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Religion

Religion

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Published by: Jide Ishmael Ajisafe on Jan 24, 2012
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Gore Vidal 7/13/92 (noted american author, "Monotheism and Its Discontents," The Nation rpmtd "American VIus: opp. Vwpts." 96)

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. Gore Vidal 7/13/92 (noted american author. 3 - KeJ:~. "Monotheism and Its Discontents." 96) Ln--n---------------J~__ n ~ n nn_~ ~alJ_:] ..ol\ \s i: Ib freu\l"." The Nation rprntd "American Vlus: opp. Vwpts.r(][j------------r) ~I .: chukware '00 Bellarmine:-~------------- ~ ~l .

._.)l.. U of HI in Honolulu.gam mg ere. tb.~." But he th-en went on to justify the ()c~casional.t?_~~<!j_Jroscribeshe taking of t -----'----.::__:~l'Il_::~.-human life...J. JJ 3 J I (~ Denying Rights Ordinarily.' c i!) A t. u.'_ls~le\eloped by [Saints] Ambrose and Augustine 1I1~~l).Laconflict that is deemedappropri-.. dr'.!be· .t . we are allowed to !. '. They won't let me. Our death row executions_ar.-.r--\luslim '".I in Lat.nd~hoot as many people as we can get away with. . a~ail1stkilling rlla.-. berney'-" Christia-.•..I. .r'li ate the violence t~~:L~. 1'21 7 _ __ 'J . as a descendant of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment. J_.::_'t:Llht_\\ar . I would say live and let live and I would try not to "scoff"-to use Lincoln's verb-at the monotheists. 'l violent act In extraordinary circumstances and said that "it is an even greater sin)'" ..er~lp{21.. --- - .~.. tia~~5JS.ahlgLl~." Many other reI'!.iu.more we are regarded as a primitive lJneducated and dangerous people.. which shaped our Republic.. Th~y are too ~)Usy. Although we are not allowed.hri.. re\olutlon :1. Native An~eri?':iii. .. 1~ ".Christians supporting the iiberatit. dru~s..i. .~ey have a diuiA@ ~i55ieB te t~ke ~ away our fIghts as pfIvate cItIzens.tl' that was later r~)lli-:l~\ Aquinas. lxlamic. :imp:t I .i·' " tl!aljustice l~ at stake. '_ --~ a 223 4. Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. '.. to kill our: <~ves or to take drugs that the geod fulk think might be.Uebeca'u~e ihe end merits it and the means to achieve it may in fact moder. ~~_~~_~~_________________________________ _-.Ugg.. same-sex most ever5here.lCJ[j----------------------------------------------------------------. The New Cold War. <ci' ht.-~.s... source of deep dISgust in civilized countries.ur prisons ire the most terrible Jind the ~J/ most crowded In the FIrst World.. Killing IS ottcn justified during a (j~st wa.) Violence in a Just War Even though virtually all religions preach the virtues of nonviolence..--.211Y-il banQgylLa.s.jQ[josraon' ordinarily applauds n()n_y:i. it is their ability to (@:tion Vi()le~c~tb~_2v~~th.-~. m~.fct.~·_..b~n)g~teAinl!n!lsl1aIL'TrCllmst~~'es when social or sei. We are forbIdden a ortIon ~ . The Sikh tradition.ive speculated that there Gill he a(jus . aleo-' ~ 'hoI In a dry coun~ O.£ious lei!\l~IS..--.e d«: tr: f. - Mark YUR-GENS-MEYER (Juergensmeyer) 93 (religion. polisci. But I am not allowed to ignore them. chukware ~o Beliarmine..:sI~led_herorethe conflict.of just ~i~~\_.l)l~c.•.itigli-pIDver.n :~tr. .~ '"~I '~..~<::... agrec:-fu~ believe that the rule t. .. to have we~lJ')')~~_ar)d_r!oLI_l_l>eek justice.r()ns and kill anyone. and man~ other traditions_as L w~ll. Even Bhindranwale acknowledged that "for a Sikh it is a great sin Toleep W~.. FiN stated by Cicero.~icih. under la"'l.J fJ.bad.I.hil~l..I. where more and /~l '7 .j. Jewish.

