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Published by: CristalPagcaliwangan on Jan 24, 2012
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The only fluid tissue in the human body  Classified as a connective tissue 

Living cells = formed elements Non-living matrix = plasma Non-


Figure 10.1

´RIVER OF LIFEµ Homogenous; consists of non-living fluid plasma & nonformed elements ( RBC, WBC, platelets) Slightly alkalinic (7.35-7.45); metallic taste (7.35Dull red ² bright red The only fluid connective tissue 5x thicker/denser/more viscous than water approx. 5 liters (5.3 quarts) of blood 7 to 8% of a person's body weight.

and ² white blood cells/ leukocytes (neutrophils. plasma.  . lymphocytes. eosinophils. monocytes). ² red blood cells (erythrocytes).  Fifty-five percent (55%) consists of Fiftyplasma.COMPONENTS OF BLOOD FortyForty-five percent (45%) consists of cells ² Plateletes (thrombocytes). basophils. the liquid component of blood.

Transport of large molecules (e. Oxygen transport Lymphocytes (leukocytes) Red blood cells (erythrocytes). Rehabilitation Services Administration.g. glucose). spleen. 37. Clowers. lymph nodes Bone marrow life-span: 120 days Bone marrow Immunity T-cells attack cells containing viruses." in: Handbook of Severe Disability. US Department of Education. Component Type Source Function Platelets.4 2. creatinine). Stolov and Michael R. Stolov. cell fragments Bone marrow Blood clotting life-span: 10 days Bone marrow.Immunity (globulin) 4. edited by Walter C. cholesterol) 3. p.Blood clotting (fibrinogen) . a compound of iron and protein Neutrophil (leukocyte) Plasma. salts.Maintenance of pH level near 7. 1981. wastes (urea. hormones. "Significant Body Systems.nutrients (proteins. consisting of 90% water and 10% dissolved materials -. enzymes Phagocytosis 1. Filled with hemoglobin. B-cells produce antibodies.Major Blood Components Modified from: Joel DeLisa and Walter C.

yellowish fluid (the color of straw) 90% water. clotting factors. distributes the substances it contains as it circulates throughout the body . other 10% dissolved in plasma is essential for life dissolved substances in plasma are electrolytes. and proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulins (antibodies to fight infection). nutrients and vitamins (absorbed from the intestines or produced by the body). hormones.PLASMA      the liquid portion of the blood clear.

Chloride (Cl-). Potassium (K+). hormones and vitamins. Bicarbonate (HCO3-). and (immunoglobulins). globulins (immunoglobulins).  . muscle contraction (including the heart). Calcium Cl(HCO3(Ca+2). nerve conduction. cholesterol.  Other materials dissolved in plasma are carbohydrates (glucose). blood clotting and pH balance.PLASMA main proteins in plasma are albumin (60%). Magnesium (Mg+2) ² For fluid balance. clotting proteins (especially fibrinogen)  Electrolytes ² Sodium (Na+).

Formed Elements Erythrocytes = red blood cells  Leukocytes = white blood cells  Platelets = cell fragments  .

Photomicrograph of a Blood Smear Figure 10.2 .

Characteristics of Formed Elements of the Blood Table 10.2 .

Characteristics of Formed Elements of the Blood Table 10.2 .

a.k.  give blood its characteristic red color. . ERYTHROCYTES  by far the most abundant cells in the blood  transport oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body  contain a protein called hemoglobin that actually carries the oxygen.RED BLOOD CELLS  A.

women. an average of 4. cubic millimeter (microliter). and in women.600.000 RBCs per cubic millimeter  account for approx.RED BLOOD CELLS In men. 40 to 45%of the blood percentage of blood made up of RBCs is a frequently measured number (hematocrit) hematocrit) ratio of cells in normal blood is 600 RBCs for each white blood cell and 40 platelets.  .000 RBCs per men. an average of 5.200.

to oxygen  Each hemoglobin molecule has four oxygen binding sites  Each erythrocyte has 250 million hemoglobin molecules  .Hemoglobin IronIron-containing protein  Binds strongly. but reversibly.

