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I. OBJECTIVES A. Listening Note the value of friendship from the selection listened to
B. Speaking Take a stand on given issues
C. Reading 1. Determine the meaning of words through contextual clues 2. Note specific details from the background information or text D. Grammar Defend or justify one's stand on an issue by observing accuracy in the sentences
E. Writing Write the final outline for a research paper
F. Literature Determine the writer's purpose in writing the selection
II. SUBJECT MATTER
"Faithful Friends'" DCS Bulletin No. 9
Background information text on "Speech of Defense" by Jose Rizal, Communication Arts for Social Living, Celso Al Carunungan
Function: Making justification/defending one's point Structure: Sentence Revision
Writing the Final Outline Communication Values English, Corazon Dadufalza
"A Hanging," by George Orwell Communicate Effectively Through Literature, Lorezo
III. PROCEDURE Day 1 Listening A. Previewing
Everybody makes decision everyday. For instance, a student decides which brand of ballpoint, fountain pen, marker, and highlighter suits his or her taste. It is the same with a student making a major decision in choosing one's course in college after he or she graduates from high school.
Along with making intelligent decisions is taking a stand on an issue.
I can understand it if the problem isn't difficult or complicated. In two minutes they say that they have considered everything and are positive the decision is good. I listen to their advice. Before I make a decision. it takes a long time for me to make up my mind. I don't know. It doesn't matter how complicated the problem is.This involves good judgment and critical thinking. React to the following statements: . some issues are extremely hard to decide. I talk to people. Defending one's conviction or principles is taking one's stand firmly and confidently. I'm surprised how confident they are. but I don't often change it. Sometimes. Sometimes my friends try to influence me. But. I try to get all the facts I can. Making Decisions It takes me a long time to make up my mind about something. Tasks Task 1 Pre-listening Read the following paragraphs silently. Other people I know change their minds all the time. When one takes a stand. B. I read the newspapers. I know some people who make up their minds right away. one knows what he or she is getting into ± he or she can defend his or her belief. and I try to think of everything that might be important. 1. I don't decide things quickly. I read books. Some people think this is good and some think it's bad. but I make my own decisions.
] . 3. 2.1. a. 3. I must get all the facts before I make a decision. Both worked hard to succeed. Some people can make up their minds right away. Vocabulary Development Give the meaning of the underlined words in each of the given sentences through context clues. His gnarled hands with their stiff and twisted fingers could no longer paint. They cast lots as to who should study first. The two friends were struggling artists. 2. I listen to advice but I make my own decision. Motive Questions Friendship is like a sheltering tree. b. 4. Do you at times serve as a sheltering tree to your friend? How do you show faithfulness to each other? Task 2 While listening [Tell the students to complete the grid below by taking note of the things the two friends did for each other as a sign of giving value to their friendship. c. Motivation What words/phrases do you associate with the word "friendship 4. I don't decide things quickly.
sacrifice. Albretch found Franz kneeling. Before leaving. Students are asked the things that they have written in Task 2. were struggling artists. Hard manual labor has caused Franz' slender sensitive fingers be stiff and twisted. Task 3 Post-listening 1. but he was surprised and deeply touched at the enormous price his friend had paid. Students are asked to answer the following comprehension questions: . Albretch Durer and Franz Knigstein." The world is richer because of Albretch Durer and Franz Knigstein. and devotion will be themselves glorious works of art. Quickly. Never would they be able to execute the delicate rush strokes necessary in fine painting. The cast lots and Durer won. could develop his talent.Listening text About 1490. his gnarled hands folded in fervent prayer for his companion. The object of their love. and from it he produced his masterpiece. One day. They were very poor and advancement was so slow that they decided that one would work while the other pursued his studies. too. two friends. Albretch assured Franz that he would return and help him so that he. Albretch came back after his studies. the great artist painted that scene. "The Praying Hands. 2.
Take a stand and be able to defend it. Dr. Have you found a true friend? Explain your answer. would you have continued working so hard to see you friend through his studies in art school? b. who worked very hard so that Albretch could pursue his studies in an art school or Albretch. What do you do to preserve your friendship? C. Closure Who of the two friends deserves more admiration ± Franz. who immortalized his friend's love. If you were Albretch. Rizal? Day 2 Reading A. sacrifice. e. Jose P. To what extent are you ready to go through hardship for friendship's sake? d. D. If you were Franz. would you have continued schooling while your friend was toiling so hard? c. and devotion by painting the latter's gnarled praying hands.a. Recapitulation Who is a real friend to you? . Assignment What are the charges made by the Spaniards against our national hero.