for Giran] cLlIlllS that "religion tries til account for its own operation metaphorically" :1 Symbolic Violence Much of wh." Those who participate in ritual arc not consL'illllsly aware of the social and psychological signiticance of their acts.J \iI' / ~ .~r::~t~~~.u (.•.en~.. ~ ~.')~Ji~.• ..c..!f .:---'-'--7-:JU~===./fi. :~~~~':~~~:~~~~e_e~~:I"~'~ .':1 I I I I groups to achieve increased social cohesion. "IS to ' unfy vlolenL'C: that is. a I do..~. 0' mund Freud.:~t\~~ oi~:!~~~~1!'a~~>' ·. aoo •. to 'trick' violence into s ending itself on victims whose death will provoke no reprisals. t. and Eli Sagan.1 ~~'isv~~l.~ I~. Walter Burkert.nd ~iY sacrificial riOJals evoke.J L-------------l----------1 t !~ : the dci". give social and psychological reasons for the virtual universality of violence in religion. idca Ihat rn imel ic desire " force hchim! svmbol-.(!~::~~~\~: 7::.. According to Girard's thesis-probably the most articulate and most widely discussed ex planation--:violent religious symbols a. I '.. he" it one que-tion-..' -'::..:-ifi------I I. G irard. and therebYi~f~\r~'!Ji·. "The fUllction of (it!!'!! .':. but unli!':e Freud Gir~ pinpoints as the root cause of \iolfnce "mimetic desire"-the desire to 'J. claims -Girard.*:'.rard says abour the function of sYllloolic violence in rcligton i. cnukware '00 I I I I I I I I :6_ I I cluding Rene Girard._ .:·r-J'~t . persuaxi vc. ' ." V/ I h~ ."~~f". I I -------------------------------------------..

Still.. hut thl'se arl' nen Illorc violent than dL'ath inflicted during warfarc or l1lhol ic rmpact. .l1!.s\lllhplic W. 1~"'''1 . mm m Lmm--------- ~_JHL-:J . ~ MhoL (olr<-7'L- '{.~~~iL~'s~· a~c:. But behind th gruesome !itan).er of violence. I believe... a divine truth and falsehood-is a war that worldly (. and violence is the most potent force that a nonlegal entity w can possess.. and the rcligilllls -:... S\lllle 0' .. In some cases the killing takes the form of religious sacrifice.~..ICtS of rcii!!ious viplence') Thl' death squads of Sikh and Si~halese revolutionartcs.:~:.llll Lehanese and E~vpti~ \luslilllS.:t~h.I..u. is an idea at encompasses both sacrifice and martyrdom and much more: the dichotom between the sacred and profa e...l!. At first glance their ""\actinns dll not appear tl) lit Girard's theories.~ On closer inspection.lo."'At ~-- -.!.:l.!. 111 part because the 170 .:.lI..:.. This reat encounte?::between cosmic san ultimate good and evil..\/""4 ~truggles one}c:L . The acts thcmsclvcv=-such as the hijacking 01 American planes y \luslim terrorists and the murder of a busload of Hindu pilgrims in the Himalayan foothills hy ..:.::_a ~ r:.a~n:d:..IY. 'i ..__. . 1C\ throuuh c'apital punivlnucnt.cL~' _:t:. ilJ. All acts of killin!! are \iplent.::T~n:.) They are illegal.. most real acts of religious violence do not easily fit the Girardian scheme..t .~I.!p.are deliberately designed to elicit feelings of revulsion and anger in those who witness them.n almost SYIllolic way.01.lhnllrInal. the terrorjsJ:j illllllllt' milit. and shll\..lI. <: r 1 ~ posed to produce . But what ahout re~1i .J J J \::1 hi m that..:i 1ized acting out (If vi(lknt ach play.1 hand pI' radical Sikh youth-~e perforlllt'(~alicallY. Martin Kramer has demonstrated that when the Lebanese Hizbollah group of terrorists chose one of their own to be a martyr/victim to lead a suicide attack against Americans and Israelis...:. religion can be a potent political tool.:king acts..w.n!.'Idiers pled!!ed to Jewish and Christian causes arc ill engagl'd in \ ioiL' llC'l' in a direct and n(ln.. is that most acts of religious violence are less like sacrifice than they are like war. nor do they result in the peaceful displaccmcn: III \ 1\lic'lll'C' that ritualized fllnns of rl'ligious violence arc suphowever.\ r\t\\ Religious Sanction for the Use of Violence (!) • sanction to VIO ence.. carried out with the intL'ntioll of '\ividh displaying the destructive pp\.:hc:'_:r:.. .'Y "".I~)S~ .a~t t_::u.. a role In displacing kdings 0 aggression. thereby all()win~ the \. The reason. One can think of religious warfare as a lend f acrifice n martyrdom sacrificing members of the enemy's side and offering up mart rs on one's own.odd to he a more peaceful pLll'e in which to live.:a::. their choice had all the characteristics of a sacrificial victim in traditional religious rites. to "s of violcnce do seem fit the altern after all hecause th' violcnce i~ cOll1mitt~d in a.

