told me that he wasn't going to give me a new opportunity in our company because he was going to give it to my fellow employee now. In some of the lines there is an extra word which is either grammatically incorrect or does not fit with the meaning of the text. I know he could get it cheaper from a competitor. She told me she'd written the letters on her own time to practise using our word processor. What should I do?" 5. What should I do?" 3. he said he couldn't afford it. "Our company prides itself on hiring minorities. It contains the `thou shalt's. "My boss told me that one of my employees is among several others to be laid off soon.5. "A fellow employee told me that he plans to quit the company in two months and start a new job which has been guaranteed to him. However. write the extra word in capital letters against the corresponding number: Ethics Tools: Codes of Ethics 1…According to Wallace. found that 76% of its corporations surveyed had codes of ethics.or let him go without getting what he needs? What should I do?" 2. "A customer (or client) asked for a product (or service) from us today. if there is an extra word in the line. I was concerned. and that I'm not to tell my employee yet or he might tell the whole organization which would soon be in an uproar.com/Business_Ethics/) 6. "My computer operator told me he'd noticed several personal letters printed from a computer that I was responsible to manage.
"We pored over each phrase and word. Bob Kniffin. the wider needs of society and the environment. They explain that too 6…much focus is put on the codes themselves. having a code is critical. But. More important. In the mid-70s." (adapted and abridged from http://www. Discussion topic ETHICAL MARKETING is providing a product or service in a way which considers not only the consumers and the users of the product.5…Some business ethicists also disagree that codes have any value. Are there any particular conditions that we should take into consideration when choosing which of them are acceptable or unacceptable? • • • • • • • Selling unhealthy food despite warnings Marketing sweets and junk food snacks to small children Marketing cigarettes Selling expensive clothing items in poor countries Using overtly sexual images to sell products Focusing too much on anorexic looking body shape when marketing products for teenagers Selling environmentally unfriendly products AND at the same time claiming they do little harm to our environment. believing in the values are 10…"motherhood and apple pie" and codes are for the window dressing. employees react to codes with suspicion. However we asked ourselves. Try to decide on a reasonable ethical position on the issues below. he 14…explains. Johnson and Johnson updated their credo in a 13…series of challenge meetings. Some sentences have been removed from the text. 9…Occasionally. it's 12…having developed a code.J the one which fits each gap (1-9). 8. Reading comprehension Read the following article. The meetings infused the values in the minds of all of us managers. Choose from sentences A. There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Hamm .com/Business_Ethics/) 7. and that codes themselves are not 7…influential in managing ethics in the workplace. when managing 11…a complex issue. Then many ethicists note that it's the 8…developing and continuing dialogue around the code's values that is most important. but also the general public. `Do we 15…still believe this?' Our meetings have resulted in some fine tuning. especially in a crisis. Vice President of External Affairs. Ethical Decision-making Quick Test by Bruce A.articles911. but basically we didn't 16…change the values.
Does it comply with our company values? What are your company values? Okay. is the result of the action fair? Does the person affected get only the appropriate degree of reward or discipline? Would others agree with your perception of the outcome? If no. generally the decisions are yours and you have to live with the results. you've determined that your action is legal. go on to the next criteria. If the answer is no or raises objections. Under the same circumstances. 2 ___. the nation and ever more frequently. stop. Having a quick test allows you to make the easy decisions and recognize when the decision may be a bit more difficult. the world? It's one thing for you or even your close associates to know about your decisions and actions but entirely another when people outside your inner circle know about them. 8 ___. How would it look in the news? Okay. reject the action and take another course 4 ___. stop. If your action conforms to your corporate values. move on to the next criteria. Easy decisions like "should I embezzle hundreds of thousands of dollars" are obvious and generally do not require much help or analysis to determine whether they are ethical or not. If you've done something well. even if it is only verbal? Do you give that same level of reward to your staff or co-workers? For decisions concerning others. A business law professor in an MBA course once stated that the law is generally about 12 years behind society's concept of ethical practices. you must stop. how would it look to the rest of your community. let's first assume your company values are legitimate ones. you might consider asking someone else for help. do you have a legitimate process for applying discipline and/or discharge? Do managers fire people in the heat of an emotional upheaval or is there an appropriate escalation of discipline before the company allows such a step? 6 ___.Often. Is it legal? This is the first filter through which your ethical decision will pass. It may not be against the law but it may also not be the right thing to do. 3 ___. If the answer is acceptable. you cannot legitimately answer the question. have you acted out of the overall best . reject the action and take another course. do you expect an appropriate reward. so be prepared to accept responsibility for them. making ethical decisions in the work place is a delicate balancing act between competing forces. If yes. move on to the next criteria. How will I feel after the decision is known? Can I face myself the next morning? This is the man in the mirror story (updated to include the woman in the mirror). Don't simply stop your ethical decision making process at whether an action is legal. How do you feel about the decision? Even if it is a tough decision and the outcome would affect someone negatively. If at any point. reject the action and take another course. Remember. Now. 1 ___. Do your actions conform to them? For example: if your values say something about treating employees fairly. 5 ___ Would you be embarrassed to have these events known? How would your company perceive publicity surrounding your actions? If the answer is unacceptable. would I want the result of this decision to happen to everyone? Am I treating others as I want to be treated? How do you want to be treated? If you've made a mistake do you take responsibility for it? Have you accepted appropriate discipline with an attitude conducive to correcting the behaviour? 7 ___.
Every time you discard a particular option run the next alternative through this same practice. B. Legal and ethical are not equivalent concepts. However. reject the action and take another course. reject the action and find another course. C. Taking the time to review decisions with an ethical perspective is critical to making the right choices. F. G. If your ethical dilemma is obviously at odds with your company values. take the action with good confidence you've resolved your dilemma. if you are lucky enough to have an ethics officer or ethics helpline. have you given your proposed action enough reflection to feel confident about its outcome? This process may seem long and involved. It's a bit tougher when the decision is between two competing right things to do. 9. H. the more quickly you can work through the decision review process on subsequent occasions. (200 words) . go on to the next criteria. If the decision does not need to be made immediately.com/cgi-bin/links/jump. the more you use it. I. When a company's people focus on their ethical behaviour. (adapted and abridged from http://www. In general.interest of everyone concerned? If the answer is no. How will the people you don't know perceive your actions? J.cgi? ID=3935) A. E. they may even share part of the responsibility. Often with subsequent information we regret our actions but we also realize that we make decisions with the information available at the time. stop. Writing Pick one of the dilemmas from exercise 5 and describe the decision you would take giving arguments for your decision. can you look yourself in the mirror and know you are satisfied you've done the right thing? D. 9 ___. everyone involved is better off. The word discipline has its origins in the Greek word meaning to teach not to punish. If yes. When you shave or apply your makeup and you think of the action you will take. Talk to your supervisor or.work911. stop. If it is legal. talk to whoever can help you make the final decision.
Scientific management. the manager 7 ___ believes in the scientific foundation of his or her craft will expect that there is a rational and objective way to determine the correct course of action. Lead-in Consider the following questions: How would you define management? What is the importance of management? What is the role of a manager? Could you be a manager? Explain. That is. They used scientific processes to evaluate and organise work 12 ___ that it became more efficient and effective. but that management as an art requires no specific body of knowledge. This manager is likely to follow general principles and theories and also create and test hypotheses. attempted to discover "the one best way" to perform jobs. Taylor.2. 1.1. prescribed way in which a manager should act. Management – Art or Science? 1. only skill. Scientific management's emphasis 13 ___ both . those who believe that management is an art are likely to believe that there is 3 ___ specific way to teach or understand management. While reading. even with an understanding of management research and an education in management. Foundations of the Management as a Science Perspective Practising managers who believe in management as a science are likely to believe that there are ideal managerial practices for certain situations. Thus. management as a science would indicate that 2 ___ practice. when faced with a managerial dilemma. pioneered by Frederick W." Reflected in the differences in these definitions is the use of precision in science. 8 ___ instance. and others. perhaps paying 10 ___ attention to political and social factors involved in the situation. Webster's College Dictionary defines an art as “skill in conducting any human activity" and science as "any skill or technique that reflects a precise application of facts or a principle. Many early management researchers subscribed to the vision of managers as scientists. expecting that certain principles will work in most situations. and that some people cannot 6 ___ taught to be effective managers. and that 4 ___ is a skill borne of personality and ability. the manager will look to specific means of performance improvement. some people will not be capable of being effective practising managers. That is. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.UNIT FIVE – MANAGEMENT 1. Conversely. Those who believe in management as an art are likely to believe that certain people are 5 ___ predisposed to be effective managers than are others. Reading Read the following article. Which of the two approaches do you favour? The Art and Science of Management One of the enduring questions in the field of management is whether it is an art or a science. if a manager has a problem with an employee's poor work performance. fill in the gaps with ONE word. in that 1 ___ is a particular. He or she may rely 9 ___ concepts learned in business school or through a company training programme when determining a course of action. managers use a specific body of information and facts to guide their behaviours. The scientific management movement was the primary driver of 11 ___ perspective.
(http://www.enotes. Mintzberg determined that mangers engaged in very fragmented work. instead.reducing inefficiencies and on understanding the psychology of workers changed manager and employee attitudes 14 ___ the practice of management. Thus. and exceptions 22 ___ these facts are ignored as anomalies. Instead. In this set of published lectures. it also requires that managers understand individuals and their motivations and help them achieve their goals. Lilienthal argues that management requires 20 ___ than a mastery of techniques and skills. He argues that the discipline (i. a manager who has a problem with an employee's poor work performance is likely to rely on his or her own experiences and judgement when addressing this issue. who in 1967 had his series of lectures titled Management: A Humanist Art published. He is critical 23 ___ the assumptions that make up the management paradigm. Lilienthal. Foundations of the Management as an Art Perspective Practising managers who believe in management as an art are unlikely to believe that scientific principles and theories will be able to be implemented in actual managerial situations. because it indicated that managers did not necessarily have routine behaviours throughout their days. This was 19 ___ line with the perspective of management as an art. famed management scholar who is best known for developing ideas related to total quality management. rather than use a prescribed set of responses dictated 21 ___ set of known guidelines. For example. because these assumptions change 24 ___ time as society and the business environment change. Mintzberg revolutionized thinking 18 ___ managers at the time that his work was published. with constant interruptions and rare opportunities to quietly consider managerial issues. Drucker terms management “a liberal art". Henry Mintzberg is probably the most well-known and prominent advocate of the school of thought that management is an art. This manager as an artist was likely to respond differently to each employee and situation. uninterrupted time periods. in which facts are established. and deciding all day long. Thus. as a contrast 16 ___ the example given previously. by not only getting work done but understanding the meaning behind the work.. Rather. but instead used their own social and political skills to solve problems that arose throughout the course of work. Thus. Another proponent of the management as art school of thought is Peter Drucker. Mintzberg. challenging the prior notion that managers behaved rationally and methodically. this manager is likely to consider a broad range of social and political factors.e. Lilienthal believed that effective managerial behaviour meant combining management and leadership into practice. the science) of management attempts to create a paradigm for managers. and is likely to take different actions depending 17 ___ the context of the problem. Mintzberg is an academic researcher whose work capturing the actual daily tasks of real managers was ground breaking research for its time. to determine a course of action. Another scholar that promoted the notion of management as an art was David E.com/management-encyclopedia/art-science-management) . using their own knowledge of a situation. determined that managers did not sit at their desks. thinking. working for long. management is more of an art. rather 15 ___ generic rules. 25 ___ scientific "facts" do not remain stable over time. Rather than having a standard response to such a problem. through his observation of actual managers in their daily work. he promoted the idea of the manager as a motivator and facilitator of others. evaluating. these managers are likely to rely on the social and political environment surrounding the managerial issue.
