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thin conception thick conception

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P. van Inwagen, Ontology, Identity and Modality: Essays in Metaphysics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,






2003), 4.


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J. Searle, Philosophy in New Century: Selected Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 8-9; W. Sweet
(ed.), Approaches to Metaphysics (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press, 2004), 6, 17.

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E. N. Zalta, In Defense of the Law of Non-Contradiction, in G. Priest and B. Armour-Garb (eds.), The Law of NonContradiction: New Philosophical Essays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004); M. Dummett, The Logical Basis of
Metaphysics (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991).

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M. Dummett, The Logical Basis of Metaphysics, op. cit., Intro.

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mental objects
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R. Wisnovsky, Avicenna and the Avicennan Tradition, in P. Adamson and R. Taylor (eds.), The Cambridge Companiion to Arabic Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 113-115; T. Street, Logic, in P. Adamson
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: | 21 - 2010

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L. M. De Rijk, Giraldus Odonis O.F.M. Opera Philosophica. Volume Two: De Intentionbus (Leiden
Boston: Brill, 2005), 2-3.

 (2
.



the mark of the mental

. :

)
(

J. Searle, Consciousness, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (2000) 23: 557578; D. Chalmers, 1995. Facing up
to The Problem of Consciousness Journal of Consciousness Studies 2: 200-219; R. Chisholm, Perceiviing: a Philosophical Study (Cornell University Press, 1957), ch. 11; W.V.O. Quine, Word and Object
(Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press), ch. 6; W. Lycan, Judgment and Justification (Cambridge: Cambridge
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 (2
.

D. Black, Intentionality in
. 147 .157
.Medieval Arabic Philosophy

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15

Brentano
.

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qualia

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L. M. De Rijk, De Intentionbus, op. cit. 23.


 (2 ( Franz Brentano )1917-1838

 (2
 (3

W. Lycan, Giving Dualism its Due, Aust. J. Phil. (Dec. 2009) 87 (4): 551-563, fn. 8.

P. Jacob, Intentionality, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), E. N. Zalta(ed.),
URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/intentionality/>.

16

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(3

( ) .



 (3
E. J. Lowe, New Directions in Metaphysics and Ontology, Axiomathes (2008), 18:273288
: | 21 - 2010

17

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18

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: | 21 - 2010

21




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 (1984 ) 165.166

22

: | 21 - 2010






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: | 21 - 2010

23


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24

: | 21 - 2010


Newton



Hume Kant .

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Poincar
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Bachelard Dupr Ulmo





.
 ( : 2008 )
: | 21 - 2010

25



Comte Berkeley









T. Hondrich and A. Flew, Humes Philosophy of Belief: a Study of His First Inquiry (London-New York: Humantis
Press, International Library of Philosophy and Scientific Method), 7th Edition, p. 10.



.D. Hume, an Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (Oxford, 1975), p. 61

. .

61.62

26

: | 21 - 2010

.

.











.


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.

.Coplestone(1


 
 
 (1

Humes Philosophy of Belief: Introduction of the Philosophy of Mind, pp. 46-73.


Kant, Critic of Pure Reason, trans. L. W. Beck, p. 55.

Ibid.

Hume, an Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, p. 25.

Copleston, a History of Philosophy, vol. 6, Wolf to Kant, pp. 47-48.

: | 21 - 2010

27


.1

.2




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28

: | 21 - 2010

.(1








 (1

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Kant, Critic of Judjment, trans. Meredith (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957), p. 14.
 (1
( : 1983 ) .115

 (1

W.R. Carter, The Elements of Metaphysics, (New York, 1990), ch. 1, What is Metaphysics, p. 12.

C. A. Baglis, Metaphysics, Intro., pp. 1-2.


R. George, Classical and Contemporary Metaphysics (New York, 1962); Aristotle, bk. 4, pp. 4-7.

: | 21 - 2010

29



.

(1 .