U1Z.J . 1 Democracy Without Supernatural Authority raJ ~. J~J1'I. ------- . rei '-. 85 Vogue. -------- . December 1985.i!----------~~m--~~=~~--~~~---------~~~--------~ I chukware '00 Bellarmine EHRtNR[ICH Barbara Ehrenreich.oJ""I L .

IS .2 But Christianity is not the only form of organized insanity in the world today.dr7is~th~e~m=:o=~~in~san~e~o:f~a~l~l. I must add. its own bloody history and to claim that it is the vel)' foundatign oronr moraIs. and even of our ciyilization Religion also claims to he alIT onl}: hope and guide for the future. that it also has an illusion of a "higher allegiance" to something above truth. being an individual who stands outside all belief systems. In view of Christian history these clalms )ire.d ~p"(. is well aware that there are other religions and beliefs that are e uall in ed hristianit is simply most gerous to the ill ed States. and it is entirely unscrupulous. lW }b Jt'l f9 '1 /! b IeJ. The Atheist. In addition to its illusion of a morality above right and wrong.. above justice.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Today. because it is here.r~---------------------------------~i . J21~ .e~m~~~ln." And the Jesus m ~c~an~~or.lv.(.J . our freedom and our future. and emphasize.(I~ ~ ~ . it is powerful. It does not require tha son be an Atheist to be aware that Christian Fundam L---------------m----m_m __ __ m mm m __ . it is wealthy. to our government.411. Christianity chooses to ignore. or to hide and deny. /' chukware '00 Bellarmine B._in themselvesdiieer insanrt. and above America and national patriotism.g.

!-- . I I I L _ ________ ---------------- _________ .. In Women.:1 p 1 . I . BAd P t.-------.. I ..r-(D--------------------------------. radical American feminist theoreticians Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Matilda Joslyn Gage produced twO of the centuryTs most scathing critiques of biblical religion. Gage displayed a keen awareness of the role of the church in sanctioning patriarchy.!. \ In the 1890s._. 46 NIl!) . tt ~ . Pg. /' (V\ "/ ~ / II : . Connely. The history of Christianit .1 4 yh. .-------. I .n12 _ __ J1 ! .:-""oo=~--~L. .Religion subjucates women to male oppression .!!:!~!!. 1999. 1 I .-------. had been constructed u n an entire edi ce of sexual inequality an com~ henSiv emale I I I .---J""tIa.----------. I I I 1 . . _Sue Morgan."Jt. Approaches to the study of Religion. no 1 Beliarmine. Churrh and Stat« (1893). she argued. I . Professor ofWomens History at the Chicester Institute for Higher Education. 1 . Edt: P. I . chukware ~.-.

Morally speaking.r~-----------~t ------------1 It-r~6t't: $~ bf1. better to be robbed than to be the robber. then.. and better to be hated and persecuted than to be among those who hate and persecute. history tells us it is better to be an Atheist than to be / a Christian.~f t{vil. Murder is murder. it is better to be murdered than to be the murderer. I L_______________________ --------------------------------------- . and no escape from the pains of conscience and remorse.. morality above right and wrong.: I I J . hate and persecution are all crimes against humanity. and robbery. bdJ i~l .i tI I ~ ~ chukware '00 Bellarmine BAd lIb I I I : I . /1~V?) .tr: ~~. Morally speaking.

.____________________________________________________________________ r ~.I ro Itb : i chukware '00 Bellarmine -- Bertrand Russell.:.b.. 19~ p.J I)~ .V I II . . I think this applies especially to the virtue of truthfulness or intellectual integrity...R~b~Q.194. I even think that some very important virtues are more likely to be found among those who reject religious dogmas than among those . _""_--. Cambridge.. L . c:l!:t . Ar ~~. WHY I AM NOT A CHRISTIAN.:.~ ['C!.. who accept them.. professor of Philosophy.L_-_-_-_. I do not m"Ysetrthink that the dependence of morals upon religion is nearly as close as religious people believe it to be.