3.. for this initiative to become fruitful are that all of you should work overtime. with present legislation will prevent any problems with the authorities. intervention. businesswoman. call back set out bring forth call upon set back bring back call for set forth bring about call up set off bring out call out set aside bring up 1. . His greatest . is essential for the success of any kind of business.....2. 10. when dealing with serious occupational tasks. 15. Given that the new procedure failed.... 11. Please. flaw in our business plan. Acting in .. our company received an award for .3. 5.... 5. 4.. The .1.. like to specify that we are behind schedule. to your statistics. 3. Vocabulary development 1. CHARACTER ABLE IDENTITY SUCCESS CREDIBLE LEAD RESPONSIBLE ACCOMPLISH PARTICULAR INVEST ACCORD REQUIRE EXCEL MANAGE TIME 1. 9. Thanks to our . the company didn’t go bankrupt. Good . One shouldn’t elude ... I’m sorry to ___ the subject of solvency but I’m afraid we have to deal with this issue as well. All executives involved in the project did their job to the best of their . of good management. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. 7. In order to be a .1. We had to ___ the help of a consulting firm in order to solve our queries regarding auditing.. this is a hardly . he decided to ___ the previous one.. You may want to consult a dictionary for the meaning of certain verbs.. I would . They finally ___ to invite their business partners to the annual conference on regional development. The effort which you put into our project will turn out to be an invaluable . 6.. . is that of being a flawless leader. Use the remaining five in sentences of your own. .. you have to be acquainted with the main issues of inter-gender communication.. Given the very few clues we have. 4. 14. 2. 8.. don’t hesitate to ___ me ___ as soon as you’ve got word from our main investor.. . 12.. This should be a viable . At the trade fair last year. 2... .. 13. talent is supposed to be in-born rather than acquired... I cannot attach too much . Fill in the blanks with ten of the following fifteen phrasal verbs from the list.3. 3. Unfortunately.
3. social sciences researchers may strive to create a more "scientific" approach to their fields in order to grant them more 8 ___ (LEGITIMATE). the nature of the areas of study renders it immature. Brown is not in his office now. many of the central questions of that field have been answered.g. I am sorry that Mr. management research) suffer from envy of the physical sciences. and other related areas give it a long and rich history. and gains in 5 ___ (KNOW) come sporadically. much of the management research conducted in academic institutions blends with the notion of management as an art and as a science. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word derived from the one given in brackets. there is still a great deal of debate on major questions in the field. I suppose we will have to ___ our differences and concentrate our efforts on solving the problem in hand. there is still a very great deal of disagreement and confusion in other areas.g. In mature fields of study. in the physical sciences). While its 6 ___ (FOUND) in psychology. In some of the sentences there is an extra word which does not fit with the meaning of the text. individual managers' experiences and skills must to guide them. . despite our increased knowledge in some areas. 8. However. there are still a number of research of gaps in management. the practice of management is likely to will be dictated by the perspective of management as an art. A. in immature fields of study.. In fact. addresses issues associated with the state of current 2 ___ (SCIENCE) research and the opportunities for scientific discovery. In these circumstances. Find the extra word. Today. Following the news of the market crash. the study of management is still very young when compared with other fields of research (e. Conversely. In many ways. 1. 9. As such. management is an immature science. That is. in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Because of there are no hard and fast rules in certain circumstances. but please don’t hesitate to ___ in an hour.. due to the difficulties of studying human behavior in a number of disparate 7 ___ (SET). many scholars have argued that the social sciences (e. desperate firm owners began to ___ for help through all media. In many ways this is due to the many increased sophistication of management research. 10.3.6. B. The new management restructuring has ___ significant changes in the company’s policy. Kuhn. drew distinctions between mature and 3 ___ (MATURE) fields of study. 7. sociology. in his previous editions of this text. I wouldn’t like the problem of travel costs to ___ you ___ in your intention to take part in this year’s trade fair. and strong consensus exists among researchers regarding the fundamental 4 ___ (ASSUME) of that field. some consistent answers have been developed in the field of management. in which "truths" are able to be determined through research. Despite of its relative immaturity. Art and Science in Management Research Noted 1 ___ (RESEARCH) Thomas Kuhn.
1. Read the following text and choose the motivation theory that you like best. Fill in with the suitable reflexive pronoun forms: I you he she it we you they themselves 1.1. Maslow developed his ‘hierarchy of needs’ a. 2. ego (self-esteem) needs c.4.1. 2. The firm didn’t manage to protect ___ from cut-throat competition. Reflexive Pronouns Look at the following example of a reflexive pronoun: They are thus called upon to commit themselves to maximum performance and investment of their full potential in teams and project. self-actualisation needs b. 6. Reading A.4. and their work is still the basis for contemporary approaches: 1. We should show more consideration to ___ when we have to deal with unscrupulous business partners like them. Language focus: Reflexive Pronouns 1. Would you prefer a male boss or a female boss? Why? Should your boss get involved in your personal problems? Why? Should you compete with your colleagues to win favour with your boss? Why? To what extent does age difference count in work relationships? 2. 4. Fill in the blanks with the right reflexive pronouns. Lead-in Consider the following questions: How would you define motivation? It is the role of the manager to motivate employees. 1. 7. You should commit ___ more to our line of action. I should have more confidence in ___ when it comes to work involvement. She couldn’t find ___ a better position. 5. Four key thinkers contributed to this field in the 1950s and 60s. 3. Writing. He keeps deluding ___ about how efficient a manager he is. In not more than 300 words. describe the ideal manager. Motivation and Work Relationships 2.2. social needs .2. Motivation and Communication The ability to motivate others and improve morale is a “soft skill” – difficult to acquire and almost impossible to measure.4. I doubt whether they have given ___ a second chance to set things straight in the department affairs.
without on the one hand being indirect or ‘suffering in silence’. Teamwork A team (or ‘taskforce’ or ‘working party’) needs a variety of personality types to perform well: • ‘Head’ people who are good at thinking and problem-solving . B. This means stating your needs and opinions confidently and clearly. security needs e. They believe in empowerment (= giving employees the authority to make decisions without traditional managerial approval) and enabling (= giving them the tools).d. presentations. then next we have ego needs: recognition and acknowledgement from others. After that. our next need is to feel accepted and part of a group (social need). physiological needs We move to the next stage up only when the lower need is met. This means listening with full attention. Communication Communication is two-way: top-down and bottom-up. to develop to out fullest potential. etc. These include salary. job security. earned recognition and interest in the job itself. 4. Read the following text and choose the personality type that you think you belong to. Theory Y managers believe that most people like work and actively seek responsibility. we want self-fulfilment (‘self-actualisation’ in Maslow’s terms): to achieve. Drucker believed in ‘management by objectives’ (MBO). It can also be external: the PR function handles this. if that need is met. and giving consideration to the other person’s point of view. He agreed that the most important motivators at work were the sense of achievement. as well as a sense of status or importance. then it is no longer a motivator. not interrupting except to ask for clarification. The bottom two are usually not an issue in business (unless you are hungry or in danger). And as soon as any need is met. everyone enjoys discussing ‘office politics’ at the water cooler and picking up information ‘on the grapevine’ (= passed from one person to another in conversation). Theory X managers believe that most people dislike work and must be controlled and directed to achieve the organisation’s goals. There has to be monitoring and measurement to ensure objectives are being met. McGregor observed that managers generally fall into two categories: Theory X and Theory Y. bonuses. Finally. or on the other being aggressive and rude. MBO calls on managers to work with employees to formulate clear. informal communication happens all the time. working conditions and good relations with co-workers 3. but can cause dissatisfaction if they are missing. But then there was another set of job factors (‘hygiene’ or ‘maintenance’ factors) that do not motivate employees. If that happens. Herzberg expressed similar ideas. But two other key communication skills are required: • ‘Active listening’. etc. reports. 2. Formal communication is through the medium of meetings. and workers who achieve their objectives can be rewarded with pay rises. ambitious but achievable goals. • ‘Assertiveness’. Inside an organisation.
Skill variety – the extent to which the job demands different skills.• • ‘Hands’ people who are good at doing and acting ‘Heart’ people who are good at networking and resolving conflicts Once a team has been set up. Fill in the missing letters. especially people who work together. 4. Vocabulary development 2. 3. Forming – people get to know each other 2. 9. Instead. determination and a strong belief in what they are doing). and also to conflicts that arise as team members clarify their roles and expectations. 5. Autonomy – the degree of freedom and choice that people have in scheduling work and determining procedures. 2.3. 3. Being successful after a lot of effort gives us a ‘sense of ach_ _ _ _ _ _nt’. 2. 7. Progress can be seen as they pass various milestones (= events that mark an important stage in a process). Storming – this refers both to ‘brainstorming’ as ideas get suggested for the first time. 2. Task significance – the degree to which a job has an impact on the work of others. 2. 3. it is good to have the ‘ackn_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ nt’ (= public recognition and thanks) of others.2. Read the text and then answer the questions below.3. The work of Maslow and Herzberg has been developed into the theory of ‘job enrichment’. Performing – members focus on solving problems and doing tasks. it adds greatly to our ‘self-es_ _ _ m’ (= the feeling that we are valued and important). 8. The level of confidence and positive feelings that people have. Developing to our fullest potential was called ‘self-actualisation’ by Maslow. Successful managers are neither passive nor aggressive. 5. is their level of ‘mo_ _ _ e’ (slightly different from ‘motivation’ which is linked to doing things). Norming – members sort out a way of working together and begin to ‘own’ and share the team objectives. 4. This theory states that there are five characteristics affecting an individual’s motivation and performance. 4. Feedback – the amount of direct and clear information that is received about performance. . 1. A more common term is ‘self-ful_ _ _ ment’. Giving people more control over their work is called ‘em_ _ _ _ _ _ _nt’. Task identity – the degree to which a job has visible outcome. and there is often a public recognition and celebration of achievements. Business leaders need to have vision and ‘comm_ _ _ _ nt’ (= enthusiasm. Giving someone the tools and skills to do something is called ‘en_ _ _ing’ them. they are ‘ass_ _ _ _ve’. When we have been successful. 6.3. it usually goes through the five stages identified by Bruce Tucker: 1.1. When we have the recognition and respect of the others. 1. Adjourning – the job is finished. 5.
Check any unknown words in the dictionary. make. give rise to. eventual. difficult. final.3. Study the collocations referring to decision making. fulfil define. The fifth contributes to a feeling of achievement and recognition.3. job rotation – moving employees from one job to another Find a word in the text which means: 1. job enlargement – combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment b. reach. fail in. likely. quality of being serious. offer. cause. reject. important. satisfactory. defer. take collective. take up. achieve. based on their meaning. overrule. meet. establish. reverse. power to make independent decisions 4. useful and important 5. unanimous anticipated. fulfil. identify. desirable. piece of work that you must do as part of your job or course of study 2. deal with. define. favourable. reach. identify. make. tackle accept. put off. fall short of an objective a problem a suggestion a decision decision outcome 2.3. The fourth gives a feeling of responsibility. meet.4. turn down arrive at. resolve. major. It also includes two specific strategies: a. This task is based on the ideas of Belbin and Margerison-McCann. postpone. crucial. Coordinator Promoter Innovator Shaper Evaluator Specialist Finisher Implementer Team worker . set fail in. set address. handle. reach. expected. fall short of. result 3. key. establish. come up with. making something better and more enjoyable 2. achieve. Match the team roles in the box to the descriptions below. Job enrichment tries to maximize the above five factors within the constraints of the organisation. come to. solve. hard.The first three factors above contribute to the meaningfulness of the job. tough. create. overturn. rule out. critical. put forward. making something bigger 6. agree to/with. successful an objective a problem a suggestion a decision decision outcome Now divide the words in each box into three groups. overcome. clear up. joint.