(1

.(1

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1982 ) .357
 (1
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30

Hume, Abstract of a Treatise of Human Nature, ed. Selby-Bigge, (London: Oxford, 1925), p. 6.
Ibid.
Ibid,p.3.
W. Wood, Kants Rational Thelogy (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1978), p. 12; Hume, A Treatise on
Human Understanding, p. 60

: | 21 - 2010

Bassoon, David Hume, p. 20.


 .(2







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...


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Bassoon, David Hume, Ibid.

: | 21 - 2010

31


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32

( : )1983 1
1 .139
141.142
1967 ) .42
( :

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: | 21 - 2010






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Descartes
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1976 ) .108
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J. Trusted, Physics and Metaphysics, (London and New York: Routledge, 1994), p. 122.
.89
.226
.91
: | 21 - 2010

33

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34

Kant, Critic of Pure Reason, (London: Macmillan, 1929), p. 22.

( )1922 .52

.129
209.210
.218

: | 21 - 2010

Physics and Metaphysics, p. 122.

Critic of Pure Reason, p. 93.

.3

.

(Max Planck )1947-1858




1900

 .(3

 (3 ( : )1986 63.


: | 21 - 2010

35



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36

: | 21 - 2010

B. Ivanov, Physique Nouvelle, (Moscou), p. 27.




Brown

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Louis de Broglie, Savants et Decouverts, (Paris: A. Michel, 1956), p. 270.

: | 21 - 2010

37


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 (4

38

: | 21 - 2010

Ibid, p. 274.


Heisenberg

:

: | 21 - 2010

39

.



.


Feyerabend

40

: | 21 - 2010

.

Bachelard
.(4




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P. Destouches, La structure des theories physique, p.u.f. 1951, pp. 260-266. et p. 296.

 (4
(1969 ) .79

 (4

G. Bachelard, Lactivit rationaliste de la physique contemporaine, p.u.f.1965, p. 70-73.


 (4
: | 21 - 2010

41


.(4

(4
.

 (4
 (4

42

Louis de Broglie, Matiere et lumiere, (A. Michel, 1978), p. 208; et: Rationalisme, p.u.f. 1967, p. 52.

Blanch, laxiomatique, p.u.f. 1965, p.98. et: J. Ulmo, La pense scientifique moderne, (Flammarion, 1969), p. 96; et:
Blanch, La nouveau esprit scientifique, p. 130.

: | 21 - 2010





 .(4

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Bachelard, La formation de lesprit scientifique, (Vrin, 1979), p. 239.


 (5
30 .Bachelard, Le nouvel esprit scientifique, (p.u.f. 1949), p. 134

 (5

Bachelard, le nouvel esprit, p. 13.


 (5
Bachelard, Lactivit p. 91-92.

: | 21 - 2010

43

44

: | 21 - 2010





.

.

.1
Immanuel Kant 
.




()

W.V.O. Quine


 .

Saul Kripke  .








The Possibility of Metaphysics: Substance, Identity, and Time (Oxford: Clarendon
.)Press, 1998
 .



I. Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, trans. N. Kemp Smith (London: Macmillan, 1929), B22.

W. V. Quine, Two Dogmas of Empiricism, in his From a Logical Point of View, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, Mass: Harvvard University Press, 1961).



S. Kripke, Naming and Necessity (Oxford: Blackwell, 1980).

: | 21 - 2010

45



.
.

46

: | 21 - 2010


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.


.2



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Descartes



Locke

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Relativism, scientism, neo-Kantianism and semanticism.

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47

.


.


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48

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( )


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normative

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.

( )

.
: | 21 - 2010

49

. ( )
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descriptive
P. F. Strawson
 

revisionary
. Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysic (London: Methuen,

[ ]

[ .1959), 9 ff :

.].

skepticism On the Very

Donald
Davidson



Idea of a Conceptual Scheme. Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984) :

50

: | 21 - 2010


.


Michael Dummett



.
set theory

.
principle of bivalence

Dummett

(1

.
.

.



.




 (1

Michael Dummett, The Logical Basis of Metaphysics (London: Duckworth, 1991), Intro.
Michael Dummett, Origins of Analytical Philosophy (London: Duckworth, 1993), ch. 13.