A. this is a sign of an infection somewhere in your body. 4.  When the number of WBCs in your blood increases.a.000 (average 7. leukocytes  part of the immune system and help our bodies fight infection  Approx.000 to 11.000) WBCs per microliter of blood.  WHITE BLOOD CELLS .k.

WHITE BLOOD CELLS  six main types of WBCs and the average percentage of each type in the blood: GRANULOCYTES  Neutrophils .2 percent  Basophils .1 percent AGRANULOCYTES  Monocytes .58 percent  Eosinophils .4 percent  Lymphocytes .4 percent .

Types of White Blood Cells .

4 .Types of Leukocytes  Granulocytes Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained Include neutrophils. eosinophils. and basophils Figure 10. eosinophils.

Types of Leukocytes  Agranulocytes Lack visible cytoplasmic granules Include lymphocytes and monocytes Figure 10.4 .

Granulocytes  Neutrophils Multilobed nucleus with fine granules Act as phagocytes at active sites of infection .

 Eosinophils Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules brickFound in repsonse to allergies and parasitic worms .

Granulocytes  Basophils Have histamine-containing granules histamineInitiate inflammation .

Agranulocytes  Monocytes Largest of the white blood cells Function as macrophages Important in fighting chronic infection .

 Lymphocytes Nucleus fills most of the cell Play an important role in the immune response .

WHITE BLOOD CELLS      Neutrophils . 75% is T-cell T- . can phagocytize bacteria Lymphocytes are complex cells that direct the body's immune system. they function in allergic reactions releasing histamine Monocytes enter the tissue. kill bacteria by actually ingesting them (phagocytosis) Eosinophils kill parasites and have a role in allergic reactions Basophils. where they become larger and turn into macrophages.

remain afterwards to help the immune system respond more quickly if the same organism is encountered again.  Suppressor T cells .have proteins on their cell membranes called CD4.LYMPHOCYTES Helper T cells . direct the rest of the immune system by releasing cytokines.  Memory T cells .suppress the immune response so that it does not get out of control and destroy normal cells once the immune response is no longer needed.  .release chemicals that break open and kill invading organisms. 9stimulate B cells to form plasma cells. which form antibodies).T. stimulate the production of cytotoxic T cells and suppressor T cells and activate macrophages the cells the AIDS virus attacks  Cytotoxic T cells .

LYMPHOCYTES B.B.cells become plasma cells when exposed to an invading organism or when activated by helper T cells  produce large numbers of antibodies (also called immunoglobulins or gamma globulins)   Lymphocytes are different from the other WBCs because they can recognize and have a memory of invading bacteria and viruses .

000 to 400.a.PLATELETS  A.thrombocytes  help blood to clot by forming something called a platelet plug  approximately 150.k.000) .000 platelets in each microliter of blood (average is 250.

HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES  Red blood cells Increased number = POLYCYTHEMIA Decreased number = ANEMIA  White blood cells Increased number = LEUKOCYTOSIS  LEUKEMIA ( white blood ) Decreased number = LEUKOPENIA  Platelets Increased number = solid blood Decreased number = bleeding disorders .

Hematopoiesis Blood cell formation  Occurs in red bone marrow  All blood cells are derived from a common stem cell (hemocytoblast) (hemocytoblast)  Hemocytoblast differentiation  Lymphoid stem cell produces lymphocytes Myeloid stem cell produces other formed elements .

grow. are eliminated by phagocytes in the spleen or liver  Lost cells are replaced by division of hemocytoblasts  . or synthesize proteins  Wear out in 100 to 120 days  When worn out.Fate of Erythrocytes Unable to divide.

Control of Erythrocyte Production Rate is controlled by a hormone (erythropoietin)  Kidneys produce most erythropoietin as a response to reduced oxygen levels in the blood  Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback from blood oxygen levels  .

Control of Erythrocyte Production Figure 10.5 .