Give the characteristics of a real friend. bloody 3. a. Tasks Task 1 Vocabulary Development Choose the correct meaning of the underlined words from the given choices after each sentence. a. paid the penalty b. rebelious b. He believed that he had expiated fully at the accusations against him because he had been exiled for four years in Dapitan. Jose P. Rizal admitted that he wrote the statute of La Liga Filipina. B. rewarded Checking of assignment [Students are asked to share to the class what they have read about the charges of the Spaniards against Dr. introduction 2.] Task 2 While Reading . He denied that La Liga Filipina had revolutionary and sanguinary aim. 1. Rizal. a. rules and by-laws b.
Jose Rizal was arrested The person who arrested Rizal Name of the boat which brought Rizal as a prisoner on board in Barcelona.] The date Dr.[Ask the students to fill in the blank boxes with details found in the reading text. Spain on October 30 .
The date Rizal's boat arrived in Manila The place where Rizal was immediately taken when he arrived in Manila The person who had been appointed as a special judge to try Rizal The verdict given to Rizal by the seven members of the military tribunal .
After a brief deliberation. Alemany. the Spanish court martial convened at the Cuartel de España. what will they be? . C. had banished him to Dapitan. the Spanish authorities tortured many unfortunate victims. D. Rizal was attired in black suit and with arms tied behind. On November 3. as governor general of the Philippines years before. Rafael Dominguez as special judge to try Rizal. There was preliminary investigation. who arrested him upon telegraphic orders from Manila. 1896 on board a steamer that had just left Port Said..Reading Text Background Information Text about Rizal's Trial Dr. Rizal's boat arrived in Manila. When the court asked Rizal if he had anything to say. the seven members of the military tribunal issued the verdict: They found Rizal guilty and sentenced him to death by firing squad. Spain on October 30. Assignment If you are given the chance to make three wishes for your country. with Rizal as prisoner on board. He was brought to Montijuich Castle and imprisoned there. At 10 A. he was immediately taken to Fort Santiago. but his courage did not waver.M. A. his left hand was crushed by a screw. Rizal believed in a peaceful revolution. he said yes. Closure Enrichment Just like Mahatma Gandhi. Write a short composition on how a peaceful revolution can take place. after which Governor Ramon Blanco appointed Capt. Capt. In fishing for evidence against him. The boat. in the Middle East. the commander of Cataluña who had jurisdiction over this Castle was General Despujol. arrived in Barcelona. in Intramuros. The trial was set December 26. It was the ship skipper. Jose Rizal was arrested on September 30. the same man who. His body was placed in the torture rack. Then the court asked everyone to leave the room. day after Christmas. Isla de Panay. By a strange coincidence. This selection was his defense. The room was hushed as he spoke. including Rizal's own brother Paciano.
Tasks Task 1 Read the selection "Speech of Defense" and write a short paragaph on how Rizal defended himself before the Spaniards.Day 3 Grammar A. . Here are two suggestions for revising vague and clumsy sentences: 1. Do not omit important parts of the sentence. Task 2 After you have written a composition. it is best that you examine each sentence to check if it says what you intend to say. Recapitulation What was Rizal charged with? B.
brave. 2. Like Rizal. Rizal who was exiled and was later executed by the Spaniards became the country's hero. 1. brave. Answer: Like Rizal. . and with great education. His writings are as radical today than in the past. Answer: Rizal who was exiled and who was later executed by the Spaniards became the country's hero. and educated. was courageous. Paciano his brother. Answer: His writings are as radical as in the past.Task 3 Practice Exercises Revise the following sentences by supplying the omitted words. 3. Paciano his brother. was courageous.
brought him to Manila. and imprisoned him there. Shift in Number: Spanish authorities tortured many Filipinos and he killed many of them. Tense Shift: The Spaniards arrested Rizal. 2. Rizal was persecuted and the Filipinos saddened by his death.4. Revised: The Spaniards arrested Rizal. Answer: Rizal was persecuted and the Filipinos were saddened by his death. One should believe in what he is fighting for if one wants to succeed. Revised: Spanish authorities tortured many Filipinos and they killed many of them. and imprisons him there. Revised: Rizal's brother was also a hero and he was also tortured like him. Shift in Person: Rizal's brother was also a hero and she was also tortured like him. One should believe in what he is fighting for it you want to succeed. Do not make unnecessary shifts in point of view. brought him to Manila. .