: | 21 - 2010

51


.
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 (1

Michael Dummett, Frege: Philosophy of Language, 2nd edn. (London: Duckworth, 1981), ch. 4; Crispin Wright, Freges
Conception of Numbers as Objects (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1983), 53 ff.; Bob Hale, Abstract Objects
(Oxford: Blackwell, 1987), ch. 2.

 (1
 (1

52

Objects and Criteria of Identity, in Bob Hale and Crispin Wright, eds., A Companion to Philosophy of Language (Oxfford: Blackwell, 1997); E. J. Lowe, The Possibility of Metaphysics: Substance, Identity, and Time (Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1998), ch. 2.

Speaking of Objects :Ontological Relativity


Ontological Relativity and Other Essays (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969).

: | 21 - 2010


.3


. .

() .





.
.

: | 21 - 2010

53



.
( )

( ) ( state of affairs

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54

 (1

Ontological Dependency, Philosophical Papers, 23 (1994), 31-48


 (1

.Barry Smith, Logic, Form and Matter, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, supp. Vol. 55 (1981), 47-63

6 The Possibility of Metaphysics. Op. cit.


: | 21 - 2010

 (1

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Gareth Evans


( .(1)a=b



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 (1 ( .Benjamin Lee Whorf )1941-1897.
 (1

Language, Thought and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf, ed. J. B. Carroll (Cambridge, Mass: MIT
Press, 1956).

 (1
 (1
 (2

Michael Dummett and Kim Sterelny, Language and Reality (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987), chs. 10 and 12.
Gareth Evans, Can There Be Vague Objects?, Analysis, 38 (1978), 208.

Vague Identity and Quantum Indeterm


3 The Possibility of Metaphysics
.minacy, Analysis, 54 (1994), 110-14

: | 21 - 2010

55



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56



2 3 The Possibility of Metaphysics
The Metaphysics of Abstract Objects, Journal of Philosophy, 92 (1995), 509-204.
3 . Vague Identity and Quantum Indeterminacy

: | 21 - 2010

(2McTaggart


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Einstein



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ex hypothesi .


( .backward causation

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Substance, Identity and Time, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, supp. Vol. 62 (1988), 61-78.

: | 21 - 2010

57


.

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(
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The Indexical Fallacy in McTaggarts Proof of the Unreality of Time, Mind, 96 (1987), 62-70.

58

: | 21 - 2010






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: | 21 - 2010

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Loperation cartsienne et la prsence dialogique de ltre, Revue de Mtaphysique et de Morale, 61e. Anne, No.
3-4, Paris, 1956.

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5465
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101

(1
. .







.
.



William of Ockham







John Locke
.

.122
 (1

102

: | 21 - 2010


.(1


Berkeley



.


.



.



.

( : )
 (1
.335
: | 21 - 2010

103





.(1


Hume

.(1

. Marx
.

( ) Husserl

.


.
 (1
( :
1997 1) .69

 (1


( 2010 ) 7 8.9

( : )

104

: | 21 - 2010

: | 21 - 2010

105


.
.



.




.


()

106

: | 21 - 2010

.
.




: | 21 - 2010

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.1



108

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.


 .(2

.

.

 (2 ( : 1993 4) .3
: | 21 - 2010

109

.2



.
.




110

: | 21 - 2010



 (2

.1



.

 (2

.139
: | 21 - 2010

111

.
.









.

()


. .


.


.

.


.

.
112

: | 21 - 2010

.2





.


.

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113

.3

114

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(2







(
) .
  (2



.
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115




( ) .

.

(

)

.4






(2

. ..



: .

2000 1) .47
( :
 (2

116

: | 21 - 2010


.
.
.

: | 21 - 2010

117

118

: | 21 - 2010



)(2






. Sein/being/tre






13
() .2009



 .







.




.

.



1037-980)
(427-370,

.Avicenna

...

: | 21 - 2010

119


Martin Heidegger .







