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1. Communication is more complex in Matrix Org., since it involves people from across the organization 2. Phase gate; the order of phases must be strictly consecutive without overlapping in order to allow for gates 3. Referent power is the ability to attract people and build trust, its based on charisma and interpersonal skill 4. Risk assessments means risk identification through Qualitative Risk Analysis 5. Project is not complete when customer accepts the deliverables. It completes when all other project mgmt deliverables like lessons learnt etc are complete 6. Historical relationship (tools in determine budget) is key to improve estimates. Bottom-up cost/resource estimate is the most accurate but most expensive and time-consuming, so the analogue cost estimate is most widely used. 7. Quality Assurance: a. is when you are looking at way the process affects the quality. b. When you perform root cause analysis on process problem 8. Even if confronting (also called problem-solving) sounds negative…still do it 9. Whenever 7 tools used for inspection, its Quality Control, word “potential” or “possible” indicates plan quality 10. If you come across a person who is not a PMP, but still claims, then immediately contact PMI 11. Key to a good bonus system: a. Must be achievable b. Should not reward only one or a group c. Goal should not be too aggressive 12. In n(n-1)/2 type of problems, don’t forget to add 1 for the PM 13. PM is responsible for creating & executing Proj Mgt Plan, even though the entire team does it 14. Controlling unnecessary changes is one of the important part of PM’s role 15. Main role of Functional Manager is to control resources 16. Work authorization systems (part of EEF) helps in minimizing Gold Plating and make sure that Work gets performed in the right order and at the right time. Gold plating is adding features in the scope in order to consume entire budget. It is a non-value added activity. 17. There is nothing called as Time Management Plan, nothing called risk response plan 18. Completing product requirements addresses customer satisfaction 19. AON does not use dummies in network diagram, PERT uses AOA (action on arrow), node are milestones 20. Sunk costs (the already expended cost, cannot be recovered) should not be considered while deciding whether to continue the project or not 21. Earned Value deals with: It doesn’t distinguish if an activity or EV is on the critical path a. EV – Scope, b. PV – Time, c. AC – Cost 22. Portfolios are organized around business goals. All projects based on the ground of strategic plan 23. Take stern action against discrimination. Zero tolerance. you can pay for police protection if it’s a normal practice in that country). But if it’s illegal or unethical, even is common practice, don’t do it. Report any criminal behavior 24. Seller audit reviews products being created and Procurement Audit is used to examine successes & failures and gather lessons learnt 25. Written communication is best for complex problems or deal with external partners 26. Major results of communication blockers is Conflict 27. Understand in the question that whether Risk has actually “occurred” or its just “identified” 28. If seller completes the work in SOW, then the contract is complete, but does not mean that contract is closed 29. One of the objectives of negotiation is to protect the relationships, preferred way to resolve contract dispute 30. Negotiation is done after the seller is selected during conduct procurement process 31. Cost of team training is Direct Cost, salary of corporate offices who not involve in project is indirect cost 32. EV Analysis is a great reporting tool 33. If PM wants to decrease costs, he should look at Direct & Variable costs 34. PMI PM processes are best practices, PM and project team have the responsibility to select what processes are suitable for a given project, so they should not be consistently applied to each project. Pay attention to word “all” , “everything” “must”, they are words indicting wrong answers 35. Constructive changes are contract changes which are construed from actions taken by either party, not from a change document. Also they are frequent cause of disputes and claims 36. Categories of cultures that Managers should master: a. National Culture, b. Organizational Culture, c. Functional Culture 37. Project Management Team is responsible to obtain stakeholder’s formal acceptance 38. SOW prepared by customer if it is an external project. Internal one it is prepared by the sponsor or initiator. Scope Statement by project mgt team 39. Quality policy needs be created when there are multiple organizations working