. Everything must have a cause. In its weak form. 3. Mystical and other personal experiences can be explained by other causes. . the anthro ic cosmolo 'cal .possjble universes are equally astronomical yet'lnelofthem be the actual universe.2. while crime has thrived in theistic societies believing in heaven and hell.("'. Even if valid.Q!_ltological: <'¥ It is possible to imagine a perfect being.17.lfthere are very many universes.1 \ Ai~wnents for the E:ustence of God Philo~hers have toed to provide rational proofs of God's existence that go beyond dogmatic ~rt~on or appeal to ancient scripture. plants and planets show clear signs of being designeg for specific ends. (e ~1.~e L thEe must have been a designer. Experientjal' "!.tI~ . tested or publicly verified.tS M <J! ®ectjOD~-Odds. Such a being could not be perfect unless its essence included existence.. }f~/SvAlr-B. Therefore a perfect being must exist.l-kf~h'l(e_ oF brJ "/{D (r1.. General objecili. Objections' The usefulness of a belief does not prove its truth. W .. J.:2l4. t cause must be God. Many constants of nature appear to be very finely tuned for this.bjection· The principles ofse1f-organization and evolution provide complete explanations for apparent design. f'lHf ())f @TN) I _ A-(rll~f/th f:.r~..>nagainst all the rational proofs for God: Each of the above arguments is independent of the others and cannot logically be used to reinforce the others..h$: anthropic cosmological principle merely states that if we are here to observe the '!Diyerse it fDHows that the unive&V must have properties that permit intelligent life to ~. therefore ust have been a which was not conditioned by any other cause..Ca~I: r :: ..A/rV'>rd<idvr. Moreover. ._ - 1131· J .. J. Ethics are more effectively enfOrced ifpeople fear God and Hell and hope for Heaven (cf. hallucinations etc) actually exists.. are as follows: . 1. then some ofth~ will conta' e ssibility of life.. 1~ . 9biection' You cannot defme or imagine a thing into existence.(Yt-1.-. Design: ..? J. . you contradict your own premise. Objections' Tryon allow one thing to exist without cause.n1tq"'-Ib"i!ltdl~~/. MOdern deSlgn argume~ .. dJ. In any case. And if you do. U is impossible to continue backwards to infinity with causes. I! <1f.. The origin of ethical systems).s N.N the universe seem to bave been framed in such a way that stars and planets wj)] foan and Ar life can emerge.. ~imals. Pragmatic: Ruman societies require ethics to survive... ~ _4.. and~ odds against this happening by chance are astronomical. ]a... many societies ~ave thrived without these beliefs. t. with their corresponding obJectIons.rC]t)----------------------------------------------------------------i c:::e '00sellarminfej.against. very large number of people claim to have personal religious experiences of Go:!!Objections: We cannot assume that e'n)"_lHag imasuled in mental experiences (which include dreams. ~ AU fa f.. . L .) 111 1& fltS!" .Q/)-must )VLk.a1J.Jr? J4 <1Y r L -fP I the Anthropic Cosmological Principle.~ (YL A."!. 5. ci le gnarantees oply that stars an p anets and life will emerge .'4/1fA 1ft.:.not intelligent life. Such experiences cannot be repeated. there is no reason why the universe should not be the one thing that exists Qr originates without cause. 1Y <Picture>O. This is the strongest card in the theist hand The law. . The major proofs. . .

(Phd/~/Sv'Ny BI'(~'''1~ilAobv/:'l'l'- r.. Since God is invisible. disease and natural disasters to exist. . ~nr""II. 5./11:' j... ~ /\ b chukware '00 Bellarmine ::. .f1l . 3. he cannot be all-powerful and also loving and gOOdin the human sense of these words. ~~ Because eVil eXISts. which is identical with the universe and nature.. It IS slIDpler to assume he does not exist see Occam's Razor).. None 0 these criticisms apply to the God of pantheism. Th are allocated either arbitraril or on e 0 "to hirii 0 s s II be giv and from him who has not shall be taken even that which he has.'IV~t1lJ"t.t:el..i~----------------------------------------------------------------.l-i~) .. . J . r35~. God cannot be all-powerful.. ... all-knowing and loving and good at the ~e. bit u.. • 4.:~i-." It follows that cannot be all-powerful and al _ knowiJl& iUl4 a:tso just m the human of the word. or none.Lfuil: .. {:. - 2.R{.. (ya\ r·~· ..sOSLYN 'V~q.o} v/ . Injustice: 4- Destinies are not allocated on the basis of merit or equali . ~guments against the existence of God The major philosophical criticisms of God as viewed by Judaism. can be right au. Simplicity: ../ f t/ V4 '1-/ '"l. Pain: Because God allows pain. l·~j I . . Mnltiplicizy: sense Since the Gods of various religions differ widel eir characteristics on! one of these k l' religions. - ."J} L . Christianity and Islam are as follows: . and the uruverse IS PO different than Ifhe did not eXIst.