6.central person who makes sure everyone works well together. methodical and organised. I feel deeply committed ___ my employees.caring. 2. ___________ . 3. may lack energy to inspire others. We should contribute more ___ the development of this business. may be uninterested in all other areas. ‘Heart people’ 7.has expert knowledge in key areas. Jones this week because his secretary is on holiday. ___________ . 9. 6. Present Continuous Compare: Human resources management works in close collaboration with senior executives. 2. and to specification. 5. listens patiently. The board of directors finally decided ___ a plan for future restructuring. can be slow. can be too optimistic and lose initial energy. 7.likes completing things on time. may have difficulty making decisions. Present Continuous 2. 4. She should pay more attention ___ the way in which she treats her subordinates. not afraid to challenge norms. ___________ . a good listener. The influence ___ human resources policy is due ___ the increased pressure ___ the part of international competition. Our cooperation could be conducive ___ further success. may ignore details. more interested in the final result than the process. I’m afraid that the manager is opposed ___ our strategy of concentrating ___ cost reduction only.gets involved quickly with lots of energy. Fill in the blanks with the required dependent preposition: 1.thinks carefully and accurately about things.4. 9. ___________ . ‘Hands people’ 4. can be seen as too controlling. helps everyone focus. 2. (temporary situation) Present Simple . 5. The tense system: Present Simple vs.1. ___________ . 2. may be impatient.4. ___________ . There have been no changes ___ salary agreements. 8.3.‘Head people’ 1. ___________ . ___ what means do you think we could reduce costs? 8. 10. ___________ . Language focus: The tense system: Present Simple vs.takes basic ideas and makes them work in practice. 3.enthusiastic. can worry too much.solves difficult problems with creative ideas. ___________ . on budget. sees the big picture and good at explaining it to people outside the group.5. (permanent situation) Jane is working for Mr. and works hard to resolve problems. I would like to ensure ___ particular that no change ___ the company has taken place ___ the absence of careful deliberation.
8. suppose. performed according to a schedule: The train leaves at 8 o’clock. complaints about bad habits: Why are you always interrupting? ! STATE VERBS ARE NOT normally used in the continuous form: verbs of perception: see. permanent situations: The sun shines. What do you think this job is involving? 9. While Sarah is on holiday. appear (= to seem). 3. notice. 1. At present our CEOs try to establish the priorities for the further development of the firm. sg: + s. like. mean. Their company does not do very well these days. 7. forgive. signify. an action happening in a limited period of time. 4. planned future actions. remember. Does he write? Yes. Specific adverbs: every day/ month/ year….Form: short infinitive. own. 2. Find the mistakes in the following sentences and correct them. smell. exception: to have = to eat: I am having lunch. 11.! 3rd pers. believe. feel. realize verbs of possession: have. keep (= to continue). Are you realising that if we don’t apply the new procedure in due course we will suffer great profit losses? 10. forget. know. Tracy handles her work as a secretary. Our firm is usually getting in touch with customers by mail. understand. repeated actions: He goes to work at 7 every morning. They want to know if the price is including VAT. 12. I know that the competition is tough this year. never Present Continuous Form: to be (in the present) + verb + -ing It indicates: an action happening now: I am reading now.4. belong verbs of appearance/ seeming: seam. refuse. but we survive on the market. hear. sg. consist.). Do you want to buy them? 13. wish. Human resources policy is giving consideration to various internal and external factors. he does/ No.? do/ does(3rd pers. often. a temporary situation: I am writing the paper today. concern. We sell our shares in the company. contain. Since we all work in the same office. He can see.don’t/ doesn’t He writes. Most managers are not able to attend the meeting because they are having flu. possess. matter the auxiliaries. It indicates: habitual actions/ regular. . he doesn’t. recognize verbs of emotion: want. 6. dislike. hate. Their progressive meaning is suggested by using CAN in front of some of them: I can hear.2. prefer verbs of mental activities: think. general truths. usually. 2. . we are spending most of our time together. an arrangement in the near future: We are visiting them next week. 5. We work in your office till they finish painting ours. always.
Indeed. Multinationals 3. You shouldn’t pay any attention to the new manager. They are footloose. Multinationals: heroes or villains of the global economy? Foreign-owned multinationals employ one worker in every five in European manufacturing and one in seven in US manufacturing. And they do mass-produce standardised products. Yet other features of multinationals also explain why countries compete fiercely to attract them. Then answer the question in the title. Multinationals are often different 6 ___ purely national firms and some concerns are legitimate. Lead-in Consider the following questions: What determined the need for multinational corporations? Why is it more difficult to manage a multinational corporation? Would you like to work in a multinational corporation? Why? What factors influence communication in a multinational corporation? 3.14. They often bring scarce technologies.2. This Jekyll and Hyde perception of multinationals stems more 4 ___ ambiguous feelings about large market players with no national identity than from rigorous economic analysis. the debate 5 ___ multinationals is rarely grounded on economic arguments and there is little understanding of what multinationals are. Write approximately 300 words. 3.1. particularly in smaller developing countries. or of what costs and benefits they bring to local economies. They are global players that can circumvent local regulations and policies 7 ___ easily than national firms. He is just sarcastic again. 15. 2. jeopardising product variety. Reading Read the following text and fill in the blanks with ONE word. skills and financial resources. Policy-makers want multinationals to invest in their country. I am doubting whether you will be able to succeed in this move. They sell one euro in every four of manufactured goods in Europe and one dollar in five in the United States. Explain why you admire them. They are relatively large and they do have competitive power in the market place and bargaining power in the policy-making arena. Yet policy-makers and the public 1 ___ the world have mixed feelings about multinationals: they see them 2 ___ as welcome bearers of foreign wealth and knowledge or as unwelcome threats to national wealth and identity. able to move activities between their plants 8 ___ relatively low cost. but are unhappy when national firms close 3 ___ domestic activities and open up foreign ones or when foreign brands compete successfully with national ones. They are fast in 9 ___ advantage of new opportunities and .5. To be honest. Writing Choose a leader that you admire. removing benefits as rapidly as they deliver them.
FDI is an investment in a foreign company where the foreign investor owns at least 10% of the ordinary shares. We have decided to form a(n) .ac. Intel and Nike. I wouldn’t like to create any . Instead. FDI flows are different from portfolio investments. Companies like Coca-Cola are world famous .pdf) 3.. General Motors. They are bound by international standards and market competition and they often offer better employment conditions and product qualities 10 ___ national firms. 4.3..3. industrial sectors and for many receiving and sending countries.. as concerns the terms of this contract. acquire or expand a foreign subsidiary. will be exercised by this multinational company.. which can be divested easily and do not have significant influence on the management of the firm.. these data 14 ___ not widely available.. with partners we have so far considered rivals. Thus. multinationals undertake FDI. Investing abroad and thus becoming a multinational is a strategy open to many types of firms. . (http://cep. They include modern corporations 12 ___ IBM. Many small and medium-sized enterprises. undertaken 15 ___ the objective of establishing a ‘lasting interest’ in the country... researchers rely on data on flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) recorded from balance of payment statistics and which are available across time.contributing to national wealth creation. a long-term relationship and significant influence on the management of the firm. .. state. I don’t want to sound ... The activities of multinationals are best measured by firm-level data like sales or number of employees. 9. All countries in the third world need relief supplies given their . Turning on the answer phone I discovered to my dismay that ALLY NATION UNDERSTAND DEVELOP MANAGE ETHNIC APPRECIATE GOVERNMENT COMPREHEND . I am sorry that because of your incompetence the problem we are dealing with has become . –issued ordinance enables small companies to retain a larger part of their profits. Unfortunately. but also small firms like Calzaturificio Carmens. . 7.. What are multinationals? Multinationals are firms that own a significant equity share – typically 50% or more – of another company operating in a foreign country. 6. multinationals are 11 ___ just giant corporations like Microsoft or Coca Cola. have one or more foreign subsidiaries. 8. of your achievement but I think you need to practise PR a bit more.. 2..1. No discrimination based on . to create.lse. Moreover. firms with limited market power in domestic and foreign markets..uk/pubs/download/CP167.. a shoemaker employing 250 workers divided 13 ___ Padua (Italy) and Vranje (Serbia). 5. Vocabulary development 3. 3. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1.
luck has nothing to do with it. you will be able to manage this problem ___ your own. Our success is dependent ___ your manner ___ coping ___ this merger. It was in the depths of the recession..2. .3.. to be honest. Write ONE word in each gap: I was working as an IT Manager for a small publishing company (in fact. and I want to continue doing that. I wouldn’t like to impose my way ___ you. and I’ve managed it... We were all made redundant – it was horrible! I wasn’t sure what I wanted to do next. 10. She is a brisk. We are sure that the present crisis stems ___ our MD’s inability to deal ___ cultural diversity in our company. though. and they finally backed 4 ___ of their agreement. I 6 ___ down several offers of work as I didn’t want to rush into anything. I feel very lucky. We’re bringing 12 ___ new products all the time. 10.3. although. You have to possess ample preparation ___ management to ensure a successful outcome of this meeting.4. 3. and initially our new owners promised to see our small company 3 ___ the hard times. though. but you should understand my concern. I’m not planning to slow 14 ___ any time soon! 3. woman who has shown great competence in dealing with all our clients so far. I am afraid I cannot find any solution ___ our major problem. I also want to speed 13 ___ our production process to make it more efficient. one day.3. His approach ___ cultural diversity lacks ___ careful preparation. 2. Things got worse. I don’t feel satisfied yet. In order to make it a perfect match you will have to gear the components of this device ___ the abilities of the other. I woke up and thought: “I’m going to set 7 ___ my own business!” At first it was tough. whatever happened. using suitable words from the box below: agreement compromise (v) investment equity inflexible negotiate stalemate/deadlock counter-proposals shareholding deal concession withdraw/pull out . . By allowing ___ slight variations ___ the original design. What is your attitude ___ the Italian way? 9. Dickson’s now employs over five hundred people. Then. as the company’s grown. BUSY 3. 7. I was standing 1 ___ for the actual manager while she was away on maternity leave) when the company was taken 2 ___ by a large multinational media organisation. I had to 8 ___ to everything myself – I was the only employee! – but I set 9 ___ it with dedication and refused to give up. 6. Over the last five years. 4. 5. Differences ___ cultural attitudes have to be taken ___ account.all messages were rather .3. 8. Our company closed 5 ___. It just takes hard work and commitment. Complete the following passage. 3. I set 11 ___ to be successful. Fill in the blanks with the required dependent preposition: 1. I’ve taken 10 ___ more and more staff.