Duration is length of critical path and NOT sum of duration of all tasks 63. the quality is said to be expressed by variables 48. Configuration mgt system is also used to apply technical & administrative directions and surveillance to support the audit of products or components to verify conformance to requirements 67. Weak Matrix is also called Project Coordinator Structure 49. EMV Analysis assumes Risk Neutrality 47. or other issues 72. requirements. 4 non M&C process have change requests as output: direct and manage project execution. Outliers in Control charts (also called Shewhart chart or process behavior chart) are the singular movements outside the bandwidth between the upper and lower control limit. 20/80 rule: 20% of project is considered complete at start and 80% at finish. Spending more on conformance costs will reduce the expenditure on non-conformance costs 69 Negotiation tactics: Attacks. IRR (also called discounted cash flow rate of return. deadline. 50/50 rules: 50% of project is considered complete at start and 50% at finish. get internal approval. Force Majeure is Legally. NPV = (PV of all cash inflows) – (PV of all cash outflows) 59. Special provision is contract changes to address a particular project’s risks. after accounting for cost of financing 50. Influence Diagrams (used in risk identification): a. Weakness of Monte Carlo Simulation is it considers those schedule risks for tasks which are in schedule network 46. Decision trees are best used for an illustration of how to see the interactions between decisions and the associated events 55. and act of God event.g. 71. delay. create options. of communication channels increases exponentially with each increase of stakeholders 58. plan procurement and conduct procurement 43. fair and reasonable. Templates can be used to identify typical schedule milestones and it also has standard activity list 75. Elapsed time includes non-working days 65. Shows causal influences.. and fait accompli (an established fact) 70. b. They are largely un-supervised. PM also acts as an interface between customer and functional managers 74. such as an earthquake 64. Close project or phase should take place at end of each phase 42. Contract is in place if there is an offer & acceptance. It incorporates a judgment of uncertainty (riskiness) of the future cash flows 52. and get customer buy-in. legal. It is WBS and NOT Scope statement that represents the project & product work including project management work 68. No. % complete can be determined by finding the achieved milestones within the work packages Formula is EV/BAC 53. Time ordering of events d. withdrawal (walk away). Product Scope completion is measured against Product Requirements 56. The term internal refers to the fact that its calculation does not incorporate environmental factors (e. manage project team. not negotiated 45. missing man. such as a dimension expressed with thousands of an inch. it indicates a special cause. QFD is used to determine critical characteristics for new product development 61. DCFROR or ROR) is a capital budgeting method – the annualized effective compounded return which can be earned on the invested capital. Individual levels of authority should match with their individual responsibilities and NOT competency to get best performance 66. 0/100 rule: No progress credit is given until activity is finished . Monte Carlo is used to determine the critically index (The percent of time a given activity will be on the critical path) for an activity in the schedule. good guy/bad guy. Other relation among variables and outcomes 57. Resource leveling is a Schedule Network Analysis Tool and NOT Schedule Compression Tool 54. personal insults. Discount rate is generally the appropriate cost of capital expressed as a percentage rate. it need not be signed or in writing 44. Graphical representation. PV is Future value of payment discounted at a discount rate for delay in payment 60. (also called assignable cause contract to common or random causes) 41.40. the IRR of an investment is the discount rate at which the net present value of costs (negative cash flows) of the investment equals the net present value of the benefits (positive cash flows) of the investment 51. Change process steps: Evaluate the impact. limited authority. c. NPV in a long term project measures the excess or shortfall of the cash flows through the project and to some time horizon during the life of the project result. the interest rate or inflation) n more specific terms. Leads to anarchy 62. The major type(s) of standard warranty (ies) that are used in the business environment are express (specific promise) and implied (merchantability or habitability). extreme demands. When a record is made of an actual measured quality characteristic. Laissez Faire – Manager does not interfere with subordinates. Approved change requests leads to Scope baseline updates 73.