The family is moreover indestructible: whatever regimes do to attack it or undermine it. Indeed.. (pounds) 30 in UK David Martin has written an erudite.~. illuminating and geographically and historically wide-ranging book with a provocative title but a reassuring ~ conclusion. L .I - -lc. of social experience.M .f -JP tilt.. it always re-emerges as the primary human group. I. Pg. it is quite true that the family is the nexus of incest . No. It is often said that 20. But I have a friend who. BOOKS. that is justification of its benign character. found peace. 68 LENGTH: 732 words HEADLINE: Christianity and the real roots of war Christie Davies on a defence of pacific Christianity BODY: Does Christianity Cause War? by David Martin Clarendon Press. Wilson wonders how people can accept the most fantastic and implausible stories surrounding miraculous appearances of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes.I i'i ) .1991 In a way.000 miracles a day happen at Lourdes in the form of kindness. Ulster. there have also been 0 Ie who have ursued truth and rabona 1 y the ~ of faith. the fonuer Yugoslavia or South Asia in an anti-religious way. Reli ion too has been the vehicle for human error and all its concomitant . Christianjty doestfW)cause war. re. I@8<CITYEDmON SECTION: WEEKEND.\: 5 ' {f'.!. Oxford 226pp. after a cancer operation. of emotional development and of universal respect. II annies in the name of faith. from Thomas Aquinas to Dietrich Bo 0 er.~ll~. .ipso facto. May 30.. succour and consolation meted out to the aillicted. J . . The Daily Telegraph pic. it is also true that most murder takes place within the family.(}}1 . it is also the first and foremost field of human attachment. and at the level of human experience. grace and spiritual healing at Lourdes. But to say that alone is to de-contextualise the family: besides being the source of murder. The Irish Times April 18. after reading Professor Martin's book it is difficult to see how anyone could ever believe that it did outside the semi-literate class of television commentators who regularly pontificate on the conflicts of the Middle East.

. religion and social structure.U5!. 1998. 324 "l lor I analysis. ----::~i I I zIz chukware '00 8ellarmine David Greisi. of ~.O'-duoughout the Old West-worked slowly but sy"lx in favor of 'hes oflliber f individual r ihili. Danish Institute of International Affairs. were interdependent. is still of all religious doctrines the most favorabl." and it was precjssly th!.!(fj ------. humane liberalism. and ~rjsriaDiQ' had rhoollWoQt its hj...J political freegom. ~ote gsneRJIYt 19 Wat of a moderate..1h. cven ~beQ iI commands passiv€ 0 ~cnce in matters of dogre_a.. seen at its best and not in irs n:arhnlncn. _.uality. ultimately.i~Y' ' J .------------------------------------------------. "~. pg.~struck Tocqueville § Pte ksx to .Ymbiosis of libc:!Jl ~nd equalim groundedjn Christianity.. I. Christianity and liberal democracy.tsl'ifkable i.. MChristianicr. From Plato to NAIQ.to liber" as well as "the most favorable~~~9...American [OS r' w • i and.. (th~." 'beralism in ~ '1'\1 comprehensive sense.in Tocquevilles ~ ilie L . and hence. ~ 't .__ :. fellow.

. In many respects theolo ' . deontologist Tom Regan I' ~Regan & Singer... 110 L _ ..) important writers in philoso hical ethi 's seldom true. all the while overlooking the highly controversial character of his initial assumptions about the nature of human beings and animals. 01'/ !t ed. Paul Brantley. Pi.. since they do not offer a reasoned explanation of why it should be that all humans and no nonhumans have immortal souls" (pp. James Scars. \ IlO t'' ' J:~ ____________ . Explaining why he does not deal with the biblical concept of humans being created in the image of God or the theological concept of humans possessing immortal souls. Cornell. 270-271. For instance. however.j. as an example. the belief dtat the secular is the realm of the nonsectarian.1.Ii it . 1m. .. it seems _ to me quite remarkable that we pennit secular philosophers in state universities actually to do metaphysics and normative ethics (and to recommend their results to their students)./f:" Richard Baer.-:. J ./ bl.. Similarly. although not defensible philosophically. .r} t ~f. James Scars. ~on~theles~. ed.jkr t~ rd. CurriCUlum Religion and Public Education. but scholars who deal with religion and religious ethics must confine their efforts to description and analysis..• 1m.l31([ .> ethicists' virtuall all theolo 'cal ethicists for instance rr... ~.I:-S I .. pg. ( 1"""'''' ""'C vj~ 7 "''''II' .. 1989) uses the term "rationally defective" to describe the arguments of those who disagree with his conclusion that what he calls "the ~ rights view" includes animals as well as humans (p. 110-11 51. note 14). 'e1 en-minded than most secular ~ .. In e field of animal rights/welfare. James Scars. these religious views are unsatisfactory. J r ~.r . Curriculum Religion and Public Education. pg. ProfessorofEducatiOll. continues to have great influence on how most Americans think about education. 111).. Richard Baer. Cornell. Depanment of Natural Resources. 254 Andrews University. he writes: "Logically. ed .tlill . Peter Singer (1990) considers his views regarding animals to be rationally compelling. Department of Natural Resources. Curriculum Religion and Public Education. 1998.