4. However. No company wants to leave a country. 6. use a dictionary. write. at the last moment. or earns a lot of foreign currency. Language focus: The tense system: Past Simple vs. get back on one’s feet (again) fall on one’s feet put one’s foot down have a foothold in get a foot in the door have/get cold feet put one’s foot in Rewrite the following sentences replacing the words in italics with the correct forms of the expressions above. When governments try to increase their nationals’ equity shareholding. the negotiations end in a 9 ___. The size of the 3 ___ varies.5. For some time. 5. to persuade the government to give way and make some kind of 6 ___.1. In general. 2.Many countries. wrote. though it can be higher or lower. They argue and haggle. buy. bought . make proposals and 5 ___. If the foreign company employs many local people. tried Irregular verbs: 2nd form: see. They welcome foreign 1 ___ but insist that their own nationals own a percentage of the company’s 2 ___. such as Nigeria and India. The tense system: Past Simple vs. they try to 4 ___ with the government to keep the percentage as low as possible. we were planning to enter the US market. I was laid off in January but I was really lucky because I found an even better job a month later. dropped. 3. Some governments are very 8 ___ and will make no concessions. but at last we’ve got a secure position in the Japanese market. saw. Past Continuous Simple Past Form: Regular verbs: . Past Continuous 3. foreign companies are not pleased.3. Generally. I made a bad mistake when I told our Marketing Director that the new product would fail. 3. The management has acted firmly concerning smoking in the factory. In this case. 3. We don’t have a contract with them but we’ve taken the first steps towards getting one. Study the following list of expressions. If necessary.ed: worked. The group of department stores made losses for three years running. 1. with neither side giving way. 4.4. 7. Then. played. we lost our nerve and decided not to. It took three years’ hard work. ranging from 20% to 60%. The foreign company ends up by 10 ___ from the country. now it has recovered. This usually leads to feelings of great bitterness on both sides. the government may be willing to 7 ___. are trying to get more control over their economies. the foreign firm will make every effort to reach 11 ___ or make some sort of 12 ___ with the host government.
gradual development: It was getting cold. having no connection with the present: He told me to be punctual. when Past Continuous/Progressive Form: to be (in the past tense) + verb + -ing I was running. = He used to play… = He would play…. this time yesterday. .Interrogative: Did he buy? Negative: did not/ didn’t It indicates: a past. My secretary did not understand/was not understanding how the new computer programme was working/worked. Parallel actions in the past. 4.. It was only later that I found out/was finding out there was somebody who knew/was knowing that she spent/was spending time in prison at the time for tax evasion. 7. when. They listened carefully whenever he was delivering a speech. as. It indicates: past actions in progress: I was writing when he entered the room. this time last month… !!! Simple and Progressive Past while. at that time. . When the manager arrived he noticed/was noticing that the secretary had left. I saw him. . she came in.ago. I was trying/tried to get in touch with your secretary all day yesterday but I couldn’t. What did you do/were you doing yesterday as I tried/was trying to get through to you? 5. He typed/was typing the contract when his boss came/was coming in. Was I running? Yes. especially after the time it was expected to finish: At ten I was still reading.4. When I was 20 I lived in London. I realised/was realising that somebody was ringing me up/rang me up as I was going/went into the conference room. two days/ months/ years….o’ clock. I wasn’t. .a past habit: He played football twice a week. . interrupted by a past. momentary action: I was writing when he entered.An action continuing.An action performed in the past: We met two weeks ago. At that time he worked/was working in a pharmaceutical company. Specific adverbs: yesterday. 2. No. one of which is in development: We listened to the radio while we were having lunch. When I was talking to him. 8. Specific adverbs: at…. Choose the correct tense in the following sentences: 1. 3. finished action. 3.A gradual action. 6.2. I was. whenever introduce the Past Progressive: While/ as I was crossing the street. last week/ month/ year….
10. . As nobody watched/was watching. it was easy for me to conduct the transaction my way. He was going/went on his business trip to France when her plane crashed/was crashing. comment (in approximately 300 words) on the statement ‘Multinational corporations are robbing poor countries of their national assets’.9. Writing Using the list you have drawn in the previous activity. Discussion topic Draw a list of advantages and disadvantages of multinational corporations.
The HR Recruiters should not forget about this main goal during the design phase of the recruitment process development. Job Design 2.2. Generally. The recruitment process is simple on the high level. This is another key step in the recruitment process. Reading Read the text below and fill in the gaps with ONE word. The Recruitment Process 1. Preselection of CVs 5. The Job Design is 4 ___ the agreement about the profile of the ideal job candidate and the agreement about the skills and competencies. but it contains a lot of interaction 2 ___ different participants in the recruitment process. The main steps of the recruitment process are: 1. Collecting CVs 4.UNIT SIX – RECRUITMENT 1. The Opening of the Job Position is generally the job of the HR Recruiter. this should be the last step done purely by the HRM Function. the organisation cannot wait with the preselection of the CVs. the line manager and candidates need to receive and share a lot of information and their interaction is usually the main issue during the recruitment process. The job design is a phase about design of the job profile 3 ___ a clear agreement between the line manager and the HRM Function. Opening Job Position 3. Job Offer The job design is the most important part of the recruitment process. The information gathered can be used during other steps of the recruitment process to 5 ___ it up. . which are essential.1. This step in the recruitment process is very important today 7 ___ many organisations waste a lot of time in this step. Main Recruitment Process Steps The aim of the HRM Function is 1 ___ the recruitment process design as simple as possible. Lead-in Consider the following questions: Where can you find information about job vacancies? What information do companies generally give when they advertise for vacancies? What are the steps that one has to take in order to apply for a job? What are your expectations when looking for a job? Should people accept any employment conditions simply because they are unemployed? Why? 1. Job Interviews 6. Skilled and experienced HR Recruiters should decide 6 ___ the right mix of the recruitment sources to find the best candidates for the job position. The next step is collecting CVs and preselecting them. The HRM Function. Today.
former employers. 9. in the advertisement. It is useful to have recommendations from two or three . As Mr. You should send your CV and a letter of application at the address . Henkel needs young candidates for position in . The job offer is the 10 ___ step of the recruitment process. 2.. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition.). APPOINT VACANT REQUIRE SPECIFIC EMPHATIC APPLY CULTURE COMPETE QUALIFY REFER 1.. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. in a newspaper.3. . 4. Try not to be envious ___ John’s success! You know he deserves a promotion...g. The company offers a . teachers.3. Peter decided to apply ___ the position of senior production manager. 10. Our company finally decided to advertise ___ their newly launched products. .3. the company will draw a shortlist of candidates.. Vocabulary development 1. Should you need further information. If you decide to apply for a job you must be sure that you meet the . teams.html 1. who are invited to attend an interview.. etc. 7. which is done by the HRM Function. (e. If you are looking for a job you should carefully read the . 8. 1. My letter comes ___ reply to your advertisement for the position of operations officer. The job interview should discover the job candidate who 9 ___ the requirements and fits best the corporate culture and the department... 6. 4. 3.. Our employees are very committed ___ our company’s goals. 2.. http://hrmadvice.. your suitability for the job you are applying for. apply ___ our PR assistant.. You will be responsible ___ all aspects of production if you want this position.. 8. 5. which should be clearly designed and agreed 8 ___ HRM and the line management. salary and generous benefits.com/hrmadvice/hr-processes/recruitment-andselection/recruitment-process-design-and-development/main-recruitment-processsteps.. count as much as work experience.. Generally companies decide to advertise their job . page of newspapers... 7. After reading the CVs and the letters sent by the .. Jones retired. it finalises all the other steps and the winner of the job interviews gets the offer from the organisation to join. 3.The job interviews are the main step in the recruitment process. Your letter of application should . specified in the job description.2. 6. If you want this job you should be ready to work ___ pressure.. 5.1...
will help you or that sth.3. Jackson is not really interested ___ the position of customer services assistant. difficult without letting it worry you i. If necessary. hope that sb. She was 6 ___ her hopes on getting a top job with C&M.3. Sandra got her 1 ___ in the door when she was very young. go it alone I 5. Learn to take things in your stride whatever happens. because you think you will benefit from it g. rely on only one thing for success d. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket – try to keep your options open. make a name for yourself 10.3. put all your eggs in one basket 6. have the courage to go it alone. In a couple more years. you need to get your foot in the door. keep in with sb. Read the following tips to help you get on at work. which could later bring you success f. things will get easier. and when she heard on the 7 ___ that they wanted someone to run the Singapore office. by talking in an informal way to other people 1. accept and deal with sth. make sure you find out about recent developments in a particular situation c.9. This position involves looking ___ very young children. Keep in with your colleagues – you may need their support. and once she started at Berwick’s. she applied for it and got it. . Then match the phrases in the first column with their appropriate explanation in the second column in the table. keep your feet on the ground 1. keep your ear to the ground 8. get your first opportunity to work for an organisation or business. get your foot in the door 2. • • • • • • • • First. pin (all) your hopes on others 4. 1. She was offered jobs in other cities but wanted to keep her 4 ___ open by staying in London where she could keep her ear to the 5 ___ and wait for something really exciting to come up. If you can make a name for yourself. Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the phrases in the table above. Always keep your feet on the ground. Don’t pin your hopes on others. Complete the text. become well known and respected by many people e. 1. she’ll have enough experience to go it 8 ___ if she wants to.4. Mr. take sth/things in your stride 3.5. so who knows where she’ll end up. have a sensible and realistic attitude b. stay friends with sb. she took everything in her 2 ___ and quickly made a 3 ___ for herself. but I know she has continued to 9 ___ in with her colleagues at Berwick’s. do sth without help from anyone j. 10. Keep your ear to the ground – you hear important things on the grapevine. 7. will happen because all your plans depend on this h. on the grapevine 9. a.3.
2. yet. It indicates: action begun in the past that continues in the present: I have known him for two years. 10. . 1. Present Perfect Simple) of the verbs given in brackets to fill in the blanks in the following sentences: 1. When (come) the new manager to this factory? 9. He already (send) three letters of application to three different companies. 4. Specific adverbs: already. I have.4. /Have I seen her?/ Yes. up to the present. Language focus: The tense system: Present Perfect Simple 1. ever. No. I haven’t. Give reasons in support of your choice. Form: to have (in the present) + the Past Participle I have seen her. all day. 7.1. Specific adverbs: for. up to now. Until recently nobody (know) how to operate the new security system in the office. Choose the correct tense (Past Simple. She (work) as a marketing assistant for twenty years. Writing. just finished action: He has just entered.4. 3. Jane (attend) a seminar on recruitment techniques yesterday. Have you seen him yet? Specific adverbs: just. never always. The tense system: Present Perfect Simple The verbs in bold in the following sentence are in the Present Perfect tense. It is the first time that we (find) the right person for the job. yet past action with results in the present: He has broken his leg. 5.4. You have just graduated (preferably in business administration) at university level or you have already worked for several years at a consumer goods producer (cosmetics experience is beneficial).1. They (not hear) from their business partner since last summer. already an action that has been completed: They have repaired the fax. that is between 1960 and 1990. Discussion topic Imagine that you are speaking to a group of students from another university who are interested in applying for a research project in your particular field of study. (ever) since. seldom. often. 2. How many times you (apply) for a job? 8. Our company (to buy) ten new computers last month. Describe your favourite job in approximately 300 words. till now. recently. 6. When the executive (arrive) we (feel) very confident of the company’s success. so far. Discuss the different job opportunities in this field. lately.
contentmonster.2.1.uk/Job_hunting) a) Look at the structure of a CV. Lead-in Consider the following questions: What information do you have to give in a curriculum vitae? What is the role of the letter of application? To what extent do the CV and the letter of application represent one’s suitability for a certain position? What aspects referring to your private life are of real interest to your potential employer? What personal quality do you consider to recommend you as a potential reliable employee? 2. and whether YOU feel comfortable with its content and style. organisations or associations that you may belong to especially if they are in a field relevant to the position you are applying for) . you may want to mention outstanding achievements during each period) ADDITIONAL SKILLS (mention any training courses or periods of part-time employment that you consider relevant) INTERESTS (mention your favourite pastime activities. Reading The most common contents of a CV include: Personal Details Skills and Career Summary Key Achievements Qualifications Career History Don't forget: The ultimate test of YOUR CV is whether it meets the needs of the person making the buying decision. (http://www.2. CVs and letters of application 2.co. CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL DETAILS Name: Date of birth: Nationality: Marital status: Address: Telephone: EDUCATION/QUALIFICATIONS PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE/WORK HISTORY/WORK EXPERIENCE (you can mention your employment periods either in ascending or in descending order.
for example: "I believe I am ideally suited to this role because: I have 15 years experience in sales I have tertiary qualifications in sales and marketing I have managed accounts well in excess of Ł10. You should also be guided by conversations that you have had with recruitment consultants or company recruiters. In preparing to write the second section. the job number and reference number.000" . 2000. I am writing to express my interest in the position of Architect that was advertised on your Internet site on 13 February. advertised in The Times on 13 May. Internet or other source. ie the newspaper name.REFERENCES (give two or three names of persons who have known you for some time and can recommend you for the job) b) Consider the following advice on writing covering letter). The first paragraph should give you a fighting chance for the job by at least getting your application into the right pile. a letter of application (also called The letter of application introduces you and your CV to a recruitment consultant or potential employer. you might be more comfortable with the succinct: "I believe I am ideally suited to this role because I have over 15 years experience in sales. you should read the advertisement clearly and identify the selection criteria articulated in the advertisement. tertiary qualifications. managed accounts in excess of Ł10. Reference number MX/67845." The purpose of this first paragraph is to clearly put you in the running for the job you have applied for. Busy recruiters recruit a number of positions with similar titles at the same time. if provided. so that you clearly understand what they think is important in the role. How you express this section is up to you." Or "Following our recent conversation. For example.000 etc. Such a letter should contain three distinct parts: Introduction and statement of source Statement of relevance to role advertised Conclusion Introduction and Statement of Source The first section should clearly state the source of the advertisement. 2000. and advertise these on similar dates. Examples of the first paragraph in a letter of application are: "I am writing to express my interest in applying for the role of Sales Manager. Statement of Relevance to Advertised Role The second section of your letter of application should clarify why you are an appropriate candidate for this particular job. They often give you extra clues that are not in the advertised media. the date that it was advertised. etc" or you may prefer bullet-point form.