Hemostasis Stoppage of blood flow  Result of a break in a blood vessel  Hemostasis involves three phases  Platelet plug formation Vascular spasms Coagulation .

Platelet Plug Formation Collagen fibers are exposed by a break in a blood vessel  Platelets become sticky and cling to fibers  Anchored platelets release chemicals to attract more platelets  Platelets pile up to form a platelet plug  .

Vascular Spasms Anchored platelets release serotonin  Serotonin causes blood vessel muscles to spasm  Spasms narrow the blood vessel. decreasing blood loss  .

and calcium ions to trigger a clotting cascade  Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin (an enzyme)  . blood protein clotting factors.Coagulation Injured tissues release thromboplastin  PF3 (a phospholipid) interacts with thromboplastin. thromboplastin.

Coagulation Thrombin joins fibrinogen proteins into hairhair-like fibrin  Fibrin forms a meshwork (the basis for a clot)  .

Blood Clotting Blood usually clots within 3 to 6 minutes  The clot remains as endothelium regenerates  The clot is broken down after tissue repair  .

7 .Fibrin Clot Figure 10.

Undesirable Clotting  Thrombus A clot in an unbroken blood vessel Can be deadly in areas like the heart  Embolus A thrombus that breaks away and floats freely in the bloodstream Can later clog vessels in critical areas such as the brain .

Bleeding Disorders  Thrombocytopenia Platelet deficiency Even normal movements can cause bleeding from small blood vessels that require platelets for clotting  Hemophilia Hereditary bleeding disorder Normal clotting factors are missing .

Blood Groups and Transfusions  Large losses of blood have serious consequences Loss of 15 to 30 percent causes weakness Loss of over 30 percent causes shock. which can be fatal Transfusions are the only way to replace blood quickly  Transfused blood must be of the same blood group  .

Human Blood Groups Blood contains genetically determined proteins  A foreign protein (antigen) may be attacked by the immune system  Blood is typed by using antibodies that will cause blood with certain proteins to clump (agglutination)  .

Human Blood Groups There are over 30 common red blood cell antigens  The most vigorous transfusion reactions are caused by ABO and Rh blood group antigens  .

BLOOD TYPES 4 major blood types: A. and 0 types:  determined by proteins called antigens (agglutinogens) on the surface of the agglutinogens) RBC  Blood typing is necessary before any surgery  Cross matching (mixing of donor s blood to recipient s blood) is done prior to blood transfusion  . AB. B.

anti-type-B antibodies. then the opposite antibody (agglutinin) is present in the (agglutinin) plasma. both anti-type-A and antianti-typeantitypetype-B antibodies . type A blood A antigen on the RBC. has no antibodies type O blood (universal donor) (universal donor) neither A nor B are present. anti-type-A antibodies. anti-type- type AB blood (universal recipient) (universal recipient) both A and B antigens. anti-type- type B blood B antigen is present. A and B When an antigen is present on the RBC.BLOOD TYPES       There are two antigens.

there is an Rh blood group system. then the missing. then that present.  The D antigen is the most common Rh antigen. blood is RhRh .BLOOD TYPES In addition to the ABO blood group system. blood is Rh+  If the D antigen is missing.  If the D antigen is present.

then the mother forms antibodies that can travel through the placenta and cause a disease called hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).Homeostatic imbalance  Blood incompatibility may lead to hemolysis  Rh incompatibility: When an Rh. .mother is pregnant with Rhan Rh+ fetus. fetalis. or erythroblastosis fetalis.

and vice versa  .Blood Typing Blood samples are mixed with anti-A and antiantianti-B serum  Coagulation or no coagulation leads to determining blood type  Typing for ABO and Rh factors is done in the same manner  Cross matching testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipient s serum.

Blood Typing Figure 10.8 .

Developmental Aspects of Blood  Sites of blood cell formation The fetal liver and spleen are early sites of blood cell formation Bone marrow takes over hematopoiesis by the seventh month  Fetal hemoglobin differs from hemoglobin produced after birth .

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