(Sophist


.)245e - 246e

Sein und Zeit




Fundament

talontologie
.


comparative studies




(.)Being qua being/ on h on



Sein/



being/tre


.Lamour ontologique



gigantomakhia peri ts ousias.

Plato, Theaetetus, Sophist, trans. Harold North Fowler, Loeb Classical Library Volume VII (Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1921).



Martin Heidegger, Sein und Zeit (Tbingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1953).



:



Nader El-Bizri, Being and Necessity: A Phenomenological Investigation of Avicennas Metaphysics and
Cosmology, in Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and
Macrocosm, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht, 2006), pp. 243-261, Nader El-Bizri, Avicenna
and Essentialism, Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 54 ( June 2001), pp. 753-778, Nader El-Bizri, The Phenomeenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger (Binghamton, New York: Global Publications, SUNY
at Binghamton, 2000).

120

: | 21 - 2010


.Neo-Platonism

scholasticus

Thomas Aquinass Duns Scotus Meister Eckh


hart Francisco Surez
Kant Hegel Nietzsche
Descartes



phenomenology

philologic
historiographic


Avicenna Latin

.nus [ ]

Albertus Magnus Gundissalinus



Robert Grosseteste Roger Bacon


Quaestiones quodlibetales, Summa theologiae, De veritate

Reportata Parisiensia Disputationes metaphysicae


: | 21 - 2010

121

.




1927
(1Die Grundprobleme der Phnomenologie

essentia et existentia


 (1

essentialism

)
Edmund Husserl

Martin Heidegger, Die Grundprobleme der Phnomenologie, Gesamtausgabe 24 (Frankfurt am Main: (1
.Vittorio Klostermann, 1975), pp. 80-81



 (1

Wissenschaft der Logik

Martin Heidegger, Wegmarken, Gesamtausgabe 9 (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klosternmann, 1976),


pp. 255-272.

122

: | 21 - 2010


Seinsfrage

Vergessenheit

)stemma codicum :

( genealogical




)archival
(

: | 21 - 2010

123

Neo-Kantism

Kierkegaard.

Heraclitus
.Parmenides

124

: | 21 - 2010

.ipseity

( )Sophist, Timaeus, Phaedo


eidos
ideia

.

ousia

substantia

essentia/quidditas

.actus/actualitas

res extensa

res cogitans
.


 .(1
[ ]copula

.


Begriff


.Der Wille zur Macht

( )

Transcendental ego





a priori




.
Subjektivitt/subiectum/

.Grund
hupokeimenon
ego
  (1
Kant, Kritik der
.reinen Vernunft (Critique of Pure Reason), A598-B626
Martin Heidegger, Wegmarken, Gesamtausgabe 9 (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1976),
pp. 273-307.
: | 21 - 2010

125

positum .


Freiburg

Rector 1933 .1934




Sein und



Zeit

apophainesthai ta phainomena :

]
Zu den Sachen
:

[

.selbst/to the things themselves


 .(1


innerweltlich .


.existentialist

Jean-Paul Sartre


.Existenzphilosophie

Brief ber den Humanismus

 (1

Martin Heidegger, Sein und Zeit (Tbingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1953), 7, Jean-Paul Sartre, Ltre et le
nant, essai dontologie phnomnologique (Paris: Gallimard, 1943), pp. 11-16

126

: | 21 - 2010

.Lexistentialisme est un humanisme



.(1







(1





.existentiale Analytik des Daseins :

Da-Sein : ( )





tre-
Existenz


(1l/tre-le-l

subiectum ego
(
)


Da-Sein

.Da-Sein
Da-Sein

In-der-Welt-sein

.



beingness


 (1

Jean-Paul Sartre, Lexistentialisme est un humanisme (Paris: Nagel, 1946), pp. 17-21. Martin Heidegger,
Brief ber den Humanismus, in Wegmarken, Gesamtaugabe 9 (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann,
1976), pp. 145-194.