Normal. Urgency. product scope and strategic plan 101. Need for Achievement. Quality is free and Zero defect concept is said by Philip Crosby. configuration management is the set of procedures developed to ensure that project design criteria are met 94. Project goals with goals of other sub units of Org 86. c. c. Mgt by objectives aligns: a. Bid peddling: Using existing bid details to solicit additional bids. Josep Juran advocated 80/20 principle (adopted to quality from Pareto). a. team development stage is defined by Bruce Tuckmann (forming. Project goals with individual goals c. cash flow projections. work authorization system is part of EEF that defines how work is assigned to people 99. Builds trust. participating. Root cause analysis may be employed during process analysis . Reconcile stakeholders differences d. gift. PM need not be a subject matter expert 89. extrinsic motivator. rewards. d. plan-do-check-act (Deming circle or Shewhard circle) is originated by Shewhart and modified by Deming. Original duration of an activity is the activity duration that was assigned and not updated as the progress of the activity is reported 77. Initial communication about team member performance should preferably be informal oral 83. Verify scope includes reviewing deliverables with customer or sponsor 82.. Facilitated workshops: a. Need for Affiliation 93. Project Management team should have a working knowledge of statistical quality control. lower bids. Statement of work has three main elements: business needs. Communication and people (interpersonal) skill are the major tools to manage stakeholder’s expectation 112. Fallback plan is used when original risk response plan doesn’t work well 110. Schedule data contains: a. Triangle distribution of risk analysis: a. Telling. David Mc Cleland theory called Achievement Motivation theory says that managers are motivated by: a. Process analysis is a quality insurance tool. selling. especially sampling and probability to evaluate output of quality control 81. EEF and OPA must be consider for every process even they are not explicitly list as input. continue improvement process Kaizen 109. contingency schedule. 360 degree review 100. Beta. order & delivery schedules 92. Resource Histograms. top management involvement. A change on a project must be documented and approved through integrated change control process 111. b. Legtimacy 87. Constructive change is any unauthorized change made to the contract by either party 107. project manager is the role model for ethic conduct 98. c. c. Power. Additional funding is always provided by Sponsor and NOT customer 88. e. Y axis shows relative likelihood 79. high-context culture: A message has little meaning without an understanding of the surrounding context b. b. 5 whys is a tool for root cause analysis (used in risk ID) 97.. bid shopping: Using existing lowest bid to solicit additional.. money 102. Procurement Audit covers from Plan Procurements to Administer Procurements to identify success & failures 80. "fitness for use". Estimate Activity Resources is closely coordinated with Estimate Costs process 90. passive risk acceptance is deal with risks only when it occurs 96. Improve communications in participants 91. X axis shows possible values of time & cost b. b. Workaround (also refer to winging in) is an unplanned response to a risk that has occurred. 103. Process configuration is a graphical description of processes with identified interfaces to facilitate analysis 85.. Need for Power. b. Fosters relationships. it is determined in the monitoring and control process group. delegating 95. CSOW: A Statement of work that has been formally agreed upon by both parties and is therefore part of a Contract 104. alternative schedule. EEF may constrain project management options.) 105 Sink Node: It is a node in a Network logic diagram which has multiple predecessors 106. 84.76. situational leadership by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. Salience Model describes classes of stakeholders based on: a.. DOP provide guidance and criteria for tailoring the org’s processes to the specific project needs. Sensitive analysis (a tool for quantitative risk analysis) is always displayed in Tornado diagram 108. Risk urgency combined with risk ranking determined from Prob Impact Matrix to give a final risk severity rating 78. Project goals with org goals b.