. denies the accusations against him and stood firm in his conviction. 1.] If you were in Rizal's shoes. You can be a hero if you want to. return the paper to its owner for rewriting and revising. Answer: The Spanish soldiers arrested Rizal. and stood form in his conviction. denied the accusations against him. One can be a hero if you want to. Answer: Rizal defended himself.Task 4 Practice Exercises Revise the following sentences by connecting unnecessary shifts in point of view. and they gunned him down. Rizal defended himself. Then. Task 5 Language Function [Let the students recite their answers before the class. Closure Go over each other's composition and see if there are sentences which need revisions. Answer: One can be a hero if one wants to. how will you justify and defend your point before the seven members of the military tribunal? C. 1. The Spanish soldiers arrested Rizal and he gunned him down. 1.
Tasks Task 1 1. . Read your note cards and see how they can be arranged to communicate your ideas to the readers accurately. should include a brief summary of the main points presented in the paper. Preliminary outline Day 4 Writing A. systematically. Preparing the final outline In preparing the final outline. its significance. Two kinds of outlining 3. usually the introduction. indicates the purpose of the study. usually the conclusion. Outlining 2. The last heading. and effectively. and other preliminary materials. be sure that your first heading. 2. Recapitulation What is an outline? What are the two kinds of outline? What is a preliminary outline? B.D. Assignment Recall the following: 1. Reviewing the preliminary outline Go over your preliminary outline.
draw up a topic outline from the list below. _________________________________________________________ .Practice Exercises Using the given framework. ____________________________________________________ B. _________________________________________________________ III. Effects of alcoholism Causes of alcoholism On the physical self On studies On social relationships What is alcoholism Introduction Statement of the problem Specific aims of the project Scope and limitations Conclusion and recommendation Modern ways to cure alcoholism I. ____________________________________________________ C. ____________________________________________________ II. _________________________________________________________ A.
What was the man's offense? Did he deserved to be hanged? Explain your answers. Look up the meaning of the following underlined words: To prod with his stick To walk limply Pranced round us Crouch meekly 2. Assignment 1. Read ³A Hanging´ by George Orwell. C. Answer the following questions: a. _____________________________________________________ B. D.__________________________________________________________ V. . __________________________________________________________ VI. __________________________________________________________ Task 2 Form groups of four. Improve one another's outline. _____________________________________________________ IV. Closure Submit your revised outline to your teacher for checking and approval.A. _____________________________________________________ C.
due to be hanged within the next week or two. In some of them brown silent men were squatting at the inner bars. was slanting over the high walls into the jail yard. One prisoner had been brought out of his cell. like yellow tinfoil. Why do you think the incident of the dog is mentioned? c. a fat Dravidian in a white drill suit and gold spectacle. We were waiting outside the condemned cells. a row of sheds fronted with double bars. Six tall Indian warders were guarding him and getting him ready for the gallows. moodily prodding the gravel with his stick. Aren't you ready yet?" 4. absurdly too big for his body. It was like men handling a fish which is still alive and may jump back into the water. caressing grip. the head jailer. morning of the rains. yes sir. He had a thick. who was standing apart from the rest of us. Francis." he said irritably. with their blankets draped round them. "All is satisfactorily prepared. Two of them stood by with rifles and fixed bayonets.b. with a grey toothbrush moustache and a gruff voice. 3. "Yes. sir. desolately in the wet air. raised his head at the sound. Each cell measures about ten feet by ten and was quite bare within except for a plank bed and a pot of drinking water. floated from the distant barracks. 2." . rather like the moustache of a comic man on the films. Eight o'clock struck and a bugle call. a sodden. But he stood quite unresisting. and lashed his arms tight to his sides. like small animal cages. He was an army doctor. sprouting moustache. "For God's sake hurry up. Francis. as though he hardly noticed what was happening. The superintendent of the jail. These were the condemned men. as though all the while feeling him to make sure he was there. passed a chain through his handcuffs and fixed it to their belts. while the others handcuffed him. yielding his arms limply to the ropes. with a shaven head and vague liquid eyes. It was in Burma. They crowded very close about him. The hangman is waiting. with their hands always on him in a careful. He was a Hindu. "The man ought to have been dead by his time. We shall proceed. waved his black hand." he bubbled. What is the writer's purpose for writing the essay? A Hanging George Orwell 1. a puny wisp of a man. A sickly light.