 (1

Martin Heidegger, Sein und Zeit (Tbingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1953), pp. 35-38.
 (1 Da-Sein
Jean Beaufret, Dialogue avec Heidegger, Vol. 4: Le chemin de Heidegger (Paris: Minuit, 1985), pp. 113-115.
: | 21 - 2010

127

existentials
categories

(

) .

Sein-zum-Tode/being-towards-death
!


! Das Man/eux/



them


Da-Sein

.(1Zeitlichkeit

Lebenswelt
.

innerweltlich

temporality/Zeitlichkeit .temporality/ Temporalitt


 (1

Martin Heidegger, Sein und Zeit (Tbingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1953), p. 17.

128

: | 21 - 2010

Unheimlich/

.altheia/ veritas


uncanny
.

Ereignis :


Lichtung/Offenheit

event of appropriation

Parousia/Anwesung

Unverborgenheit
Verborgenheit .


.enframing
Gestell

tekhn

praxis




.poisis

.


 (1
Da-Sein Ereignis

 (1,

Martin Heidegger, Die Technik und die Kehre, in Opuscula (Pfullingen: Gnther Neske Verlag , 1962),
: | 21 - 2010

129

. Dichten


(1

mystical

.Die Kehre



das Wesen des Dinges

ousia


ousiolo
.substantia



ogy .





 .(2


(2
. das Geviert


:

divinities/Gttlichen heavens/Himmel

earth/Erde .mortals/Sterblichen

.
pp. 5-36.
Friedrich Hlderlin Rainer
  (1
Maria Rilke

.

 (2

Martin Heidegger, Das Ding, in Vortrge und Aufstze, Gesamtausgabe 7 (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio
Klostermann, 2000), pp. 168-172.


 (2

...

Martin Heidegger, Bauen Wohnen Denken, in Vortrge und Aufstze (Pfullingen: Gnther Neske Verlag,
1954), pp. 145-162.

130

: | 21 - 2010

energeai


actus metaphysics of production

creation.





: | 21 - 2010

131

( )Ptolemy

Physics .(2


.







.


.
. connectio

distinctio

substant
ousia

( )
tia

.(2


 (2

Nader El-Bizri, In Defence of the Sovereignty of Philosophy: al-Baghdds Critique of Ibn al-Haythams
Geometrisation of Place, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy (Cambridge University Press), Vol. 17, Issue 1
(2007), pp. 57-80, A Philosophical Perspective on Alhazens Optics, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy (Cambbridge University Press), Vol. 15, Issue 2 (2005), pp. 189-218.


( :

 (2



)1960 36 39 43 47 350 .355

( :
)1985 255 261 265 272 275

( : )1960

283 .285

.65

132

: | 21 - 2010


ipseity


.(2

( )1
()2


Emmanuel Levinas
 (2

.lexister sans exsitant


Emmanuel Levinas, Le temps et lautre (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1991), 4me dition, pp.
24-30.
: | 21 - 2010

133

De anima/Peri psukhs


(
) .



.cogito ergo sum







...

thought experiment


Meditationes de Prima Philosop
.phiae

.predicates
eidos

on h on
!

(2 tode ti (haecceitas(


() to ti n einai
(2

  (2 haecceitas
:
.tode ti :

( )
haecceitas
.tode ti :

.Ordinatio II, d.3, p.1, q.2, n.48

 (2

Aristotle, Metaphysics, ed. W. David Ross (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1924), books VII, XI (Zeta,
Theta).

134

: | 21 - 2010

[le fait/pour une chose dtre ce quon-a-dit quelle est


what it was for something to be the thing it is].


essentia .existentia
.

.

laltrit/autrui/otherness
.











.

.

.



.



il y a/there is/es gibt Sein . !
! ! ......


Ereignis

: | 21 - 2010

135

(2

ousia



.

...

!



.
.