consult. A data flow diagram (used in PMBOK 4) is also known as a work flow diagram 141. claims or dispute. Refinements are considered updates for the WBS 132. Common formats for Performance Reports are. The basic decision making styles normally used by project managers include coin flip (random). Contested changes where the buyer and seller cannot agree on compensation are also called appeals. Learning curve theory emphasizes that in producing many goods average unit cost decreases as more units are produced 128. Phase end review of projects is also referred to as Phase Exits. Matrix organization is best for bring shared resources together working on something new. also choice theory. histograms and tables etc 130. Fait acccomplis is decisions made earlier which limit the options for decision making 118. Technical leadership is not of primary importance in project management 117. Alternative analysis is a tool used in develop schedule 114. Configuration management is the set of procedures developed to ensure that project design criteria are met. A statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production is design of experiments. Statements such as “It’s never been done before: or “It will cost a fortune” are examples of communication . Time and money are not considered as project resources 120. measuring their achievement. or a Memorandum of Understanding. The influence of standards and regulations for a project is NOT always known 135. Contract is also known as an agreement. it doesn’t have to be signed 145. it doesn't have to be in writing. S-curves. also used in schedule). If the involved parties cannot solve a claim. culture difference. Project organization is best for project done remotely 149. Life cycle costing is the concept of considering both development and operating costs when evaluating project alternatives 136. changing multiple variables rather than one at a time 143. Verify Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables 144. Assumption analysis is a valuable tool and technique of Risk Identification 121. and consensus (not rational choice theory. Lump sum contracts offer sellers the greatest profit potential (also risk) 129. used for modeling social and economic behavior). Network templates which contain only portions of a network are often referred to as subnetwrok or fragmented network 124. Participative leadership is best suited for optimizing team performance in projects 119. 148. management by objectives is the process of establishing clear and achievable objectives. Lack of a communication device is not a communicating barrier. Standard type of communication includes oral (verbal). A risk owner is a person who is responsible for the response plan for the risk 116. Binging contract is legally created if there is an offer. A summary activity in a network logic diagram is often referred to as a Hammock activity 125. Analogous estimate is a top-down approach. gestures. motivation difference or education differences are. A team organized to support a critical skill resource has a team structure known as surgical (not in PMBOK V4) 139. most widely used. S-curve is the graph that describes the typical growth of earned value during the course of the project 123. Letter of intent is a precontract agreement that establishes the intent of a party to buy products or services 122. 127. performance and consideration. eye contact. this is the point where the costs have gotten so large that the seller basically runs out of money from the contract and has to start paying the costs 115. Kill Points or Stage gate 134. Subjective measurement is one that is measured by reference to a standard that is internal to the system 140. and adjusting performance in accordance with the results of the measurement 126. acceptance. 147. a key aspect of quality control is project wide focus 133. a purchase order. command. 142. posture and body language) 152. 153. Informal reporting or advisory relationships are an example of organizational project interface 146. written and nonverbal (facial expressions. Understanding cultural differences is the first step towards an effective communication amongst the project team 131. In a fixed price contract. Group problem solving usually take more times than individual 150. bar charts (also called Gantt Charts. The point of total assumption is at which the seller assumes the costs. Negotiation is the preferred way to settle a claim. most widely used 137. it may be handled in accordance with alternative dispute resolution (ADR) following procedures in the contract. The transitional actions at the end of a project which links the project to the ongoing operations of the performing organization is defined in the project life cycle definition 138.113. A performance bond (by an insurer) should always provide 100% of the contract value 151.
interrelationship diagram. The buyer agrees to buy all the materials needed during a specified period of time. A supplier has withdrawn from your project. But will increase cost due to less quantity discount 173. Project life circle costing considers project. Management reserve is for the “unknown-unknowns“. Split order is a work of dividing work among two or more vendor of an item needed. operational and maintenance cost over a period of time 183. The down side is that item may become useless before it runs out. so the primary distinction between qualitative and quantitative numbers is that qualitative numbers cannot be meaningfully added together. In stakeholder analysis. it is included in the risk register 172. Constructive team role include initiate. to evaluate the worst case for the project. At the end of the blanket order. activity network diagram 160. Two point Delphi calculation: (best+worst)/2 162. studying project objective and talking with personnel) 164.include ALL information…” 181. Always listen to what the project sponsor says. scratch bargaining. it allows the buyer to take a quantity discount without actually take delivery. 