Our company ___ an experienced production manager." (www. but we had to ___ our allies after more than one flaw were identified in the contract. Fill in the blanks in the following text with the words and phrases given below: ago among hygiene suppliers brand styling sales market field worldwide kind leading since consistent continuously ___ its foundation over 126 years ___ our company has put ___ focus on customer oriented product development.3.1. . We are deeply sorry. 3. was on fire.uk/Job_hunting) 2. for example: "I look forward to discussing this application with you in the near future. break in with look after break off look for break out look forward break through look into break look out 1.2. we ___ to your reply. They ___ negotiations weeks ago because of the financial crisis. express your interest in the job and provide any particular contact details that may be unique.co.3. skin care. The meeting was interrupted when the secretary ___ to say that the building 2. Fill in the blanks in the sentences below with the required tense form of the suitable phrasal verb. With our cosmetic products we achieved ___ of 2085 million Euro in 150 countries ___. If you don’t ___ you may end up in bankruptcy. (http://www. 2.9. 6.com/int_henkel/cosmetics) 2.henkel. toiletries. 7. 5. Look up the following phrasal verbs. oral ___ and fragrances.3.3. We are very disappointed to find out that our MD is always ___ his own interests only. Vocabulary development 2. We will have to ___ the possibility of hiring more PR assistants. 4. In conclusion." Another example might be: "I look forward to discussing this application with you in greater detail in the near future and will be available for interview at a mutually convenient time. The new management had almost no difficulty in ___ the lines of competition.Concluding Section In concluding your letter. XXX during work hours.3. We hold ___ market positions in all of the international ___ segments of our strategic business units. Our company stands for brand-name products in the ___ of hair colorants.contentmonster. I can be contacted on XXX or alternatively. hair ___ and care. The Schwarzkopf Professional hairdressing unit is ___ the world’s four leading ___ of hair salon products. Study the phrases given in the table below. The Schwarzkopf & Henkel division is one of the largest of its ___ in the world and its ___ -name products business is ___ expanding. The value of our shares fell dramatically when the scandal about the merger ___.
2.3.4. very nearly sth/sb so familiar that you no longer notice it/them look after sb who has less experience than you the clever ways of doing things in a particular job give sth to sb else. You need someone to show you the tricks of the business.) be difficult to do.3.) tell people what to do in a bossy way Correct the mistake in each sentence.) almost. 1. 6. Simone has worked here close by ten years. and I pass it through to the others. He’s very bossy and likes to throw his size about. distance. 2.3. It was lucky for me that Mary took me under her arm and helped me. etc. Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the phrases in 2. 2.close on part of the furniture take sb under your wing the tricks of the trade pass sth on (to sb) take some doing throw your weight around/about (used with time. To fill these roles you will need the following skills & experience: An understanding of issues facing the public sector and their relevance to SRI's work An ability to work on a wide range of research projects under the supervision of a project manager First class report writing skills An understanding of the demands of working in commercial environment An ability to work on a number of different projects simultaneously and to prioritise a demanding workload A Research Executive is generally expected to have at least 1-2 years' relevant research experience. Writing Write a CV and a letter of application in response to the following job advertisement: Research Executive / Executive Assistant We are currently looking for researchers to join MORI's Social Research Institute. To find out more about our work. please send your CV and your letter of application to (http://www. so I’m some of the furniture. 3. I’ve been there all my life.4. 5. 4.mori. age. 7.com) . The boss tells me what to do. especially after receiving it yourself (inf. while those with less experience generally join at the Executive Assistant level. visit the Social Research Institute. or involve a lot of effort or time (inf. It’s a hard job and it’ll make some doing. If you're interested in this vacancy.
Actions in the recent past we know about because of a present evidence: You are wet. The candidate hasn’t said/hasn’t been saying a word about his qualifications yet. 2. 8. work (they can be used both with the present perfect simple and the present perfect progressive. No. present perfect is used: I’ve always wanted a good computer. there are verbs that suggest an action in progress by their meaning: live. he hasn’t.5. look.2. Choose the correct form of the verb in the following sentences: 1. study. with little difference in meaning): He has worked/ has been working in this office for two years. The tense system: Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Continuous/ Progressive Form: to be (in the present perfect) + verb + ing: He has been writing for two hours. hear. want. It indicates: an action or situation in progress (and not the completion of that action): I have been reading the book. 5. That’s why he is so tired. 9. But If you want to emphasize the completion of the action. taste. How many times have you brought up/have you been bringing up the issue of working overtime in a production meeting? 6. This morning our secretary has written/has been writing more than twenty letters to our suppliers.5. Actions indicating ‘how long’ something has been going on: How long have you been playing chess? !!!!!! If you want to emphasize a situation in progress and not its completion present perfect progressive can be used with verbs like: see. Our production manager has made/has been making the same mistake again. You have been walking in the rain. Language focus: The tense system: Present Perfect Continuous 2. Sales figures have improved/have been improving lately. Has he been writing?/ Yes. remember: I’ve been wanting to meet you for ages. he has.5.2. sit. We haven’t seen/haven’t been seeing our partner since the end of July. 3. I have been applying/have applied for various jobs since September. smell. wait. 10. He has answered/has been answering the phone since 10 o’clock. . 4. realize. 7. 2. They have been trying/have tried to attract them into a profitable partnership for a very long time. rain.1. Temporary actions or situations: I’ve been living in London (for two years). but with little success. Why haven’t we thought/haven’t we been thinking of this solution earlier? It could have saved us.
Re-read your application. You should try to anticipate the general questions which they will ask and also prepare some questions to ask them. You will 3 ___ need to show that you are sufficiently motivated to get the job 4 ___ well and that you will fit in with the company’s organisational structure and the team in which you will work. talking a lot without saying very much that is clear . waffle 3. You should dress smartly for the interview and should leave home earlier 5 ___ you need to on the day of the interview – you may de delayed by traffic or 6 ___ other reasons. anticipate 2. foresee c. At the interview itself you must be positive about yourself and your abilities – but do not waffle.uk/Job_hunting) 3.1. slouch 5. You should always look attentive – so do not slouch in your chair. The interview 3. You can always grow it again once you have got the job. When you are being interviewed it is very important that you give out the right signals. To do well at the interview you will need to convince the interviewer you are technically qualified to do the job. Vocabulary development 3.co. expect. respectful and considerate e. annual 4. thinking through your own career and the questions they might ask you. polite.2.1. Job interview Advice Before your interview. Match the words and phrases with their corresponding definitions: 1. If you have a moustache you may want to consider shaving it off – people with moustaches can be perceived as being aggressive.3. smartly a. (http://www. Lead-in Consider the following questions: What is the role of the job interview? How much attention should one pay to appearance when attending a job interview? Why is the presence of a psychologist useful in an interviewing team? How can you fight stress during a job interview? What questions do you expect to be asked in a job interview? 3. Reading Read the following text and fill in the gaps. pleasantly neat and clean in appearance d.3.3. find 1 ___ everything you can about the company (read their annual report which can be obtained 2 ___ telephoning them). yearly b. Be courteous to all employees of the company. Never lie to anyone in an interview.contentmonster. your 7 ___ language and tone of voice or the words you use will probably give you 8 ___– classic body language giveaways include scratching your nose and not looking directly at the other person when you are speaking to them.
if you want to succeed in being recruited for a promising job. These are sorted and applications are received. We are sorry to inform you that you have not been offered this position. 5. Read the text below and select the best option from the drop-down menu of words. 2. The following text describes a typical selection process. 7. but the sentences are in the wrong order! Re-arrange the sentences in each section so that the whole text makes sense. 1.. cause somebody to be late j. with your shoulders and head dropping down i.. a final short list is drawn up. 9.. see or hear it especially when it is not obvious to other people h. Your CV is sadly . appointments are arranged A job offer is made to the successful candidate.3.. 9. courteous 9.2.. 3. . 6. She couldn’t . Thanks to her .. Being .. Firstly. .3. 5. 11. 3. 8. giveaway 8. . from the job contest. revealing. a vacancy is advertised and suitable candidates are invited for interview.. should be dressed smartly when attending a job interview. 6..6. 4. VIEW GUIDE HOPE HAND COME CONVINCE SUFFICE ORGANISE COURT QUALIFY 3. prepared. you risk missing out on one of the biggest career opportunities you’ve ever had. You must be well-prepared . scratch 10. perceive or important f. Next. The candidates on the list are interviewed again.. 2. on how to best use the computer system... 3.. an employment contract is signed. her shyness in front of the recruitment board. This handbook will offer you ample . 10. rub g.3. The failure of certain candidates to submit a complete application package resulted in their immediate . I think that this firm is not really one of the best. have done the right thing while going through our papers.. skills the candidate selection process left us with one of the best professionals we could have ever found..4. 8.3. 4. and one of them is selected. notice. The first sentence has been done for you.. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. After that.. sit/stand/walk in a lazy or tired way. Without wanting to sound . and finally. disclosing (usually something secret) 3. The auditor will . 10. delay 7... and applicants are interviewed.. 7.. realise.
remarkable. But there is still more work to do if you want to get that job! Make sure you have 3 ___ the company as thoroughly as possible . 4 ___ yourself of why you applied to this company. .If you have 1 ___ the interview stage. your CV and letter of application must have been 2 ___! The company now wants to know more about you. in case: They paid for fear they shouldn’t get the merchandise. 3. She behaved as if she were the headmaster. The Subjunctive Form: Synthetic: present subjunctive: identical with the short infinitive: be. for fear. It is used with: impersonal expressions: it is advisable/ important/ essential/ desirable/ possible/ likely/ probable/ strange/ unusual/ impossible/ (un)fortunate/. In negative purpose sentences. 4. and interests you can 5 ___ the organisation. after lest. if only. A gained A effective A researched A remember A show A ask B reached B important B inquired B remind B present B suggest C arrived C impressive C examined C imagine C offer C give D achieved D significant D discovered D summarise D demonstrate D predict 3. 6. 5. an unreal fact) The synthetic subjunctive is rarely used. have. as though wish (to indicate regret. Finally. as if. A less probable condition: If he should succeed. Language focus A. Make a list of the skills. try to 6 ___ the questions you will be expected to answer . concessions. doubts. work…. company reports. Analytical: Form: Should/ would/ may/ might/ could + short infinitive Should/ would/ may/ might/ could + perfect infinitive It indicates: hypothetical facts/actions (suppositions. (but I’m not) It’s time you went home. 2. So be it! Synthetic: past subjunctive: identical with the past tense simple It indicates: an action contrary to reality: I wish I were a doctor. It is used after: if.imagine you are the interviewer! 1. surprising: It is important that the chairman should call the meeting. It is important that the president inform the investors… expressions: Suffice it to say…. experience. I will be happy.use the Internet. It indicates: a possible action: It is necessary that you be here. purposes): They took the airplane so that they might arrive in time.4. recruitment literature etc. conditions.
however. understand: They were advised to negotiate the price. believe. order. expect. When the speaker avoids mentioning the logical subject: The order has already been placed. discover. offer. it is/ was a pity/ shame/ surprise/ wonder: It was a pity (that) they should be fired. suggest: It was suggested that they would work hard. suggest. I took the money so that they could buy the firm. Active/Passive Voice Look at these examples: Performances are held everywhere (3) His photographs were exhibited…………. the verbs: command. require.. Passive + infinitive + object: with the verbs: advise. arrange. forbid. adjectives: to be + glad. pleased. request. Writing . order. Flowers are given to her. though. 3. whatever. the nouns: idea. say.were presented (5) Works that have never been shown (5) Life couldn’t be imagined (6) Active/ Passive Voice Rule: to be (any tense required) + the Past Participle of the verb to be conjugated They give her flowers. She is given flowers. B. hint. sorry: I was glad that he should graduate this summer. expect. no matter: He will win whatever he should do. hope. report. anxious. It + the passive of: agree.5. // so that: They phoned so that I wouldn’t be taken by surprise. demand. propose. After: although. agree. settle: They requested the goods should be delivered fast. announce. thought. feel. teach. insist. mean. supposition: The idea that they should be present annoyed her. In formal notices: Passengers are requested not to… Newspapers: President sacked because… Processes in science or engineering: The wheel is tested… Passive Structures: modals + passive: The meeting can be postponed. request. When the object is more important than the logical subject: The manager was informed on the situation. The use of the passive When the logical subject is obvious or is not important: Goods should be delivered as soon as possible. reason.