( )

  (2

Denken, think Danken, thank

136

: | 21 - 2010



.
Sein

.Sein :
.being/tre :
existence/exister



Lamour ontologique

agape


ers





]
. [




.
: | 21 - 2010

137

(2

()Der Spiegel

( )Nur noch ein Gott kann uns :

retten / only a God can save us

.(2

.Seinsverlassenheit


  (2 23 () 1966 31 () [ 1976
26 () .]1976

Martin Heidegger, Nur noch ein Gott kann uns retten, Der Spiegel, 31st May 1976, pp. 193-219.

  (2

Emmanuel Faye, Heidegger, lintroduction du nazisme dans la philosophie (Paris: Albin Michel, 2005).

138

: | 21 - 2010

Volk



.



.Volksgemeinschaft

.

 .(3

Die Htte

Schwarzwald Todtnauberg
Baden ...

[
.Nihilismus

:
(


(3)Der Letze Gott (

.
)


  (3 Jacques Derrida

:Meyer Shapiro
Jacques Derrida, Restitutions de la vrit en peinture, in La vrit en peinture (Paris: Falmmarion, 1978),
pp. 293-436.

 (3

Martin Heidegger, Beitrge zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis), Gesamtausgabe 65 (Frankfurt am Main: Vitttorio Klostermann, 1989), 23-256.
: | 21 - 2010

139

( (3)Sophist 244a

: ( )on

...

 (3

Plato, Theaetetus, Sophist, trans. Harold North Fowler, Loeb Classical Library Volume VII (Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1921).

140

: | 21 - 2010





.
.

( .)1969

 





(.The Concept and Reality of Existence (Tokyo: Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies, 1971
.


 (1993-1914)

.
-

( :


)2007 ( :
.

)2007

: | 21 - 2010

141

( )1240-1165 .


(.)1640-1571
.

.


.




.

.

( .)1037-980



( )1198-1126



.

142

: | 21 - 2010



( )950-872
.
:


.

.

.










.



( ens in alio )

.
.
.






.


: | 21 - 2010

143


(-)

[ ]


.
.

.
.





144

: | 21 - 2010




.

.


 .



. objectify


actus essendi


( : )1967 .14


: | 21 - 2010

145


:



.
.
.
[ ]

.

( )


[ ]



( )

.



.


(- )1969 259

.261
(1337 ) 94 .97



146

: | 21 - 2010

.

 ( )1

.

( )2 :

. .







.
.



 .

.
( ).









( )1969 .625

.448
Vivekacudamani .521
.S.N.L. Shrivastava, Samkara and Bradley (Delhi, 1968), pp. 45-47
: | 21 - 2010

147







.




.


.(1

.

.



(1342 ) .19
 (1

148

: | 21 - 2010

.

(1
.


.




() .
.


.
.

(1


. .

 (1 -

-




.







.

 (1 .

(1
(.)1253-1200

  (1

Nihat Keklik, Sadreddin Konevinin Felsefisinde Allah, Kainat va Insan (Istanbul, 1967), pp. 6-9.

: | 21 - 2010

149


.



.



.
.

. .




( ) .

.
.

. .(1

26.27

 (1

150

: | 21 - 2010

() .


. .

. .
.


()

.
.


.






.



.


.
(1
.

.



.
.



.
 (1

The Absolute and the Perfect Man in Taoism (Eranos Jahrbuch XXXVI),

.Zurich, 1967, pp. 398-411

: | 21 - 2010

151

.



.





.

.

coincidentia oppositorum

(1

.

()1200-1130
 (1
.

152

: | 21 - 2010


: .


.
.

.


. .



.


.


) .(1
.

.)Cite Tzu Yu, Book 94

.101
 (1 217 .100

: | 21 - 2010

153

.


.

.
.
.



.1


.2

.(1

.3


.



.
.


.


.
.
.

 (1
113391 .61

154

: | 21 - 2010

. .

[ ]

.



.(1

(2


Wittgenstein

.seeing as

. ...

.(2aspect blindness



 (1

( )161


(998-819) ..

(782-719)

 (2

 (2

M. B. Hester, The Meaning of Poetic Metaphor (The Hague-Paris, 1967), Intro.

L. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, p. 213.