169 Blanket order is a form of forward buying. A new supplier has been retained. if two one gallon pails of water are poured into a two gallon container. it is critical to establish a corporate culture that facilitates learning and communication 182. Manual Forecasting of cost of remaining work is is the BEST way to make an accurate forecasting of ETC 176. the points of concession are identified (probing. For example. Qualitative numbers may also be measured numerically. only negative risk should be considered. 7 management & planning tools (TQM): affinity diagram (also group creativity tools). Negotiating a change to an existing contract is always something a buyer shouldn’t do 168 Forward buying is the process of buying items in anticipation of their needs and get some protection against the item will run out and have quantity discount. It will decrease transportation cost due to ship in large quantities. Reserve analysis is used in both estimate cost and develop budget. That means you’ve already identified the risk. Root cause analysis is related to process analysis and risk identification (information gathering tech) 178. Acceptance sampling (statistic sampling: attribute (more common) and variable) is the most efficient means of product quality inspection among acceptance sampling. In the Monte Carlo technique the critically index is the percent of time a given activity will be on the critical path 155. planning with top management.0 180. 156.blockers 154. to reduce the risks that parts are not delivered on time or with unacceptable quality. at Scratch bargaining stage of the negotiation meeting. RDU stands for remaining duration 161. refer to historical information for help 175. b. the smallest unit of time used in scheduling the project is known as calendar unit 163. prices are adjusted for the actual amount of material delivered. message. This is no output plan called risk response plan. In a multi-cultural environment. it is called stock out. This may be derived from using percentage of the overall project budget. agreement and closure) 159. you just don’t know how much it will impact your project. Care should be taken to avoid wasting resources on unnecessary information or inappropriate technology. The success of any project depends primarily on customer satisfaction 184. Bring your team in for introductions and establish a communications exchange c. 100% inspection and variable lot inspection 165. Bring out the communication management plan d.” The ’tipping’ word in this question that makes it false is “. Basically. 170 The equivalent of cost-reimbursable contracts is frequently termed cost-plus contract 171. This can be estimated based on the sum of all of your risks’ expected values. Bring out the project plan.. the density of water in the two gallon container remains at 1. no matter how bad it is to the project 174. if you have little experience in managing a project but is assigned one. In procurement word. Two party conflict management is a lose-lose approach 158. 167. medial and receiver 157. tree diagram. Historical records during close-out are useful to predict trends and highlight problems for future projects 185. you didn’t even identify the risk until it has occurred. but not used in cost control 177. process decision program chart. encourage and gate keeper 166. Develop Project Management Plan in integration management uses inputs from the largest number of of other PMBoK processes 179. matrix diagram. The successful project managers spend most of their time talking with personal (selected from planning with their personnel. Meet with the supplier and his forces and establish yourself as the authority in charge. The definitive terms of a contract are written during the award phase 186. His labor forces are due to arrive at the job site tomorrow.. Answer: A . The four part of communication model is sender. Contingency reserve is your fund for “known-unknowns“. You should : a. prioritization diagram.
In an ideal world. risk probability and the amount at stake (impact) 196. d. the most likely date will be earlier than the expected value date. When team member report some information by oral. 3 Integration. ability to reconstruct why decisions were made. The types of power that have substantial influence on both subordinates and upper management are: 1 Formal & expert. there is a 50% chance the project will be late. Bu using most likely date. Tools for alternative analysis/identification is brainstorming and lateral thinking 211. The pillars of quality is do it right the first time and process improvement 192. The best way to make an accurate ETC is manual forecasting of remaining work 209. critical chain method factors in the uncertainty of the resources. Which of the following would you advise the project manager to do?: a. Your new product development project has resulted in a highly successful new product. Answer: D 188. estimate cost. Both chain and path are network diagram analysis methods 216. PMI suggests which of the following behaviors as part of contract negotiations: Probing. Answer: 4 (?) 189. Stakeholder risk tolerance (part of EEF) is an important input to direct and manage project execution process and help project team to rank the project risks and develop risk response plan . 214. only critical path method is enough. Assumption is factor considered to be true without verification. 4 Starvation. Team building is most likely difficult in matrix organization 199. opposite to brainstorming and divergent thinking 198. 3 Risk mitigation plans. 208. 212. visual and tactile (perception by touch) are the media used to present information 206. Change the duration of activity not on a critical path may not need to go through the integrated change control 215. Project schedule is not used to determine the budget 201. 