Cyber Crime

refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. Issues surrounding this type of crime have become high-profile. child pornography. and child grooming. with the ability to engage in such activities as espionage. lawfully or otherwise. or cybercrime. both governments and non-state actors continue to grow in importance. to criminal exploitation of the Internet. financial theft. copyright infringement. The international legal system is attempting to hold actors accountable for their actions. more precisely. with the International Criminal Courtamong the few addressing this threat y y y . particularly those surroundinghacking. Netcrime refers. and other cross-border crimes sometimes referred to as cyber warfare. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted. where the computers may or may not have played an instrumental part in the commission of a crime. On the global level.y Computer crime.


it may be divided into one of two types of categories: crimes that target computer networks or devices directly. Generally. (1) (2) Examples of crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices would include: y Malware (malicious code) y Denial-of-service attacks y Computer viruses y Examples of crimes that merely use computer networks or devices would include: y Cyber stalking y Fraud and identity theft y Phishing scams y Information warfare .Topology y Computer crime encompasses a broad range of potentially illegal activities. the primary target of which is independent of the computer network or device. crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices. however.


In this context. Fraud Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. or stealing output. . extortion. y altering or deleting stored data. or altering or writing code for fraudulent purposes. and theft of classified information. however limits on unsolicited electronic communications have existed in some forms for some time. the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by: y altering computer input in an unauthorized way.Spam Spam. or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes. suppressing. identity theft. This requires real programming skills and is not common. specific anti-spam laws are relatively new. As applied to email. y Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems. y altering. is unlawful to varying degrees. usually to conceal unauthorized transactions: this is difficult to detect. including bank fraud. This requires little technical expertise and is not an uncommon form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data. or the unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes. y A variety of Internet scams target consumers direct. destroying. y altering or misusing existing system tools or software packages.

or inflammatory material that tends to incite hate crimes. seditious. In some instances these communications may be illegal. y The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies greatly between countries. politically subversive. It is a sensitive area in which the courts can become involved in arbitrating between groups with entrenched beliefs. libelous or slanderous. blasphemous. obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons. y Many jurisdictions place limits on certain speech and ban racist.Obscene or offensive content The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful. and even within nations. . y One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of the strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography.

y The rise in Internet drug trades could also be attributed to the lack of face-to-face communication. nationality. The sketchy effects that are often associated with drug trades are severely minimized and the filtering process that comes with physical interaction fades away. But with modern computer technology. and stalking). through newsgroups. Drug trafficking y Drug traffickers are increasingly taking advantage of the Internet to sell their illegal substances through encrypted e-mail and other Internet Technology.Harassment y Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way. These virtual exchanges allow more intimidated individuals to more comfortably purchase illegal drugs. this information is now being made available to anyone with computer access. traditional drug recipes were carefully kept secrets. sexual orientation. .Some drug traffickers arrange deals at internet cafes. and swap recipes for amphetamines in restricted-access chat rooms. harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for example on gender. race. and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties (see cyber bullying. religion. Furthermore. cyber stalking. Any comment that may be found derogatory or offensive is considered harassment. use courier Web sites to track illegal packages of pills. hate crime. Online predator. harassment by computer. This often occurs in chat rooms.

can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). As well there are also hacking activities directed towards individuals. As such. network. robberies. that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism. At worst. and the information stored on them. foreign intelligence services. a simple propaganda in the Internet. organised by groups within networks. families. tending to cause fear among people. A cyberterrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching computer-based attack against computers. . But there is a growing concern among federal officials that such intrusions are part of an organized effort by cyberterrorists.Cyberterrorism y Government officials and Information Technology security specialists have documented a significant increase in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001. demonstrate power. cyberterrorists may use the Internet or computer resources to carry out an actual attack. blackmailing etc. collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives. or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems. y Cyberterrorism in general.

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