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155

.


.


.

.


.

.

.
.


.

.


.


.

.

156

: | 21 - 2010


.(2

.




.


.


.
.

. .
.
.


.

 .(2 .

(2


[]

.



  (2
217.221
 (2

A Comparative Study of the Key Philosophical Concepts in Sufism and Taoism (Tokyo: Keio Institute of Cultural and
Linguistic Studies, 1967), II, pp. 122-123.

 (2 .113

: | 21 - 2010

157

( )

. .



).
(
:


() .(2


.

.

.


.



.

.

 (2 113 .115

158

: | 21 - 2010


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.
()


) .
(

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)

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) (
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: | 21 - 2010

159




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106.107

160

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.

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161.162
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: | 21 - 2010

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. .






.




.




.
162

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coincidentia oppositorum .

.





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.2 .
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168

: | 21 - 2010

() .

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( :.)1988
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2010

D E TA I L E D TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S

as such, i.e. contemplating the basic concepts intertwined with the ontological thought
and its epistemic consequences. We hope our endeavor would help move Avicennism
beyond its archival destiny and historiographic framing contaminating all scholarly
work on Islamic philosophy.

The Basic Structure of Metaphysical Thinking in Islam

Toshihiko Izutsu

(141-164)

Metaphysical truth, says the adherent to unity of existence, is two-dimensional


contingent upon whether it (the truth) is determined (articulated) or not. If the
world of appearances, the world of determinations, were to be considered as selfsubsistent and enduring, then it is false and unreal. Were it to be considered in its
relation to the Ultimate Truth, however, then it is perfectly real. The knowledge of the
world of appearances, a knowledge of essences by its nature, ought not blockade our
knowledge of the ultimate structure of Reality, the knowledge of which cannot be but
presential. Here, the mystic-philosopher holds sway over the two dimensions when his
empirical ego is extinguished in the Absolute (annihilation), bringing the subject and
the object together and witnessing unity in the heart of multiplicity (annihilation of
annihilation).

Metaphysics in its Home Ground: Philosophy and Mysticism in Dialogue

Mohammad Mesbahi (an interview)


Mohammad V University at Agdal Rabat

196 Al - Mahajja Issue 21 | Summer - Fall 2010

(167-186)

D ETA I L E D TA B L E O F CO N T E N TS

Metaphysical Truth: Sensing Nature and Intuiting Existence

(91-118)

Hasan Badran
Sapiential Knowledge Institute Lebanon

Rationality is distinctive of man. It is the knowledge of universals; the tools we deploy


in seeking truth.
Universals are of two types, those that are arrived at by the abstraction of the
senses, and this is the heart of essential propositions, and universals that are had by the
abstraction of the mind, and this is the heart of philosophical propositions. Metaphysics
transcends the meta which encompasses the truth; a transcendence of exclusion, and
in this sense transcending the imagined and the relative, ultimately attaining truths
and facts; and a transcendence of assembly and comprehensiveness, and in this sense
it should be utilized as is suggested in this paper to surpass essences and things
concrete to arrive at existence, inasmuch as it is a primary philosophical concept.

Avicennism and Heideggers Criticism of the History of Metaphysics

Nader El-Bizri

(119-140)

Cambridge University UK

The Avicennan ontological heritage had a far-reaching impact exceeding the vocation
ascribed to it as a mediator between the Aristotelian oeuvre and its renovating scholastic
interpretations. Disputably, He was regarded by Heidegger as a first milestone in
the path to essentialism perfected ultimately by Hegel. Here we consider Avicennas
ontology in our analysis of being and existence from a Heideggerian perspective critical
of the history of philosophy, and defiant to epistemic and existential challenges ensuing
from the development of science. This is a reading aiming at contemplating existence
Al - Mahajja Issue 21 | Summer - Fall 2010 197

D E TA I L E D TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S

Ontology: Is It Fundamental?