Write a list of personal qualities that you would be looking for in a candidate for the position of personal assistant. . Would you qualify for this position? Give reasons in approximately 250 words.
especially to a place that is far away k. a trip from one piece of land to another. either by sea or in space a trip that involves travelling by plane a trip to a place to see specific things of interest a short trip in a car or bus. across water i. 7. often one that is long or difficult b. Come on.: 1. I’ll give you a ___ to the museum. Did you have a tiring ___ 3. c. 10. The school ___ to the science museum was boring for the kids. or on a bicycle or motorbike a short trip made by a group of people. The travel agency organised a(n) ___ to local places of interest. journey voyage travels flight drive tour 7) crossing 8) ride 9) expedition 10) outing 11) excursion a long trip. 11. f. My ___ to work usually only takes 15 minutes. 5. g. Lead-in 1) Think of three problems that a businessperson may encounter in his/her business trip 2) Now think of a solution or a way to prevent each of these problems from occurring 3) Have you ever had a bad journey? What happened? 2. His essays are based on his ___ in South Africa. 9. Fill in the blanks with the words from II. Vocabulary a. e. 8. a trip from one place to another.a. a series of trips made over a period of time. b. 6.UNIT SEVEN – BUSINESS TRAVEL 1. usually lasting less than a day an organized trip for a group of people a trip to a very distant place for a long period of time. Their ___ across the Atlantic was full of problems. 4. They went on a two-week ___ to Italy last month. Their ___ to the South Pole was very adventurous. 3. Read the first part of a text about travel tips and fill in each gap with one suitable word: . How long is the ___ to New York? 2. An overnight ferry ___ is quite dangerous in this area. d. English in use a. Match the following words meaning ‘trip’ with their definitions: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) a. often with a specific aim such as scientific research h. a trip that involves travelling by car j.
write CORRECT in its corresponding numbered space. As car rental fleets shrink and prices rise. If the part is correct. Practice deep breathing or muscle stretches. and inappropriateness in the context). Some sentences have been removed from the extract. There are many coping techniques (9) to effectively reduce stress.htm) 4.com/businesstravel/article001. 6. If you have an assistant or colleagues. Clean out your address book 7___ organize your computer files. Accept it. some have a mistake in them (a grammar mistake. an unnecessary word. Use 5___ Internet to see which other hotels have last minute deals in your area. now and next year? (10) Use these to ease those business travel journeys. a missing word.a 1. They will come in handy the next time you're stuck in the system.they shout business traveller to the crooked. Business travel can become 0___ rut. There are several newer chains of budget hotels for the business traveller. Have a map of (6) where are you going.e. Improve your stress management skills. 2001. Review your car rental company choice. Do you know (3) how to avoid from getting robbed? Escape a hotel fire? (4) Choose one safe taxi? Business travellers are prime targets. Some of the underlined parts are correct.9). Reading comprehension a. 7. Can you get a better corporate deal from a car hire company (2) if everyone uses them for their business travel? 5. a vocabulary mistake. Review your business travel programme and frequent fliers schemes.at work and 6___ the road. Assess where you stay. 0 . (adapted and abridged from http://www. 8___ together to brainstorm ways to improve communication and coordination while you are out 9___ the office. 2. write the correct version in its corresponding numbered space: 4. (7) business travel is stressing. (1) you may find it is more cheaper to use a taxi. if the part is incorrect. Current issues with airport security make it inevitable that your next business trip will include (8) a significant amounts of stress. Read the following article about how airlines have changed their offers since September 11. Challenge yourself and your corporate travel agent to come up 1___ alternatives to save money or time. 3. These sites can help you budget for the taxi fares. Have you access to lounges. What new technologies 10___ help you? Fax boxes? Picture messaging? Fast mobile data connections? Don't forget the batteries! b. Organize your office . (5) Take old labels off your luggage .nrgpax. Read the second part of the text. It is surprisingly easy to get into a familiar pattern when 2___ travel to the same destination repeatedly. . This is the time to evaluate your electronic gadgets and consolidate your important information.g.I the one which fits each gap (1. Review your travel safety skills. Choose from sentences A. Are you staying in the 3___ effective place when you visit your customers? Are you being lulled into complacency 4___ frequent traveller programs? Check out the business alternatives.
1___ Not any more. 3___ As with most airline schemes. to define an SME. we began looking at various options to get this market back on track. such as number of trips. a PA (Personal Assisstant). loyalty marketing. airlines including KLM. post-9/11. including cash rewards. “It would be a huge benefit for our customers to get our partner airlines on board. SMEs had fallen off our radar. BlueBiz.” says Thomas Brandt. I. KLM estimates that the 3. the market exists and we have been working hard to find ways to develop a relationship with this sector H. C.” says Stuart Beamish. BA’s senior manager. value of travel spend or size of company. cash credits are offered against any KLM flight of any class or fare type and redeemed as free flights. distribution planning.8 million or so UK-based SMEs can save up to 10 per cent of their travel costs through its cashback loyalty programme. D. but SAS plans to continue to operate some kind of SME programme. G. Under the scheme. 2___ Typically. that small can be profitable Airlines striving to hold on to their share of a tough corporate market are increasingly looking to nurture business travellers they have previously ignored. 4___ SAS’s new PayBack Programme offers cash rewards of up to 15 per cent of the annual travel spend or a maximum of 20 return tickets between the UK and Scandinavia depending on the level of expenditure. and SAS have all introduced initiatives to try and win such managers on board. “But after the US terror attacks of 9/11. Pressures to fill aircraft and the competitive threat of low-cost airlines have seen airlines launch rafts of incentives. Swiss. Will small businesses fill the airlines’ large gaps? Airlines discover.000. Unable to qualify for corporate deals because they do not generate enough travel. “We are looking at extending On Business to include semi-restricted tickets. to show SMEs that they really are wanted.A. Bmi’s Company Returns scheme has similarly gone down the cash reward and points route. It could be anything from a sole trader running a news agency to a firm employing several hundred people with an annual travel budget of about £100. free flights and upgrades. But the points are awarded on any airline as part of an itinerary that includes a segment flown on Swiss. financial director or company boss will be responsible for administering the schemes in-house. E. However. Airlines use different criteria. Over the past 12 months. Delta’s general manager. We decided on a web-based corporate loyalty programme to make it cost effective. . but the individual can also collect frequent flier mileage points on flights taken. B. KLM’s e-commerce manager Glyn Duggan explains: “Due to their volume levels. Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are companies which have a fraction of the travel budgets of the £1m-plus spend of large firms. SMEs have been ignored by travel providers. not only does the company benefit.” F. The scheme runs until June.
000. it is even worse for its transatlantic 4___ Until next Friday. 5___ British Airways is planning to relax some of the restrictions of the On Business scheme that it introduced for SMEs four years ago. “The SME is notoriously hard to pinpoint. The cut and thrust of survival War. including free flights. a move partially driven by the impact of low-cost carriers. Eligible BA fares earn companies points that can be exchanged for travel rewards. including Air France and Korean Air. Security and cost-cutting are the main issues and the corporates are calling the tune.87 million travellers in 2000. terrorism and Sars have 5___ British business travel badly. One senior business travel agency executive commented: “They say things are getting better. courting companies with an annual travel spend of between £8. Government figures for the nine months to September 2003 show a further slump of 170.000.SAS spokesman Jeff Rebello says the incentive is a two-pronged attack — to increase the loyalty of existing customers and to switch passengers from other airlines. From a peak of 8. which arrived at Heathrow from Washington DC at 7am on Monday. United Airlines is offering a return business-class fare to New York for £999. 6___ About 10.000 and £80. (adapted and abridged from http://www.html) b. Read an article about the impact of terrorism on business travel. quite a complex group of companies. choose the answer (A. On Virgin Atlantic flight VS022. Of 50 business-class seats in the new Airbus A340-600. .timesonline. There were more 2___ members in the front cabin than passengers.. If it is bad for BA. War. C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.5466.000 business passengers over the same period in 2002. For questions 1-10. it has not been as fast as predicted. each worth 1 euro.co. passengers travelling Upper Class could have no 1___ about service. terrorism and Sars have changed the nature of business travel. 9___ adds Brandt.’” Transatlantic business 3___ are a crucial barometer to airline health and although British Airways said last week that there has been “some improvement” in premium traffic. B. he says. only eight were taken.000 companies have enrolled with On Business.00. towards free flights. hotel accommodation and limo transfers. with half “actively redeeming” points for travel rewards. More discounted fares will be included in the programme across all cabins to appeal to cost-conscious SMEs. I say. ‘Emperor’s new clothes. Swiss has gone a step further by offering credit points. The standard BA return costs just over £4. numbers fell by 10 per cent to eight million in 2002. 8___ The US-based airline ventured into the SME market three years ago. 7___ The development of airline alliances has prompted Delta Air Lines to try to extend its SkyBonus scheme to cover partner SkyTeam carriers.uk/section/0.
0 . crew B. 1. tax C. 1. is also now “extremely buoyant” according to Christian Rooney. excursion C.” The report says surveys of American corporate travel purchasers indicate that they believe that. while technology 3___ allows employees to stay in touch while on the road. place 8. According to Delta Airlines. has also 5___ employees to book flights and hotels themselves while still following company travel policy. added: “The business travel sector is increasingly exposed in a world where a blowtorch is being applied to every conceivable kind of corporate expense. A London-based economic think tank. routes D.7 per cent this year. the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR). flying D. trips 4. damaged D. with two-thirds choosing to book using the internet. complaints 2. A. busy emphasize provide increase large power 6. expense B. hit C. demands C. since 2000. misgivings D.g. one specialist operator. warn e. Executive jet travel. fare 5. says in a new report that it expects business 7___ in Europe to grow by 2. A. The company has just opened a new base at Southampton airport and now uses five jets. 5. But Douglas McWilliams. . agent 14. A. crossings B. team 3. punched B. 4. trip 8. while helping corporates track and control expenditure. 3. English in use Read the second part of the article. A. There is a new 1___ on briefing travellers and staying in touch.Yesterday. 4___ because of concerns over security. they have managed to negotiate down their prices for business travel by 20 per cent. supply 10. Technology. BA announced a fresh round of job cuts. Use the words below to form a word that fits in the same numbered space in the text. travels C. A. world C. A. 2. travel D. stable 12. only 29 per cent of UK business travellers now prefer to book with a travel agent. 0. Information 2___ such as Control Risks and Country Briefings provide assessments. knowing that the only way to compete with the no-frills airlines and its traditional rivals is on cost. A. tree 7. Unfortunately for BA. Business travel is typically 2-3 per cent of corporate cost and is generally regarded as the largest single controllable 8___. kicked 6. rivals 5. cost-cutting is also top of the 6___ for its passengers. voyage B. A. coauthor of the report. improve 7. global 9. marketing and sales director of Bookajet. stringent 13. but the nature of 0___ travel has changed irrevocably: events since September 11 have made that inevitable. partners C. agenda D. head B. address 11. pilot C. enemies B. complainings B.business The decline in passenger numbers is now levelling off. fine D. profit 15. foes D.