with the dog still straining and whimpering. the lock of hair on his scalp danced up and down. It's yaps echoed from the jail walls. It came bounding among us with a loud volley of barks. When I saw the prisoner . It was a large woolly dog. and jumping up tried to lick his face. The prisoner. but quite steadily. come goodness known whence. I watched the bare brown back of the prisoner marching in front of me. chased clumsily after the dog. The rest of us. half Airedale.5. 9. It was about forty yards to the gallows. the procession stopped short without any order or warning. magistrates and the like. too taken aback even to grab at the dog. conscious man. and then. Suddenly. but it dodged the stones and came after us again. Everyone stood aghast. as though at once pushing and supporting him. Two warders marched on either side of the prisoner. A young Eurasian jailer picked up a handful of gravel and tried to stone the dog away. A dreadful thing had happened ± a dog. 7. half pariah. Then my handkerchief was put through its collar and moved off once more. The prisoners can't get their breakfast till the job's over. then. followed behind. in the grasp of the two warders. but it danced and gamboled just out of his reach. It is curious. "Well. two others marches close against him. 10. when he had gone ten yards. For a moment it pranced round us. his feet printed themselves on the wet gravel. "Who let that bloody brute in here?" said the superintendent angrily. he stepped slightly aside to avoid a puddle on the path. andleaped round us wagging its whole body'. before anyone could stop it. wild with glee at finding so many human beings together. We set out for the gallows. quick march. detached from the escort. with their rifles at the slope. It was several minutes before someone managed to catch the dog. "Catch it. At each step his muscles slid neatly into place. At once. as though this was another formally of the hanging." 6. it had made a dash for the prisoner. gripping him by arm and shoulder. someone!" 8. looked on incuriously. A warder. but till that moment I had never realized what it means to destroy a healthy. He walked clumsily with his bound arms. taking everything as part of the game. with that bobbing gait of the Indian who never straightens his knees. in spite of the men who gripped him by each shoulder. had appeared in the yard.
This man was not dying. but steady. his head on his chest. seeing. hooded man on the drop. holding the lever. nails growing. stop that abominable noise! . produced a small cotton bag like a flour bag and drew it down over the prisoner's face. and above that two beams and a crossbar with the rope dangling. and one or two of the bayonets were wavering. half led. half pushed him to the gallows and helped him clumsily up the ladder. skin renewing itself. when the noose was fixed. "Ram! Ram! Ram!" never faltering for an instant. tissues forming ± all toiling away in solemn foolery. muffled crying from the prisonerwent on and on. His eyes saw the yellow gravel and the grey walls. perhaps. We stood waiting. The Indians had gone grey like bad coffee. five yards away. But the sound. allowing the prisoner a fixed number ± fifty. and his brain still remembered. All the organs of his body were working ± bowels digesting food. The hangman. separate from the main grounds of the prison. he was alive just as we were alive. gripping the prisoner more closely than ever. and in two minutes. still persisted. Then the hangman climbed up and fixed the rope round the prisoner's neck. or a hundred. was slowly poking the ground with his stick. 11. foresaw. He and we were a party of men walking together. the prisoner began crying out of his god. I saw the mystery. a grey-haired convict in the white uniform of the prison. The gallows stood in a small yard. almost like the tolling of a bell. The hangman. At a word from Francis the two warders. 12. kill him quickly. with planking on top. rhythmical. when he was falling through the air with a tenth of s second to live. hearing.step aside to avoid the puddle. The superintendent. the unspeakable wrongness. with a sudden snap. And then. The hangman climbed down and stood ready. We looked at the lashed. and listened to his cries ± each cry another second of life. The steady. It was a brick erection like three sides of a shed. over and over again: "Ram! Ram! Ram! Ram! Ram!´ 13. and overgrown with tall prickly weeds. one of us would be gone ± one mind less. He greeted us with a servile crouch as we entered. muffled by the cloth. understanding the same world. perhaps he was counting the cries. Everyone had changed colour. His nails would still be growing when he stood on the drop. The warders had formed in a rough circle round the gallows. It was a high. feeling. one world less. Minutes seemed to pass. of cutting a life short when it is in full tide. the same thought was in all our minds: oh. The dog answered the sound with a whine. reasoned ± reasoned even about puddles. still standing on thegallows. was waiting beside his machine. reiterated cry of "Ram! Ram! Ram!" Not urgent and fearful like a prayer or a cry for help. get it over.