Immanuel Levinas

(63-74)

Philosophy, and all human inquiry, was built on denying the individual being all that
gives it its peculiarity and distinctiveness, while retaining what is common to the genus.
In such a journey, the inquisitive mind ceases not before arriving at what is common
to all beings. This universal, however, gets duller as we go on, until it is confined, in
description, at the end of the journey, to being or existence. The oddness here, in
this epistemological journey, is that the further you go, the farther you are from the
distinctiveness and particularity of the individual being. Here, the author deems the
said approach unfitting to deal with humans, even if it were eligible to deal with things.
The reality of man subsists in his distinctiveness that cannot be cognized by looking
through the universal; this looking extinguishes it. The only approach permissible is to
meet this reality and converse with it.

The Return to Metaphysics

Eduard Nicol

(75-90)

Metaphysics deals with primary principles while taking existence for granted. Whenever
certain metaphysical constructs elected to prove existence (reality), we ended up with
skepticism and relativity. Reality cannot be suspended (Descartes and Husserl) as we
go about finding a way to demonstrate it, or founded (modern physics) as if unavailable;
it only makes itself present in a dialogical rapport. Moreover, the primary evidence on
existence cannot reside in the egos consciousness alone; we wouldnt be capable of
establishing any reality thereof. The evidence resides in its perpetual presence, although
it does not attend without limitations or featureless.

198 Al - Mahajja Issue 21 | Summer - Fall 2010

D ETA I L E D TA B L E O F CO N T E N TS

SPECIAL ISSUE: THE RETURN OF METAPHYSICS


Overcoming Metaphysics in Contemporary Philosophy of Science
Bachelard and the Objective Reality

(21-44)

Khanjar Hamiyyeh
Lebanese University Beirut

The collapse of classical-physics-bound philosophy, with the progress of quantum


theory, intensified the campaign inaugurated by Kantians and Skeptics against
metaphysics as a legitimate domain of human inquiry and knowledge. In an effort
to curtail the ensuing extreme positivist and relativist positions, Bachelard, while
pursuing the idealist prospects instigated by Heisenberg, established the priority of
mathematical reality as if trying to make room for objectivity. In his hands, objectivity
became a theoretical invention that would essentially de-materialize the universe,
dropping, thereat, the law of non-contradiction and basing reality on non-reality.

The Possibility of Metaphysics

(45-62)

E. J. Lowe
Durham University UK

Metaphysics plays a pivotal role in philosophy as the central form of rational inquiry
with its own methods and verification criteria. All other scientific disciplines are based
on metaphysical assumptions, logic un-excluded. As such, logical possibility is not
enough to evaluate the results of experience for the formal, or conceptual basis, which
constitutes the domain of logic, returns, of necessity, to the ontological basis, the domain
of metaphysics. It is metaphysical possibility that makes metaphysics possible.
Al - Mahajja Issue 21 | Summer - Fall 2010 199

Al-Mahajja

Issue 21 (2010)

Biannual. Specialized in Religious and Philosophical Thought

General Supervisor
E d i to r
Assistant Editor

Shafik Jaradi
Mahmoud Youness
Bassima Doulani

Editorial Board

Ahmad Majed
Ali Youssef
Ali Mousawi
Habib Fayyad
Mohammad Zaraket
Samir Kheireddin
Tariq Osseili
Des ig n

A T

A d v e r t i s i n g

A g e n c y

Sapiential Knowledge Institute (for Religious and Philosophical Studies) is a


research and education institute active in the intellectual domain with aims at
bridging gaps between different religious and intellectual groups, through speccialized studies, advanced teaching approaches and academic publications.
Notes for Contributors contributors are invited to submit their manuscripts for
consideration, or translation, by email or on desk, to the Editor. All manuscripts
will be reviewed by academic referees. Articles are to fall between 4000 and
8000 words (including notes and references) and must adhere to the Journal>s
style. Papers accepted become copyright of Sapiential Knowledge Press unless
otherwise specifically agreed.
Opinions expressed are those of the authors and not, of necessity, those of the Journal.

Sapiential Knowledge Institute


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