British Airways will, in April, no longer issue paper tickets on the 75 per cent of its routes where electronic tickets can be used. Fast 6___ technology on board aircraft is also now delivering live TV news and e-mail, while wireless-free use of laptops in hotels and airports is rolling out at a frenetic pace. The idea that videoconferencing will one day 7___ travel has largely been disproved, however. While it does have a role, the underlying need for face-to-face contact is growing due to the “ratcheting up” of 8___, according to the CEBR report. McWilliams said: “Maintaining and enhancing business relations, both in-house and with customers and 9___, needs a regular dose of direct contact.” It is a point being echoed by all sectors of the industry, not least those hotel, airline and credit card suppliers desperate to see a return to regular corporate flying. But they also argue that companies, having 10___ the issue of cost cutting, will be leaner and more positive about travelling. A report out this week from Company Barclaycard concludes: “Overall, the figures indicate that business travellers are on the move more, thanks to confirmed new business rather than trying to secure it, an indication of greater 11___.” This positive view relies, naturally, on the continued stability of world events. Corporates may be starting to travel again, but the increasing 12___ of US immigration is one striking example of how fragile confidence remains in travel. John Melchior, executive vice-president of global corporate travel 13___ Radius, summed up the mood: “Companies have adjusted and are becoming more 14___. Those who have survived know that there won’t be such a big dip in world events again. “There are certain dangers out there, but we still have to travel. Now we have to know where travellers are, and to give them 15___ of potential problems. We all have to accommodate that.” (adapted and abridged from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/section/0,5466,00.html) 6. Writing In no more than 200 words, write an argumentative essay about the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by plane. Use at least 5 words from the box. air hostess connecting point airline office departure lounge air turbulence airport hotel direct flight airport terminal arrival airport economy class business class excess baggage baggage reclaim ground transportation boarding pass booking procedures check-in landing security check take off unclaimed luggage weight limit
UNIT EIGHT – CULTURE AND CIVILISATION 1. What is cultural diversity? 1.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: How would you define cultural diversity? What separates members of multinational teams? What unites members of multinational teams? What are the “disadvantages” of diversity? What are the “advantages” of diversity? 1.2. Reading A diverse organisation is one which values difference. It is one which recognises that people with different backgrounds, skills, attitudes and experiences bring fresh ideas and perceptions. Diverse organisations encourage and harness these differences to make their services relevant and approachable. A diverse organisation draws upon the widest possible range of views and experiences, so it can listen to, and meet, the changing needs of its users, staff, volunteers, partners and supporters. The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Developments (CIPD) describes managing diversity as: "Managing diversity is based on the concept that people should be valued as individuals for reasons related to business interests, as well as for moral and social reasons. It recognises that people from different backgrounds can bring fresh ideas and perceptions which can make the way work is done more efficient and products and services better. Managing diversity successfully will help organisations to nurture creativity and innovation and thereby to tap hidden capacity for growth and improved competitiveness". (Managing diversity - a CIPD position paper, 1996) The CIPD explains that the effective management of diversity can help "counteract prejudice against a wide range of personal differences, for example: academic or vocational qualification, accent, age, caring responsibilities, ethnic origin, gender, learning difficulties, marital status, physical and mental abilities, political affiliation, previous mental illness, religion, sexual orientation, spent or irrelevant convictions and trade union or non-trade union membership". (http://www. mori.com/digest/2000) 1.3. Vocabulary development 1.3.1. Match the following words and phrases from the text with their right definitions:
1. trade union
2. vocational 3. affiliation
a. origin, set of values defining a person b. guide, set in order, curb, stop c. available, easily accessible
4. prejudice 5. counteract
6. nurture 7. supporter 8. approachable 9. harness 10. background
d. champion, advocate, one who stands by somebody or something e. nourish, support, foster, sustain f. retort, retaliate, strike back g. preconceived idea h. sense of belonging i. occupational j. organisation for the defence of labour rights
1.3.2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. A knowledge of cultural difference is ... to any definition of cultural interaction. 2. Sometimes cultural traits may suffer changes beyond ... . 3. A(n) ... traveller will fail to do justice to cultural difference. 4. A visitor to your country should be offered plenty of ... in exploring local culture. 5. You might find a lot of ... locals while travelling in foreign countries. 6. Nationalists would like their country’s traditions to be ... . 7. Sometimes it’s difficult to choose when you are faced with a huge ... of tourist attractions. 8. I wouldn’t like to sound ..., but you should get more involved in the mores of your host country. 9. I am neither moral, nor immoral. My ... is often a mystery to my friends. 10. Her ... at Heathrow airport made her miss her connecting flight. VALUE RECOGNISE EXPERIENCE COURAGE APPROACH CHANGE DIVERSE REASON MORAL ORIENTATION
1.3.3. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition. 1. I am sorry to say that you are a candidate___ a suitable background for his job involving talking ___ foreigners. 2. My approach ___ dealing ___ cultural difference is a most successful one. 3. My experience draws ___ my travels ___ the world. 4. What is prejudice based ___ and how could you steer clear ___ it? 5. My job is related ___ handling a wide range ___ tourist services. 6. He is ___ a background not entirely suited ___ his job description. 7. He finally succeeded ___ setting things straight. 8. Her capacity ___ hard work in PR is overwhelming. 9. His prejudice ___ other nationals boils down ___ xenophobia. 10. My affiliation ___ this political party will be ___ an extremely short duration. 1.4. Language focus: The tense system: Past Perfect 1.4.1. The tense system: Past Perfect Form: had + Past Participle: I went to work after I had finished my lunch. Had I finished…? Yes, I had. No, I hadn’t. It indicates:
Discrimination (be) a current practice in the company long before she brought up the issue. When they arrived the conference (begin) and they did not want to disturb the participants. while diversity is quite a recent idea. Wilson and Iles (1) identify five main areas of difference between equal opportunities and diversity. starting to become influential in the UK in the 1990s. An action finished before a certain moment in the past: I had written the paper by ten o’ clock. diversity and equal opportunities are not exactly the same thing. 9. 1. 10. so he had to accept it. By the time I called the office the secretary (leave). 5. 4. The Parliament (pass) this law a very long time ago. 6. there are a number of points that translate well into the voluntary sector and to volunteer management. When she decided to accept the offer it was too late. Use the Past Perfect where necessary. The chairman opened the session after everybody (consult) the agenda. Reading While diversity and equal opportunities are both about making the idea of equality real in your organisation. The Past Perfect is not compulsory when after and before establish the sequence of the actions. The two parties (reach) an agreement when the member of our group made the suggestion.2. Writing. completed action that takes place before another past action: He gave me the book when he had finished reading it. We wanted to help them but by the time we got there they (finish) writing the recommendations.a past. Equal opportunities has a history dating back to the 1970s. In the International Journal of Public Sector Management. 1. 3. When we wanted to complain about the PR officer being rude. Comment on the following statement: Cultural diversity makes teamwork almost impossible because of culture clashes. 7. the manager (fire) him. While the article was written primarily with the public sector in mind. so they left. Someone else (hire) as an assistant manager.2. 2. under what circumstances? To what extent does gender influence recruitment decisions? 2. How does diversity differ from equal opportunities? 2. Lead-in Consider the following questions: What do you mean by equal opportunities? How can you account for the fact that discrimination still persists in our world? What types of discrimination do you know? Have you ever been discriminated? If yes. They changed their policy after a group of unsatisfied clients (sue) the company. 8.4. .1. 2.
(adapted from http://www. thinking "this is an organisation for me". and if diverse. 5. mori.that a diverse workforce will result in more focused marketing. based on ethical and human rights or moral ___ Managing ___ on the other hand is internally driven. from a ___ of commitment by the organisation and its key players". The perception of difference (summary: The equal opportunities approach is trying to right a wrong for certain groups. Managing diversity is internally driven) 2. then they each tell their friends and family. which is imposed by external forces. and shift equal opportunities to be more strategic rather than operational). Operational or strategic focus (summary: Organisations effectively managing diversity look at outcomes as well as processes and procedures.com/digest/2000) 2. raising the ___ of your service. whereas by managing diversity organisations are trying to get it right for everyone) 4. opportunities force staff The driving ___ behind introducing diversity management policies is seen as the ‘business case’ . Different theoretical bases (summary: The equal opportunities style of management assumes there is a single best way of doing things.1. supporters and partners. then individuals will more easily identify with it. will be more welcoming to users and members. (http://www. whereas the focus in the diversity model is on developing individuals).com/digest/2000) 2.Wilson and Iles’ five main areas of difference between equal opportunities and managing diversity are: 1. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: .3.3. and a wider concern that people should be treated equally. If the ‘public face’ of an ___ reflects that diverse public. Vocabulary development 2.2. if ___ are drawn from a wide sector of the community. The reasons for adopting equal opportunities or managing diversity (summary: Equal opportunities is often seen as a legal requirement. The focus of initiatives (summary: Organisations which work within the equal opportunities framework adopt a group approach. whereas diversity accepts that one perspective is no more ‘correct’ than any other. greater creativity and decision making and happier ___ who stay longer and benefit from organisational ___ public range profile volunteers organisation Looking at the marketing example . 3.3. Volunteers are the ___ face of many organisations.the voluntary sector supports and works with a diverse ___ of service users. Fill in the blanks in the following text with the words given in bold: requirements diversity pressures sense arguments Many companies and organisations adopt equal opportunities policies because of external ___ Wilson and Iles suggest that this response "varies between a narrow minimalist response to legislative ___. mori. Also.
8.. I hadn’t.. work opportunities as compared with men. at the working place is a topical issue in both the western and eastern world. This question . after. addresses those prone to xenophobia... No. 9. sites of London could be a quite rewarding experience. EQUAL EQUAL HISTORY HISTORY INFLUENCE IDENTIFY PRIMARY NUMBER PROCESS THEORY 2.1.. After they had been quarrelling for minutes. moment. 3... After months of strenuous research. 2. Women usually contend that they have . There’s no visible difference ___ the way they are treating immigrants ___ their country.. Language focus: The tense system: Past Perfect Continuous 2. I had.. There has been no shift ___ our regulations since they came ___ force. .. !!!!!!!!!!!! often used in past perfect and past perfect progressive sentences: when. The reasons ___ establishing a new basis ___ cooperation are ___my depth. Let’s focus ___ this issue now and we will look ___ the other one ___ a later date. 10. it will rest . ___ the present framework of rules. 5. He is a government official extremely . Equality ___ job opportunities is essential. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition.. 2. 10. What did you have ___ mind when you called that company? 4. It indicates: a past action in development before another past action and also continuing that moment: When he came she had been reading for two hours. Bill Clinton’s visit to Romania was a . 3. Had I been writing? Yes. tourists flock to the big cities of the world every day in search of yet unimagined sensations. with different people in very high circles. 8.4. 1.. 7.... I asked them to stop. We had been waiting for weeks before we got the money.. 9. The tense system: Past Perfect Continuous Form: to be (in the past perfect) + verb + ing: I had been writing.3. 4... 6. . 5. 6.g. the main causes of their failure to meet international standards remained .4. After accumulating lots of practice in organising package tours. as soon as. Exploring the . by the time e. The history of this project dates back ___ 1985. . 2. their findings in a report published in a local journal. until a further date. My methods differ a lot ___ the more conventional ones.. Her influence ___ the whole project is undeniable. 7. before. the travel agency decided to . They had been negotiating for hours by the time I got there. we have to abide ___ each one of them.1. . Because your application is incomplete..