Classy European style. it oscillated slightly. We went round the gallows to inspect the prisoner's body. looking timorously out at us. There was a clanking noise. barked. The moody look had gone out of this face quite suddenly. each man holding a thin pannikin. An enormous relief had come upon us now that the job was done. The dog. 18. They squatted in long rows. "Eight minutes past eight. "Do you know. and blew out a deep breath. He was dangling with his toes pointed straight downwards. to break into a run. "Chalo" he shouted almost fiercely. thank God. sir. 15. into the big central yard of the prison. under the command of warders armed with laths were already receiving their breakfast. very slowly revolving. Suddenly the superintendent made up his mind. nobody seemed certain. One felt an impulse to sing. He backed out from under the gallows. that's all for this morning. and then retreated into a corner of the yard. 16. it seemed quite a homely. Well. where it stood among the weeds. and the rope was twisting on itself. he pissed on the floor of his cell. jolly scene. slipped after them. Do you not admire my new silver case. sir? From the boxwallah. The prisoner had vanished. I let go of the dog." said the superintendent. as dead as a stone. The warders unfixed bayonets and marched away. and it galloped immediately to the back of the gallows. and then dead silence. "He's all right.14. From fright ± Kindly take one of my cigarettes. . He glanced at his wrist-watch. sobered and conscious of having misbehaved itself." 17. Several people laughed ± at what. after the hanging. past the condemned cells with their waiting prisoners. The Eurasian boy walking beside me nodded towards the way we had come. when he heard his appeal had been dismissed. with a knowing smile. to snigger. sir." 19. while two warders with buckets marched round ladling out rice. The superintendent reached out with his stick and poked the bare body. but it when it got there it stopped short. We walked out of the gallows yard. The convicts. Throwing up his head he made a swift motion with his stick. two rupees eight annas. our friend (he meant the dead man). At all once everyone began chattering gaily.
he was very troublesome!" 23. We all had a drink together. We could do with it. 22. all has passed off with the utmost satisfactoriness." 24. talking garrulously: "Well sir." said the superintendent." he said quite genially. It is not always so ± oah. no! I have known cases where the doctor was obliged to go beneath the gallows and pull the prisoner's legs to ensure decease. I recall. You will scarcely credit. "Wriggling about. clung to the bars of his cage when we went to take him out. that it took six warders to dislodge him. "You'd better all come out and have a drink. Most disagreeable. it is worse when they become refractory! One man. quite amicably. "Ach. 'My dear fellow.' we said. It was all finished ± flick! like that. three pulling at each leg. eh? That's bad. At that moment Francis's anecdote seemed extraordinarily funny." exclaimed a Burmese magistrate suddenly. I found that I was laughing quite loudly. We all began again. native and European alike. 'think of all the pain and trouble you are causing us!' But no. "I've got a bottle of whisky in the car. The dead man was a hundred yards away. he would not listen! Ach. Tasks .20. We reasoned with him. sir. and burst into a loud chuckling. We went through the big double gates of the prison." 21. Recapitulation What things should you remember in preparing the final outline? B. Francis was walking by the superintendent. into the road. Everyone was laughing. Even the superintendent grinned in a tolerant way. ³Pulling at his legs. sir. Day 5 Literature A.
The jailer greeted us with a servile crouch. what punishment is given to these offenders and criminals? Task 3 The essay narrates George Orwell's personal experience in Burma where he had served with the Indian imperial police. weakly or without force to move with high steps to punch or poke with a pointed instrument to stoop or bend low Task 2 Form groups of 4. Brainstorm on the various offenses and crimes that are punishable by law. The superintendent moodily prods the gravel with his stick. 4. As you read the essay. try to identify the sequence of events he is reporting on and his purpose (his implied comment) in writing. According to our laws. What was the man's offense? Did he deserve to be hanged? Why or why not? . What is Orwell reporting on? 2. Task 4 Discussion 1. The dog pranced around us. 3.Task 1 Vocabulary Development Choose the meaning of the words from the given choices below. 2. 1. The prisoner yielded his arms limply to the ropes.
rebellion. Read the beginning paragraphs carefully. graft and corruption. murder. The main topic of the debate is whether capital punishment should be imposed for certain crimes. Why is the incident of the dog mentioned? 5.3. . What is the purpose and effect of the last sentence? C. Suggested crimes are rape. Assignment Write a summary of the stand of your team on the issue on capital punishment. What other incidents do not directly relate to the account of the hanging and yet included in the essay? Why are they included? 6. Each pair of the debating teams will argue on the issue of capital punishment for a specific crime. Closure Class Debate Form 6 teams in a class. Pair off the teams to determine which team will face each other for the class debate. Why was the superintendent impatient? What does his impatience tell you about how he was feeling? 4. and treason. D.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?