2) make decision easily 3) good at deductive reasoning 4) good at delineating problems and 5 generally very logic 203. reward and penalty 194. scratching. and personnel of your project are now being integrated into the functional organization. A project management professional can compare earned value performance data to all of the following project management tools EXCEPT: 1. structured and understandable fashion. Audio. c. The property. Answer: 3 190. Another stakeholder only wants to describe the functional requirements. The scope of work should be detailed to allow clarifications later. and historical value 207. The Zero defect concept (by Philip Crosby) is a performance standard for management and is used by management to communicate to all employees that everyone should do things right the first time 193. equipment. Critical path analysis. In term of earned value reporting. Reserve analysis is used in 4 processes: estimate activity duration. 200. Technical performance metrics. and resource leveling more resources around to meet the needs (may change duration/ schedule). 2 Reward & penalty. The scope of work should be general to allow the seller to make its own decisions. a project is considered complete when BAC = EV 202. but they must be documented clearly and validated at various stages if project because they represent risks. One stakeholder wants to add many items to the scope of work. Answer: 3 191. make the decision quickly and take everyone’s opinion into account 217.187. Nominal group technique has two goals. materials. Forecasted final costs and schedule estimates. 4. Contract negotiation is the process of clarifying and developing a mutual agreement on the structure and requirements of the contract. b. The scope of work should be general to allow clarification later. 2. The scope of work should be as detailed as necessary for the type of project. Critical path method is to develop schedule for given resources. Extinction.4 Formal & referent. Alternative /identification analysis is used in 2 processes: define project scope and estimate activity resources. The three principal interests in maintaining good document control are: Effective communication. A new project manager is about to begin creating the project's scope of work. cost baseline is a time-phased budget for the project. and small Bites 195. Project scope is defined as the entire work required creating the project deliverable. 3 Expert & referent. The three forms of legitimate power are formal. Your project is being terminated by: 1. while product scope is defined as features and functions that characterize a product. Characteristics of the convergence learning styles are 1) good problem solver. Information is facts or figures ready for communication uses 204. Project risk is characterized by three factors: Risk event. determine budget and monitor and control risks 210. Convergent thinking is means putting the different pieces of a topic back together in some organized. project manager should respond in oral communication 205. service or result to be delivered by the project 213. 2 Addition. A typical project manager spends 75 to 90% time communicating formally and informally 197. The project is important for the project manager's company but a seller will do the work.
Budget Estimate is -10% to +25% 241. Breadboarding is the creation of an experimental device to determine the feasibility of an idea 232.Rule of 7: If 7 consecutive data points appear on one side of the mean. academic accomplishment 229. At the early project stage. 2 sigma. chart of account is Account list used by accounting to track costs of projects or parts of project.218. best for presentations 239. QFD (Quality function deployment. A heuristic is best described as a rule of thumb 234.7%. 220. definitive estimates have a tighter (+/10%. . Advantage of centralized contracting is to increase company expertise in contracting 233. Definite estimate (cost or duration) is the most expensive one and should have an accuracy of 10%. plan quality (management plan. and quality matrices) and perform quality control process (QC measurement) 219. input to quality control. and self-esteem behavior include participate in professional activity and conferences. process improvement plan. Marginal Analysis refers to looking for the point where the benefits or revenue to be received from improving quality equals the incremental cost to achieve that quality 225. but not input to quality insurance 230. 6sigma 99. rough order of magnitude (ROM) is most widely used which has +-50% accuracy 227. A cost performance index (CPI) of 0. it generates change request status.50% / ROM) an later.99985% 226.Burst is network arrow fork to multiple successors 238. 236. 222. 231. What-if scenarios analysis is to review various scenarios to bring schedule aligned with the plan or calculate multiple project duration with different set of assumptions 221. 235.Cost funnel: Early estimates have a wide range (+/.89 means the project is only getting 89 cents out of every dollar invested. the process is out of control. The input to perform quality assurance process comes from three processes: direct and manage plan execution (WPI). facilitate workshop/QM model) starts by collecting VOC (voice of customers) 224. Strategic planning is also called top-down planning 228. 95% 3 sigma 99. CMMI Capability Maturity Model Integration is quality model developed by Carnegie Mellon University 223. It is usually used for risks with a high impact. A fallback plan is to be implemented if the initial contingency plan is ineffective in responding to the risk event.The only process in the Monitoring and Control Process Group don’t generate change request is the Performed Integrated change control process. What type of contract do you not want to use if you do not have enough labor to audit invoices? Cost plus 237. or -10% to 15%. Self-acturazalition focus on individual potential development. The "halo effect" refers to the tendency to move people into project management because they are good in their technical fields. Quality checklist is output of plan quality. 240. Gannet chart is a special bar chart. back charge is the cost of corrective action taken by the purchaser. PMI suggests) range or -5% to 10%. 1 sigma 68%.
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