The United Kingdom is both loved and loathed for its traditions. 5. Reading What is "Britishness"? The survey conducted by MORI on behalf of the British Council among the successor generation in thirteen countries reveals what foreigners think about all aspects of British society and culture. The whole staff had worked/had been working until the last minute and they had no time left to decorate the room for the meeting. the customers had waited/had been waiting for her for hours. 4. mad" . Our competition had done/had been doing everything they could to attack us and we had to take steps towards fighting back. he decided to speak. 10.very reserved and grey" . The images most often quoted of the Great Britain in the survey are the Queen and the Royal Family. National stereotypes 3. We had been discussing/had discussed all day with our partners and by 10 o’clock the agreement wasn’t signed. He asked us why we had written/had been writing such a long preamble to our report. 3.4. Comment on the following statement: People are born equal and therefore they should benefit from equal opportunities in society. This has implications for public diplomacy.1. 6. The staff complained that they had asked/had been asking for better working conditions for two months. After the President had looked/had been looking through our papers for a while. castles and rugby. What can be done to close the gap between perceptions overseas and the reality of contemporary Britain without ignoring the strengths of our traditions for which we are respected? Arts "British arts represent their culture . Writing. 7. Choose the correct form of the verb in the following sentences: 1. kilts. 9. eccentric. Our partners had looked forward/had been looking forward to the contract to be signed and became quite angry when it had been cancelled/had been being cancelled. Lead-in Consider the following questions: What do you understand by ‘stereotype’? To what extent are national stereotypes fair? What sources do people use when establishing national stereotypes? What are the main characteristics of the Romanian people? How can you fight prejudices related to national stereotypes? 3.2. The newspapers had been publishing/had published a lot of articles on the accident for weeks when they found out about it.Malaysia "Avant-garde.2. When the PR assistant arrived. 2.2. 3. We had hoped/had been hoping to solve our problem easily and were very disappointed when we couldn’t. 8.France .
Business and finance "The British are managers by nature.. the UK was ranked well behind the United States. A worrying 60% were unable to name a single artist.Saudi Arabia Sixty-six percent of those polled believe that Britain’s reputation in the arts is based more in the past than in the present. "This permanent up-and-down risk which the Americans take is much too exhausting for the Britons." ." ." .Egypt "They manufacture things carefully. Society "They are well brought up people." South Africa Whilst 62% of respondents agree that Britain has a b reputation for scientific and technological innovation. British business is seen as too risk averse.Mexico A significant minority (28%) believe that the British media cannot be relied on to tell the truth. They like soccer. Even if they don't like you too much. The area of British culture where people had the most knowledge was pop music and film.Germany. However the United States still emerged as the market leader in higher education. this would be the only place.cloning sheep and genetics and scary stuff." . the country comes behind the United States. Most of the scandals coming from the Royal Family are found there. British higher education is particularly well respected with 88% of people rating it as "good". Japan and Germany." ." . Fifty-eight percent of respondents believe that qualifications from the United States have the most credibility with potential employers. When asked to identify one or two contemporary artists Elton John and Hugh Grant topped the list with 5% each. they try to be nice." Russia "There is a high educational standard which the English are associated with. well brought up people. able to keep up conversation."They don't have any famous artists. Science and Technology "The British are exploring more. Education "They are well educated. There is a clear lack of knowledge about British contemporary arts. and if I wanted to go abroad to study.Poland Seventy-six percent of people questioned regard the British as well educated.. However the British media were regarded as being more truthful than their counterparts in most of the countries surveyed. In Germany only 5% of people trust the truthfulness of the British media. Japan and Germany when it comes to having world-beating companies. However Britain is recognised as a b financial centre. You buy a British garment and you know it will last forever." . Media "Even the more cultured people read the tabloids to be informed.Russia . though still behind the USA and Japan.Mexico Whilst 81% of people rated British goods and services as "good" overall and 74% think British managers are good.
7. objecting to. (http://www. unfavourable to exit.3.... c. of prices for oil.1. avant-garde 7. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition. 3.. 9.."The UK are one of the first democracies in Europe" . appear as newspaper publishing scandalous material equivalent. distance aesthetically new and experimental popular. gap 8. 1.. language. e. 5. break. 10. 5... analogue hesitant. loathe 9. His fame ___ successfully handling conflict situations is one ___ his advantages.com/digest/2000) 3. has often been reviled in tabloids. efforts led to fruition. 3.3. These are just a few of the .. Your behaviour will have consequential implications ___ public diplomacy. 3. 4. mori. 2.. your contribution to our success. 8. g. survey a. 6. I respect this small country ___ its great traditions. British institutions may be respected but a significant 41% believe that British people are not very welcoming towards foreigners. The gap ___ my abilities as a diplomat and yours is enormous.3. in the royal scandal. 4.. skills are impeccable at all social gatherings.. 2.3.. The tabloids made much ado about the fact that she was . Her . research of public opinion pause. IN the survey appear the figures ___ this year’s rate ___ diplomatic blunders ___ the part ___ Romania. Your . Sixty-five percent also believe that the country has a good health care service. 6.. behaviour could irremediably harm the relationship between the two countries. d.. Vocabulary development 3. j. My . b. h. Match the words and phrases with their corresponding definitions: 1. tabloid grudging emerge averse counterpart 6. A grudging 58% agree that the British legal system ensures that everyone gets a fair trial. I’m sorry to say that the degree of your intelligence is . Please give me a . f. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. Their . I hereby wish to . detest poll.2. underscoring our excellent policies regarding cooperation among states. .3. i... relating to the tastes of common people opposed. ill-disposed towards 3. in this case. 5.. He sometimes uses .. 2. I am speaking ___ behalf ___ all those who feel wronged by the Romanian Constitution.. hate. LOATHE QUOTE IMPLICATE DIPLOMATIC STRONG ECCENTRIC KNOW EXHAUST CONVERSATION SIGNIFY 3. 4. pop 10.France Sixty-five percent of people questioned agree that the UK is a good model of democratic government.
10. Teenagers are prone ___ identifying themselves ___ pop stars. How do rate ___ a diplomat? 9.?// must not = mustn’t It indicates: necessity/ obligation imposed by the speaker: I must be punctual. (to be probable) Permission: You may leave. 8..1.7. Past. Our country is the market leader ___ button manufacturing.4. present or future: He ought to play chess that day/ now/ to morrow.NOT the past of may BUT a stronger possibility/ probability/ uncertainty: You might be right (but I strongly doubt). unfulfilled expectation: They should have discussed the matter in detail. Should Form: should// Should you?// should not = shouldn’t It indicates: obligation: You should be present at the meeting. Modal Verbs Read the following examples from the text: Later on… you may be able… (par.4. invitation. Not a very strong obligation in the past. The English are associated ___ a proverbial reserve ___ definition. An unexpected/ contrary action: They must annoy us with their problems! It is replaced by: to have to. Ought to Form: ought to/ ought not to It indicates: Moral obligation: You ought to visit him at the hospital Duty: You ought to write that report. Probability. 1) Modals May Form: may// May he?// may not It indicates: Possibility: He may come today. . emphatic affirmation: You must see the exhibition. 4) A college in foreign commerce would definitely help… (par. logical necessity: He must be at home. (to be possible) Probability: We may get that contract. 5) The job seeker…should be prepared… (par. (to be allowed/ to be permitted) Might Form: might/ might he// might not It indicates: . 4) You must enter as an immigrant… (par. Expectation: The business should be profitable. Must Form: must// Must he……. Instructions/ advice: He should welcome them at the airport. to be obliged/ forced/ compelled to…. Language focus: Modal Verbs 3. 3.
Purpose So that In order to The tense system: Revision Simple tenses – Continuous tenses Present Simple Present Continuous/Progressive . Criticism of somebody’s behaviour: She would keep talking without listening to her friends. 9. 7. 3. Their employers are also obliged to pay them a sum of money. They ought not to have gone there alone. 5. Their daily activity is to give general household help. Desirable. 8. not performed action: You ought to have helped them. As a result of…. Women will be able to work au pair.4. Under this arrangement. 10. Their duty is to act as baby sitters. drink my tea and read a book. of course. Rephrase the following sentences so that they contain one of the modals above: 1. Later on. It is advisable you find a job for which no work permit is needed. There are jobs you didn’t accept in your native country. To work overseas you need to obtain a work permit.2. Lead to… Since As Due to… Owing to the fact that… Because of… This means that…. effect and purpose Cause Effect Result in…. 12. you will have the opportunity to apply for creative work. Don’t go unless you are prepared to accept any job. Invitation: Would you have some more cake? Refusal (in the negative): I wouldn’t accept that. Past habit = used to: I would stay in that chair. Sometimes you are forced to accept a monotonous job. Would Form: would/ would you?/ would not = wouldn’t It indicates: Polite request: Would you listen more carefully? Opposition/ resistance/ unwillingness: They would not meet us. you emigrate to a foreign job-rich place. 11. Don’t consider heading overseas to seek work without money in your pocket. 4. Supposition. 3. Necessity: He ought to be present at the conference. 2. probability: You ought to communicate them the decision by now. The job seeker heading overseas has to take on jobs that have been turned down flat by natives.5. any girl is supposed to get bed and board. 3. Functions Cause. 6. If you cannot find a job in your country.Advisability: You ought to organise that meeting as soon as possible.
and for opinions and beliefs I/we/you/they enjoy (do not enjoy) he/she/it enjoys (does not enjoy) Past Simple used for completed actions and events in the past I/we/you/they enjoyed (did not enjoy) he/she/it enjoyed (did not enjoy) Future Simple used for actions and events in the future I/we/you/they will enjoy (will not enjoy) he/she/it will enjoy (will not enjoy) used for actions or events that are happening or developing now.used for actions in the present. or for past actions which only recently finished and whose effects are seen now I/we/you/they have been enjoying (have not been enjoying) he/she/it has been enjoying (has not been enjoying) Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive used for actions or events that happened for a period of time but were completed before a particular time in the past I/we/you/they had been enjoying (had not been enjoying) he/she/it had been enjoying (had not been enjoying) Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive used for actions or events that will already be happening at a particular time in the future . for future plans. or to show that an event is repeated I am enjoying (am not enjoying) we/you/they are enjoying (are not enjoying) he/she/it is enjoying (is not enjoying) Past Continuous/Progressive used for actions or events in the past that were not yet finished or that were interrupted I was enjoying (was not enjoying) we/you/they were enjoying (were not enjoying) he/she/it was enjoying (was not enjoying) Future Continuous/Progressive used for actions or events in the future that will continue into the future I/we/you/they will be enjoying (will not be enjoying) he/she/it will be enjoying (will not be enjoying) Perfect tenses – Continuous tenses Present Perfect used to show that an event happened or an action was completed at some time before the present I/we/you/they have enjoyed (have not enjoyed) he/she/it has enjoyed (has not enjoyed) Past Perfect usually used to show that an event happened or an action was completed before a particular time in the past I/we/you/they had enjoyed (had not enjoyed) he/she/it had enjoyed (had not enjoyed) Future Perfect used to show that something will be completed before a particular time in the Present Perfect Continuous/ Progressive used for actions or events that started in the past but are still happening now. for things that are always true or that happen regularly.
Try to define the stereotype for your nationality.future I/we/you/they will have enjoyed (will not have enjoyed) he/she/it will have enjoyed (will not have enjoyed) I/we/you/they will have been enjoying (will not have been enjoying) he/she/it will have been enjoying (will not have been enjoying) Writing. .
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