p"cated III tJl.i!... ."~/~ I1r. VI' erotto ask ()(ICe agail: 'Nha15hcUd· . 801.they somellOw ha~e e~aped the. "ancard operating proceCUres. slancard wor!( incertivu.noUid Ill. 1 chukware '00 Bellarmine _.· /r[' 1..-~-l-. . periormanee requiremerrts..4t.'(!l . f..Oe d«WI7 Hew snoUia we ...- . --.~r!leJy01 tl'WI. quewons tNt l~OW IegalaeaoellliCs to eomll\Ue to aooress \ratner ~mel')'l C4._.. pre<:>Uly l/lOsa OJ9tt 'reawu'. ...:·J. r-<D~------------------------------------------------ ".!!D-t~..wWIseem e5oeei. troe SCHLAQ(?rot..... . .:!/ I .ken..:.!L. 0: Lew @ Tne Univ..- R~I.. ---J .... ~w De t ese are Ill.ll . is sen-oU'e~un9 1ll0MOU31 aocnl II<. rePii>3JdjO(i or lM[on~1 Str\iauru 0)' 'MllCllIll.. U IS ll1ese 'iery normatIVe ouesllons lOaI allow \ecral' ttv*U$ to a swne Dllt:lel')'tnat ..-. .... of Coloroco)1991 ~1_..<. r~ Ie~l lhQ-.fI snlOS: lne r!erculcs ot tneot own emOlres.._.f lre rr.it1.. Pg~LX_SI Many legal thirJcers understand this dramatic ccrrnict in terms of an opposition between the 'rnlities' of pra~liee and the 'ideals' of the le~al academy. I -) "'._: ir.... _j ..e reproclJ<:tion and rNlI1tena~ ~.- L _ ---------------------- 1~1fl . 1M)' are 'Mong De~ause It IS ll1ese very nOnNU\le quesuons tholt. 'Moog 00'IeS . of PeM.".. For t1leH legal tl'. <:0I'&fii'iS: illS tneu nOnnltNa Quesuons tNt auow legal lIliMers to sf_eld· ~ /Tom ll\f lecogtlllOil tNt lhtt worx proouct COo'1Slsts..<IPt..... L Rev..... These are U\e momenlOUS QUe$W1s. _ t \' ..anl. tl.. ) 1/ .. April.!. Pi'. n I4').. wesoons. morallY competem.J(NI'lISl uCtt~:s at once rallonll..:.. ~I hUil\iNst SUDICctS.. of ieQal practICe lilt acaoemy so rowoety.. ' -_!. and proc:uelMty monitoring -.. t I ~b : ! I .g enes 01 OUDIOuS 'O~lll Otlglll ana lIl'\PlICatlOl1.n oelll~s ~n 0& coercea rio • lCl'o._lfle.:.1uuc:ntw: PO~ StruaUft$ is rllney were ratiON!.:...!. bu'ealJ<:ratie ~r games.. ano Illlaet. morally eomtleterrt. -.. ana on comrol ot tner 0'Ml s follJaOOllS.(... ..Jm..~... ale Uii: ..n!. ['805J Alia tne).'u...s'.4J ..1ll01 lOco( QV.l<en from reeogti. It is these nonnatIVe ouesllons tnat enaele tnem to· reoruerc tt>ermeNes as WIlOI. ~t ('.. tl\e c.e~139Univ.. • I\.III i wond Med by HMOs.zing lhe eJlenllO 'MllCllliie cnensneo 'idealS' Ollt'<):il ae C81'OIC tflougF.Ikl r_.it IS tnese very nonnat . perscmel policle1. ~ ------------------.

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