Chordates are named after a structure that is found in all chordate embryos

Notochord ± flexible rod that extends down the length of the body

Invertebrate chordates ± notochord becomes skeleton Vertebrate chordates ± notochord disintegrates

Post-anal tail . and mammals 4. birds. Hollow nerve cord ± develops into brain and spinal cord 3.All chordates have: 1. Notochord 2. Pharyngeal slits ± become gills in fish. not present in the adults of reptiles.

Characteristics of Vertebrates Skull ± protect brain Backbone ± protect nerve cord Vertebrae ± skeletal segments that compose the backbone Vertebrae can be made up of cartilage (sharks) or a combination of bone and cartilage (humans) shark vertebrae human vertebrae .

The evolution of hinged jaws enabled vertebrates to capture and eat a wide variety of prey .

How do Gills Function? Hemoglobin is a protein in blood that binds readily with oxygen The blood moving in the capillaries in the blood is very low in oxygen There is a higher concentration of oxygen in the surrounding water than in the capillaries Diffusion! Oxygen diffuses across the membranes of the gills into the capillaries .

Fishes with Bony Skeletons Bony fishes have a stiff skeleton reinforced by calcium compounds Operculum ± protective flap which covers the gills. movement of the flap flushes water over the gills Internal Air Sac ± makes the animal more buoyant .

Fishes with Cartilaginous Skeletons Cartilage ± tough. elastic connective tissue that allows smooth movement Sharks & Rays are cartilaginous fishes *Shark dissection the week after Spring Break! Rays are bottom-dwellers that use their jaws to crush mollusks and crustaceans Tail is used for defense .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful